Premium Essay

Deduction and Induction

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mondayef
Words 8498
Pages 34

The Induction-Deduction Opposition: Ambiguities and Complexities of the Didactic Reality Wilfried Decoo
Published in IRAL: International Review of Applied Linguistics, vol. 34, n° 2 (May 1996), 95-118. ("didactic" = pertaining to teaching and learning in a school context) Abstract An analysis of some of the scientific literature reveals that the terms "induction" and "deduction" often point to various concepts. A number of modalities need to be discerned, especially in the realm of "induction". Experimental comparisons of different methodological approaches may also neglect, to some extent, the complexities of what is really taking place in the classroom setting. The purpose of this article is not to take sides in the methodological controversy, but to contribute to a greater awareness of terminology identification and of the tangents, plural forms and crossings between didactic strategies that draw on "induction" or "deduction". Les termes "induction" et "déduction", tels qu'une analyse de la littérature scientifique nous les révèle, renvoient souvent à des concepts différents. Il semble utile de discerner les différentes modalités, en particulier dans le domaine de "l'induction". Les comparaisons expérimentales de différentes approches méthodologiques semblent négliger, du moins en partie, les aspects complexes de la réalité en classe. Cet article ne prend pas position dans la controverse méthodologique, mais désire contribuer à une plus grande prise de conscience d'une part des problèmes terminologiques, et d'autre part des tangentes, des formes plurielles et des correspondances entre les stratégies didactiques qui se réclament d'"induction" ou de "déduction".

0. Introduction
Already during the Reform Movement of the 1880's, the staunch conflict between direct and indirect methods used the opposition "induction versus deduction" as a way to identify "natural...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking

...Critical Thinking: How to Read and Analyze Arguments Jim Wohlpart Spring 2007 Critical Thinking: A Definition Critical thinking is a mode of thinking where the thinker consciously analyzes an issue or problem, while at the same time assessing the thinking process. Critical thinking presupposes rigorous standards and mindfulness in their use. It depends upon effective communication and problem-solving abilities, as well as a commitment to overcome our inherent egocentricism and sociocentrism. Finally, it improves with practice. (Adapted from Critical Thinking: Not! I believe I have omitted mentioning that in my first voyage from Boston, being becalmed off Block Island, our people set about catching cod and hauled up a great many. Hitherto I had stuck to my resolution of not eating animal food, and on this occasion, I considered with my master Tryon the taking of every fish as a kind of unprovoked murder, since none of them had or ever could do us any injury that might justify the slaughter. All this seemed very reasonable. But I had formerly been a great lover of fish, and when this came hot out of the frying pan, it smelt admirably well. I balanced some time between principle and inclination, till I recollected that when the fish were opened I saw smaller fish taken out of their stomachs. Then thought I, if you eat one another, I don’t see why we mayn’t eat you. So I dined upon cod very heartily and continued to eat with other people, returning only......

Words: 2788 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

A Comparison Of Unjustifiable And Karl Chalmers

...Lectures Notes (2015), p. 188). Science is not a body of facts, however, it is merely a method of critical thinking using evidence to justify hypotheses. Induction...

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Question # 04 Explain the processes of deduction and induction, giving an example of each. Induction and deduction are two different reasoning strategies. In other words, they are two different ways to figure out the solution to a problem. DEDUCTION Deduction is the process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logically generalizing from a known fact. In other words, you start with a rule and then apply it to new situations. For example, we know that all high performers are highly proficient in their jobs. If john is a high performer, we then conclude that he is highly proficient in doing his job. Another example, the sign at the amusement park says "Adult Admission- $5" Therefore, I bet if I, an adult, try to enter I will be charged five dollars. INDUCTION Induction is a process where we observe certain phenomena and on this basis arrive at conclusions. In other words, you start with your own experience and then generalize a rule. For instance, we see that the production processes are the prime features of factories or manufacturing plants. We therefore conclude the factories exist for production purposes. Another example, the last few times a person takes green tea he sees that losing his fat. Now he thinks having tea he lost his fat. Both the deductive and the inductive processes are applied in scientific investigations. Question # 05 If research in the management area cannot be 100 percent scientific, why bother to do it at all? Comment on this......

Words: 290 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Induction Scientific Reasoning

...Over the centuries, induction has been discussed with skepticism and a great deal of controversy, with prominent figures in science and philosophy arguing their views. Dating back to 200 AD, Sextus Empiricus was one of the first skeptics on induction and questioned whether induction is a valid form of scientific reasoning. Almost two thousands years later the debate still continues, however along the way many philosophers, most notably David Hume, have made major contribution to “the problem of induction debate”. Inductive reasoning has been commonly used for explanation, however problems associated with inductive reason make a case for it to be misleading and a questionable form of reasoning. In this paper I will argue that a logical response...

Words: 1659 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Philosophy of Science Lecture by Floris Van Den Berg

...shows part of a lecture on the topic “Philosophy of Science” held by Floris van den Berg. The focus falls on the question what science is and how it could be distinguished and defined. The lecturer lists some scientific methods and gives examples of characteristics of science. First of all, Floris van den Berg explains the three fundamental methods of science – deduction, induction and abduction. Deduction is said to be the method all scientists aim for, because it is the only one that gives 100% certainty in knowledge. It can be used only for closed systems, which are not influenced by outside factors, examples being logic and mathematics. The method of induction is based on continues observations and claims that if something happens twice, it will happen again. Abduction, on the other hand, means making reasonable guesses about what could something be. The latter two methods could not give absolute truth guarantee. Secondly, the lecturer puts the methods on the probability scale of knowledge, which measures the certainty of truth from 0 to 100%. Deduction (Mathematics and logic) is first with 100%, followed by induction (Physics) and abduction (Social sciences) and ending with mythology and religion with 0%. Afterwards, the demarcation problem is addressed in defining whether something is scientific or not. Floris van den Berg explains that not the opinion of the majority makes something true, but the usage of a method, the ability of falsification and the......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...economics is the study of what the goals of the economy should be. Positive economics is the study of what is, and how the economy works . It explores the pure theory of economics, and it discovers agreed-upon empirical regularities. These empirical regularities are often called empirical facts—for example, large price fluctuations in financial markets tend to be followed by additional large price fluctuations. The three coordination problems any economy must solve are what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it. In solving these problems, societies have found that there is a problem of scarcity. • Deduction begins with almost self-evident principles and develops models and conclusions based on those principles. Induction looks at empirical evidence first and infers principles from those observations. Abduction is a combination of deduction and induction. • Economic reasoning structures all questions in a cost/benefit framework: If the marginal benefits of doing something exceed the marginal costs, do it. If the marginal costs exceed the marginal benefits, don’t do it. • Sunk costs are not relevant in the economic decision rule. • The opportunity cost of undertaking an activity is the benefit you might have gained from choosing the next-best alternative. Summary • “There ain’t no such thing as a free lunch” (TANSTAAFL) embodies the opportunity cost concept. • Economic forces, the forces of scarcity, are always working. Market forces, which ration......

Words: 511 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

David Hume's Induction Argument

...On the one hand, David Hume makes the claim that every inductive argument requires that nature is uniform, meaning that the uniformities observed in the past will hold for the present and future as well. And on the other hand, he argues that no rational justification can be given for that premise, that the principle of uniformity of nature (PUN) cannot be justified especially by the use of induction. He supports this assertion by contemplating three options: an inductive argument in favor of PUN, a deduction of PUN from past observations, and a deduction of PUN from definitions. He asserts that none of these ways of defending PUN is effective because they do not provide definite proof. Therefore, Hume concludes that the inductive inferences we make aren’t rationally justifiable. Now, based on Hume’s claims, the conclusion that we would come up with abduction arguments would not change Hume’s conclusion because it doesn’t...

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

2nd Chapter

...research. 2.What are the steps in hypothetico-deductive research? Explain them, using an example not in the book. 3.One hears the word research being mentioned by various groups, including research organizations, college and university professors, doctoral students, graduate assistants working for faculty, graduate and undergraduate students doing their term papers, research departments in industries, newspaper reporters, journalist, lawyers, doctors, and other professionals and nonprofessionals. In the light of what you have learned in this chapter. Which among the aforementioned groups of people doo you think may be doing ”scientific” investigations in the areas of basic or applied research? Why? 4.Explain the processes of deduction and induction, giving an example of each. 5.If research in the management area cannot be 100 percent scientific, why bother to do it at all? Comment on this statement. 6.Critique the following research done in a service industry as to the extent to which it meets the hallmarks of scientific investigation discussed in this chapter. The Friendly Telephone Company Customer complaints were mounting, and letters of complaint regarding the problems they experienced with the residential telephones lines were constantly pouring in at the Friendly Telephone Company. The company wanted to pinpoint the specific problems and take corrective action. Researchers were called in, and they to a number of customers, keeping notes on the nature...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Algie Brodnax DQ’s Chapter 2 Dr. Ward A. 1. Concept- A briefly stated clear idea around which an ad or marketing campaign is organized. Construct- Is more complex ideas that we as humans form in order to summarize observations about things that we cannot see directly. 2. Concept is just an idea, while a construct is more of a complex idea. 3. Concept is required for idea and brainstorming. Construct is wanted for how to build what and where. B. 1. Deduction-The process of reasoning from the general to the specific, in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the premises. Induction- The process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances. 2. Deduction is a process to get to the conclusion while a induction draws up a conclusion from one or more particular facts. 3. For research deductions is needed for understanding the general to the specific. Induction is looked-for so research groups can process a conclusion. C. 1. Operational Definitions- When applied to data collection is a clear, concise detailed definition of a measure. Dictionary Definitions- Is to determine or identify the essential qualities or meaning. 2. Operational Definitions will allow you to generate data for detail measures while dictionary definition defines the essential for a research projects qualities or meaning. 3. Operational Definitions is required for research for data collection and measurements. dictionary definitions is required for......

Words: 681 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Foundations of Research

...Quantitative and qualitative research methodologies consist of three philosophical underpinnings, which is identified as: objectivism, subjectivism, and constructivism. The different philosophical foundations and scientific of quantitative and qualitative methodologies have different ontology and epistemology. In quantitative paradigms have an ontology and epistemology of, where the observer and the observed are considered separate and independent. Whereas, qualitative the ontology and epistemology is multiple, socially and psychologically constructed phenomenon, where the observer and the observed are connected to each other (Gelo, Braakmann, and Bebtka, 2008). * Approach to inquiry: induction versus deduction According to Christensen, Burke, and Turner (2010) (p. 7), induction is a process that involves going from the exact to the universal. Inductive reasoning...

Words: 867 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Research Method

...connection between categories will need to be tested in order to find out whether there is an actual relationship (Saunders, 1997:344). The importance of hypothesis is that it will bring a specific direction and focus to a research study. The theory on the other hand, is usually drawn from the hypothesis. Theories are usually generated from attempts at explaining observations and thus prediction or expectations can be made (Gill, 1991:25). Deduction and Induction There are two methods of establishing what is true or false and of drawing conclusion. These two methods are deduction and induction. Induction is made by empirical evidence based, while deduction is logic based. Through induction, a general conclusion can be made from empirical observation. It goes by the process of assumption to conclusion (Ghauri, 1995:8). From deduction, conclusions are draw through logical reasoning and it is not necessary to be reality. When an observation is made to generate a theory with consistent facts, it is called induction, on the contrary deduction involves the gathering of facts to confirm or disprove hypothesized relationships among variables that have been deduced from proposition or earlier theories (Ghauri, 1995:9). Research method and methodology Research is one of the many methods to find answer to a question. The implication of research is that a process being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies; uses validated and reliable procedures, methods and......

Words: 2557 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

How Can a Researcher Benefit from Using Both Inductive and Deductive Logical Thought?

...Part I Chapters 1 and 2 What is the essential wisdom of sociology? 8/4 Our social world guides our actions and life choices in much the same way that the seasons influence our selection of clothing and activities. Our social world guides our actions and life choices in much the same way that the seasons influence our selection of clothing and activities. What is social structure? How do the structural-functional and social-conflict paradigms understand social structure differently? 14/7 Social structure is defined as any relatively stable pattern of social behavior. The structural-functional paradigm points to social structure promoting the operation of society as a whole, while the social-conflict paradigm points out how social patterns benefit some people but deprive others. Social structure is defined as any relatively stable pattern of social behavior. The structural-functional paradigm points to social structure promoting the operation of society as a whole, while the social-conflict paradigm points out how social patterns benefit some people but deprive others. How is reliability different from validity? Which term implies the other? 10/3.33 Reliability refers to consistency in measurement, while validity means precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure. Validity implies reliability. How does inductive logical thought differ from deductive logical thought? How can a researcher benefit from using both kinds of thinking? ......

Words: 360 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Logical Thinking

...Logical Thinking Worksheet * Use the following questions to guide you through your exploration of logical thinking and arguments. Answer the questions as completely as possible, and provide examples where needed. 1. What is a logical argument? * To understand the meaning of the logical argument, we need to know first what an argument is. According to (, 2010), an argument is an attempt to demonstrate the truth of a conclusion based on premises or statements, relating this definition of argument with logic, we can deduce that these statements or premises have to follow the principles of reasoning in a clear and consistent manner. * As an example, the argument “I need to study to fail that math test”, does not make sense and does not follow the principles of the logical argument, the logical argument should be “I need to study to approve that math test“. 2. When and how do we use them? Do we use logical arguments in our daily life in their basic forms of inductive and deductive thinking, in inductive because we always tend to use observations and evidence to get a conclusion and deductive because we usually based our decisions in fact or truth premises. 3. What parts do they contain? According to (Virtual School, 2004), the parts of a logical argument are called propositions that are classified in premises, inferences, and conclusion. Premises are propositions that begin an argument, inferences, are propositions that are derived from one......

Words: 1436 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Reasearch Methodology

...In terms of basic research and applied research how would you categorize Sam’s study? Why? Sam’s studies used applied research , as Sam is solving specific problems in particular situations. Purposiveness, testability, and objectivity are three hallmarks of scientific research. Use Sam’s study as an example to discuss these hallmarks. Purposiveness : Scientific research must have a definite aim or purpose focus . Here Sam’s succeeded to develop a purpose for the research : “What is the effect of personality and emotional reactivity on the financial performance of day traders.” Testability: Scientific research should test logically developed hypotheses to see whether or not the data supports the hypothesis that are developed after a careful study . Here Sam has derived two hypotheses ,but results from Sam’s study support his first hypothesis only . Objectivity : Refers to a conclusion drawn through the interpretation of the results of data analysis , objectivity is based on facts m derived from actual data .these results indicate that there is a clear link between emotional reactivity of investors and trading performance. These findings suggest that traders may benefit from training in emotion management and coaching. Do you think that the results of Sam’s study are generalizable to other organizations? Why (not)? Yes , Sam’s study are generalizable to other organizations, as Sam was studying the effect of personality and emotional reactivity on the financial......

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Starbucks Case provides conclusive proof of the law’s truth. If a law is true, certain consequences will follow. In the end the student inquires about the seeming regularity of nature, and asks whether or not that gives us reason to believe the predictive accuracy of science. At this point the philosophy professor points out that Hume was also concerned about what justifies our belief that nature is regular. According to Salmon, the basic question that Hume is trying to answer is how do we acquire knowledge of the unobserved. Salmon does not think that the problem of induction should cause us to give up doing science because the foundations of a subject are usually established after the subject itself. THESIS : In this paper, I will argue that the rational response to the problem of induction is that the scientific method involves predicting the results of future tests on the basis of the results of past tests. The induction is the difference from...

Words: 625 - Pages: 3