Business and Management
Submitted By susmitaghanty
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt). * Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. * Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). * Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).
The word 'textile' has come from a latin word texere, meaning 'to weave'.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods.
PRODUCTION METHOD: 1. Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised. 2. Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on the needle. 3. Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making macrame. 4. Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine. 5. Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile. 6. Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool. 7. Nonwoven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used.
What is Cotton?
Cotton is a natural fibre that is harvested from the cotton plant. The fibre is soft and it grows around the seeds of the cotton plant. The silky fine fibres are spun into a thread, which can then be woven or knitted to make a soft, breathable textile.
Cotton fibre possesses many unique properties such as strength, durability and absorbency.
In fact cotton is the most popular fabric and bestselling fabric in the world.
It is used across the fashion industry to make designer clothing as well as more main stream clothing for both adults and children.
The most important properties are: * It is soft * It “breathes” * It absorbs body moisture * It is comfortable * It is strong and durable * It is versatile * It performs well * It has good colour retention * It is easy to print on * It wrinkles easily * It is easy to care for, easy to wash
Facts about Cotton - Its Journey from Field to Fashion
There are several steps in the process, turning a little cotton seed into a cotton garment:
1. Planting and Growing Cotton:
Growing cotton is not an easy process, as cotton requires a long growing season, sunny and warm weather, plenty of water and dry weather for harvest.
In early spring, cottonseeds are planted in rows. About two months after planting flower buds appear on the cotton plants. A month later the blossoms open and their petals change from creamy white to yellow, to pink and then finally dark red. Shortly after they wither and fall, leaving green pods which are called cotton bolls.
Inside the boll, which is shaped like a tiny football, moist fibres grow. As the boll ripens, it turns brown. Meanwhile the fibres continue to expand under the sun. Finally they split the boll apart and the fluffy, downy cotton fibre, which has formed around the seeds of the plant, appears. It looks like white cotton clouds.
Harvesting is either done by hand or by machines. In developing countries cotton is more often than not handpicked.
3. Cotton processing:
After harvesting, several major processes take place; cleaning, spinning, knitting or weaving, dyeing, cutting and finishing.
First of all cotton is combed to remove the seeds. This used to be a labour intense process until the invention of the cotton gin, which quickly separates the seeds from the fibre and combs them for spinning.
After cleaning the silky fibres are spun into a yarn, which is then woven or knitted into a soft, breathable textile.
Cotton is easy to dye and has a good colour retention. In addition it also blends well with other fibres such as elastane.
Cotton processing has been perfected over many generations and the result is the quality that we enjoy today.
Facts About Cotton - Common Uses
Cotton is extremely versatile and is used to make a number of textile products such as bath towels, socks, underwear, shirts, sweaters, t-shirts and jeans - the latter being the one clothing item that none of us can live without!
In addition to textile products, cotton is also used in fishnets, coffee filters, tents and in book binding. In fact the first Chinese paper was made of cotton fibre.
The cottonseed, which remains after the cotton is ginned, is used to produce cottonseed oil, which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. The cottonseed that is left generally is fed to livestock.