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Eeo (Equal Employment Opportunity)

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EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY

EEO atau Equal Employment Opportunity di buat dengan tujuan agar perusahaan dapat melaksanakan dan mendukung kesejahteraan kesempatan dan perlakuan dalam pekerjaan dan jabatan di Indonesia. Program kesempatan dan perlakuan yang sama dalam pekerjaan sangat penting untuk mempromosikan persamaan dan mengurangi diskriminasi dalam pekerjaan dan jabatan dengan dasar ras, warna kulit, jenis kelamin, agama/kepercayaan, politik dan status sosial. Gambaran kesenjangan gender di tempat kerja, baik di sektor formal maupun informal, dapat dilihat dari indikator pasar kerja. Survei Angkatan Kerja Nasional (SAKERNAS) 2004 mencatat bahwa jumlah perempuan usia kerja di atas 15 tahun adalah 50,2% dari 153.923.648 penduduk usia kerja. Akan tetapi, tingkat partisipasi angkatan kerja (TPAK) perempuan hanya 49,2% sementara angka TPAK laki-laki mencapai 86,0%. Kesenjangan ini juga tercermin dari prosentase jam kerja. Ada 74,9% pekerja/buruh laki-laki yang bekerja penuh waktu, sedangkan pekerja/buruh perempuan yang bekerja penuh waktu hanya 54,6%.

Kesenjangan kesempatan antara perempuan dan laki laki di bidang apapun termasuk dalam dunia kerja, sudah lama terjadi. Tetapi, Indonesia tidak mengenal adanya perbedaan tersebut. Hal ini tercantum pada: • UUD 1945 : Pengakuan hak yang sama antara perempuan dan laki-laki • Pasal 27 ayat 1 : Segala warga negara bersamaan kedudukannya di dalam hukum dan pemerintahan dan wajib menjunjung hukum dan pemerintahan itu dengan tidak ada kecualinya. • Pasal 27 ayat 2: Tiap-tiap warga negara berhak atas pekerjaan dan penghidupan yang layak bagi kemanusiaan • Pasal 28D ayat 2 : setiap orang berhak untuk bekerja serta mendapatkan imbalan dan perlakuan yang adil dan layak dalam hubungan kerja. • Undang-undang ketenagakerjaan No.13 tahun 2003, pasal 5 : setiap tenaga kerja memiliki kesempatan yang sama tanpa diskriminasi untuk memperoleh pekerjaan. • Undang-undang ketenagakerjaan No.13 tahun 2003, pasal 6 ; setiap pekerja/ buruh berhak memperoleh perlakuan yang sama tanpa diskriminasi dari pengusaha.
Pemerintah indonesia telah meratifikasi dua konvensi dasar ILO. Pertama, Konvensi ILO No. 100 tentang Pengupahan yang Sama untuk Pekerjaan yang Sama Nilainya, 1951 yang diratifikasi dengan Undang-Undang No. 80 Tahun 1957; dan Konvensi ILO No. 111 tentang Diskriminasi dalam Pekerjaan dan Jabatan, 1958 yang diratifikasi dengan Undang-Undang No. 21 Tahun 1999.

Kedua konvensi tersebut merupakan panduan utama dalam penerapan kesempatan dan perlakuan yang sama dalam pekerjaan di Indonesia

• Konvensi ILO No. 100 mencerminkan prinsip-prinsip pengupahan yang sama bagi buruh laki-laki dan peremuan untuk pekerjaan yang sama nilainya • Konvensi ILO No. 111 mencerimkan prinsip dasar kesempatan dan perlakuan yang sama dalam pekerjaan serta berisi penjelasan teknis pelaksanaa EEO.
DEFINISI EEO (EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY) EEO merupakan segala kebijakan termasuk pelaksanaannya yang harus di patuhi oleh perusahaan dengan tujuan untuk penghapusan disriminasi di dunia kerja.

Macam- macam diskriminasi

Diskriminasi langsung Diskriminasi langsung terjadi ketika seseorang diperlakukan secara tidak adil karena karakteristik gender atau karakteristik lain yang diduga merupakan dasar dari tindakan diskriminasi.

Contoh diskriminasi langsung adalah:

1. Menolak untuk mewawancarai seseorang untuk mengisi suatu lowongan karena dia perempuan;

2. Memutuskan seseorang bukan merupakan “calon senior manager” karena dia berasal dari suku tertentu.

Dengan demikian diskriminasi dalam pekerjaan meliputi sebuah rangkaian situasi. Sebagai contoh, ketika seseorang:

• Ditolak dari suatu pekerjaan;

• Dipecat dari suatu pekerjaan;

• Ditolak kesempatan untuk mengikuti pelatihan;

• Ditolak dengan alasan kondisi pekerjaan kurang baik;

• Ditolak akses pada pekerjaan karena alasan tidak sesuai keanggotaan partai.

Diskriminasi tidak langsung

Diskriminasi tidak langsung terjadi ketika ada sebuah lowongan yang diperuntukkan bagi setiap orang tetapi mengandung ketidakadilan karena mendahulukan kelompok laki-laki untuk menduduki lowongan

Contoh :

Terdapat iklan tentang lowongan pekerjaan yang menyebutkan persyaratan tinggi badan minimal 170 cm. Tinggi badan tidak mempengaruhi kemampuan pekerja untuk melaksanakan pekerjaan, sementara sebagian besar perempuan Indonesia tidak memenuhi batas minimal tinggi badan tersebut. Dalam situasi ini kesempatan untuk mengisi lowongan pekerjaan tersebut sudah tentu lebih banyak pada laki-laki.

Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan EEO meliputi :

a. Perlakuan yang adil. EEO merupakan instrumen bagi setiap 
pekerja/buruh dan para pencari kerja;

b. Berdasarkan prestasi. EEOdilaksanakandenganmengacu pada prestasi kerja seseorang, sehingga para pemberi kerja memperoleh tenaga kerja sesuai dengan yang disyaratkan;

c. Instrumen untuk mencapai efisiensi. Dengan pelaksanaan EEO, diharapkan akan tercapai efisiensi dan efektivitas kerja sehingga meningkatkan produktivitas dan etos kerja untuk berkompetisi;

d. Mengikutsertakan pekerja/buruh secara aktif dan potensial. Kondisi ini merupakan prasyarat keberhasilan perencanaan pihak perusahaan untuk mencapai manajemen berkualitas;

e. Jalan terbaik untuk merencanakan bisnis. Sesuai dengan tujuan EEO, dan akan menghilangkan hambatan di tempat kerja untuk mencapai karier puncak.

f. Berkaitan dengan semua aspek dalam dunia kerja. Termasuk rekrutmen tenaga kerja, pemberian pengupahan dan kompensasi serta pengembangan karir dan kondisi kerja

EEO merupakan faktor penting dalam pencapaian tujuan perusahaan yang berkelanjutan. Penghapusan diskriminasi di tempat kerja membantu peningkatan produktivitas melalui peningkatan ketrampilan seluruh pekerja/buruh, tanpa memperhitungkan laki-laki atau perempuan.

EEO merupakan instrumen penting untuk melawan kemiskinan karena menyediakan alternatif bagi orang yang diperlakukan tidak adil dan ditolak untuk memperoleh pekerjaan. Dengan demikian EEO mendukung dan memberi manfaat terhadap pencapaian tujuan perusahaan.

EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION (EEOC) EEOC diciptakan oleh Undang-Undang Hak Sipil tahun 1964. Tujuan dari EEOC adalah untuk menghilangkan diskriminasi berdasarkan ras, warna kulit, agama, jenis kelamin, asal negara, cacat atau usia dalam mempekerjakan, mempromosikan, pemecatan, upah, pengujian, pelatihan, magang, dan semua ketentuan dan kondisi pekerjaan. Memiliki tiga fungsi utama. Pengolahan pertama keluhan diskriminasi. Kedua adalah menerbitkan peraturan tertulis. Yang ketiga adalah pengumpulan dan penyebaran informasi. Diskriminasi dalam memproses pengaduan yang EEOC ikuti tiga langkah proses: • Penyelidikan Pemohon atau karyawan yang berpikir bahwa ia telah diskriminasi terhadap memulai proses dengan mengisi pengaduan dengan EEOC. The EEOC maka perusahaan akan memberitahukan bahwa pengaduan telah diajukan, dan perusahaan menjadi bertanggung jawab untuk memastikan bahwa setiap catatan yang berkaitan dengan keluhan disimpan aman. The EEOC biasanya menemukan dirinya dengan jaminan simpanan, sehingga mungkin diperlukan waktu hingga dua tahun untuk mulai menyelidiki keluhan. Pada tahun 2004, 79.432 kasus yang diajukan ke EEOC, dibandingkan dengan 62.100 pada tahun 1990. dari total 79.432 tuntutan yang diajukan dengan EEOC pada tahun 2004, yang umum jenis diskriminasi dari semua publikasi adalah: ▪ - Ras: 27.696 atau 34,9% ▪ - Seks / jenis kelamin: 24.249 atau 30,5% ▪ - Umur: 17.837 atau 22,5% ▪ - Kecacatan: 15.346 atau 19,4% ▪ - Asal-usul kebangsaan: 8.361 atau 10,5% ▪ - Agama: 2.466 atau 3,1% ▪ - Sama membayar: 1.011 atau 1.3% • Konsiliasi Jika EEOC menemukan bahwa EEOC menemukan bahwa hukum EEO mungkin dilanggar, ia mencoba untuk menyelesaikan kasus melalui konsiliasi. Terdiri dari negosiasi perdamaian di antara ketiga pihak yang terlibat: pengaduan, majikan dan EEOC. • Litigasi Jika perdamaian tidak mungkin, EEOC dapat memilih antara dua rangkaian tindakan. The EEOC tidak memiliki kekuatan untuk memaksa seorang majikan untuk membayar kompensasi atau jenis lain dari kerusakan. Hal ini dapat dilakukan hanya sebagai akibat dari keputusan pengadilan. Karena mengejar gugatan sangat mahal, EEOC mengambil tindakan ini hanya dalam persentase yang relatif kecil kasus.

MANFAAT EEO

1. Peningkatan umpan balik 2. Penurunan angka ketidak hadiran 3. Tersedianya alternatif pemilihan tenaga kerja yang lebih baik 4. Peningkatan produktivitas tenaga kerja 5. Peningkatan loyalitas, moral dan kepuasan kerja pekerja/buruh. 6. Meningkatkan kepuasan para pelanggan dan volume penjualan 7. Akses ke pasar jasa dan barang bertambah luas 8. Meningkatkan hubungan dengan masyarakat 9. Resiko pengaduan praktek diskriminasi di perusahaan akan berkurang dan menjadi hilang 10. Terciptanya hubungan kerja yang harmonis, dinamis dan berkeadilan.
KUNCI KEBERHASILAN PELAKSANAAN EEO 1. Membangun komitmen perusahan 2. Mwmbangun kebijakan EEO 3. Melaksanakan pelatihan dan konsultasi terus menerus untuk kelancaran program EEO 4. Membangun kerjasama dengan instansi lain 5. Memonitoring dan evaluasi 6. Menjadikan EEO sebagai budaya kerja perusahaan
HUBUNGAN KERJA PENGUSAHA DAN PEKERJA

Hubungan kerja adalah hubungan antara pengusaha dengan pekerja/buruh berdasarkan perjanjian kerja, yang memunyai unsur pekerjaan, upah, dan perintah (Bab I, pasal 1 Undang-undang No.13 tahun 2003). Semua pekerja/buruh berhak mendapat perlakuan yang sama di tempat kerja. Hubungan kerja tersebut harus mempertimbangkan prinsip-prinsip dan hak-hak mendasar dalam bekerja.

Dengan demikian, perlu diperhatikan bahwa kondisi dan lingkungan kerja harus mampu mendukung upaya terjaminnya hak- hak tersebut diatas dengan memperhatikan aspek-aspek dalam hubungan kerja antara lain :

1. Pengupahan : memberikan upah yang sama anatara laki-laki dan perempuan

2. Kesejahteraan : memberikan fasilitas-fasilitas kesejahteraan bagi pekerja contoh : penyediaan transportasi anatar jemput bagi pekerja, poliklinik, tempat ibadah, dll

3. Jaminan sosial tenaga kerja : memberikan perlindungan terhadap resiko berkurangnya atau hilangnya pendapatan akibat kecelakaan kerja, sakit, meninggal atau memasuki usia pensiun

4. Kondisi lingkungan kerja : harus diciptakan dengan baik dan nyaman baik untuk pekerja laki-laki ataupun perempuan.

• Norma khusus perlindungan pekerja perempuan : memberikan hak yang sama serta perlindungan untuk pekerja perempuan.

• Penataan tempat kerja dan peralatan/sarana produksi

• Pencegahan terjadinya pelecehan seksual di tempat kerja

• Pengaturan syarat kerja

BAGAIMANA MENCAPAI KEADAILAN DALAM EEO • Memperbaikin pemikiran stereotype • Menghilangkan persyaratakn kerja yang tidak relevan • Buka peluang perkerjaan dan promosi untuk semua kelas yang dilindungi • Promosi atas dasar kemampuan bukan senioritas • Memberikan upah yang sama untuk pekerjaan yang sama • Memodifikasi imbalan kerja untuk karyawan perempuan,kaum minoritas,dan keluarga yang bekerja • Pelatihan manajemen dalam persyaratakn EEO

Sebuah program pelatihan EEO komprehensif untuk manajer dan supervisor mencakup: • Larangan tercakup dalam berbagai undang-undang EEO • Pedoman tentang cara untuk menanggapi keluhan diskriminasi • Prosedur untuk menyelidiki keluhan • Saran untuk menanggulangi perilaku yang tidak pantas
Aksi afirmatif • Affirmative action berupa program dan prosedur yang secara nyata dibuat, selanjutnya diidentifikasikan dan memperbaiki semua praktek pekerjaan yang cenderung mempertahankan pola-pola diskrimininasi dalam pekerjaan, baik berdasarkan etnis, ras, daerah, umur, atau jenis kelamin. Serta dari kata action yang berarti tindakan yang harus diambil guna memungkinkan mereka yang telah disingkirkan atau tidak digubris untuk bersaing atau memperoleh akses terhadap pekerjaan berdasarkan basis yang sama. Jadi, affirmative action dapat didefinisikan sebagai rencana yang berorientasi pada hasil (result-oriented plan) dan program untuk menanggulangi ketidakadilan dalam lapangan pekerjaan, termasuk tindakan khusus dalam mempekerjakan pekerja dan hal promosi. Affirmative action dapat diartikan juga sebagai suatu konsep abstrak mengenai keadilan organisasi yang menunjukkan bagaimana reward, insentif, sanksi, dan juga pekerjaan dialokasikan dalam suatu lembaga organisasi ( Rizzo, dalam Gomes, 2003:70). Kesempatan yang sama dalam pekerjaan saja tidaklah cukup. Harus disertai dengan affirmative action sebagai cara untuk memerangi diskriminasi-diskriminasi dalam pekerjaan. • Kebijakan yang berlangsung di luar EEO dengan mengharuskan organisasi untuk mematuhi undang-undang dan praktek diskriminasi masa lalu yang benar dengan meningkatkan jumlah minoritas dan perempuan dalam posisi tertentu

Reverse Diskriminasi • Tindakan memberikan preferensi kepada anggota kelas dilindungi sejauh individu tidak terlindungi percaya bahwa mereka menderita diskriminasi

Tantangan untuk aksi afirmatif: • Kelompok kerja belum terlindungi dengan baik • Individu merasa dinilai sebagai pekerja yang berkinerja lebih rendah dan sering dipandang sebagai “token” • Program AA telah gagal dalam asimilasi kelas lindung menjadi tenaga kerja. • Preferensi ditampilkan ke satu kelas yang dilindungi dapat menciptakan konflik antara kelompok-kelompok minoritas lainnya.

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