Free Essay

Empathy of Animals

In:

Submitted By lambiasean
Words 2361
Pages 10
Study of Attitude, Empathy, and Human Uniqueness of Emotion in Animals

Abstract

This correlational study was conducted to determine and explore the relationships between empathy, attitudes towards animals, and beliefs about human uniqueness of emotion. This was a quasi- experimental because we studied man versus women and also pet owners versus non-pet owners. We expected to find a positive correlation between the empathy and AAS score. While also exploring the relationships between the HUES and empathy or AAS score. We predicted that women would have higher empathy and AAS scores than men as well as pet owners having higher AAS scores than non- pet owners. This study was conducted in New York, where 60 voluntary participants completed surveys. The results of the study illustrated and provided a statistically significant positive correlation between scores on the E-Scale and the AAS and a significant negative correlation between scores on the E-Scale and HUES and well as between the AAS and the HUES. There was also a significant gender difference in AAS scores with women having more positive attitudes toward animals compared to men. However, there was no significant gender difference in HUES scores. Similarly, there were significant effects of pet ownership on both E-Scale scores and on AAS scores. Specifically, pet owners had higher levels of empathy and also had more positive attitudes toward animals compared to non-pet owners. There was no significant effect of pet ownership on HUES scores.

Study of Attitude, Empathy, and Human Uniqueness of Emotion in Animals Before reviewing important research information that we have found, it is important to review other theories and expert findings that have related to our study and to which our research was built. Researchers have studied animal behavior in recent years with context to their attitudes, empathy and human like characteristics. It is important to know that this research is very interesting and can go a long way in showing how pet ownership is related or different among humans. Taylor & Signal (2005) studied college students in Australia determining the correlation between men and women and also between pet owners and non-pet owners. A correlational study using surveys was given, using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index as well as the Animal Attitude Scale. Researchers predicted that people who have more positive attitudes towards animals would have higher empathy levels. They also expected that gender difference would influence the companionship of animal ownership (Taylor & Signal, 2005). Taylor & Signal (2005) found that there was a positive correlation between EC subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Animal Attitude Scale (AAS), but only in females. Related to this, females also had a higher empathy levels and more positive attitudes towards animals than men. Current owners of companion animals had higher Animal Attitude Scale Scores than those of non-pet owners (2005). As compared to Taylor & Signal (2005), Henry (2006), a year later studied the attitude of animals and the history it had on negative home environment and animal abuse participation. Henry (2006) used a correlational study conducted in the United States of America in Denver, Colorado using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Attitude Towards Treatment of Animal Scale (ATTAS). The study used participants from an undergraduate PSYC 100 class. The students filled out numerous surveys including the IRI and ATTAS. The experiment was comparing men and women as did Taylor & Signal (2005) and animal abusers versus non-animal abusers. Henry (2006) predicted that empathy would be correlated with sensitivity to treatment of animals. Animal abuse will be correlated with negative home environment as well as empathy and sensitivity to treatment of animals will differ between abusers and non-abusers. Furthermore, individual’s empathy levels and animal attitudes will mediate the relationship between home environment and animal abuse. Finally, participants with early onset animal abuse will have the lowest empathy and animal sensitivity levels and the highest levels of negative home environment. After surveys were conducted and finalized, research showed a positive correlation between the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Attitude Towards Treatment of Animals Scale (AATAS) (Henry, 2006). In conclusion to this result it showed that women had a higher IRI score than men, as did the Taylor & Signal (2005) study. Another result showed that men with a high history of sexual abuse were more likely to abuse animals; especially those who had early onset of sexual abuse. Low ATTAS scores, high IRI scores and high sex abuse scores all were independently related to animal abuse. Along the lines of sex abuse, participants with early onset animal abuse had the lowest ATTAS scores, but showed no difference in empathy and highest levels of sex abuse. As compared to the Henry (2006) study, Taylor & Signal (2005) both found a positive correlation between attitudes regarding animal and human-human empathy.
In continuation of empathy in animals and animal abuse, Daly & Suggs (2010) reviewed teacher’s experiences with education and the effects of animals in the classroom related to empathy. Data was collected from 75 elementary school classroom teachers, which revealed the way in which animals were used in their teaching practices in the classroom. This included their views on some of the advantages of using pets in the classroom. Data was collected both quantitative and qualitative. The majority of teachers surveyed believed that the use of live pets in the classroom contributed positively to increasing empathy, as well as socio-emotional development in students (Daly & Suggs, 2010).
A correlational study was used to explore relationships between empathy, attitudes towards animals, and beliefs about human uniqueness of emotions where men and women were compared as well as pet owners and non-pet owners. As compared to the Taylor & Signal (2005), Henry (2006) and Daly and Suggs (2010), this study was given in Rochester, New York and was sampled with a combination of family, friends and college students. Samples were collected using surveys. The AAS was used which was similar to the Taylor & Signal (2005) study but differed from the Henry (2006) and Daly and Suggs (2010). This study also added a scale to measure beliefs about human uniqueness of emotions, which were the HUES scores. Furthermore we used a different empathy scale than the other study’s that was called the E-scale. By using different measures of empathy it would contribute to construct validity. It also uses a different subset of population that will determine if previous findings of generalization make a difference. The study also adds into the mix at looking at relationships between empathy, animal attitudes and a brand new variable characterized as the beliefs about human uniqueness of emotion. If the results that are found are similar to previous studies, it will increase our confidence in conclusions about the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards animals. Conducting this study we expect to find a positive correlation between empathy and AAS scores. Along with empathy and AAS scores HUES scores are being explored hoping to correlate with either empathy or AAS scores. Research is also hoping to show that women will have higher empathy scores and higher AAS scores towards animals then men, which leads to the gender differences in HUES scores. Finally, pet owners will have higher AAS scores than non-owners that explain pet ownership, the IRI and HUES scores.

Method
Subjects and Participants The sample was obtained by giving a total of five survey packets, which included three surveys, the E-Scale, AAS and HUES score scale to participants of choice within a seven-day period. The surveys were given to the researchers in a St. John Fisher College classroom in the psychology department wing by a professor who has their doctorate in psychology. A total of 60 participants (32 women and 28 men) completed the surveys. Participants ranged from 17 to 71 years of age (M = 27.88, SD = 14.6). The sample included 42 participants who were pet owners and 18 participants who were not pet owners. Of the participants who owned pets, 12 participants owned a cat, 30 participants owned a dog, and 8 participants owned some other type of pet. The surveys were completed with little to no direction from the researcher and were then handed back once completed and kept anonymous. The research gave the survey to the participant in any location they were at the present time that they were asked to participate.
Materials and Procedures The materials consisted of three single sheets of white printer paper that had three surveys printed on them separately. The surveys were given to randomly selected participants that were selected by the researcher. The three surveys were the E-Scale, the AAS scale and the HUES scale. The subjects were all surveyed in Rochester, New York during a seven-day period in October. Subjects simply filled out the three surveys and handed them back to the participant to complete their task. A small demographic questionnaire was on the top of the first survey for the subjects to complete.
Results
Scores on the E-Scale ranged from 29 to 91 (M = 60.3, SD = 12.6), scores on the AAS ranged from 55 to 114 (M = 87.8, SD = 13.2), and scores on the HUES ranged from 8 to 52 (M = 25.5, SD = 9.3). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between scores on the E-Scale and the AAS (r = 0.467, N = 60, p = 0.000), and significant negative correlations between scores on the E-Scale and the HUES (r = -0.435, N = 60, p = 0.001) and between scores on the AAS and the HUES (r = -0.310, N = 60, p = 0.016). Mean scores on the E-Scale, AAS and HUES as a function of gender and pet ownership are presented in Table 1. The effects of gender and pet ownership on attitudes toward animals, empathy levels, and beliefs about the uniqueness of human emotions were evaluated using one-way ANOVAs with alpha levels set at .05. Results indicated a significant gender difference in E-Scale scores, F (1, 58) = 5.63, p = .021, with women having higher empathy levels compared to men. There was also a significant gender difference in AAS scores, F (1, 58) = 10.85, p = .002, with women having more positive attitudes toward animals compared to men. However, there was no significant gender difference in HUES scores. Similarly, there were significant effects of pet ownership on both E-Scale scores, F (1, 58) = 5.88, p = .018, and on AAS scores, F (1, 58) = 4.39, p = .040. Specifically, pet owners had higher levels of empathy and also had more positive attitudes toward animals compared to people who had never owned pets. There was no significant effect of pet ownership on HUES scores. Discussion
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between empathy, animal attitudes and beliefs about human uniqueness of emotions. Our results clearly supported our hypothesis of there being a positive correlation between empathy and the AAS score. It also supports the relationships between HUES scores and empathy and AAS scores. People believed that emotions are unique to humans and that animals do not share similar emotions, this was supported with a negative correlation between the two. Evidence also supported that women had higher empathy and AAS scores then men as well as when exploring HUES scores. To conclude, the final hypothesis that was supported was pet owners had higher AAS scores than non-owners and when exploring IRI and HUES scores. While using the E-Scale there was positive correlation between empathy and attitudes towards animals, which was similar to Taylor & Signal (2005) and Henry (2006). In the most recent study the E-scale was used which was different from previous studies. This helped increase validity of the construct and operational definitions. The AAS scale used was similar to the Taylor & Signal (2005) study was but differed from the Henry (2006) study, which used the ATTAS scale. With the use of the AAS scale in both our study and in Taylor & Signal (2006), it allowed for replication of the Taylor & Signal (2006) findings and increase confidence in our conclusions. With our study there was a different sample size and sample population which helped increase generalizability. In our study we researched the correlations between the HUES scores and the AAS scores, which evidently showed a significant correlation. Also, the research between HUES scores and E-Scale scores also showed a significant correlation. Prior to this, no other studies have explored these relationships. We found that people who scored high on the HUES scale that believe emotions are only unique to humans had more low scores on both the E-Scale of lower empathy level and the AAS scale which showed more negative attitudes towards animals. This study also compared results for gender and pet ownership. In our study women had both higher E-scale scores and higher AAS scores compared to men, but also found no gender differences in HUES scores. Finally we found that current pet owners had both a higher E-scale scores and higher AAS scores compared to people who did not currently own a pet. Following this, pet ownership did not affect HUES scores.

References
Daly, B., Suggs, S. (2010). Teachers' experiences with humane education and animals in the elementary classroom: Implications for empathy development, Journal of Moral Education, 39:1, 101-112
Henry, C. (2006). Empathy, home environment, and attitudes towards animals in relation to animal abuse. Anthrozoos, 19 (1), 17-29.
Herzog, H.A., Betchart, N.S, & Pittman, R. (1991). Gender, sex role identity and attitudes toward animals. Anthrozoos, 4, 184-191. doi: 10.1037/t00344-000
Leibetseder M., Laireiter, A-R., & Köller, T. (2007). Structural analysis of the E-scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 547–561. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.08.002
Rothgerber, H. (2013). A meaty matter. Pet diet and the vegetarian's dilemma. Appetite, 68, 76-82. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2013.04.012
Taylor, N., Signal, T.D. (2005). Empathy and attitudes to animals. Anthrozoos, 18 (1), 18-25.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Empathy and Social Learning

...Running Head: EMPATHY AND SOCIAL LEARNING Developing Empathy: Nurturing Through Social Learning Abstract This paper explores the Social Learning Theory and how prosocial behavior, specifically empathy, is cultured through observation, modeling and imitation. Empathy is defined through a review of Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment, Jeremy Sloan’s article on developing empathy and the impact it has on animals in our world, and an assessment of empathy in future criminal justice professionals. All provide evidence and data to support the finding that adults have lasting influence on children and how ones behavior is formed. Empathy is a vital trait and it’s a primary requisite for successfully managing daily experiences. Key words: Empathy, Modeling, Social Learning, and Development Introduction The development of empathy allows us the innate ability to relate to another’s experiences, motives and feelings. It is the foundation of compassion and caring, and is monumental in many of life’s challenges and successes. It is what allows us to learn from others and become responsible, caring adults. Many significant professions require empathy: medical care, fire rescue, education, criminal justice, and most importantly parenting. Tragic events such as slavery and the Holocaust illuminate the significance of empathy, it’s part in humankind’s wellbeing, and how requisite it is to encourage healthy development of the trait (Sajo, 2011). It is therefore of utmost...

Words: 2089 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Isidore's Quote Analysis

...In this quote, Isidore explains what it feels like to be in the empathy box and how he enjoys following Mercerism during the climb. He mentions all the positives about it, the feeling of the climb with Mercer and explains how he learns to show empathy. Dick explains the stylistic device of repetition. What is being repeated is the word “it’s” and it is used to describe what it is like to follow Mercerism and that feeling of following Mercer as he makes that climb up. This goes back to the thesis of Dick predicting a new age of technology as he explains a new religion of Mercerism and a new innovation of an empathy box to express their empathy and be able to follow the Wilbur Mercer during the climb. The empathy box that Isidore describes relates...

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Etheridge and Finance

...quantity of animals that once populated the world. This drastic change to the natural world creates a situation where animals mean a great deal more than they do in our own world, and play a more central role in the lives and minds of everyone. As is the case when most things become scarcer, animals have become far more precious, valuable, and important in this new world. There are certainly a large number of animal lovers today, in the present day, and even some who refuse to kill animals such as ants or spiders, but nothing compared to the society in the novel. Animals are seemingly sacred, and to kill an animal, even a tiny bug, is almost unthinkable. Animals have become a status symbol, and to not own an animal is just not an option. People have to resort to fake electric animals to fit in and not stand out. The relationship between animals and humans has become something more than simply a companionship. As is shown in many of the questions on the Voigt-Kampff test, the main attribute of being human is empathy. This manifests itself in humans first as empathy towards other humans and, not far behind, as empathy towards animals. Not having an animal or not treating all animals with the utmost respect is akin to being an android - close to human but missing that crucial final component. Humans need their humanity, and the way to prove this is in their relationship with animals. Something else to consider here is the fact that the natural environment of most of these animals has...

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Analytic Book Report: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep

...emotion, empathy. Empathy plays the biggest role in the book through the global religion known in the novel as Mercerism. The practice of Mercerism centers on a piece of technology known as the empathy box. Users of the empathy box will take this technology by it handles which in turn infuses them into a type of physiological virtual experience. One of the experiences showcases the struggles of a mysterious man named Mercer and his journey up a mountain. Mercer’s journey up the mountain is met with hardship as unidentified bystanders would toss rocks at him as he attempts to ascend to his destination. Mercer would repeatedly fall to the bottom of the mountain but resume to the repeat process of reaching the top. Characters in the book also experience acts of enlightenment with Mercer where they are taught or told something by him that builds their character in the real world. Towards the end of the story, character Rick Deckard seems to have reached a point of enlightenment when he was able to experience the fusion with mercer in the real world without the use of the empathy box. It was then when Rick realized that Mercerism wasn’t just a false religion meant to mind trick people into becoming subordinates. The interesting thing about the empathy box is that not only are you watching this tragedy of Mercer unfold in front of you; everything that happens in this virtual world to the users becomes a reality in the real world. For example, when John Isidore connects to the empathy box...

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Art and Empathy

...allow men to be men. Holocaust art, the “Tale of the Sprinter” by Sudeep Pagedar, and Vladek Spiegelman in the memoirs Maus by Art Spiegelman are examples of how men suffered during the Holocaust and the amount of empathy produced from the suffering of these men. Empathy is the ability to see something from somebody else's point of view and to walk a mile in their shoes if you will. Men are very prideful individuals who are very dominating members of society. The atrocity of the Holocaust has been displayed and expressed through various pieces of art and literature. Famous Holocaust painters like Felix Nussbaum have expressed this atrocity through art. Felix Nussbaum was a prisoner at Auschwitz who died there in 1944. The image to the right is one Nussbaum’s paintings that survived the Holocaust. Besides the man sitting on this wooden box, you see two other men in the rear who appear to be using the bathroom. The condition that these men were forced to live in horse stable like conditions. These men were treated like animals and the lowest level of the food chain. Maybe this was a photo he painted of himself. Felix Nussbaum wanted people to know the horrible atrocities they went through. He wanted to show how men were living. His painting produces a great deal of empathy because no one could imagine having to wipe his or her feces with straw. The men...

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Is Morality a Biological or Social Construct?

...from? According to All About Science(2013), the Darwinian principles suggest, we are all a product of evolution, from a process called natural selection. Natural selection is the continuing process in which biological characteristics become either more or less common in a population. Meaning that: Individuals in a species that show a wide range of variation is because of differences within their genes. Individuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, as the genes that allow these individuals to be successful are passed to their offspring. This theory would lead you to believe that moral behaviour arose in humans as an extension of the biological altruism and empathy involved in the animal worlds care of its mates and offspring. If morality was a direct product of evolution, why would people constantly argue about what’s right and wrong? Although to say that...

Words: 2036 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Do Androids Dream Of Electric Sheep Analysis

...The Robot is More Human than You: Defining Humanity in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? As humans, we seem to be inordinately proud of our humanity. We tout that we are the smartest animals (ignoring the fact that we are still animals). We go around boasting that nothing else has the same level of intelligence as we do, that nothing is quite as human as we are. And, as far as we know, we aren’t lying to ourselves. Yet. But what about in the future, when we create something that does contest our humanness? Philip K. Dick explores this idea in his novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? The novel’s presentation of Mercerism, a fictional religion, and its unrealistically physical version of empathy suggests that using empathy to define...

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Rainsford's Character In The Most Dangerous Game

...Imagine a carnivore stranded alone in an uninhabited, fruit abundant island, void of animals. In order to survive the carnivore must adopt a herbivores diet. Much like the carnivore, Sanger Rainsford, the main character in Richard Connell's Most Dangerous Game, experience is a change in character after surviving a life-threatening situation. Rainsford is a hunter who is forced to participate in a manhunt, as the prey, undergoes a change in character. At the beginning of the story, Rainsford shows no sympathy for the animals. In the story, when he says, "you're a big game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares have a jaguar feels?"(page 3) He is showing his lack of empathy for animals. All his life Rainsford has been the hunter, not the hunted, and has no knowledge of the fear experienced by his prey. It also shows that he has never taken the time to think about the animals when he makes the "philosopher" comment. Rainsford also makes the claim that "I'm a hunter, not a murderer"( page 12) when the general invites Rainsford to go hunting with. Is the plot to still unfolding...

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Advertisement Analysis

...Tori Williams ENGL 102 September 9, 2013 Opoku-Agyemang Animal Cruelty Advertisement Analysis The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) has an effective strategy of promoting an end to animal cruelty by using heart-breaking visuals and persuasive rhetorical appeals and therefore is a more convincing advertisement than any other. The Vegan Outreach advertisement, which is a smaller organization than the ASPCA, also promotes the well-being of animals, but does not quite compare to the ASPCA’s advertisements. The ASPCA advertisements are more effective than the Vegan Outreach’s because they apply the ethos and pathos tactics more adequately. The ethos tactic is demonstrated by using a well-known famous artist named Sara McLaughlin. Although she is most famous for her music, she is also known for her extreme love for animals. Her passion for animals aids trust and promotes more affection within the audience. Not only does it create a bond between her and the listeners, but it also catches their eye. Her fame is an attention grabber because it inspires people to want to be like her. The ASPCA advertisement is also highly effective because it employs the pathos appeal of empathy by providing heart-touching visuals of abused animals. The visuals of the suffering pets are so intense that it produces a lingering feeling of sorrow and sadness that almost torments one’s thoughts and conscience throughout the day. The graphics are meant to stick in the...

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Argumentative Essay On Animal Testing

...stopped to wonder, “On what are these products tested?” You could be supporting animal cruelty without even be aware of it. The majority of the medications that we are provided with today have been tested on animals before being introduced onto the market . Using animals in scientific research has forever since been a controversial topic for heated debates. Despite the fact that we often benefit from successful animal experimentation, the pain and death that hundreds of millions of animals are suffering from are not worth the welfare of human beings. In addition, many forward-thinking-scientists have developed alternatives that replace the use of animals and furthermore, provides more accurate data to the study of human health and diseases. Therefore, I believe...

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Materialism - Thoreau and Dick

...Brendan Wu This World and the Next Kevin Goldstein November 29, 2014 A Thoreau Examination of Materialism In Walden, Thoreau admonishes society for succumbing to material desires and forsaking greater, more worthy pursuits like knowledge and self-reliance; similarly, in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, Dick creates a world where dependence on material possessions causes society to sacrifice its humanity and ultimately creates irreversible ruin. Yet both authors acknowledge that material items are important, with Thoreau depending on things like his house and his field for survival, and Dick introducing pet animals and empathy boxes as possessions that heighten human experience rather than suppress it. Thoreau and Dick argue that material possessions themselves have the potential to make powerful and positive impacts. It is the unchecked desire for material possessions that leads to societal decline and unhappiness. Throughout Walden, Thoreau is largely critical of materialism, venturing into the solitude of Walden Pond for two years partly to escape society’s preoccupation with material possessions. In the beginning of “Economy,” he observes young townsmen strapped with large inheritances and comments that having a massive farm, which is typically perceived as a sign of prosperity, only creates obligations and forces its inhabitants to spend their entire lives toiling, whereas owning a meager plot of land both allows for self-sufficiency and provides time to explore...

Words: 1969 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Leslie Jamison's Empathy Exams

...“Empathy needs no genius” (Beta, 2000-2016). In Leslie Jamison’s The Empathy Exams she makes the point of you being a good doctor does not just have to do with knowing all the medical situations, but also being able to empathize with patients. Showing empathy to a patient can help the doctor-patient or nurse-patient interaction because it will make the patient feel more like a human being. Jamison says empathy suggests “… you enter another person’s pain as you’d enter another country, through immigration and customs, border crossing by way of query: What grows where you are? What are the laws? What animals graze there?” (Jamison, 2014). The Empathy Exams by Leslie Jamison emphasizes how important empathy is important in healthcare workers and patient...

Words: 680 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Columbine Shootings

...were about to do what they did. So what was the cause of all this tragedy and how can it be stopped so it can never happen again in our middle schools and high schools? Elliot Aronson a social psychologist wrote a book called Nobody Left to Hate, Teaching Compassion After Columbine. This book represents his ideas on how to use certain strategies to have a better school environment that teaches compassion, tolerance while putting education in a winning situation. Aronson discusses the Columbine High School in depth, talking about the short cut solutions or pump-handle intervention as he calls it that schools and legislation passed soon after the Columbine tragedy. He then offers solutions that are more focused toward students as "social animals" in a school situation. In this book he makes it a point that teachers are at the...

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Empathy In Neil Degrasse Tyson's Claim

... Tyson tries to convince the reader that empathy is needed more in humans and our formal education. The first sentence states that humans lack the ability to empathize with others, including animals. It isn’t very difficult to find a few flaws in this statement the first time you read it. On the other hand, his second claim was a little bit difficult to consider. He insisted on empathy being in our formal education, which is like its own class. The fallacy of Tyson’s statement is because of the way he arranges his words and how he comes off strong. After some thought, answers are found through human empathy, education and choices. Tyson made humans seem disrespectful, selfish and self-centered, which created a kind of harsh start. If people didn’t have empathy, we wouldn’t have our doctors, our engineers and our counselors. Yes, there are people who don’t have a lot or any empathy . For example, the devil. The bible stated that he wanted to have the power and ended up dropping to hell. He didn’t consider his other brother angels, his father, or the ones he tries to pull from God. Although humans have flaws too, they also have each other. If humans took a chance...

Words: 586 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Are Humans Inherently Violent Or Aggressive

...Humans have inherited many biological features from our non-human primate ancestors. This discussion brings into question, have we also inherited our behavior characteristics from our past. Sussman’s article “Exploring Our Basic Human Nature: Are Humans Inherently Violent,” examines some studies that bring into question are humans by nature inherently violent and aggressive and does this steam from our nonhuman past. Numerous studies have been conducted, and the evidence is inconclusive no clear data proves that humans are by nature inherently violent or aggressive. Though biological, socialization and cultural histories do help shape our behavior, but to what extent our ancient genetic codes impact our behavior is still being scientifically...

Words: 259 - Pages: 2