Premium Essay

Ending Gender Pay Disparities

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kikibabielove
Words 3183
Pages 13
Sherry Jia
Women’s Studies 120
Professor Eileen Boris
March 5, 2009

Ending Gender Pay Disparities Pay disparities for women are a longstanding and troubling issue. While there was some advance in relative women’s pay as indicated by statistics on the ratio of female to male pay, in around 1994 the ratio leveled off suggesting an end to progress (See Figure 6.1, McCall 22). The differences in pay are widespread and pervasive applying not only to female-oriented jobs but to any jobs in which men and women both engage. Only at the bottom of the wage scale do women’s and men’s pay tend to converge because of the effect of the minimum wage. Statistics from 2005 show women earning only 0.77 of what men earn (Weinberg 26). Research has brought out many factors that seem to be influential, such as number of hours worked, experience, and differences in employers (Weinberg 26). However, such explanations do not offer much hope for improving the situation so as to make equal pay a reality. The recently passed Ledbetter Bill has closed some loopholes, but it is unlikely to have a significant effect on ending pay disparities (Erbe). Some might argue that the government can do no more since these disparities result from factors other than gender discrimination. However, as long as women make considerably less than men in similar jobs, women are second-class citizens and not full participants in society. I strongly urge Congress to craft and pass legislation that recognizes the existence of gender pay disparities as an indication of discrimination so as to force companies and other organizations to provide their women workers with pay equivalent to men’s pay.
Issues
While it is true that positions that typically employ women pay less than many similarly skilled jobs that employ mostly men, even when men and women have the same jobs, women typically...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Making Gender Equality a Reality

...One can be surely flabbergasted to acknowledge that achieving gender equality necessitates the presence of men; those men, because of whom, the word gender inequality came mostly into existence. Notwithstanding it is an incontestable fact that gender inequality includes both sexes, yet women are the most vulnerable to these disparities. The equality of men and women has become one of the fundamental constituent of human rights, ever since the adoption of the United...

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Reform Juvenile Justice in Delaware

...Delaware’s Juvenile Justice System as compared to Other State’s Juvenile Justice Systems Ashley The juvenile justice system, just like the justice system for adults in the United States, could benefit from undergoing a few changes. Delaware is one of the states where juvenile justice policies are extremely complicated and usually result in many people losing hope and giving up, meaning a higher recidivism rate amongst our youth. The purpose of this memorandum is to propose five changes the state of Delaware could make within its juvenile justice system that would benefit the juveniles, the law enforcement officials, and the public alike. One of the first changes Delaware can take to make their juvenile justice system stand out from other states is to remove the mandatory rules to charge some juveniles as adults. Currently, only four other states do not utilize mandatory rules for sentencing juveniles as adults (Trying Juveniles as Adults, 1998). This may seem like an easy way out for some juveniles who have committed more serious offenses, but it’s important to remember that these juveniles are, in fact, still juveniles. They haven’t fully developed mentally, physically, psychologically, etc., and it’s unreasonable to charge them as adults for crimes that they have committed as juveniles. Focusing on rehabilitation for our juveniles should be a main priority, not locking them away for years on end and depriving them of services such as substance abuse counseling......

Words: 1087 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Emerging Standards of Care

...Beyond the racial and ethnic group, classification that usually comes to mind with discussion of cultural diversity, other types of cultural diversity such as gender and organization affiliation warrants attention. This paper will discuss cultural competence in home health care/hospice, the people that receive service and issues of community vulnerability. Exploration of standards of cultural competence, potential impacts of delivery of care, and possible solutions to implement where standards are not being met will emerge. Cultural Competence According to Freidman, Bowden, and Jones (2003), people view culture as a model for our way of living, behaving, living, and feeling. An association between culture and heath practices is existent. In fact, culture is the most influential factor in determining health behaviors and beliefs (Campinha-Bacote, 2003). Cultural competence involves being aware of, and conversant on, and sensitive to the diverse cultures that exist in the population. Health care providers should not only embrace cultural diversity but must also strive for cultural competence in order to ensure that all patients receive the best care possible. Nurses spend the most time with their patients; therefore, if nurses are not aware of all the variables that can affect the patient’s health and outcome, such as culture, then this can affect the safety of the patient. Campinha-Bacote (2003) describes cultural competence as a practice in which the nurse...

Words: 3345 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

A Case of Poverty in Kenya

...A CASE OF POVERTY IN KENYA INTRODUCTION MEANING OF POVERTY The synonyms of poverty can be said to be beggary, indigence, neediness, hardship, a state of being extremely poor inferior in quality and in amount or the scarcity and deficiency, shortages, absence or lack more in amount. Therefore is a condition where people’s basic needs for food, clothing and shelter are not being met. Poverty is generally of two types i.e. absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty is synonymous with destitution and occur when people cannot obtain adequate resources (measured in terms of calories or nutrition) to support a minimum level of physical health. It also includes deprivation of basic human needs including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. The graph below shows the proportion of the world population in extreme poverty between 1981-2008 according to the World Bank . Relative poverty occur when people do not enjoy a certain minimum level of living standards as determined by the government (enjoyed by the bulk of the population that vary from country to country or within the same country. 1964, in a joint committee, economic presidents’ report in US, Republicans endorsed the concept of relative poverty, ‘no objective definition of poverty exists… The definition varies from place to place and time to time. Different people and organizations view poverty differently. For example, Adam Smith in 1776 in......

Words: 3040 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Globalisation

...GLOBALISATION Globalization is a complicated and contentious issue. It is the process of strengthening the relationship between countries, inevitably involving the respective national economies becoming progressively bonded which in turn promotes interrelationship and progression. The standard of living in developing nations rises due to globalisation, expanding technological awareness, and a boost in political freedom. (Harris 2002) The primary element of globalisation is the impact from the rest of the further developed nations. Historically, it is a series of actions which arises from ideas of people and industrial advancement. Peru is one of the nations which distinctly depicts the effects from globalisation. Peru was initially a third world nation suffering from scarcity and dictatorship, it is now progressing into a developed country. Globalisation has positively affected Peru by raising the Human Development Index, empowering females, and creating a more powerful nation. (Leon 2002) One of the advantages of globalisation which has a civil development is the increase in Human Development Index. It is an assessment and comparison of civil, governmental and industrial growth between all the nations in the world. With a scale of zero to one, the Human Development Index rates each nation, with the most developed, globalised nation scoring one. The capital gross domestic production, life expectancy during birth, literacy of adults, and the amount of people admitted into......

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Gender Equality Is Undebatable

...Introduction The concept of gender has become a debatable issue in the contemporary society and an important dimension in the design and analysis of social and economic development policies. These development concerns have brought about gender issues at the forefront of national and international agenda. During the 1990's, the gender issue continued to follow the historical trend by being one of the most popular themes of debates. The Human Development Report, (1995) posits that the number of women is greater than or equal to that of men, in today's society, yet females are still considered as a minority segment of the population. As a measure to redress gender inequalities, approaches by feminist movements, such as Women in Development (WID), were crafted but not much was achieved. Later, it was Women and Development (WAD) and lastly Gender and Development (GAD). It seems deep-rooted gender inequality still exists globally, despite substantial national and international measures that have been taken towards gender equality. This essay deliberates on the assertion that, “Gender equality is debatable: what is undebatable is the attempt to make it universally applicable.” The writer agrees to a greater extent that gender equality is a controversial issue basing on the multiplicity of societies that it is applied to....

Words: 4163 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Gender-Based Analyses of Stress

...Gender-Based Analyses of Stress Among Professional Managers: An Exploratory Qualitative Study Yoshi Iwasaki, Kelly J. MacKay, and Janice Ristock University of Manitoba The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of stress among both female and male managers, using a series of single-sex and mixed focus groups. In addition to substantial similarities between female and male participants’ descriptions about their experiences of stress (e.g., negative and positive aspects of stress, different levels of stress, lack of sleep, pressure, financial stressors, being a manager), a number of important gender differences emerged from their descriptions. These differences can be explained by the way in which gender continues to be socially constructed in society; specifically, there are differing gender role expectations and responsibilities for women and men. Female managers experienced “emotional stress,” primarily because of the pressure to meet expectations of being responsible and caring for people both inside and outside of their home. In contrast, male managers tended to focus on themselves and regard other things as beyond their control or responsibility. KEY WORDS: gender; stress; managers; profession Many people in contemporary society feel stressed in their lives....

Words: 10036 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...Arguments for and Against the Death Penalty from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/ ARGUMENT 1 DETERRENCE The death penalty prevents future murders. Society has always used punishment to discourage would-be criminals from unlawful action. Since society has the highest interest in preventing murder, it should use the strongest punishment available to deter murder, and that is the death penalty. If murderers are sentenced to death and executed, potential murderers will think twice before killing for fear of losing their own life. For years, criminologists analyzed murder rates to see if they fluctuated with the likelihood of convicted murderers being executed, but the results were inconclusive. Then in 1973 Isaac Ehrlich employed a new kind of analysis which produced results showing that for every inmate who was executed, 7 lives were spared because others were deterred from committing murder. Similar results have been produced by disciples of Ehrlich in follow-up studies. Moreover, even if some studies regarding deterrence are inconclusive, that is only because the death penalty is rarely used and takes years before an execution is actually carried out. Punishments which are swift and sure are the best deterrent. The fact that some states or countries which do not use the death penalty have lower murder rates than jurisdictions which do is not evidence of the failure of deterrence. States with high murder rates would have even higher rates if they did not use the death penalty....

Words: 6130 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Sjsj

...Arguments for and Against the Death Penalty from http://deathpenaltyinfo.msu.edu/ ARGUMENT 1 DETERRENCE The death penalty prevents future murders. Society has always used punishment to discourage would-be criminals from unlawful action. Since society has the highest interest in preventing murder, it should use the strongest punishment available to deter murder, and that is the death penalty. If murderers are sentenced to death and executed, potential murderers will think twice before killing for fear of losing their own life. For years, criminologists analyzed murder rates to see if they fluctuated with the likelihood of convicted murderers being executed, but the results were inconclusive. Then in 1973 Isaac Ehrlich employed a new kind of analysis which produced results showing that for every inmate who was executed, 7 lives were spared because others were deterred from committing murder. Similar results have been produced by disciples of Ehrlich in follow-up studies. Moreover, even if some studies regarding deterrence are inconclusive, that is only because the death penalty is rarely used and takes years before an execution is actually carried out. Punishments which are swift and sure are the best deterrent. The fact that some states or countries which do not use the death penalty have lower murder rates than jurisdictions which do is not evidence of the failure of deterrence. States with high murder rates would have even higher rates if they did not......

Words: 6130 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Women and Development

...Women in Development (WID), Women and Development (WAD) and Gender and Development (GAD) approach will be discussed in relation to women access to land in Zimbabwe. 2.2. Customary law and land question For many people, customary law is the most important law in their lives, controlling areas of their lives like their marriages, their property, and their right to inherit. Due to customary law in Zimbabwe like in many other African countries with patriarchal systems, women can only access land through marriage or other male relatives. According to Ghosh (2010) customary law refers to African traditions which have become an intrinsic part of the accepted and expected conduct in Zimbabwean black communities. This law defines roles which women should play in society as well as what kind of businesses or economic activities they should venture into. Customary laws emerge from unwritten social rules derived from shared community values and traditions. Customary laws limit women’s rights on land to secondary rights mainly derived from their membership in patriarchal households (WLSA, 2001). This law underpins...

Words: 15252 - Pages: 62

Premium Essay

Nursing

...Despite recent progress in overall national health, there are continuing disparities in the incidence of illness and death among African Americans, Latino/Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Alaskan Natives and Pacific Islanders as compared with the US population as a whole." --National Center for Cultural Competence Population addressed Population addressed In 1950, U.S.-born whites made up about 90 percent of the U.S. population. By 2000, this number declined to about 75 percent, and by 2050 non-Hispanic whites will be in the numerical minority (U.S. Census Bureau 2001, 2002). This rapid diversification requires healthcare organizations to pay closer attention to cross-cultural issues if they are to meet the healthcare needs of the nation and continue to maintain a high standard of care. Looking at the Country as a whole the current area of discussion for this paper is the area of Western North Carolina and the population of Asheville, which is a melting pot of cultures which the combination they create is unique to no other. According to the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau statistics for Asheville, N.C. the current demographics break down as follows: Asheville [City] Population (current estimate), 70,400. Buncombe County Population (2006), 222,174, county in Western North Carolina Asheville is located. Gender Dispersion was 46.8% Male, 53.2% Female with an average age being 39.2 years of age....

Words: 7006 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Economics Essay

...Evan Mandery Professor, John Jay College of Criminal Justice • Why I'm Skipping My Harvard Reunion (A Call to Action) Posted: 05/06/2014 8:51 am EDT Updated: 07/06/2014 5:12 am EDT In a few weeks, the Harvard class of 1989 will be reuniting in Cambridge. There'll be mini-TED talks, a "Taste of New England Dinner," and a chance to sing with the Boston Pops, but I'll be spending the weekend coaching my son's Little League team and hanging out with my family. Reunions seem unnatural to me. I refuse to participate in the charade of pretending to be surprised to see a classmate, and when I'm asked, "What have you been doing?" as one inevitably is, I never know where to draw the line between "stuff" and the full, self-reflective version one might share with a close friend. I think too much detail implies an exaggerated sense of self-worth and is hence a greater faux pas than too little detail, so I've always hewed closer to the "stuff" version, but this runs its own risk of suggesting you don't think the other person is important enough to merit the full telling of your own story. It's a minefield and, in the social media era, one that's entirely avoidable. I've never been unable to locate an old friend or classmate online. It's particularly easy for graduates of Harvard, which maintains a great alumni website--it's where Facebook started, after all. Anyone interested in me can find my professional record on LinkedIn, family photos on Facebook, and many hilarious tweets. If one......

Words: 10654 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Pay for Play- Ethics Paper

...Pay for Play: An Ethical Analysis of the Student-Athlete Compensation Dilemma Group 2: Julie Burnett Christopher Fincham Revati Kailasam Catherine Kondo Teresa Seim Ethics and Professionalism in Accounting Andrew Dill ACG 6835 Fall 2013 Introduction The college sports industry is a large industry in America which is estimated to produce $797 million dollars for the 2012-13 season (NCAA). Of these millions, not one penny will go to any of the 400,000 plus college athletes under NCAA rules (NCAA). This however, was not always the case. Prior to the formation of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1906, student groups frequently hired players without the stipulation that they must also be students at the university (NCAA). Due to these circumstances and poorly regulated play that often led to injuries, the NCAA was established to provide a safe and fair ‘playing field’ for student-athletes. However, today this regulatory board is not seen as beneficial by all members of society, and is especially negatively scrutinized by top performing student-athletes. In 2005, NCAA Football had an estimated total attendance of over 43 million compared to the NFL of over 17 million, while NCAA Basketball had estimated total attendance of over 30 million compared to the NBA of over 21 million (Humphys, 2008). Despite having more viewers, college athletes received no pay while professional players earned millions....

Words: 6363 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

America's Post-Civil War Growing Pains

...Running head: AMERICA’S POST-CIVIL WAR GROWING 1 America’s Post-Civil War Growing Pains Zarick L. Robinson Professor Peacock Contemporary U.S. History – Assignment #1 Strayer University July 18, 2013 AMERICA’S POST-CIVIL WAR GROWING PAINS 2 The United States experienced many growing pains during the time period of 1865 to 1900 but I’d like to focus on two major historical points that impacted my family and certain Asian friends. African-Americans were not the only ones to experience prejudice as I brought out above, however, they were the main ones targeted when it comes to slavery. Slavery and prejudice was rampant during this time period. An old family friend Jonathan, a Chinese-American, was a victim of racial prejudice as a child. As he grew up, he searched for a place where people would not prejudge him based on his facial features or racial background. He became a medical doctor in a town in northern Alaska, where his appearance was similar to that of many of his patients. He hoped that perhaps there, amid the cold winds of the Arctic Circle, he had finally escaped the even colder winds of prejudice that he experienced in California. Any such hope was shattered when he provided medical assistance to a young woman. As the patient came out of a coma, she looked at Jonathan’s face and uttered a taunt with an expletive, revealing her......

Words: 2118 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Health and Social Care Level 3 Unit 7 Sociological Approaches

...Throughout my assignment I will be looking at many elements of the sociological spectrum which go hand in hand with the element of health and illness. These things will include the introduction of social groups and looking at their statistics. “A social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity. A social category is a collection of people who do not interact but who share similar characteristics. For example, women, men, the elderly, and high school students all constitute social categories. A social category can become a social group when the members in the category interact with each other and identify themselves as members of the group.” - Anonymous, 2014. No only will I be looking at the social elements, but how it links in to health and trends in illness to find out just how the can both relate. Things such as Morbidity rates (the counted statistic rate in which disease appears in the population). Not forgetting other patterns in health including mortality rate known to be the amount of deaths calculated per annum along with many other rates that can effect the illness of social groups and reasons as to why and how these rates may effect them. As previously mentioned before a social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity. A social category is a collection of people who do not interact but who share similar......

Words: 6711 - Pages: 27