Free Essay

Es 110


Submitted By brenda1970
Words 1179
Pages 5
Adam Howard
ES 110G
The Dust Bowl
April, 28, 2014

The Dust Bowl

The dust bowl happened in the 30’s. It was a period of severe drought. Severe drought and wind erosion ravaged the Great Plains for a decade. The drought damaged the agriculture and the environment in a detrimental way. Because of the drought and the farmers not using dry land farming methods at the time to prevent wind erosion during the dust bowl. The farmers had plowed the soil before the dust bowl disrupting the grasses that would have normally kept the soil in place during high winds. Excessive cultivation of the land in the 1930s exposed dry soil to the wind. The water that was in the ground no longer soaked in it just ran off because there were no roots to help it soak into the ground. When the winds blew it turned the soil into dust that blew everywhere. The dust storms were called “black blizzards”. Visibility was greatly reduced during these times of high wind and made it very hard for people to see in front of them. The drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected many people and a lot of land was compromised. The dust storms greatly degraded the productivity of the soil. People’s health was hindered greatly by breathing in all of the dust and particles in it. The air quality was horrible making it unbearable to live in those circumstances. Families had to leave their homes because they couldn’t breathe with the dust getting into their lungs. They were getting pneumonia from the dust in their lungs. This made life unbearable for them.
The methods that farmers used during the time of the dust bowl put the soil in conditions that were prone to massive erosion. They plowed the land too much and disrupted the native grasses. Their methods of burning wed caused the land to be robbed of the natural nutrients that were in the soil. The native plants were destroyed and with them gone there was nothing to hold down the soil in high wind conditions. The drought caused the crops to fail because without water the crops could not survive.
The tractors that they used also put toxins in the environment. After good years of producing crops, the drought started and the land could produce no more crops. Farmers continued to plow the lands in hopes of the rain returning. The winds became so much that the currents in the winds with static in them destroyed crops. Animals were starving and dying. Jack rabbits overtook the land eating everything that was in site. The farmers killed a lot of the rabbits to keep them from destroying what was left of their fields. The farmers were no longer able to make a living and had to leave the area to find work to support their families.
“Using computer simulations, Cook, Seager and Ronald Miller of LDEO found the "black blizzards" exacerbated the drought and pushed it northward into the Great Plains. The airborne dust particles reflected sunlight back into space, leading to cooler surface temperatures. As temperatures dipped, so did evaporation. "You basically cut off the moisture source to clouds and precipitation," Cook said. Following the Dust Bowl disaster, agencies enacted land-use rules to reduce soil erosion and prevent further such catastrophic dust storms in the United States. Even so, the researchers say, global warming and an increased pressure to expand agriculture in light of a possible food crisis are creating conditions ripe for dust storms in other regions worldwide.”(1).
The people of that time were very selfish they got out of the land what they wanted without any thought of what it might do to the environment and the people that depended on the environment to survive. Millions of acres of grassland were destroyed for the farmers’ profits. The dust bowl is was the worst man made ecological disaster in American history.
The government enacted many new rules to farmers to promote agriculture health and sustainability. They enacted these rules to save the land and prevent any further catastrophic events like the dust bowl from happening again. “The Works Progress Administration (WPA), a program started under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, is one of the best-known New Deal programs. The WPA was a work relief program that employed more than 8.5 million people to build roads, bridges, airports, public parks and buildings. It took millions of tons of dirt and debris blowing from the Plains all the way into Washington D.C., known as "Black Sunday," to move Congress to pass the Soil Conservation Act and establish the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) under the Department of Agriculture. The SCS (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) promoted healthy soil management and farming practices, and paid farmers to put such practices to work on their farms. The legacy of the Service's practices such as irrigation, crop diversity and no-till farming continue in the Plains today.”(2).
It’s sad that it took such a horrible event for congress to get involved and make provisions to ensure that this type of thing wouldn’t happen. Many lives were lost due to the effects of the dust bowl and a lot of livestock was lost. The effects are detrimental to not only the environment but the people that live in the environment. When we let people tear up the land in which we live unforeseen catastrophic events like the dust bowl are going to happen. You cannot disrupt the natural environment without having consequences.
My great-grandmother lived in Oklahoma during the dust bowl and she has told us stories about the dark clouds of dust that would cover their houses and they couldn’t see a foot in front of them. As a child I just thought they were exaggerated stories until seeing this film and reading more about the dust bowl. She said that her Daddy would keep them inside with wet towels around the doors and windows to help keep the dust out. That they lived most of her young years eating only beans and corn bread because they couldn’t grow anything. I guess I know now that all of those stories were real and I feel bad that I thought that they were exaggerated tales. Kind of like walking up hill both ways in 3 feet of snow on the way to school. Maybe that wasn’t exaggerated either. I know that I will definitely research things she says from now on, and appreciate the part of history that I can learn from. This film was very interesting and the devastation that was caused by the dust bowl was horrendous. I hope that we never have to see that type of catastrophe.

1. Bruner, Jeanna. “Why the 1930’2 Dust Bowl was so bad”. May 4, 2008. Viewed on line at:
2. Trimarchi, Maria. “What Caused The Dust Bowl?” viewed on line at:

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Toyota Production System

...Executive summary This system which is comprised of several of the company’s core value concepts which is aim towards the Toyotas customer oriented and quality driven operations and production process has grown in reputation over the years. This presentation intends to analyze this system alongside other aspects of the company’s business operations in regards of its Facilities in North America Toyota production system This presentation is aimed to illustrate a four exercise approach in analyzing the Toyota Manufacturing Corporations and the TPS it adopts. We analyzed Toyota production system based on our understanding of what it represents in terms of its Concepts. We also define TPS as an entity, furthermore we discuss its purpose in Toyota Manufacturing Corporation as well as its production in North America. To better illustrate its value to the company we also describe the advantages and limitations of the system. Weighted Scoring Model Using a the weighted scoring model we would critically assessing the potential Lexus RX 330 North American Plant location decision between TMMC or any of Toyota Manufacturing Corporation U.S factory plants. In doing so we would identifying the factors the company would need to consider. Decision Tree We would be applying the decision tree tool to adequately recommend a production capacity for TMMC to utilize in the production of the new Lexus RX 350 line in order to achieve optimal quality and maximize profit. First we explain the...

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Communications and Personality in Negotiation

...customer wanting to purchase a vehicle. The representation will provide a female consumer’s perspective in such negotiation proceedings. In addition, included will be an analysis of the roles of communication and personality in this type of negotiation as well as how each detracted from the negotiation process. A few years back, I was in an automobile accident in which a big-rig truck destroyed the side of my car. As a result, I was in the position of needing a new vehicle. I had good credit plus sufficient funds received for the subsequent accident. I researched the type of vehicle I wanted to purchase and concluded on the amount that I was willing to pay. I decided to procure a new or slightly used Lexus ES 300. All that was left to do was to search out the perfect ES 300 that fulfilled my established criteria, which included a reasonable price, low mileage, substantial warranty and standard features with extras like rims and a sunroof. I prepared in advance my negotiation techniques exercising appropriate communication skills to assist in completing the deal. The strategies included straightforwardness coupled with standing firm on my criteria. My first stop was at a dealership that sold both new and used vehicles. When diving by, I noticed that this particular lot housed many Lexus vehicles although it was not an authorized Lexus dealership. As I drove up into the parking area, I could view the vulture-like salespeople waiting to pounce on me as if I were their...

Words: 2342 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Insight to an Unethical Situation

...Insight to an Unethical Situation Week 6- Final Project Danielle Introduction Toyota’s announcement of a technical fix for its sticky gas pedals, which can lead to sudden acceleration problems, is not likely to bring a quick end to the company’s current recall nightmare. During the course of this paper, I will explain in detail the Toyota recall in 2010 having to do with the gas petal sticking. I will also explain why I believe Toyota handled this situation from the deontological perspective and what other theories apply to the unethical situation. Description Unethical Situation In 2010, Toyota was forced to issue a series of highly-publicized recalls, due to reports of cars accelerating beyond the driver's control.  The issue led to Congressional hearings, damaged the reputation of a company once known for its bulletproof reliability, and left millions of Toyota owners with questions about their own safety. Understandably, the news was worried for Toyota consumers.  It also rocked the automotive industry, as questions about Toyota's reputation for reliability surfaced during this time. It started with a single, horrifying car crash in southern California in August 2009. In the weeks following, two separate recalls covering 7.5 million vehicles, Toyota was forced to announce it was suspending the sale of eight of its best-selling vehicles, a move that cost the company and its dealers a minimum of $54 million a day in lost sales revenue. How did a company that became...

Words: 3145 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Urban Waters

...Urban Water Partners Urban Water Partners Presentation to investors by the executive team Emily Chai Brook Aspden Tiffany Kok Chloe Muggeridge What will you gain by investing in Urban Water Partners? Financial Introduction Analysis Strategy Non-financial Financials Implementation Conclusion Urban Water Partners will generate a 7.5 times return on investment $1.7m 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 $0.2m 200000 0 Invested Introduction Analysis Proposed Strategy Financials Implementation Conclusion You will also gain non-financial benefits Introduction Analysis Strategy Financials Implementation Conclusion UWP business structure Blue Future Filter supply UWP Technicians Training & checks Fee • Governance • Management • Sales staff Lease filters Vendors Education Brand awareness Sale Customer Introduction Analysis Strategy Financials Implementation Conclusion Three key points of analysis Health awareness Introduction Analysis Trust based Strategy Financials Water distribution Implementation Conclusion Health awareness Widespread awareness of the dangers of contaminated water Current solution: charcoal boiling Ineffective, inefficient and often expensive Opportunity for better alternative to meet health concerns Introduction Analysis Strategy Financials ...

Words: 3698 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

The Impact of Providing Business Trainign to Microfinance Clients

...NORGES HANDELSHØYSKOLE Bergen, spring 2010 THE IMPACT OF PROVIDING BUSINESS TRAINING TO MICROFINANCE CLIENTS: Empirical Evidence from Tanzania Guro Landsend Henriksen Svein Olav Svoldal Supervisor: Erik Øiolf Sørensen Master Thesis in Economics NORGES HANDELSHØYSKOLE This thesis was written as a part of the Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration programme - Major in Economics. Neither the institution, nor the advisor is responsible for the theories and methods used, or the results and conclusions drawn, through the approval of this thesis. ABSTRACT This master thesis studies the impact of providing business training to microfinance clients in Tanzania. Based on data collected six months after the programme ended, we cannot confirm positive treatment effects from business training on the micro entrepreneurs’ profits. However, treated entrepreneurs have higher likelihood of operating multiple businesses; increased their engagement within commerce and reduced their engagement within manufacturing. Based on the market situation at the time, these changes all represent advancement towards business structures associated with higher profitability. Moreover, findings of low profitability in new establishments can serve as an explanation to the small effect from business training on profits, and imply that treatment effects will be manifested in higher future profits of the entrepreneurs. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ...................

Words: 13519 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Advocacy Papers

...Advocacy Project Proposal ADVOCACY PROJECT PROPOSAL Project Title: YouthFM AIDS Awareness Project Project Period: Three-years Target areas: Phase I:   Dar Es Salaam, Coast, Tanga, Zanzibar & Morogoro. Phase II:   Mwanza, Arusha, Dodoma & Mbeya Total funds requested: Year-One: US Dollars -------------------- Year-Two: US Dollars ------------------- Year-Three: US Dollars ----------------- Proposal submitted to: ---------------------------------. Proposal submitted by: Tanzania Youth Aware Trust Fund Applicant’s address: Kijiyonyama Youth Center P.O. Box 77874,                       Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Applicant’s telephone: 022-71356/ 0744-260-996 Applicant’s e-mail:, www.wilmo/youthaware Applicant’s legal status: Non Governmental Organization Project Leaders’ name: Peter Joseph Masika, Director Date of Submission: September 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS PROJECT PROPOSAL SUMMARY SHEET 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 5 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6 2. INTRODUCTION - YOUTHFM HIV/AIDS AWARENESS PROJECT CONTEXT 9   2.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 9     2.1.1 HIV/AIDS   - An Overview: 9     2.1.2 HIV/AIDS in Tanzania: Young people in danger 9     2.1.2 Existing Initiatives addressing HIV/AIDS in Tanzania 11   2.2 The Tanzania Youth Aware Trust Fund 12   2.3 Relationship to Target Country Priorities 13 3. YOUTHFM HIV/AIDS AWARENESS- THE PROPOSED PROJECT 14   3.1 PROJECT   GOALS AND OBJECTIVES...

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Corporate Social Responsibilty

...UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY VICE CHANCELLOR (ADMINISTRATION) INFORMATION TO CONTINUING STUDENTS FOR 2011/12 ACADEMIC YEAR The University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) would like to inform all undergraduate students who will continue with studies in the 2011/12 academic year that studies will begin on 10th October 2011. All bonafide students should pay their share of tuition and other required fees as indicated below before they report to the University as only those who pay the fees will be processed for registration and will be allowed to access accommodation and other university facilities/services Payment should be made through: 1. The University of Dar es Salaam Main Campus (UDSM) NBC Bank Account Number 040103001709 (UDSM Branch) or CRDB Bank Account Number 01J1088967000 (UDSM Branch). 2. The Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) NBC Account Number 071101000196 (Chang’ombe Branch). 3. The Mkwawa University College of Education (MUCE) CRDB Account Number 01J1071134810 (Mkwawa Branch). 4. For those using international telegraphic transfer, the Swift Code is NLCBTZTX for NBC Bank and CORUTZTZ for CRDB Bank. Students should keep the original pay-in slips for submission to the University. 1 Fee Matrices for Undergraduate Students 2011/2012 Second and Third Year Grade Percentage Approved Tuition Fees COLLEGE/SCHOOL Means Testing A 0% Payable Tuition Fees B 10% Payable Tuition Fees C 20% Payable Tuition Fees D 30% Payable...

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Marketing Plan of Pepsi

...Chinese, Continental and Local recipes. Try the 24 hours garden cafe for sumptous snacks and beverages for that unforgettable taste. The Barbeque village makes an ideal venue for the culinary showmanship of our shefs in mouth watering barbequed specialities. Extensive recreational facilities and privacy transforms the visit into a great family outing and experience. The Chinese restaurant which is one among the hotel restaurants serves all the delight and delicious food made in traditional Chinese flavour. ABOUT US The renovated New Dodoma Hotel now stands 107 years old having been first erected by Germans in the year 1904 as a resting point for the Kaiser of German on his way to Ujiji during the inauguration of the Railway line from Dar es Salaam to Ujiji via Dodoma, but later the British colonies converted the Rest House to a Railway Hotel for the Tanzania Government to inherit after independence. | The Hotel was acquired on 17th of October 2002 through privatization by worldwide management a company associated to Estate Trading Ltd. Owners of the Blue Pearl Hotel and Apartments, Beachcomber hotel and Resort, Urban Rose hotel and Apartments and our New Hotel at Mbweni in Zanzibar under construction. LEISURE & FACILITIES | | | | | Welcome to one of the most cherished of hotels in Africa. Offering warm, comfortable and friendliest of Tanzanian hospitality. The hotel forms the hub of all pleasures, social and business activities in the capital city. | ...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...the period 2012-2040. It was adopted by African leaders in January 2012 and provides a strategic framework for priority infrastructure projects expected to transform the continent into an interconnected and integrated region. To mobilise financial investment to accelerate PIDA implementation, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) organized the Dakar Financing Summit on 1415 June in Senegal where a total of 16 strategic and regionally balanced projects were presented to potential donors. Of these, seven are in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). These are the Lusaka-Lilongwe ICT Terrestrial Fibre Optic linking Malawi and Zambia, the Ruzizi III Hydropower Project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Dar es Salaam Port Expansion Project and Serenge Nakonde Road in Tanzania. “The Lusaka-Lilongwe ICT Terrestrial Fibre Optic project is aimed at facilitating interconnection between Malawi and Zambia,” re a statement from Nepad issued at the end of the Dakar summit, in part. The other three are the ZambiaTanzania-Kenya Transmission Line linking the power grids of the three countries, the Batoka Gorge Hydropower Project involving Zambia and Zimbabwe, and the Brazzaville-Kinshasa Road Rail Bridge Project and the Kinshasa Illebo Railways in the DRC. “The 16 projects were selected due to their strategic, political and economic importance as flagship regional...

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Determinants of Different Accounting Methods Choice in Tanzania : a Positive Accounting Theory Approach

...DETERMINANTS OF DIFFERENT ACCOUNTING METHODS CHOICE IN TANZANIA : A POSITIVE ACCOUNTING THEORY APPROACH Objectives: • The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that influence the choice of accounting policies by managers of companies in Tanzania. • These studies also examine the number of factors that influence the managers’ incentives for accounting choice. Population/ sample size: The study investigates managers’ decisions to choose accounting methods in a positive accounting theory perspective using panel data covering 60 years from 15 companies listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange. Research Methods: • Sample and data source: used quantitative methods to examine the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. The data are drawn from annual reports of 15 companies listed on DSE for four years which resulted in 60 firm years. • Income strategy measurement: consider a company’s set of accounting choices that are disclosed in the company’s annual report as a single comprehensive decision. • Model specification: INCOME STRATEGY = α0 + α1 LEVER + α2 SIZE + α3 LABFORCE – α4 ODILUTION + α5 INTERFIN + α6 PROPNED + ε Findings: The results show that the significant factors are company size, internal financing, proportion of non-executive directors and labor force. Different with the outcome of prior studies, the authors found that the company size and internal financing are positively related with income strategy. So the research...

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Service Quality at Univrsity of Dar Es Salaam Business School.

...CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1. Background of the Organisation. University of Dar es Salaam Business School (UDBS) is located at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) main campus, about 13 km from the City Centre. UDBS came into existence in 2008 as a result of the transformation of the then Faculty of Commerce and Management (FCM) which was established in 1979. Measured by the strength of its staff in teaching, research and consultancy; plus the breadth and quality of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes and extensive training and consultancy programs in business, entrepreneurship and management. UDBS is one of the leading institutions in business and management research, teaching and consultancy in the Sub-Saharan region.The UDBS manages four approved teaching and research departments (Accounting, Finance, General Management and Marketing), one centre, the University of Dar es Salaam Entrepreneurship Centre (UDEC). Also houses the Institute of Insurance and Risk Management, and the Career Advice Placement and Practical Training Bureau (CAPPT). UDBS has the following line of services; Teaching; in this line of service, UDBS offers courses in Accounting, Finance, General Management and Marketing at various levels of undergraduate and postgraduate studies. Research; UDBS conducts research projects for the development of Tanzania and the rest of the world, this is through researching on issues that affect the societies of these places. Consultancy; this...

Words: 3166 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Business and Management

...Mzumbe University Dar Es Salaam Campus College MSC – PSCM 1 (2012 – 2013) Term-Paper Subject: BUS 5021 Strategic Business Management Maximum Marks: 30 Submission Last-Date: 12.01.2013 Maximum Word limit: 2000 Important: 1. There are three cases in the document. Students are required to develop their term-paper based on any case of their choice. 2. In addition to the information given in the case, students are encouraged to other learning resources in developing their answers. 3. Normally, the text should be typed using ‘Times New Roman’ (12 pt.) with double spaced margin. For headings and sub-headings, appropriate variations may be used. 4. Tables / exhibits, if any, should be provided at the end of text. 5. The cover-page should include: a. Details of the selected case b. Name of the student (Registration Number and E-mail) 6. The term-paper should be submitted in soft-copy (on-line). 7. For citation of the references, please use American Psychological Association (APA) style (accessible online) or refer MU Thesis Guidelines. 8. In case of any difficulty/ further information, always feel free to contact your instructor. CASE 1: IBM CANADA LIMITED – IMPLEMENTING GLOBAL STRATEGY Read the attached case and answer the following questions; 1. How IBM’s IT Strategy has has evolved over time? Discuss and analyze its’ implications for IBM Canada. 2. Should Peter Silvanovich recommend...

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Computing and Finance

...Patrick Kassonde Gondwe DOB: 16/09/1978 Contact Details Plot 251, Block 46, Nzasa Street, Mwenge, Kinondoni Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, East Africa. Mobile: +255-653-291618 , Personal Statement I’m a person who always eager to learn. Working for seven years in both ICT systems application and Database, my new motivation now is to acquire the experience and knowledge in strategic related issues and the managerial skills Work History July, 2009 – To date [Interim Head of IT, Capital Markets and Securities Authority (CMSA), 6th floor, PPF tower, Ohio/Garden Avenue, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania]. Supervising and managing The IT department Budgeting and scheduling ICT activities Database and system administration Training and user support February, 2007 – June 2009 [Senior Database Administrator , Capital Markets And Securities Authority (CMSA), 6th floor, PPF tower, Ohio/Garden Avenue, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania]. Monitoring and managing the automated systems and Microsoft SQL database It support for capital markets intermediaries Managing the CMSA website Managing the active directory 2003 windows platform Communication devices (Cisco routers and firewall) Curriculum Vitae – Patrick Kassonde Gondwe January 2006 – Jan 2007 [Programmer & Database Administrator, Mbeya Medical Research Programme (MMRP), Mbeya referral Hospital, Mbeya, Tanzania]. Application development for medical projects using Vb.Net Application...

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Child Development

...Anthropology & Medicine, 2013 Vol. 20, No. 1, 98–108, ‘My wife, you are supposed to have a rest now’: an analysis of norms influencing men’s role in prenatal care in south-eastern Tanzania Karin Grossa,b,Ã, Iddy Mayumanac and Brigit Obrista,b,d a Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; bUniversity of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; cIfakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania; d University of Basel, Institute of Anthropology, Basel, Switzerland (Received 27 September 2011; final version received 19 July 2012) Men as sexual partners, fathers and household heads have a direct bearing on women’s reproductive health. However, little is known about the influence of changing norms and values on men’s role in ensuring women’s health during pregnancy and childbirth. This study from rural south-eastern Tanzania explores men’s and women’s discussions on men’s roles and responsibilities in prenatal care and links them to an analysis of norms and values at the household level and beyond. Data from eight focus group discussions with men and women were consensually coded and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Four dimensions of norms and values, which emerged from analysis, bear upon men’s support towards pregnant women: changing gender identities; changing family and marriage structures; biomedical values disseminated in health education; and government regulations. The...

Words: 6270 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay


...for a manager. Some leadership styles may not work in today’s dynamic organizations. * Fiedler looked at three situations that could define the condition of a managerial task: Fiedler’s Contingent Factors 1 | Leader-Member Relations(Good or Poor) | Reflect the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, trust of the work group. | 2 | The Task structure(High or low) | Measures the extent to which task goals, procedures and guidelines are clearly | 3 | Position power(Strong or weak) | Measures a degree to which the position gives the leader power to reward or punish the employees. | 2.0 The chosen leader For the purpose of this assignment we shall see how Hon. William Lukuvi (MP), the Regional Commissioner of Dar es Salaam regional and the member of Parliament...

Words: 426 - Pages: 2