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Essay War


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The unrest started as a civil uprising that were part of the wider North African and Middle Eastern protest movements known as the Arab Spring, with Syrian protesters at first demanding democratic and economic reform within the framework of the existing government. The uprising began with protests in March 2011 in Daraa, but a violent response from the government and subsequent clashes left dozens of opposition protesters and at least 7 policemen dead.
In April 2011, the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising and soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country. After months of military sieges, the protests developed into an armed rebellion. The conflict is asymmetrical, with clashes taking place in many towns and cities across the country.
In 2013, Hezbollah entered the war in support of the Syrian army. The Syrian government is further upheld by military support from Russia, which it stepped up in the winter of 2013-14, and Iran, while Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United States transfer weapons to the rebels. The international response to the conflict has been described as a proxy war due to the nature of this involvement. By July 2013, the Syrian government was in control of approximately 30-40% of the country's territory and 60% of t The Syrian Civil War, also known as the Syrian Uprising, is an armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Ba'ath government, which took power in 1963, and those seeking to oust it.he Syrian population. A late 2012 UN report described the conflict as being "overtly sectarian in nature", between mostly Alawite government forces, militias and other Shia groups fighting largely against Sunni-dominated rebel groups, though both opposition and government forces denied that.
According to the United Nations, the death toll surpassed 100,000 in June 2013, and reached 120,000 by September 2013. In addition, tens of thousands of protesters, students, liberal activists and human rights advocates have been imprisoned and there are reports of widespread torture and terror in state prisons. International organizations have accused both government and opposition forces of severe human rights violations. Chemical weapons have been used many times during the conflict as well. The UN and Amnesty International's inspections and probes in Syria determined both in 2012 and 2013 that the vast majority of abuses, as well as the largest in scale, are committed by the Syrian government. The severity of the humanitarian disaster in Syria has been outlined by UN and many international organizations. More than four million Syrians have been displaced, more than three million Syrians fled the country and became refugees, and millions more were left in poor living conditions with shortage of food and drinking water.
Assad government
Syria became an independent republic in 1946, though Democratic rule was ended by a CIA-supported coup in March 1949, followed by two more coups that year. A popular uprising against military rule in 1954 saw the army transfer power to civilians; from 1958 to 1961 a brief union with Egypt replaced Syria's parliamentary system with a highly centralized presidential regime. The Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch government came to power in 1964 after a successful coup d'état. In 1966, another coup overthrew the traditional leaders of the party, Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar. General Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense, seized power in a "corrective revolution" in November 1970, becoming prime minister. In March 1971, Assad declared himself President, a position he would hold until his death in 2000. Since then, the secular Syrian Regional Branch has rem

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