Free Essay

Exploring Comedy in the Last Act of Shakespeare's Twelfth Night

In: English and Literature

Submitted By AdisSehic
Words 1166
Pages 5
The last act of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night is where the play brings all the subplots together and the play comes to a “resolution”, a typical convention in Shakespearian comedies usually signified by a wedding, in this case there are two marriages, one between Viola and Orsino and one between Olivia and Sebastien.
One of the comedic aspects of the final act of the play is the ever present theme of false appearances and how that creates confusion and ambiguity amongst the characters but the audience as well. In the last scene, it is used by Shakespeare to bring the characters the together and it is very ironic that the source of confusion in the first place is the very thing that ends the confusion in the play. The false appearance of Cesario causes confusion once again as it introduces the theme of homosexuality in the final scene. Viola expresses her love for Orsino through Cesario saying that “more by all mores than e’er I shall love wife” despite the fact that no one knows that Cesario is in fact a women. The fact that Orsino does not deny this love, shows that he has similar feelings, especially because he says that he Cesario is someone that he tenders “dearly”. This is comedic because it shows the reversal of feelings that Orsino has in a very short space of time. Throughout the play he has been infatuated with the concept of a relationship with Olivia, yet now that he is rejected yet again, he turns to his more homosexual side and accepts Cesario’s love for him. This relates to Morreall’s concept of complexity and the sudden switch form heterosexual to homosexual love is comedic, due to its quick and somewhat impulsive nature. An alternative interpretation is that this could be seen as being more sad than funny, this is because this part of the play represents the failure of Orsino’s advances towards Olivia, and now he wants to take Cesario away from Olivia as a sign of revenge. However, this homosexuality is not presented as being unusual or scandalous, the characters don’t dwell on the issue too much. This means that when Orsino proposes to Viola, it is much more natural because he has already given up on Olivia and there are no hindrances to their marriage. To conclude, the final act is comedic because the use of false appearance influences Orsino’s newly found homosexual feelings and it exposes his sporadic and fickle attitude towards love.
Furthermore, another comedic aspect of the final act of Twelfth Night is the conclusion to the gulling of Malvolio and the way in which in unfolds. Malvolio is confused and pleads with Olivia to explain why she has made him do all the things he has done, despite the fact that it is not Olivia who wrote the letter. He asks “Why have you suffered me to be imprisoned, kept in a dark house, visited by the priest and made the most notorious geck and gull that e’er invention played on?” This is comedic because Malvolio is talking to Olivia as if she is well informed about what he has had to go through. This would have been especially funny when acted on stage, because Olivia would be quizzical about what Malvolio is talking about, and since the fact that the audience are more informed about what has really gone on, the unravelling of the truth in Malvolio’s gulling would be presented as being one of the most comedic moments in the entire play. Shakespeare would have done this to create a sense of surrounding embarrassment towards the character of Malvolio, the audience would be laughing and characters on stage would be directing their laughs towards Malvolio as well, which is meant to summarise the mocking of Malvolio’s Puritan character and beliefs. Shakespeare would have wanted this to be a key plot in the play, which it is, because Puritan’s were opposed to any aspect of fun, which included theatre and therefore, Shakespeare expresses his opposition to them through the gulling of Malvolio. This relates to Morreall’s concept of critical thinking, and how Shakespeare mocks the only Puritan character in the play, in doing so questioning its place in society. In conclusion, the gulling of Malvolio is comedic because most characters and the audience are better informed than Malvolio with regards to his gulling, and his realisation that he has been gulled is comedic because of his reaction which would have been one of anger; he ends by saying “I’ll be revenged on the whole pack of you” which seems like an empty threat.
Finally, a comedic aspect of Twelfth Night is Andrew and Toby's dramatic entry, the comic subplot of the servants returns, adding to the bewilderment about Cesario's identity. The Viola/Cesario disguise resides at the centre of nearly all of the chaos in Twelfth Night. This dramatic entrance of Sir Toby and Sir Andrew is very funny because of its spontaneity and its contribution to the unravelling of the truth with regards to Viola’s true identity. Sir Andrew defends the beating they have both taken saying that Sir Toby” if he had not been in drink, he would have tickled othergates than he did” suggesting that Sir Toby would have caused a lot of damage to Cesario had he been sober. This desperate attempt to salvage any remaining pride is funny because they are making excuses for their humiliating failure in defeat despite their perceptions of their own ability being high. It is also funny because when Sir Andrew offers to help Sir Toby, Toby replies saying “ an asshead, and a coxcomb and a knave – a thin faced knave, a gull”. This is particularly comedic because they should unite in protest against the attack they have just received from who they thought was Cesario whereas instead they come to blows with each other. This relates to John Morreall’s idea of body, where suffering is used in comedy for slapstick, which is exactly what Shakespeare does here with Sir Toby and Sir Andrew. To put this in context, the desperate attempt to salvage any pride is understandable because to lose a duel with anyone at the time the play was set was very humiliating, especially if the person you have just lost to was outnumbered. Therefore, the making of excuses is seen as quite normal but the desperation that is presented by it is what the audience find funny.
In conclusion, the last act of Twelfth Night is meant to bring the play to a conclusion, bringing the subplots together and unravelling the truth and putting an end to the confusion that has been rife throughout the whole play. However, in doing so it is arguably the most comedic act of the play because the audience are more informed than most of the characters and therefore they find it funny to see the reactions of the characters as they start to realise what is going on as well.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Works of Shakespeare Plays firmly attributed to Shakespeare ■ 14 COMEDIES – funny play – with amusing events – ended in marriage / or happily o Midsummer Night’s Dream, Merchant of Venice, Twelfth Night, As You Like It, Much Ado about Nothing… ■ 10 HISTORIES – Richard III, Richard II, Henry IV… ■ 10 TRAGEDIES – ends in death ← Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, Julius Caesar… ■ 4 Romances – ( chivalry and love) Pericles, Cymbeline, Winter’s Tale, Tempest ■ Two major poems • Venus and Adonis • Rape of Lucrece ■ 154 Sonnets ■ Numerous other poems - His poetry was usually dedicated to a patron EARLY comments on Shakespeare 1. Charles Knight remarked of Shakespeare, he is "a man who Stands above all other individual men, above all ranks of men; in comparison with whom, in his permanent influence upon mankind, generations of nobles, fighting men, states- men, princes, are but as dust” 2. Thomas Thorpe acclaimed him "our ever- living poet," 3. AUBREY stated about Shakespeare - "His comedies will remain wit, as long as the English tongue is understood…” 4. Shakespeare himself seemed to prophesy that his works would be acted through many generations a. “How many ages hence; shall this our lofty scene be acted over; in states unborn and accents yet unknown” 5. Ben Johnson - A leading dramatist of Shakespeare’s time also foresaw that triumphant survival when he......

Words: 8454 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

Romeo and Juliet

...A TEACHER’S GUIDE TO THE SIGNET CLASSIC EDITION OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE’S ROMEO AND JULIET By ARTHEA J.S. REED, PH.D. S E R I E S W. GEIGER ELLIS, ED.D., E D I T O R S : UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA, EMERITUS and ARTHEA J. S. REED, PH.D., UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, RETIRED A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classic Edition of William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet 2 INTRODUCTION William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is an excellent introduction to Shakespearean drama; teenagers can relate to its plot, characters, and themes. The play’s action is easily understood, the character’s motives are clear, and many of the themes are as current today as they were in Shakespeare’s time. Therefore, it can be read on a variety of levels, allowing all students to enjoy it. Less able readers can experience the swash-buckling action and investigate the themes of parent-child conflict, sexuality, friendship, and suicide. Because of the play’s accessibility to teenagers, able readers can view the play from a more literary perspective, examining the themes of hostility ad its effect on the innocent, the use of deception and its consequences, and the effects of faulty decision making. They can study how the characters function within the drama and how Shakespeare uses language to develop plot, characters, and themes. The most able students can develop skills involved in literary criticism by delving into the play’s comic and tragic elements and its......

Words: 7462 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Harold Bloom

...Carlyle “The hero as poet” (1841) Thomas Babington macaulay “madame D’arblay” (1843) leigh hunt “Shakspeare” (1845) h. N. hudson (1848) Contents vii ralph Waldo emerson “Shakspeare; or, the poet” (1850) James anthony Froude “england’s Forgotten Worthies” (1852) James russell lowell “Shakespeare Once more” (1868) edwin p. Whipple “Shakespeare: i” (1869) William Cullen Bryant “Shakespeare” (1870) Victor hugo (1864) karl elze “Shakespeare’s Character and Conception of human Nature” (1876) havelock ellis “William Shakespeare” (1878) John addington Symonds “introductory” (1884) Walt Whitman “a Thought on Shakspere” (1886) W. e. henley “Shakespeare” (1890) William Dean howells “Shakespeare” (1891) edmond Scherer “Shakespeare” (1891) hallam Tennyson (1897) George Bernard Shaw “Better Than Shakespear?” (1897) George Saintsbury “Shakespeare” (1898) George Santayana “The absence of religion in Shakespeare” (1900) William Butler Yeats “at Stratford-on-avon” (1901) ambrose Bierce “The ravages of Shakspearitis” (1903) lytton Strachey “Shakespeare’s Final period” (1904) leo Tolstoy (1906) George edward Woodberry “Shakspere” (1907) J. J. Jusserand “What to expect of Shakespeare” (1911) Textual History alexander pope “The preface of the editor” (1725) lewis Theobald “introduction” (1726) henry Fielding (1752) Samuel Johnson (1756) James russell lowell “Shakespeare Once more” (1868) Thomas Spencer Baynes “New Shakespearian interpretations” (1872) C. m. ingleby “The Still lion......

Words: 239932 - Pages: 960

Free Essay

Literatures I English Cape Syllabus tu ra li CAPE Modern te ng Languages Literatures nE e siniEnglish ur e at l er g it En sin ur e at er it L Caribbean Examinations Council ® SYLLABUS SPECIMEN PAPER CSEC® SYLLABUS,MARK SCHEME SPECIMEN PAPER, MARK SCHEME SUBJECT REPORTS AND SUBJECT REPORTS Macmillan Education 4 Crinan Street, London, N1 9XW A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited Companies and representatives throughout the world ISBN 978-0-230-48228-9 © Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC ®) 2015 The author has asserted their right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988. First published 2014 This revised version published 2015 Permission to copy The material in this book is copyright. However, the publisher grants permission for copies to be made without fee. Individuals may make copies for their own use or for use by classes of which they are in charge; institutions may make copies for use within and by the staff and students of that institution. For copying in any other circumstances, prior permission in writing must be obtained from Macmillan Publishers Limited. Under no circumstances may the material in this book be used, in part or in its entirety, for commercial gain. It must not be sold in any format. Designed by Macmillan Publishers Limited Cover design by Macmillan Publishers Limited and Red Giraffe CAPE®......

Words: 121889 - Pages: 488

Free Essay


...the presence of a personality as vigorous and brave as it was sweet, and the particular radical thought he at any time expressed derived its power to animate and illuminate other minds from the might of the manhood, which was felt to be within and behind it. To 'sweetness and light' he therefore added the prime quality of fearless manliness. "If the force of Emerson's character was thus inextricably blended with the force of all his faculties of intellect and imagination, and the refinement of all his sentiments, we have still to account for the peculiarities of his genius, and to answer the question, why do we instinctively apply the epithet 'Emersonian' to every characteristic passage in his writings? We are told that he was the last in a long line of clergymen, his ancestors, and that the modern doctrine of heredity accounts for the impressive emphasis he laid on the moral sentiment; but that does not solve the puzzle why he unmistakably differed in his nature and genius from all other Emersons. An imaginary genealogical chart of descent connecting him with Confucius or Gautama would be more satisfactory. "What distinguishes the Emerson was his exceptional genius and character, that something in him which separated him from all other Emersons, as it separated him from all other eminent men of letters, and impressed every intelligent reader with the feeling that he was not only 'original but aboriginal.' Some traits of his mind and character may be traced......

Words: 97797 - Pages: 392

Premium Essay

Learning Theory

...that remain. In this way, you record some concrete outcomes to your reading, so that your time doesn't simply evaporate uselessly once the book is closed. R3 - This final stage is the Review. It happens after an interval has elapsed since the reading. You can experiment, but initially try doing it the following day. Without opening the book again, or referring back to your notes, review what you have gained from the reading; remind yourself of the question you set yourself, the points you jotted down at the Recall stage, and any important phrases from the essay. If this produces very little, then refer back to your notes. If they make little sense, then repeat the Survey stage, and do an accelerated Read, by reading the first and last paragraphs of the essay, and skim-reading the main body assisted by your pencilled markings. You may well have evolved a study technique something like this already. It is really just common sense. But it will help to ensure that you gain something from a theoretical text, no matter how intially forbidding it might be. Finally, it will, I hope, go without saying that no comprehensiveness is possible in a format such as this. Clearly, also, this book does not contain all you need to know about theory, and it does not in itself (without the reading it refers you to) constitute a 'course' in literary theory. It leaves out a good deal, and it deals fairly briskly with many topics. It is a starter-pack, intended to give you a......

Words: 98252 - Pages: 394

Free Essay

The Origins and Development of the English Language (Textbook)

...retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Academic Resource Center, 1-800-423-0563 For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to Library of Congress Control Number: 2008930433 ISBN-13: 978-1-4282-3145-0 ISBN-10: 1-4282-3145-5 Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store Compositor: Pre-Press PMG Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09 Preface The Origins and Development of the English Language, Sixth Edition, continues to focus on the facts of language rather than on any of the various contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of those facts. The presentation is that of fairly traditional grammar and philology, so as not to require students to master a new theoretical approach at the same time they are exploring the intricacies of language history. The focus of the book is on the internal history of......

Words: 164520 - Pages: 659

Premium Essay

Reading a Novel in 1950-2000

...Samuels Reading the American Novel 1865–1914 G. R. Thompson Reading the Twentieth-Century American Novel James Phelan ii RTNA01 2 13/6/05, 5:28 PM Reading the Novel in English 1950–2000 Brian W. Shaffer iii RTNA01 3 13/6/05, 5:28 PM © 2006 by Brian W. Shaffer BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Brian W. Shaffer to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1 2006 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Shaffer, Brian W., 1960– Reading the novel in English, 1950–2000 / Brian W. Shaffer. p. cm.—(Reading the novel) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-0113-4 (hardback : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-0113-X (hardback : alk. paper) ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-0114-1 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-0114-8 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. English fiction—20th century—History and criticism. 2. English......

Words: 123617 - Pages: 495

Free Essay

Grammar Worksheet

...GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS Grammar and Language Workbook G RADE 9 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 936 Eastwind Drive Westerville, Ohio 43081 ISBN 0-02-818294-4 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 03 02 01 00 99 Contents Handbook of Definitions and Rules .........................1 Troubleshooter ........................................................21 Part 1 Grammar ......................................................45 Unit 1 Parts of Speech 1.1 Nouns: Singular, Plural, and Collective ....47 1.2 Nouns: Proper and Common; Concrete and Abstract.................................49 1.3 Pronouns: Personal and Possessive; Reflexive and Intensive...............................51 1.4 Pronouns: Interrogative and Relative; Demonstrative and Indefinite .....................53 1.5 Verbs: Action (Transitive/Intransitive) ......55 1.6 Verbs: Linking .............................................57 1.7 Verb Phrases ................................................59 1.8 Adjectives......

Words: 107004 - Pages: 429

Free Essay

Love Sign

...HarperCollinsPublishers h ttp:// C over design © 1999 by Susan Shapiro C over illustration courtesy of Christies Images Ltd., 1999 In LOVE SIGNS, Linda Goodman offers a fascinating and startlingly perceptive exploration of the seventy-eight sun sign combinations, and invaluable, insightful clues to unlocking the Twelve Mysteries of Love. E ach sun sign is also a love sign, for each sign has its own way of expressing and experiencing love. The Twelve Mysteries of Love are the wondrous ways in which the heart is influenced by the stars. Aries, as the first sign, is represented in love by the infant - gentle, trusting, affectionate, a nd innocent. Then Taurus, the baby. And on through Virgo, the adult. The last six signs are the stages of adult love - Libra represents the balance and harmony of marriage. Scorpio, sexual passion. Then on through Pisces, which is the sign of acceptance in love. LINDA GOODMAN'S LOVE SIGNS is far more than a cross-referencing of which signs you should seek out and which you should avoid in forming a friendship or making a love match. This compelling book explains in penetrating detail why some signs can be good lovers for you, and why others might be better as friends. T his is certainly an important book for anyone interested in astrology. But it is also for the student of the human h eart. Those of us who love, and have loved, and will love. Look Up a Lover Before You Leap and Find Out If You......

Words: 543337 - Pages: 2174

Free Essay

The Story of My Life

...attracted every one's attention by saying "Tea, tea, tea" quite plainly. Even after my illness I remembered one of the words I had learned in these early months. It was the word "water," and I continued to make some sound for that word after all other speech was lost. I ceased making the sound "wah-wah" only when I learned to spell the word. They tell me I walked the day I was a year old. My mother had just taken me out of the bath-tub and was holding me in her lap, when I was suddenly attracted by the flickering shadows of leaves that danced in the sunlight on the smooth floor. I slipped from my mother's lap and almost ran toward them. The impulse gone, I fell down and cried for her to take me up in her arms. These happy days did not last long. One brief spring, musical with the song of robin and mocking-bird, one summer rich in fruit and roses, one autumn of gold and crimson sped by and left their gifts at the feet of an eager, delighted child. Then, in the dreary month of February, came the illness which closed my eyes and ears and plunged me into the unconsciousness of a new-born baby. They called it acute congestion of the stomach and brain. The doctor thought I could not live. Early one morning, however, the fever left me as suddenly and mysteriously as it had come. There was great rejoicing in the family that morning, but no one, not even the doctor, knew that I should never see or hear again. I fancy I still have confused recollections of that illness. I......

Words: 135749 - Pages: 543

Free Essay

Critical Reasoning for Gmat

...increasingly short supply. (C) The cost of the manufacturing process of the plastic increases the cost of producing a sailboat hull by 10 to 15 percent. (D) Much of the cost of the research that developed the new process will be written off for tax purposes by the chemical company.(A) (E) The development of the new plastic is expected to help make the chemical company an important supplier of boat-building materials. 20. A young man eager to become a master swordsman journeyed to the home of the greatest teacher of swordsmanship in the kingdom. He asked the teacher, “How quickly can you teach me to be a master swordsman?” The old teacher replied, “It will take ten years.” Unsatisfied, the young man asked, “What if I am willing to work night and day, every day of the year?” the teacher replied, “In that case, it will take twenty years.” The teacher’s main point is that an important quality of a master swordsman is (A) humility (B) willingness to work hard (C) respect for one’s elders (D) patience(D) (E) determination TEST B Time 30 minutes 20 Questions 1. Below is an excerpt from a letter that was sent by the chairman of a corporation to the stockholders. A number of charges have been raised against me, some serious, some trivial. Individuals seeking to control the corporation for their own purposes have demanded my resignation. Remember that no court of law in any state has found me guilty of any criminal offense whatsoever. In the......

Words: 366341 - Pages: 1466

Premium Essay


...sonorities. 7. Avoid vogue words. Hopefully, the writer will remember that her words basically impact the reader at the dynamic interface of creative thought and action. To be viable, the writer’s parameters must enable her to engage the knowledgeable reader in a meaningful dialogue— especially at this point in time, when people tend to prioritize their priorities optimally. 8. Avoid profane or abusive language. It is a damned outrage how many knuckledragging slobs vilify people they disagree with.5 where he really invests his time and energy, and he will give away the fact that he really does not live by what he says he believes. He has let himself be persuaded that if he leaves for work earlier in the morning and comes home more tired at night, he is proving how devoted he is to his family by expending himself to provide them with all the things they have seen advertised.6 Critical thinking helps us become aware of such unconscious practical inconsistencies, allowing us to deal with them on a conscious and rational basis. It is also common, of course, for people to unknowingly hold inconsistent beliefs about a particular subject. In fact, as Socrates pointed out long ago, such unconscious logical inconsistency is far more common than most people suspect. As we shall see, for example, many today claim that “morality is relative,” while holding a variety of views that imply that it is not relative. Critical thinking helps us recognize such logical inconsistencies or,......

Words: 240232 - Pages: 961

Premium Essay


...reading Notes Appendices 1: A Brief History of Time (Spanish, Greek) 2: Morgan Matroc (German) 3: China’s Panda Reserves (Chinese) 4: The Patrick Collection (Japanese) 5: A Study of Shamanistic Practices in Japan (Japanese) 6: Palace and Politics in Prewar Japan (Japanese) 7: The Fix (Japanese) 8: Euralex conference circular (Russian) 9: Brintons – press release (Arabic) Glossary References Author index Language index Subject index Preface The idea of this book initially grew out of discussions with a number of colleagues, in particular with Dr Kirsten Malmkjaer, formerly of the University of Birmingham and currently at the Centre of English as an International Language, Cambridge. It has been considerably refined during the course of last year through discussions with postgraduate students at the University of Birmingham and students at the Brasshouse Centre and Birmingham Polytechnic. I am exceptionally lucky to have been able to draw on the outstanding expertise of a number of colleagues, both at the University of Birmingham and at COBUILD, a lexical project run jointly by the University of Birmingham and Collins Publishers. From COBUILD, Stephen Bullon, Alex Collier, and Gwyneth Fox provided initial help with Russian, German, and Italian texts respectively. From the Shakespeare Institute, Katsuhiko Nogami helped with Japanese and Shen Lin with Chinese texts. From the School of Modern Languages, James Mullen (Russian), Bill Dodd (German), Paula Chicken (French), and......

Words: 109520 - Pages: 439

Premium Essay

Logical Reasoning

...view that is backed up with the better argument, our course is designed to combat this tendency. Facing a Decision as a Critical Thinker Imagine this situation. You are on a four-day backpacking trip in a national wilderness area with your friends Juanita and Emilio. The summer weather's great, the scenery is exotic, and you've been having a good time. Yesterday you drove several hours into the area and parked in the main parking lot. Then you hiked six hours to your present campsite. The three of you carried all your food, water, sleeping bags, and tents. Last night you discovered that somebody had accidentally cracked the large water container. Now you are stuck with no water. Although there is a stream nearby, you wouldn’t normally drink from a stream, and you remember that your packets of water-sterilization tablets are in 3 the pocket of your other coat—the one you left at home at the last minute. The three of you are thirsty and have only dehydrated food left, except for four apples. You wish you had bothered to haul in that twelve-pack of Dr. Pepper you decided to leave in the car’s trunk. What do you do? Nobody brought cell phones. You could yell, but that is unlikely to help; you haven't seen any other hikers since the trip began. You try yelling, but all you get is an echo. You briefly think about snow, but realize there isn't any. Emilio says he has an idea: Boil the water from the stream. When it cools, you could drink it and make......

Words: 189930 - Pages: 760