Premium Essay

Reading a Novel in 1950-2000

In: Novels

Submitted By Nastassia
Words 123617
Pages 495
Reading the Novel in English 1950–2000




13/6/05, 5:28 PM

General Editor: Daniel R. Schwarz
The aim of this series is to provide practical introductions to reading the novel in both the British and Irish, and the American traditions.
Reading the Modern British and Irish Novel 1890–1930
Reading the Novel in English 1950–2000

Daniel R. Schwarz
Brian W. Shaffer

Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Paula R. Backscheider
Reading the Nineteenth-Century Novel
Harry E. Shaw and Alison Case
Reading the American Novel 1780–1865
Shirley Samuels
Reading the American Novel 1865–1914
G. R. Thompson
Reading the Twentieth-Century American Novel
James Phelan




13/6/05, 5:28 PM

Reading the Novel in
English 1950–2000
Brian W. Shaffer




13/6/05, 5:28 PM

© 2006 by Brian W. Shaffer
350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA
9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK
550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia
The right of Brian W. Shaffer to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright,
Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.
First published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
1 2006
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Shaffer, Brian W., 1960–
Reading the novel in English, 1950–2000 / Brian W. Shaffer.
p. cm.—(Reading the novel)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-0113-4 (hardback : alk. paper)…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Coraline, Reald and the Reemergence of 3-D: Technological Obsession and a Reassurance of Identity

...that of the 1950s is vastly different in terms of its technological development; thanks innovative 3-D projection company RealD. It is the goal of this essay to examine how RealD’s 3-D projection technology helps create a particular meaning within Coraline that standard 2-D technology does not. By carefully crafting its use of 3-D, Coraline uses one technology to critique the use of another technology; namely to reflect on societies immersion in our technically dependent and obsessive lives due out a desire to reassure ones own existence and identity within the world. Coraline the film is adapted from the Neil Gaiman novel, Coraline, published in 2002 (Clark). According to New York Times film critic, John Clark, Henry Selick was first introduced to Gaiman’s novel in 2000, two years before it was published (Clark). In an interview conducted by Alex Bilington, Selick says that he found an instant connection with both the novel and Gaiman: “I’d found a true collaborator, a lost brother in Neil . . . By the time I was halfway through the book, I could see a movie” (Bilington). Selick went on to write the screenplay, and after some initial adaptation struggles, Selick wrote a comfortably adapted screenplay that features some rather significant changes from the novel (Bilington). Selick even recognizes the significance of his changes, as he says in the interview, “I made some fairly big changes” (Bilington). Most notably Selick changed the setting of the novel from......

Words: 3226 - Pages: 13

Free Essay


...encouraged it by introducing her to different types of literature. Her parents were otherwise strict and Brooks was not allowed to play with the other children in her neighborhood. She spent the majority of her free time reading and writing in her room. Brooks, for this reason was incredibly shy even as an adult and lacked social skills, making few friends at school. Brooks attended several schools, including an all-white high school, (Hyde Park High School) before transferring to an all-black high school (Wendell Phillips). She eventually was transferred again to an integrated school (Englewood High School). In 1936 she graduated from Wilson Junior College. Her different schools gave her a view of the racial dynamic which she used in her writing. Her early works appeared in the Chicago Defender, a newspaper primarily for the black citizens of Chicago. In 1939 Brooks married Henry Blakely. The couple had two children, Henry Jr. and Nora. In 1945 Brooks published her first book, A Street in Bronze Ville and in 1949 she published Annie Allen, a book of loosely connected poetry about growing up African American in Chicago. She received the Pulitzer Prize for poetry in 1950, becoming the first African American to receive such a prestigious award in poetry. Her first novel, Maud Martha, was published in 1953 and in 1963 Brooks took a teaching job at Chicago's Columbia College. In 1967 Brooks met the new black revolution at the Fisk University Writers Conference in Nashville,......

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Horror Themes

...and serial killers. Conversely, movies about the supernatural are not necessarily always horrific.[2] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 1890s–1920s 1.2 1930s–1940s 1.3 1950s–1960s 1.4 1970s–1980s 1.5 1990s 1.6 2000s 2 Sub-genres 3 Influences 3.1 Influences on society 3.2 Influences internationally 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links [edit]History [edit]1890s–1920s See also: List of horror films of the 1890s, List of horror films of the 1900s, List of horror films of the 1910s, and List of horror films of the 1920s Lon Chaney, Sr. in The Phantom of the Opera The first depictions of supernatural events appear in several of the silent shorts created by the film pioneer Georges Méliès in the late 1890s, the best known being Le Manoir du diable, which is sometimes credited as being the first horror film.[3] Another of his horror projects was 1898's La Caverne maudite (aka, The Cave of the Unholy One, literally "the accursed cave").[3] Japan made early forays into the horror genre with Bake Jizo and Shinin no Sosei, both made in 1898.[4] In 1910, Edison Studios produced the first film version of Frankenstein, which was thought lost for many years.[5] The second monster appeared in a horror film: Quasimodo, the hunchback of Notre-Dame, who had appeared in Victor Hugo's novel, Notre-Dame de Paris (1831). Films featuring Quasimodo included Alice Guy's Esmeralda (1906), The Hunchback (1909), The Love of a Hunchback (1910) and Notre-Dame......

Words: 4774 - Pages: 20

Free Essay


...Article A Novel Approach: The Sociology of Literature, Children’s Books, and Social Inequality Amy E. Singer, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Sociology Knox College, USA © 2011 Singer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This article discusses the complexity of literary analysis and the implications of using fiction as a source of sociological data. This project infuses literary analysis with sociological imagination. Using a random sample of children’s novels published between 1930 and 1980, this article describes both a methodological approach to the analysis of children’s books and the subsequent development of two analytical categories of novels. The first category captures books whose narratives describe and support unequal social arrangements; the second category captures those whose narratives work instead to identify inequality and disrupt it. Building on Griswold’s methodological approach to literary fiction, this project examines how children’s novels describe, challenge, or even subvert systems of inequality. Through a sociological reading of three sampled texts – Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing, A Wrinkle in Time, and Hitty: Her First Hundred Years – readers learn how these analytical categories work and how the......

Words: 8238 - Pages: 33

Free Essay


...twentieth-century novelist's interests. Elizabeth Taylor (1912-1975), the author the novels The Soul of Kindness and Blaming, is a refined stylist whose swift flashes of dialogue and reflection and deft sketches of the wider background give vitality to her portrayals of well-to-do family life in commuter land. Some of her later novels are In a Summer Season (1961), and The Wedding Group (1968.) Elizabeth Taylor has humour and compassion as well as disciplined artistry, and has logically been compared with Jane Austen. So has Barbara Pym (1913-1980) who tasted fame, sadly enough, only at the end of her life (her real name was Mary Crampton). Another restrained and perceptive artist, she is a master of J f ingenuous and candid dialogue and reflection which are resonant with comic overtones. Critics I called her "modern Jane Austin. Excellent Women (1952) and A Glass of Blessings (1958) were reprinted in the late 1970s when Philip Larkin and David Cecil drew attention to the quality of her neglected work. Later novels, The Sweet Dove Died (1978) and Quartet in Autumn (1978), are no less engaging in their blend of pathos and comedy. One might well put beside these two English writers the Irish writer Mary Lavin (1912-1996), whose short stories focus on the ups and downs of family life with quiet pathos and humour. Her novels, The House in Clewes Street (1945) and Mary O'Grady (1950), are family histories presented with psychological sensitivity and a delicious......

Words: 4940 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...1902, and it was made by Frank Ernest Gannett, then secretary to Jacob Schurman, chair of the First Philippine Commission. Politics intruded in the translations; the omissions and additions recreated a novel suited to the American reader who wanted to gain information about the new colony. only after the institution of the public school system were Filipinos expected to read the novel in its English translation. Keywords: José rizal • translation • afterlife • paratext • rizal law PHILIPPINE STUDIES 59, No. 4 (2011) 495–527 © Ateneo de Manila University J osé Rizal’s novel, Noli me tángere, occupies a central place in Philippine literature and history. In Origins and Rise of the Filipino Novel, Resil B. Mojares (1983, 137) writes that Rizal is “rightfully the father of the Filipino novel. Noli Me Tangere (1887), which has been called ‘the first Filipino novel,’ and El Filibusterismo (1891) remain to date the most important literary works produced by a Filipino writer, animating Filipino consciousness to this day, setting standards no Filipino writer can ignore.” Rizal’s writings are considered a “constant and inspiring source of patriotism” for the youth, and therefore the 1956 Rizal Law (RA 1425) mandated that his “life, work and writings . . . particularly his novels . . . shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities, public or private, provided That in the collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me......

Words: 11914 - Pages: 48

Free Essay

Flord of the Flies Movie Review

...Lord of the Flies is a 1963 British film directed by Peter Brook based on the 1954 novel by William Golding. Both the book and movie of Lord of the Flies represent popular culture in the fact that the book started out being popularized by the working class and would later become a best seller and even move into the category of high culture by becoming required reading in many schools across the world as well as wining the Nobel Prize. The Lord of the Flies and book and movie demonstrate many of the traits that are often reproduced in various form media and often imitated in other works of film, television, and reading. Lord of the Flies was remade into another film in 1990 but the 1963 film is considered to be closer to the book and is the one that is used by this paper. The 1963 Lord of the Flies film is a black and white British film that is presented in the form of a third person narrative in which the audience is a outside party looking in on the cast of the film. The film is about a group of young pre-teen to teenage boys who crash land on an island somewhere is the specific ocean as a result of their plane being shoot down. In the background of the movie there is some type of war but the film never mentioned which war is taking place. With the film being based on a book from the 1950s and the film taking place in the 1960 it can be assumed that the war in question is either World War II or perhaps a future war. In the film the overall theme is that violence and......

Words: 1593 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...VS Naipaul BBC.jpg Born Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul[nb 1] 17 August 1932 (age 81) Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago Occupation Novelist, travel writer, essayist Nationality Trinidadian, British Genres Novel, Essay Notable work(s) A House for Mr. Biswas In a Free State A Bend in the River The Enigma of Arrival Notable award(s) Booker Prize 1971 Nobel Prize in Literature 2001 Spouse(s) Patricia Ann Hale Naipaul (1955–96) Nadira Naipaul Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (/ˈnaɪpɔːl/ or /naɪˈpɔːl/; b. 17 August 1932), is a Trinidad-born Nobel Prize-winning British writer known for the comic early novels of Trinidad, the later, bleaker, novels of the wider world, and the vigilant chronicles of his life and travels, all written in widely admired prose.[1] Naipaul has published more than 30 books, both of fiction and nonfiction, in a career spanning more than 50 years. Naipaul married Patricia Ann Hale in 1955. She served as first reader, editor, and critic of his writings until her death in 1996. To her Naipaul dedicated his masterpiece, A House for Mr. Biswas. Contents 1 Background and early life: Trinidad 2 Education: Port of Spain and Oxford, 1943–53 3 London, Caribbean Voices, marriage, 1954–56 4 Early Trinidad novels: 1956–58 5 A House for Mr Biswas 1957–60 6 The Middle Passage, India, An Area of Darkness 1961–63 7 Africa, The Mimic Men, The Loss of El Dorado, 1964–69 8 In A Free State, Guerillas,......

Words: 9479 - Pages: 38

Free Essay


...suggested as a way to inspire students take action in the community and to stand up to injustice and brutality in hopes of creating a better world and a better human race. Using popular literature to pique student interest, this article explores how to incorporate the books in the Hunger Games series into the ELA classroom to support literacy and critical goals. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action Introduction The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins, comprising The Hunger Games (2008), Catching Fire (2009), and Mockingjay (2010), is a pop culture sensation. With more than 26 million books sold and box office receipts grossing $68.3 million on the opening day of the film adaptation of the first novel, this postapocalyptic, dystopian series clearly appeals to a wide audience that is not limited to a specific age, group or gender. The Hunger Games, the first book in the series, introduces readers to Panem, a country in North America that is controlled by a wealthy area referred to as the Capitol, which is dependent on 12 poorer districts to supply its inhabitants with the necessary resources to maintain their political dominance and luxurious lifestyle. As punishment for a past rebellion, every district must provide via a lottery system a male and a female tribute between the ages of 12 and 18 to fight to the death in a high-tech arena. Only one tribute walks away the victor. Katniss Everdeen, a 16-year–old girl from District......

Words: 8057 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay


...the realm of one’s close relations.11 Some scholars go further, emphasising the fluidity and reciprocity that characterize exchanges between 3 Augustine claims that memory is private because the memories of an individual are not those of others and that when one remembers, one always remembers oneself, which leads to the notion of reflexivity. This claim is the foundation of many contemporary cognitive-psychological studies, such as that of D.L. Schacter who defines memory as a subjective experience and asserts that memories only belong to the individual and characterize his personal life. 4 Joël Candau, Mémoire et Identité (Paris: PUF, 1998), pp. 21-25 and Ricoeur, pp. 120-124. 5 Maurice Halbwachs, La Mémoire Collective (Paris: PUF, 1950), ch. I. 6 Forgetting would thus be caused by keeping one's distance from the group and from social interactions. 7 Halbwachs’s theories have been criticised by numerous scholars, including Joël Candau, who admits the existence of a collective memory but who is hostile to what he has called “holistic rhetorics.” Candau especially dislikes Halbwachs’s claim that individual memories are fragments of collective memory. Nonetheless, Candau admits that Halbwachs is right to emphasize the importance of the social frameworks of memory and the influence of social thought on a person’s recollections. Moreover, Candau argues that the metaphorical term “collective memory” would be acceptable if it were true that all the members of a given group......

Words: 6551 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Barriers to Organizational Creativity

...products, services and practices. Janzen (2000) suggested that “after the age of efficiency in the 1950s and 1960s, quality in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, we now live in the age of innovation” (p.3). Literature Review: creativity: Creativity is one of the most important factors in success of an organization by improving the operational efficiencies of the work processes (Herbig and Jacobs, 1996). According to Oldham and Cummings (1996) employees perform creatively in organizations when they suggest “products, ideas, or procedures that satisfy two conditions (1) they are novel or original and (2) they are potentially relevant for, or useful to, an organization” (p.607). Kao (1991) defined creativity as ‘‘a human process leading to a result which is novel (new), useful (solves an existing problem or satisfies an existing need), and understandable (can be reproduced)’’ (p. 14). Another definition of creativity is focused on the process as suggested by Drazin et al., (1999). “Creativity[is] the process of engagement in creative acts, regardless of whether the resultant outcomes are novel, useful, or unique” (p. 287). McCraken (1998) suggest that creativity is the sensitivity to the solution of a problem by identifying the information gaps and deficiencies, formulating hypotheses, evaluating, testing, and communicating the results. From an employee’s perspective, individuals can be considered as creative on their jobs if they generate novel and suitable ideas, improve......

Words: 3282 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

English Fiction

...Inspector Pitt novel, Betrayal at Lisson Grove (out in paperback from Headline this year) is a pacy, twisting thriller. It is 1895 and Pitt is up against a conspiracy in the Lisson Grove offices of Special Branch (in best le Carré tradition investigating the enemy within is more hazardous than looking outwards). The novel outlines a huge conspiracy and ranges from St Malo to Dublin. While it is often too lightly written and some of the relationships are awkwardly handled, the novel is compelling and narratively satisfying. Perry’s series of Victorian crime novels based on Pitt in the 1890s and Inspector Monk in the 1860s are well worth getting to know. She has a feel for quick period detail and a flair for character. Nothing if not prolific, her two key series (Monk and Pitt) have produced some 45 novels. Series concerning a central character are the main way that these types of novel develop (reflecting their roots in Holmes, Cadfael and their ilk). Andrew Martin’s The Somme Stations (out in Faber paperback) is the seventh Jim Stringer novel. Stringer works for the railway police, so his investigations take place around trains and stations. They are evocatively written and thoughtfully put together. While they can be a bit dry for my taste, they do the trains well and are page-turners. A more interesting option might be the Victor Legris series by Claude Izner, the latest of which is Strangled in Paris (trans. Jennifer Higgins, Gallic Books). These French novels of 1890s......

Words: 5212 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

History of Girl Scouts

...the burden on Juliette Gordon Low, who had been financing operations on her own (she sold her extremely valuable necklace of rare and matched pearls to support the organization!). • A National Director position was funded. • Girl Scouts established a system of national training schools for leaders. • By 1920, Girl Scouts was growing in its independence from the British Girl Guide example and developed its own uniform, handbook (Scouting for Girls), and its own constitution and bylaws, contained in the Blue Book of Rules for Girl Scout Captains. • By 1920, there were nearly 70,000 Girl Scouts nationwide, including the territory of Hawaii. 1920s: Left: Girl Scouts tend to children as women go to vote for the first time. Right: Reading one of the nation's first magazines for girls—Girl Scout's The American Girl. The 1920s were times of American prosperity, advancement, and optimism. The first transatlantic flight took place and movies lit up the big screen. Urbanization fueled industrialization and the economy. The decade also symbolized victory for women with the passage of the 19th Amendment, which granted them the right to vote. • The first Girl Scout Troops on Foreign Soil (TOFS) were established in China, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, and Syria for American girls living in other countries. • The first Native American Girl Scout troop was formed with girls of the Onondaga Nation in central New York State, and a troop of Mexican American girls was formed in Houston,......

Words: 2410 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

End of Cold War

...Roy comes up with her progressive idea in her writings and regularly raising voice against the social and economic injustice, the class discrimination and the discrimination against minorities. Satyajit Ray: The Master Storyteller: Cinema's characteristic forte is its ability to capture and communicate the intimacies of the human mind: Satyajit Ray "If you're able to portray universal feelings, universal relations, emotions, and characters, you can cross certain barriers and reach out to others." Satyajit Ray is one of the well renounced Indian film directors. He was popular for his humanistic nature of filmmaking. It well reflected that he tries to explore the transition phase of India society through his movies. While visiting London in 1950, there he got chances to meet world recognized filmmakers. There he was particularly influenced by the popular Italian movie The Bicycle Thief (Vittorio De Sica's), in which the human feelings and problems after the WWII are portrayed in simple natural settings. Then he returned to Calcutta with a dream to make movies reflect human feelings, problems, and their social situations. He selected the popular book, Pather Panchali and tried to reflect the story from his style with humanist themes. In that movie, he came with the neo-realist approach and challenged the traditional approach to Indian cinema. Satyajit Ray is still popular in the word of Cinema for his humanistic approach to film-making. Most of his films are about the social......

Words: 3878 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Defining of Public Administration

...Dwight Waldo, 1913-2000 James D. Carroll; H. George Frederickson Public Administration Review, Vol. 61, No. 1. (Jan. - Feb., 2001), pp. 2-8. Stable URL: Public Administration Review is currently published by American Society for Public Administration. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers, and foundations. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community take advantage of advances in technology. For......

Words: 6652 - Pages: 27