Free Essay

Identify and Explore a Contemporary Debate About Community Development.

In: Social Issues

Submitted By paca
Words 1504
Pages 7
Identify and explore a contemporary debate about community development.

It is evident that existing literature highlight the complex nature of the concept of ‘community development work’. It is also true to say that there are constant changes in the political setting, and the disparity between theory and practice for community development work. To begin, this essay will attempt to define the key concepts of ‘community’ and ‘community development’ in order to understand the process. It will then explore the role of community development programs in aiding local communities to exercise control over the issues that affect their lives, in this case, the refugee women community in UK. Finally, it will also discuss about the role of critical practice in tackling the issues of social justice, such as social exclusion, poverty and inequalities.
Community development is a very complex field and before attempting to define it, it is imperative to explain the meaning of ‘community’, which is in itself a contested term (Shaw, 2007). Different perspectives have been presented to define the term, for example Smith (2001) argues that ‘…some [definitions] focused on geographical area; some on a group of people living in a particular place and others which looked to community as an area of common life’. Again, according to Stacey, ninety four definitions of ‘community’ were given (Stacey, 1969 cited in Craig et al., 2008, p.14). Consequently, it becomes problematic to give a precise meaning of ‘community development work’. The latest National Occupational Standards for Community Development define community development as:
‘a long-term value based process which aims to address imbalances in power and bring about change founded on social justice, equality and inclusion. The process enables people to organise and work together to: identify their own needs and aspirations; take action to exert influence on the decisions which affect their lives; improve the quality of their own lives, the communities in which they live, and societies in which they are part (LLUK, 2010, p.4)’.
There are different issues of social justice in different communities, although this essay is focussing on the Rwandan Refugee women community in London as an example, and the issues that affect them. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) report suggest that Rwandans are amongst ‘ethno-nationally communities’ with a small but significant presence in 2010 and contributed to the growing ‘super-diversity’ of the UK. The authors also argue that Rwandans belong to a category of ‘community of choice’ as victims of conflicts in their country of origin, where genocide occurred in 1990 and for this reason they develop a strong community cohesion as they are isolated from rest of the community (Collyer et al., 2011). Research show that there is a lack of collective voice for the refugee community and voluntary sector and lack of communication and information sharing throughout the sector. Furthermore, Milbourne (2002), states that there are issues of social exclusion in the society and that people in the community continue to be marginalised from mainstream institutions, particularly those ‘Asylum Seekers/Refugee women who may not be aware of anything to do with the society they have found themselves and with limited means of communication.
Since there are ambiguities with the definitions around social exclusion, therefore it becomes difficult for the state to deal with the issues of equalities and social justice (ibid). There are government policies in place and commitment to eradicating poverty (HM Treasury, 1999, Department of Security, 1999) and different plans that aim to address social exclusion (Social Exclusion Unit, 2001). In contrast, Milbourne points out that ‘…the requirements for inclusion, whether through language, professional skills and knowledge or work, appear to exclude those hardest to reach (Milbourne, 2002, p.298). Similarly, it is argue that:
‘Access to health care, housing and education is an intrinsic part of the processes of cultural reproduction, of making and re-making the place one belongs to. To exclude people from those processes ...It is to say that their presence, their difference cannot be accommodated within a logic that equates cultural reproduction with sameness’ (Gedalof, 2007, p.83).
Leduith (2005) explains the current challenges in community development practice namely, the inconsistency between theory and practice. In addition, she points out that the two concepts are not mutually exclusive and that good practice is informed by theory. Community development grows through a diversity of local projects that address issues faced by people in community and aims to transform the structures of oppression that affect people’s lives. We face escalating crisis of justice and sustainability on a global scale. Social divisions caused by poverty to an unjustifiable level (Leduith, 2005, p.21). It is has been argued that, practitioners are subject to contradictory expectations, ‘…on the one hand, the importance of community development for engaging with local communities is recognised; on the other hand, the implementations of this policies lock community workers and organisations ever closer into local bureaucracy and service delivery activities’ (Purcell, 2011, p.2). In order for practitioners to engage in local activities promoting social justice and challenging oppression, more critical praxis need to be adopted (ibid). Additionally, the ideas of Freire and Gramsci are discussed and it is argued that they give both an analysis of how change may take place and how to work with people in order to facilitate change (Purcell, 2011).
However, more is needed to exercise critical community development practice, for example ‘understanding the economic, social and cultural forces that shape everyday life experiences of the community within which we work and the nature in which these processes take place’ (ibid, p.7). It is through Refugee Community Organisations (RCOs) already established in London that they are that the Rwandan Refugee women receive the help they need. It is argued that these community organisations have a distinctive role of reconstructing the sense of identity and cohesion which has been lost through expulsion’ (Zetter et al., p.2).
Working as part of a group with other students has helped in terms of clarifying different concepts and understanding the essay question. Having the opportunity to share ideas and resources and learn through working with others. As discussed earlier in the essay, community development is about collective action and also community networks. This will be a transferable key skill gained in higher education, which will be valuable in the future for securing employment as professional community development workers, in addressing issues of social justice in the community.
In brief, the concepts of ‘community’ and community development have been explored and also their complex nature has been emphasised. Furthermore, the need for critical approach in the community development practice is important in order to bring about change and tackling the root source of the problems that give rise to injustice in the society.

Reference List
Craig, G., Popple, K. and Shaw M., (2008), Community Development in Theory and Practice. Russell House, Nottingham.

Leduith, M. (2005), Community Development: A Critical Approach. The Policy Press. University of Bristol

Shaw, M. (2007), Community Development and The Politics of Community. Oxford University Press and Community Development Journal. doi:10.1093/cdj/bsl035

Community Development Journal,Vol 38 No 1 January 2003 pp. 16–25
Community Dev J (2003) 38 (1): 16-25. doi: 10.1093/cdj/38.1.16

Gillchrist, A. (2009), The Well Connected Community: A Networking Approach to Community Development. The Policy Press: University of Bristol

Craig, G. (…) ‘Community Development in a Global Context’. Community Development Journal, Vol. 33, No.1, p.2-17

Gillchrist, A. (2003), Community Development in the UK - Possibilities and Paradoxes. Oxford University Press and Community Development Journal

Gedalof. I. (2007), Unhomely Homes: Women, Family and Belonging in UK Discourses of Migration and Asylum, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33:1, 77-94

Milbourne, L. (2002), Unspoken Exclusion: Experiences of Continued Marginalisation from Education among 'Hard to Reach' Groups of Adults and Children in the UK, British Journal of Sociology of Education , Vol. 23, No. 2 (Jun., 2002), pp. 287-305

Sales, R. (2002), The Deserving and the Undeserving? Refugees, asylum seekers and welfare in Britain. Critical Social Policy 2002 22: 456 Purcell, R. (2011), Community development and everyday life. Oxford University
Press and Community Development Journal

Zetter, R., Griffiths, D., and Sigona, N. (2005), Social capital or social exclusion? The impact of asylum-seeker dispersal on UK refugee community organizations. Oxford University Press and Community Development Journal

Websites

Smith, M. K., (2001) ‘community’ in the encyclopaedia of information education, http://www.infed.org/community/community.htm

LLUK (2010), National Standards for Community Development, LlUK, London. Accessed online at: http://www.fcdl.org.uk/NOS_Consultation/Documents/NOS_CD_Eng_v2finalartworkedversion.pdf on 12/10/2011

Sen, P. and Kelly, L. (2008): CEDAW Thematic Report: Violence Against Women in The UK. The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit: London Metropolitan University.
Accessed online at: http://www.endviolenceagainstwomen.org.uk/data/files/evaws_shadow_report_to_cedaw_2008.pdf on 10/10/2011

Collyer, M.; Binaisa, N.; McLean, H. L.; Oeppen, C.; Qureshi, K.; Vullnetari, J.; and
Zeitlyn, B. (2011), The Impact of Overseas Conflict on UK Communities. Joseph
Rowntree Foundation,

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Social Lens

...EXISTING ORDER Paul Lynch University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom paul.lynch@strath.ac.uk Alison Morrison University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom ABSTRACT This paper locates developments in hospitality research, notably relating to hospitality studies, in the context of Kuhn’s (1962) evolution of scientific theory. The paper highlights the development of the ‘hospitality lens’ by Lashley, Lynch and Morrison (2007) and suggests it can facilitate the study of hospitality in any social situation from a strengthened social scientific perspective. It is argued that the study of hospitality should be not just for understanding hospitality but also society itself. Such an approach is suggested as both logical and healthy for the subject development with adoption of more critical perspectives on hospitality. The considerable implications of adopting a ‘new’ hospitality research agenda are described with reference to the conceptualization of hospitality, the nature of research and the research community, subject implications including journal publication outlets, and the higher education context. Keywords: Hospitality lens; ‘new’ hospitality; subject development. INTRODUCTION This paper moves beyond any pre-occupation with the vocational roots of hospitality higher education debate as it is considered that that debate has had its day. Rather, the content is framed within the discourse commenced by Kuhn (1962) who argues that the evolution of scientific theory does not emerge from......

Words: 5121 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Khanh

...Statistical data 6100: Human resource planning 2400: Public relations Geographic Names: United Kingdom UK Abstract: The relative absence of debate about ethical issues within the area of human resource management is addressed. IT is argued that ethics is not about taking statements of morality at face value; it is a critical and challenging tool. The discussion starts with what should be familiar terrain: ethical arguments that uphold a managerialist position, such as ethical individualism, utilitarianism, and "Rawlsian" justice. Other theories are then introduced that broaden the field of ethical concern in an endeavor to be more socially inclusive: stakeholding and discourse theory. Copyright Eclipse Group Ltd. 2000 Full Text: Until very recently the field of business ethics was not preoccupied with issues relating to the ethical management of employees. Apart from the development of ethical awareness among managers (Snell, 1993; Maclagan, 1998) and the ethical dimension of change management processes (Mayon White, 1994; McKendall, 1993), there has been little debate around the ethical basis of much HR policy and practice. The main debates in business...

Words: 9380 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Theory of Participatory Development

...Participatory Development The theory of Participatory development represents an evolutionary process from the global, aspatial, top-down strategies that dominated early development initiatives to more locally sensitive methodologies.The idea of  participation is heavily influenced by theories of development and is therefore highly varied and complex due to different theoretical positions.This paper tries to engage with various approaches to the participatory development theory based on the analysis of historical, ideological and practical record.It deals with the scholarly articles written by Sam Hickey, Giles Mohan, Kristian Stokke and Frances Cleaver. The dominance of the top-down approaches to development was largely a result of modernization theory which was dominant in the 1960s.Modernization theory tells that for developing countries to develop they need economic growth along the path already travelled by western countries.This has been heavily criticized and other development theories have highlighted disparities.From the modernization point of view participation meant involvement of the community in the delivery of the welfare programmes with the purpose of increasing the acceptance and efficiency.This conceptualisation of participation and empowerment is based on a harmony model of power.This implies that the empowerment of the powerless could be achieved within the existing social order without any significant negative effects upon the power of...

Words: 978 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Effects of Social Networking Sites

...students' social and academic development Dissertation Author: June Ahn Abstract: This dissertation examines the effects of social network sites on youth social and academic development. First, I provide a critical analysis of the extant research literature surrounding social network sites and youth. I merge scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides, social capital theory, psychological well-being, identity development, academic engagement, and educational technology to understand how researchers might examine new social technologies and youth. Second, I examine the question of digital divide, or whether particular teenage populations do not have access to online social networks. Using a nationally representative dataset from the Pew Internet & American Life study, I explore whether there are disparities in teenage access to social network sites. Third, I report a cluster-randomized trial that was designed to explore whether social network sites have a beneficial impact when used in high school classrooms. A total of 50 classrooms, and nearly 1,400 students were randomly assigned to use an experimental social network site. The results highlight the challenges and potential of this technology when applied to school contexts. 
 
 iii 
 Table of Contents Acknowledgements i i List of Tables i v Abstract v Chapter 1 : Introduction 1 Chapter 2: The Effect of Social Network Sites on Adolescents’ Social and Academic Development – Contemporary Issues and......

Words: 4976 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Technolo

...Impact of Contemporary Technologies on the Performance Potential of students Dr.AMRUTH G KUMAR ALI USSAIN T Associate professor Dept. of Education Research Scholar, Dept of Education Central University of Kerala Central University of Kerala ABSTRACT As technology use continues its steady growth among contemporary students, both within and outside of the classroom, its impact on academic performance becomes an increasingly important question to address. Cognitive theory and multitasking research strongly support a negative effect while other studies have found little to no effect. This article seeks to explore the impact of modern technologies on the performance potential of learners. It also describes the intellectual and theoretical contributions of great scholars whose scholarly intervention paved the for the advancement of technology in the field of education Key words CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGIES, PERFORMANCE POTENTIAL Introduction The role of technology in the field of education has been discussed in a vivid manner. It remains an important issue even today as the debates about the impact of technology on our society, the implications of quick and easy online access to information for knowledge and learning and the effect of technology on young people’s social, emotional and physical development is being analyzed and discussed the educationalists and social scientists. As the report presented by the School of......

Words: 2588 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Citizenship

...CURRICULUM REVIEW Search using the ref: 00045-2007DOM-EN Copies of this publication can also be obtained from: DfES Publication PO Box 5050 Sherwood Park Annesley Nottingham NG15 0DJ Tel: 0845 60 222 60 Fax: 0845 60 333 60 Textphone: 0845 555 60 Please quote ref: 00045-2007DOM-EN ISBN: 978-1-84478-883-5 PPSLS/D35/0107/14 © Crown Copyright 2007 Produced by the Department for Education and Skills Extracts from this publication may be reproduced for non commercial education or training purposes on the condition that the source is acknowledged. For any other use please contact HMSOlicensing@cabinet-office.x.gsi.gov.uk DIVERSITY & CITIZENSHIP You can download this publication or order copies online at: www.teachernet.gov.uk/publications Diversity and Citizenship Curriculum Review Review Group members Sir Keith Ajegbo retired in July 2006 as Headteacher of Deptford Green School, a multiethnic school with a strong reputation for Citizenship education. He is currently working as a coach on the Future Leaders Project, as a School Improvement Partner, and as an education consultant for UBS. He is also a Governor of Goldsmiths College and a trustee of the Stephen Lawrence Trust. Dr Dina Kiwan is a Lecturer in Citizenship Education at Birkbeck College, University of London. Previously she was seconded to the Home Office as the Head of Secretariat to the Advisory Board for Naturalisation and Integration (ABNI), carrying forward......

Words: 37771 - Pages: 152

Premium Essay

Effects of Social Networking Sites

...decade of the 21 st century, one of the major markers of this era is the rise and use of online communities. In particular, a paradigm called Web 2.0 describes recent technologies that focus on networking mass numbers of individuals into distinct communities over the Internet (O’Reilly, 2007). Social networking sites (SNS) are online communities designed to connect individuals to wider networks of relationships, and are one major example of Web 2.0 applications. Sites such as Facebook have exploded in membership. In a short period of 2007 – 2010, Facebook estimates that its membership has grown from 50 million to over 400 million users (Facebook, n.d.). Online social networks are now an integrated part of daily life and compel questions of how these media platforms affect human development, relationships, and interaction. Teenagers are among the most avid users of technology in general and social network sites in particular (Lenhart, Madden, Macgill, & Smith, 2007b). Recent reports find that youth spend nearly 10 hours per day using some form of technology, with socially networked media playing a large role in their daily lives (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). New technologies are deeply intertwined with adult perceptions about teenage life. Mimi Ito and colleagues observe that, “Although today’s questions about ‘kids these days’ have a familiar ring to them, the contemporary version is somewhat unusual in how strongly it equates generational identity with......

Words: 3413 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Beyond Consumerism

...Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Jul., 2004), pp. 373-401 Published by: Sage Publications, Ltd. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180734 . Accessed: 21/03/2011 08:15 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=sageltd. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Sage Publications, Ltd. is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Contemporary History. http://www.jstor.org Journalof Contemporary......

Words: 14844 - Pages: 60

Free Essay

Genocide

... Over the years, genocide studies receive positive and negative influences from both the cultural and political contexts. The two contexts have extensively influenced the view of genocide. The major view of genocide is that it is a domestic occurrence of states. On a literal perspective, various authors have contributed to the subject of genocide. The assignment looks to extensively explore the foundations of genocide based on book reviews. The paper will provide an in-depth analysis and reviews of three books on genocide, What is Genocide by Martin Shaw, Centuries of Genocide by Totten and On the nature of genocidal intent by Campbell. Shaw, M. (2007). What is Genocide? Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN: 0745631827. Martin Shaw’s takes up the subject of defining genocide in all contexts. Through the book, What is Genocide, Shaw seeks to address two major issues related to genocide definition. • Unchanging definition of genocide • Reasons and need for changing definition of genocide Modern comprehension of the genocide ideology arises from a historical and contemporary viewpoint. It is evident over the years that the definition of genocide has undergone minimal change. In the book, the author offers key reasons for the unchanging definition of genocide while at the same time offering major reasons for the need to make the necessary changes (Shaw, 2007). Different reasons contribute to the unchanging definition of genocide. In the past years, people......

Words: 3101 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Human Dignity in Contemporary Ethics.

...SOCIETY: CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES Module 1: Why is Human Dignity important ? What is Human dignity ? "dignity: the quality of being worthy or honourable; worthiness, worth, nobleness, excellence. Latin dignitāt-em merit, worth" Oxford English Dictionary The focus of UNCC100 is on the theme of the common good: how we think about what is needed in order for all people to flourish in society. UNCC300 shifts this focus from the social to the individual, although of course, we can never think about the individual without reference to the broader context of society. In this unit, we are going to consider what it means to be a human being, and more particularly, how we can understand the notion of human worth, or value. This is what we are referring to when we talk about human dignity. Activity 1 Complete some research on Rosa Parks . 1. Who was she? 2. What impact did Rosa Parks have on the US Civil Rights movement? 3. What impact do you think Rosa Parks has had on our understanding of human dignity today? 4. There have been numerous songs written about Rosa Parks. The Neville Brothers recorded “Sister Rosa” in 1989. Click the link to hear the song and follow the lyrics. http://pancocojams.blogspot.com.au/2012/01/two-songs-about-rosa-parks-lyrics.html Human dignity is probably a very familiar expression, because the concept is part of many conversations taking place in the contemporary world. At the same time, once we begin to think about it,......

Words: 2673 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Scolar

...future Introduction Culture shapes the way we see the world. It therefore has the capacity to bring about the change of attitudes needed to ensure peace and sustainable development which, we know, form the only possible way forward for life on planet Earth. Today, that goal is still a long way off. A global crisis faces humanity at the dawn of the 21st century, marked by increasing poverty in our asymmetrical world, environmental degradation and short-sightedness in policy-making. Culture is a crucial key to solving this crisis. Source: Preface, World Culture Report, UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 1999. Our cultural values, which often include particular religious beliefs, shape our way of living and acting in the world. Module 11 on Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainability explores the importance of indigenous values and spirituality in providing guidance for sustainable living. Such principles and values encourage a spirit of harmony between people, their natural environments and their spiritual identities. The principles for living sustainably that flow from these and other cultural and religious beliefs vary between groups and countries. They have also changed over time as circumstances demand. Despite this diversity, many principles for living sustainably are shared, not only among indigenous peoples, but also between different religious traditions. This module explores the role of culture and religion in providing guidance on ways of living sustainably. It also......

Words: 3397 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Work Life Balance

...Benefits of Work-life balance Benefits for you Employees in companies already implementing work-life practices enjoy significant benefits such as: * Being able to effectively manage multiple responsibilities at home, work and in the community without guilt or regret. * Being able to work in flexible ways so that earning an income and managing family/other commitments become easier. * Being part of a supportive workplace that values and trusts staff. People want to be able to have1: * a good quality of life * an enjoyable work life and career progression * training and development * good health * affordable childcare or eldercare * further education * more money * time to travel * time with friends and family * time to do sports and hobbies * time to do voluntary work Benefits for your business Good work-life balance policies and practices are good for business.  Some of the benefits for you and your staff are: * Getting and keeping the right staff * Getting the best from staff * Being an ‘employer of choice’ and future proofing * Improving productivity Getting and keeping the right staff Finding and keeping good staff can be difficult especially in a tight labour market. Employers who can offer work-life balance and flexible work options are likely to have the competitive edge, gain access to a wider recruitment pool, and are more likely to hold onto existing staff.  As a result......

Words: 6719 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Adult Learning Theories

...literature of the past century has yielded a variety of models, sets of assumptions and principles, theories, and explanations that make up the adult learning knowledge base. The more adult educators are familiar with this knowledge base, the more effective their practice can be, and the more responsive it can be to the needs of adult learners. This fact sheet reviews three major theories and discusses their implications for practice. What is Andragogy? In attempting to document differences between the ways adults and children learn, Malcolm Knowles (1980) popularized the concept of andragogy (“the art and science of helping adults learn”), contrasting it with pedagogy (“the art and science of teaching children”). He posited a set of assumptions about adult learners, namely, that the adult learner • Moves from dependency to increasing self-directedness as he/she matures and can direct his/her own learning; • Draws on his/her accumulated reservoir of life experiences to aid learning; • Is ready to learn when he/she assumes new social or life roles; • Is problem-centered and wants to apply new learning immediately; and • Is motivated to learn from internal, rather than external, factors. Inherent in these assumptions are implications for practice. Knowles (1984) suggests that adult educators • Set a cooperative climate for learning in the classroom; • Assess the learner’s specific needs and interests; • Develop learning objectives based on the learner’s needs, interests, and......

Words: 1656 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Beliefs in Society

...SCLY 3: Beliefs in Society Revision Guide 2009-10 Name: Remember: You have to revise everything, because essay questions will focus on more than one area of the specification. The specification: The relationship between religious beliefs and social change and stability * Functionalism: conservative force, inhibition of change, collective conscience, Durkheim and totemism, anomie; civil religions * Marxism: religion as ideology, legitimating social inequality, disguising exploitation etc * Weber: religion as a force for social change: theodicies, the Protestant ethic * Neo-Marxism: religion used by those opposing the ruling class, liberation theology * Feminism: religious beliefs supporting patriarchy * Fundamentalist beliefs: rejecting change by reverting to supposed traditional values and practices. Religious organisations, including cults, sects, denominations, churches and New Age movements, and their relationship to religious and spiritual belief and practice * Typologies of religious organisations: churches, denominations, sects and cults, with examples of each New Religious Movements and typologies of NRMs eg world rejecting/accommodating/affirming; millenarian beliefs, with examples of each * New Age movements and spirituality, with examples * The relationship of these organisations to religious and spiritual belief and practice. The relationship between different social groups and religious/spiritual organisations and movements,......

Words: 23270 - Pages: 94

Premium Essay

English 11 in Ontario

...English-E11-12 7/27/07 2:24 PM Page 1 Ministry of Education The Ontario Curriculum Grades 11 and 12 English Printed on recycled paper 07-003 ISBN 978-1-4249-4741-6 (Print) ISBN 978-1-4249-4742-3 (PDF) ISBN 978-1-4249-4743-0 (TXT) © Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2007 2007 REVISED CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 3 Secondary Schools for the Twenty-first Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Importance of Literacy, Language, and the English Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principles Underlying the English Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roles and Responsibilities in English Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH 3 3 4 5 9 Overview of the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Curriculum Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Strands in the English Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 100005 - Pages: 401