Free Essay

Inc History

In: Historical Events

Submitted By kaosboy
Words 2498
Pages 10
A) FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GROWTH OF MODERN NATIONALISM IN INDIA
There are several factors responsible for the emergence of nationalism in India.
1) Economic Critique of Colonialism: An understanding that British rule in India is leading to the underdevelopment and impoverishment of the country was first articulated by Dadabhai Naoroji. He developed ‘Drain Theory’ in 1867 in which he argued that Britain is draining the wealth of India. He published Poverty and Un-British Rule in India which is a systematic critique of British colonial rule. R.C. Dutt in his Economic History of India under Early British Rule and Economic History of India in the Victorian Age made similar arguments about the exploitative character of British rule in India. M.G. Ranade published Essays on Indian Economics in 1898. Economic critique of colonialism laid foundation for nationalist movement in India.
2) Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of the Country: British rule introduced modern bureaucracy, professional civil service, unified judiciary and a uniform civil and criminal laws in India which resulted in the political unification of the country. British colonial state also introduced modern means of transport and communication such as railways, roads, electricity and telegraph which resulted in the unification of the country. Political, administrative and economic unification of the country gave a sense of unified ‘nation’ for the people of India.
3) Western Thought and Education: The spread of western ideas and English education in the nineteenth century resulted in the formation of country wide English educated Indian middle class intellectuals. They were exposed to western ideas of nationalism and nationalist movements and political systems.
4) Role of Press and Literature: The technology of printing press started to spread during the nineteenth century in India. Indians started to own printing presses and published newspapers, periodicals and literature. In 1877 there were 169 newspapers in India published in the vernacular languages. Indian owned press criticized the British colonial policies and urged people to unite. It helped in the dissemination of modern ideas of self-government, democracy, civil rights and industrialization. The press also helped in the exchange of political ideas among nationalist leaders from different regions.
5) Progressive Character of Socio-Religious Reform Movements: The social and religious reform movements of the nineteenth century contained positive elements that prepared ground for the emergence of modern Indian nation. Many of the social and religious reformers criticized the caste system, sati and other outmoded rituals and practices. They laid emphasis on modern education, rationality and freedom.
6) Rediscovery of India’s Past: The British Orientalists scholars studied the ancient Indian literature and translated them into the European languages. They discovered the ancient Indian civilization which gave a sense of pride to Indians. The rediscovery of India’s past by the Orientalist scholars also created a sense of cultural uniqueness and pride for Indians.
7) Impact of Contemporary Movements Worldwide: Irish nationalism and Italian nationalism provided inspiration for Indian nationalism.
8) Reactionary Policies and Racial Arrogance of British: British colonial state in India discriminated the Indians on the basis of colour and race. They reduced the maximum age limit for Indian Civil Services examination from 21 to 19 in 1876. The British colonial government in India celebrated Grand Delhi Durbar in 1877 during which Queen Victoria was crowned Empress of India in absentia. This event took place at a time when Indian people were suffering from famine. The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 targeted Indian newspapers and confiscated Indian Press, paper and other materials. Freedom of press and the right to free speech and expression was curtained by British through Vernacular Press Act of 1878. The British colonial state passed Arms Act in 1878 which prohibited Indians from carrying arms. On the other hand Europeans in India were given right to carry arms. Finally, the Ilbert Bill was introduced in 1883 and enacted in 1884 by Viceroy Ripon. According to Ilbert Bill, British offenders could be tried by Indian judges at district level. However this was severely criticized by the British residents in India which forced the state to dilute the Bill. A modified version of the Bill was introduced in 1884.
B) POLITICAL ASSOCIATIONS IN INDIA BEFORE THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
1) East India Association: It was organized by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1866 in London to discuss Indian question and to influence British public opinion on Indian welfare. Later, branches were opened in Indian cities.
2) Indian Association of Calcutta: It was founded in 1876 by the younger nationalists of Bengal like Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose. It aimed to create a strong public opinion in the country on political questions and unification of Indian people on a common political programme. It kept a low membership fee and set up branches in and out of Bengal.
3) Poona Sarvajanik Sabha: It was founded in 1867 by M.G. Ranade and others with the object of serving as a bridge between the government and people.
4) The Bombay Presidency Association: It was started by Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta and K.T. Telang in 1885.
5) The Madras Mahajana Sabha: It was founded in 1884 by M. Veeraraghavachari, Subramania Iyer and P. Ananda Charlu.
C) INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS AND THE MYTH OF SAFETY VALVE THEORY
Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 with the active involvement of A.O. Hume, a retired English Civil Servant. A.O. Hume’s involvement in the formation of Congress gave rise to a lot of controversy and suspicions regarding the origins of the Congress. A number of historians of all shades – imperial, nationalists and Marxists – believed in ‘Safety Valve Theory’ or ‘Conspiracy Theory’. According to this theory Congress was a creation of British. It was believed that the Congress was formed by the British which would serve as a Safety Valve by opening up a line of communication between the British rulers and elite Indians and would thus prevent a mass revolution against British rule in India. The first reference to the Safety Valve Theory emerges in William Wadderburn’s biography of A.O. Hume published in 1913. Wadderburn wrote that in 1878 Hume had come across seven volumes of secret reports which showed discontent and dissatisfaction among the lower classes of India and a conspiracy to overthrow British rule by force. Wadderburn futher argued that Hume who was disturbed by these developments met Viceroy Lord Dufferin and together they decided to establish an organization with the educated Indians. According to Wadderburn, the seven volumes of secret reports were received by A.O. Hume from religious gurus. However this theory of ‘Safety Valve’ was discredited in 1950s and 1960s.
What are the reasons for dismissing ‘Safety Valve Theory’?
1) The seven volumes of secret reports have not been traced in any archives or libraries in India or London.
2) Historians argue that given the structure of British information gathering system in the 1870s, it was highly unlikely that so many volumes of secret reports could have existed.
3) Except in Wadderburn’s biography of Hume, nowhere else any reference to the existence of such reports could be found. Wadderburn says that Hume secured those seven volumes from religious gurus and not from official sources.
4) Viceroy Lord Dufferin’s private papers were opened up in 1950s for historians to study. Though Dufferin met Hume in Shimla in May 1885, he remained critical of the formation of any all India organization. Dufferin criticized Congress after its formation as a microscopic minority. He even sent a telegram to the British officials in Bombay to remain vigilant of any such all India political meeting.
Then why Wadderburn portrayed Hume in such a way?
Historians now agree that the story of seven volumes of secret reports was a fiction created by a friendly biographer Wadderburn to portray Hume as a British patriot. The Safety Valve Theory is fictitious and insufficient to understand the formation of all India national organization called Indian National Congress.
Even if Hume had not taken any initiative in India of the 1870s and 1880s the formation of a national organization would have taken place. British officials dismissed Congress as ‘Disloyal Babus’, ‘Violent Villains’, ‘Seditious Brahmins’, ‘a Factory of Sedition’ and ‘Microscopic Minority’.
D) MODERATE NATIONALISM (1885-1905): METHODS OF POLITICAL WORK, CONTRIBUTION AND EVALUATION
Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. The first session of the Congress was held at Bombay attended by 72 delegates with W.C. Banerjee as President. From 1885 to 1905 the members of the Congress followed moderate methods of political struggle and hence they are called Moderates. Some of the prominent moderates were Dadabhai Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji, Surendranath Banerjee and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Methods of Political Work of the Moderates:
• The moderate Congressmen were believers in ‘liberalism’ and ‘moderate’ politics.
• They were involved in constitutional agitation within the confines of law and showed a slow but orderly political progress.
• They mobilized public opinion and presented to the government, the sentiments of people through resolutions, petitions, and meetings and believed that the government would concede to their demands gradually.
• They educated and united people on common political questions.
• They persuaded the British government and British public opinion to introduce reforms in India. For this purpose a British Committee of the Indian National Congress was established in London in 1899 with a journal ‘India’.
• The moderates believed that the time was not ripe for a direct challenge to the British rule.
• They did not demand independence from the British rule for they believed that India is not yet a nation but a nation in the making.
Contributions of Moderate Nationalists:
1) Economic Critique of Colonialism: The three most prominent early nationalists who developed the economic critique of colonialism were Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt and M.G. Ranade. Dadabhai Naoroji published Poverty and Un-British Rule in India in which he demonstrated the ‘drain’ of wealth and exploitation of the Indian resources by the British. The early nationalists demanded an end to the subordination of Indian economy to British economy and argued for the development of an independent economy through involvement of Indian capital and enterprise. They also demanded reduction in land revenue, abolition of salt tax, improvement in working conditions of plantation labour, reduction in military expenditure and encouragement to modern industry through tariff protection and direct government aid.
2) Constitutional Reforms and Propaganda in Legislature: The early nationalists demanded constitutional reforms and greater participation of Indians in councils. They further demanded more power to the council especially greater control over finances. The long term objective of early nationalists was democratic self-government. Their demands were partially addresses by the British colonial government when in 1892 Indian Councils Act was passed. However it remained ineffective with no real power for the Indians in the council.
3) Campaign for Administrative Reforms: The moderate nationalists demanded Indianization of government services. They also demanded the separation of judicial from executive functions. They criticized the aggressive foreign policy of the British colonial government in India. They demanded increase in the expenditure on welfare. They wanted the government to provide the better treatment of Indian labour abroad.
4) Defense of Civil Rights: The moderate nationalists were champions of civil rights. These rights included right to speech, right to association and right to free press. The campaign for the defense of civil rights became an integral part of the freedom struggle.

Evaluation of the Moderate Nationalism:
• The moderate nationalists mobilized only the Indian public opinion and not the public. They lacked faith in the capacity of the masses to participate in political struggle.
• The moderate nationalists were Anglicized class who maintained ambivalent attitude towards British rule.
• The moderate nationalists were highly successful men in their professions and their success in private life resulted in complacency in public life.
• The moderate nationalists were elitist in their class composition. The elite attitude led to feelings of mingled contempt and fear of ‘lower’ orders of society and dependence on British rule for law and order.
• The moderate nationalists were gradualist and their method was criticized by the extremists as politics of ‘mendicancy’.

E) RISE OF EXTREMISM, 1905-1918

Why did extremism in Indian National Congress emerge? The extremist trend was present in Congress in the 1890s but took a concrete shape by 1905. The reasons for the emergence of extremism within the Congress are broadly the following:

1) Recognition of the true nature of British rule: The militant among the Congress got disillusioned after realizing that the government is not conceding to any of the demands of the Congress. Indian Councils Act of 1892 was condemned by Congress every year. Further, British colonial state in India passed such repressive acts like Official Secrets Act (1904), Indian Universities Act (1904), and Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) which created dissatisfaction among the younger generation of nationalists within the Congress. They began to realize the true nature of the British rule in India.

2) Dissatisfaction with the method of politics and achievements of moderates: The younger members of the Congress were critical of the method of politics employed by moderates namely – prayer, petition and protest – and criticized the method as ‘politics of mendicancy’.
3) Growth of education and unemployment: The English educated group kept growing in India but the younger generation of English educated class remained unemployed. Rampant unemployment created dissatisfaction with the British rule.

4) Growth of confidence, self-respect and belief in the masses: The militant nationalists like B.G. Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo believed in the character and capacities of Indian people. A belief that the participation of masses is necessary to win the freedom gained currency among the younger members of the Congress.

5) International influences: The defeat of Russia by Japan in Russo-Japanese war of 1905 symbolized the rise of Asian power in world history. Similarly in the second Anglo-Boer war in South Africa British troops suffered military defeat at the hands of Boers from 1899 to 1902. The rise of Asia and Africa in world history provided great inspiration to the younger generation of nationalists in India.

6) Reactionary policies of Lord Curzon: In 1899 Lord Curzon became the new Viceroy of India. Under his viceroyalty many repressive measures were adopted which created dissatisfaction among the younger generation of nationalists. Repressive laws like Official Secrets Act (1904), Indian Universities Act (1904), and Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) were passed with approval from Lord Curzon. The most infamous of Curzon’s policy was his decision of partition Bengal in 1905.

7) Existence of militant school of thought: There existed within Congress a militant group of nationalists who wanted far reaching changes to be introduced in India. Raj Narain Bose, Ashwini Kumar Dutta, Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal from Bengal, B.G. Tilak from Maharashtra and Lala Lajpat Rai from Punjab were some of the leading militant nationalists within the Congress. They shared common views like hatred for foreign rule, swaraj to be the goal of national movement, direct political action, belief in the capacity of masses and personal sacrifice.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Amazon.Com, Inc. the History

...Unit 4 Amazon.com, Inc. The History Amazon.com Inc. is a multinational e-commerce company with headquarters located in Seattle Washington. Amazon is the largest online retailer in the world and produces consumer goods, electronics, e-books and is also a provider of cloud computer services. Founded by its current CEO Jeff Bezos in 1994, Amazon went online officially in 1996. The name was derived from the Amazon River in the legendary female warriors of Greek mythology. Amazon was originally an online bookstore that eventually expanded its product line to meet the demands of the online community. Amazon employees over 69,000 people and have offices, call centers and warehouses in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. The global Fortune 500 list of 2012 ranks Amazon at a raking of number 206 their previous ranking from 2011 was # 270 ("Top Global 500 Companies," 2012, p. 1). Current operating results In the most recent quarter, July 2012, Amazon reported a net income of $7 million with sales revenue at $12.8 billion. This showed a growth from the second quarter of 2011 where revenue was at $9.91 billion. Forecasters have been fairly conservative for any growth for retailer’s even though Amazon still achieves growth within every quarter. Amazon actually was extremely cautious in prior quarters that they may even lose money due to the condition of the economy. The main reason that is contributed to Amazon’s current growth is there international sales. 44% of Amazons......

Words: 1490 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

History

...Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world. Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. Axiology is the philosophical study of value. It is either the collective term for ethics and aesthetics. And Logic is the study of arguments. When I thought about my own personal views for educational philosophy, I thought back to my educators in school, my parents, and peers that have made a difference in my life. Compared to the history of logic the demarcation between philosophy of logic and philosophical logic is of recent coinage and not always entirely clear. Characterizations’ include Philosophy of logic is the arena of philosophy devoted to examining the scope and nature of logic. Philosophy of logic is the investigation, critical analysis and intellectual reflection on issues arising in logic. The field is considered to be distinct from philosophical logic. Philosophical logic is the branch of logic concerning aspects other than or outside of formal logic. Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to philosophical problems. My educational philosophy is based on personal experience, and from daily observations. I believe that the purpose of today’s schools go above and......

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

History

...extremely beneficial to America. Roosevelt was determined to directly relieve the suffering of the American people. In his inaugural speech he said, " I pledge myself to a new deal for the American people". He meant that, as president, he promised a new America that would help the people and preserve their morale. I believe that the programs of the New Deal are definitely still evident in our society. The FDIC and Social Security Administration are probably the most common and most well known. Bibliography 1. Divine, Breen, Fredrickson, Williams, Gross, Brands, Roberts. America Past and Present, Brief 7th Edition. United States: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. Print. 2. http://www.conservapedia.com/Spanish-American_War 3. http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/depression/section5.rhtml 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/ 5. http://www.u-s-history.com...

Words: 1400 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

History

...InterContinental Hotels Group has a very long and exciting history and probably the most colorful one among the business world and hospitality industry. The history can date back in 1777 with Bass Brewery, a UK based company who pioneers in brewery in Burton-on-Trent. Over the years it acquired some well-known regional breweries which marked as the spark of the business. After the Second World War, jet-engine technology was just around the corner and, therefore, civilian air travel would soon be within the reach of millions of people around the globe. In 1946, Juan T. Trippe, the chairman and founder of Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) with its headquarters in New York City anticipated the need for additional hotel accommodation and decided to create, what is today known as, the InterContinental Hotels Group. This also blossom the historical partnership of Pan Am who carries travelers, InterContinental Hotel that houses millions of guest and Bass Brewey who caters the hotel clients as the in-house lounge and bar. Since 1933, in the early days of the first term of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the U.S. government had decided to encourage business and travel within Latin America. The predominant user of an InterContinental Hotel was the medium-income business traveler. In this sense, one-bedroom suites designed for extended stays and trunks full of clothing would become obsolete. Instead, the new traveler would need basic comforts: cleanliness, a good bed,......

Words: 2027 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

History

...The History of Violent Resolution So it basically all started with a Indian and asthmatic getting together in an MSN conversation with the help of 4 legends of Silent Assassins. Awaken and Hostile were two clans who had just been at their peak and starting to drop slowly. Awaken leaders (General Shop, Jerminator12 and Drew Koskey) and Hostile leaders (Stephen22288, Viper1500 and Tyler11) were set into an MSN conversation with each other to talk. They talked about life and how their clans were doing and somehow got onto the topic of merging Awaken and Hostile and seeing what the outcome out be. They named all the positives and negatives of the situation and the merge seemed to look like it was all positive outcomes. After having a pk trip together and hunting some smaller clans in the wilderness, the leaders figured the pk trip went very well and decided to finalize the merge. Two top 20 clans came together to make a clan able to compete with the best, and looking like we were going to be top 5 within the first week of merging. Violent Resolution Leaders - General Shop, Drew Koskey, Viper1500 and Stephen22288 Officers - Cera S6, Jerminator12, Tyler11, Billybagz, Deadmanbjd81 and Lancer 3000 Warlords - Runechamp812, Exp Hog, Dogflogger, Prinz Jao Advisors - Diegosage, Sweetbritt69 The starting officials of the newly merged clan looked to be very experienced to help Violent Resolution’s quest to the top. The first week of being merged was a layed back one, with......

Words: 4480 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

History

...Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College History Department A2 Unit 4 Coursework Module: Ireland and the Union 1815-1922 Key Issue 2: The Great Famine Introduction • Late summer 1845 – promising potato (staple food) harvest • When harvest came, crop diseased – blight • By early 1846 ¾ harvest wiped out • Peel (PM) – some measures but hunger & disease prevailed • 1846 harvest failed; Russell – some relief measures • Disease, starvation & emigration • 1847 small but blight-free harvest • 1848 Worst harvest • Ended in 1849 Background & Causes of the Great Famine • GF – significant for extent & intensity – whole country, 4 years • Fungal disease attacked potato crop • Linked to social & economic structure • Sig of land system Land tenure: • Maj of cultivated land – small class of Prot landowners; leased out to middlemen – new class of landowners who divided them up and became absentee landlords • Division & sub-division rampant in years preceding GF: 1-5 acres 24% rented by cottiers 5-15 40% 30 + 7% • Landless labourers (1m) – diff to get work – went to England for part of the year • Underemployment • Labourers paid with scraps of land • Tiny size of peasant holdings Population increase • Huge inc in pop: 1780 5m – 1845 8m (taking account of emigration) • Early marriage, high birth rate, imp health, Irish produce got high prices in......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History

... World History Summer 2015 History 101 Dr. Mahdavi Student Learning Goals for Content and Skill Acquisition: This is a course in the history of the human community from approximately 1500 C.E. to the present. The course differs from the traditional Western Civilization class in that the entire world rather than Europe alone is the focus of study. The central questions the course will ask are these: What is Modernity, that is, what do we mean when we ask of "the modern world" in which we live? How have the political, social, cultural, and economic forces that we associate with modernity changed our world and its people during the past 500 years? Why has the intercommunication, interaction, and interdependence of the peoples of the world become so much more intense during the past 500 years than they were in earlier ages? How and why did western civilization rise to global domination in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and how has the challenge of western power and cultural prestige affected the course of history of all the World's people? Finally a question that we should be asking throughout the semester: how have the patterns of world history over the past 500 years determined or affected 1) the way we now live and think, and 2) our prospects for peace, prosperity, and the "pursuit of happiness" in the coming decades? This course is NOT primarily a narrative survey of civilizations, dynasties, and nations. The history of......

Words: 1573 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

History

...The topic of nurture versus nature is highly debated. Researchers believe that nurture and drug addiction is due to simple human genetics. A person’s family record of addiction is a major risk factor in developing an addiction to drugs or alcohol. An individual’s genes provide the necessary information that directs the way that human bodies react under certain cellular levels. Research indicates that about 99% of human genes are comparable and the 1% that is different accounts for differences such as hair color and height and invisible differences such as risks of hereditary diseases, and addiction to drug or alcohol. These genes play a significant part in determining whether an individual will become addicted to a drug or alcohol. Family history and genetic factors influence the probability that risk of drug or alcohol addiction dependence will be passed down from parents to their children. People with such genes in most cases show no resistance or withdrawal symptoms when exposed to drugs or alcohol use (Verster, 2011). It is recommended for people with such genes to avoid an environment where there is drug or alcohol use to limit the chances of drug abuse. According to ‘Archives of General Psychiatry’, Kenneth Kendler and his colleagues from Virginia Commonwealth University reported that adopted children whose natal parents abused drugs were twice likely to abuse drugs. The same was reported for their adopted siblings with whom there was no shared heredity (Kendler et’......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

History

...arrest led to the formation of the Montgomery Improvement Association led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The association boycotted the city owned bus company and lasted 382 days. This led to the Supreme Court to strike down the city ordinance which Parks had been arrested under. Parks served on the staff of Representative John Conyers starting in 1957 and the Southern Christian Leadership Council started the annual Rosa Parks Freedom Award. After her husband’s death in 1977 she founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development. Her foundation takes young people around the country to learn about the history of their country and the Civil Rights Movement. Rosa Parks died October 24, 2005. “After her death, her casket was place in the rotunda of the United States Capitol for two days, she is the only woman and second African American in American history to lie in state at the Capitol, an honor usually reserved for Presidents of the United States”. (Academy of Achievement, 2014, Par 10). One of the most influential African Americans in the Civil Rights movement is Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King was a very smart man and earned his Doctorate degree in 1955. In 1954 Dr. King became pastor of the Dexter Ave. Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama; he was also an executive committee member of the NAACP. Dr. King lead the bus boycott that lasted 382 days which was sparked by Rosa Parks arrest and the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional to require......

Words: 2607 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

History

...INTRODUCTION TO CSSD HISTORY To-day,more and more infectious diseases form a serious threat to people's health. Adequate Sterile Supply plays an essential role in the attempt to reduce the spreading of diseases within the health service. Many instruments and materials used for medical &surgical interventions are very expensive and are designed such that they can be re-used. A high quality reprocessing cycle is necessary in which the used materials are treated in a way can be used safely again. The central processing area is one such manufacturing and production unit within the healthcare facility. In olden days the work of Sterilization was carried out in the Operation Theatre,with the help of sterilizer which were fitted in the OT itself. Many Units too had their own sterilizers. Due to concentrating on other work,the practice of Sterilization was neglected.Items were left in the sterilizer longer periods of time and thus damaged by overheating,or kept for a shorter time and properly sterilized resulting in the risk of infection. The operation of the Sterilizer was everyone's business but no one's responsibility.Thus in 1928,the American College of Surgeons first thought of separating the work of sterilization from the operation theatre. Hence,to establish and maintain standardized sterilization procedures throughout the institution,a separate centralized area was designated. This is often referred to as the Central Sterile Supply Department(CSSD),Central......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Netflix, Inc. - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Netflix, Inc

...Netflix Christina Buggar Columbia Southern University Netflix Netflix, Inc. is the world's leading DVD (Digital Video Disc) rent-by-mail company. The company has over 1 million subscribers who pay a monthly fee of $19.95 for unlimited rentals, considering they have no more than 3 discs out at one time. The company offers more than 15,000 titles and maintains an inventory of more than 5 million movies. For faster delivery, Netflix has opened more than 20 shipping centers around the United States, and most movies arrive a day or two after ordering them online from the company’s website. More than a third of the publicly traded company is owned by Jay Hoag's Technology Crossover Ventures (Netflix, Inc. - Company Profile, Information, Business Description, History, Background Information on Netflix, Inc., 2012). Netflix was founded in Scotts Valley, California, in August of 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph, both veteran "new technology" entrepreneurs, to rent and sell DVDs all over the Internet. Reed and Marc were and are very successful business men who have started from the bottom and have built a business that has climbed the charts. When these two first started the company, they had to experiment with the DVD shipment until they found an easy but yet cheap way of sending out the movies to customers. The firm had to experiment with over 200 packages until they finally found one that was suitable for the company and customers. The package is a clear case with a......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

History

...Sam Sepassi World History 102 Essay 10/01/2015 The Industrial revolution Industrialization refers to the development of machine production of goods and new energy resources. The Western World went from rural and agricultural to urban industrial. Hard Times suggests that nineteenth-century England’s overzealous adoption of industrialization threatens to turn human beings into machines by thwarting the development of their emotions and imaginations. This suggestion comes forth largely through the actions of Gradgrind and his follower, Bounderby: as the former educates the young children of his family and his school in the ways of fact, the latter treats the workers in his factory as emotionless objects that are easily exploited for his own self-interest. Industrialization had many positive and negative effects on the citizens of Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. Industrialization had many positive effects on society in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries. The creation of power machines and factories provided many new job opportunities. The new machinery increased production speed of good and gave people the ability to transport raw materials. Industrialization also lead to urbanization. Urbanization is the movement of people into cities and city building. Citizens wanted to live closer to the factories that they worked at. Despite its many positive effects effects, industrialization had a negative impact on Europe too. Urban areas doubled, tripled, or quadrupled......

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

History

... Was the Bombing of Dresden and Hamburg Necessary? Roberta Messman American Public University History 102 Marc Wenner Was the Bombing of Dresden and Hamburg Necessary? The United States joined World War II on the side of the Allies. It was yet another large destructive war in Europe, and the Allies needed assistance in defeating Germany quickly. The Soviet Union was successful in pushing Germany westward in this battle. As Germany got closer to other fronts, the Allies knew that something needed to be done to aid the Soviet Union in stopping them. The United States and Great Britain felt the air bombings on the German cities of Dresden and Hamburg were the way to cripple Germany. The fire bombs caused much damage to the cities and many lives were lost; however it did put an end to the war sooner and a victory for the Allies. (Ross, 2003) These cities of Dresden and Hamburg had most of Germany’s needed resources and materials needed for their military were made and produced. Some deemed these bombings to be unnecessary and immoral for killing many innocent people. However is also viewed as a necessary part of the war and some had to die to prevent even more deaths. Because of how many lives were lost due to these bombings it is hard to imagine, but it was an action of war that was crucial to take down Germany. The bombings were destructive but extremely successful by taking down these cities stopping them from producing need supplies for the war. The bombings did put the......

Words: 1195 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

History

...http://acecontent.apexlearning.com/Live/online/us_hist_to_civ... Test 2.5.3 Test (TS): Becoming American Name: ____________________ U.S. History to the Civil War Core (S2503364) Points possible: 60 Date: ____________ Unit 3 Big Question: Why did North American colonists work against British rule? What kind of government did they create after they had gained independence? Section 1: Short-answer questions (30 points) Write multi-sentence responses for the prompts below. Be specific and give examples from the history we have learned. The 13 Colonies A. Name at least two colonies in each region listed in the table. In a few words, describe the main economy of each area. (1 point for each section, 8 points total) Region Colonies Economy Northern Middle 1 of 4 7/31/14 1:40 PM http://acecontent.apexlearning.com/Live/online/us_hist_to_civ... Chesapeake Southern B. In a sentence or two, describe two of the following items and how each led to the Revolutionary War. (3 points each, 6 points total) Parliament: Scientific revolution: Boston Massacre: Plantation: Townshend Acts: 2 of 4 7/31/14 1:40 PM http://acecontent.apexlearning.com/Live/online/us_hist_to_civ... C. In 1776, the Declaration of Independence was written, mostly by Thomas Jefferson, a member of the Second Continental Congress. Use a few words or a sentence to answer the following questions. (16 points) Who wrote the Declaration......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Aeropostale Inc. Company Analysis: Overview, History and Current Structure

...Aeropostale Inc. Company Analysis: Overview, History and Current Structure Davenport University Aeropostale Inc. Company Analysis: Overview, History and Current Structure Aeropostale Incorporated is a “mall-based” retail store chain that caters to 14 to 17 year old young women and men who are interested in “casual apparel and accessories (Aeropostale Inc. Corporate, n.d.). According to Aeropostale website, a Privacy Policy with Canada, states that Aeropostale Inc. has a subsidiary called “P.S. from Aeropostale” that caters to the 7-12 year olds (Aeropostale Inc., 2012, April). Mergent Online disclosed that Aeropostale Inc. “sells a range of apparel, including graphic t-shirts, tops, bottoms, sweaters, jeans, outerwear and accessories” (Mergent, 2012). Mergent’s Online Business Summary of Aeropostale Inc., reports that, “as of Jan 29 2011, [Aeropostale Inc.] Co. operated 965 Aeropostale stores, consisting of 906 stores in 49 states and Puerto Rico, 59 stores in Canada, as well as 47 P.S. from Aeropostale stores in 13 states (Mergent, 2012). Aeropostale was started for Macy’s department store under a private label in 1982 (Shop Aeropostale, n.d.). The name Aeropostale, according to Aeropostale corporate website, dates back to the 1920’s: “Compagnie Generale Aéropostale, a pioneer airmail company, was the first ever to fly between France, South Africa, and South America”, this is who the......

Words: 1221 - Pages: 5