Free Essay

Innovation of the Pen


Submitted By mrrpenn008
Words 2450
Pages 10
The Evolution Of the Pen

Regg Penn
MAN 4054
Final Paper
Professor Marcelo Alvarado-Vargas

Where did the Pen come from?
I can argue that everything that you and I know is majorly because of the existence of writing equipment and the pen. It’s clear that most of the fabric of history, was recorded by some previous form of the pen, along with some kind of paper. Pens were not always around however the concept of writing and recording images and symbols has been around since the beginning of time. Take the caveman for example; there are thousands of ‘cave paintings’ or drawings that have been either preserved or recorded so that curious individuals could see them. Those drawings were probably drawn with rock at first, then later on chiseled, which I would imagine was very time consuming. I remember learning in a History Course that Ancient Romans carved documents onto wax sculptures. As the progression and the knowledge of human beings expanded, new writing equipments became available. With invention of paper or papyrus, the pen came into existence.
According to Maxfield Carroll, “The word "pen" is derived from "penna," the Latin word for a feather or plume. And that is exactly what the early pens were---quills or reeds with the tip carved to form a nib” (Carroll). The Quill was basically a bird feather being dipped into ink. The Quill pen was first used in Western Europe for writing church documents. This was sometime around 6AD. This is usually the pen that is seen in movies set in the 19th century. The Quill pen then set the path for the Fountain, Ballpoint and Rollerball Pens.
After the feathered Quill, came the metal Quill. This was basically a metal frame that could be dipped into ink. There was still one problem however; people didn’t want to have to be inconvenienced by having to constantly dip their pens in a pool of ink. So finally that problem was solved with the invention of the fountain pen. M. Bion created the oldest fountain pen still in existence in 1702 for King Louis XIV (Curtiss, Pen & Ink History ). The Fountain Pen solved the issue of having to dip the frame of the pen into ink. The Fountain Pen contained a built in refillable ink supply into the pen’s frame. These pens proved to be effective except for the slight blotching issues that users experienced while using it. The ink in the Fountain Pen also took a long time to dry.
With advancements in pen industry, came the birth of the Ballpoint Pen. Laszlo Biro was determined to solve the problem that the Fountain Pen had. He realized that newspaper ink dried relatively fast and didn’t blotch or smear. However, it was to thick to be used with the Fountain Pen. Laszlo Biro would have to alter the entire structure on the Fountain Pen to allow the newspaper ink to be compatible. So, he redesigned the pen. In 1944, Laszlo Biro massed produced the Ball Point Pen (Curtiss). The Ball Point Pen used a tiny ball bearing at its tip to control the flow of ink. The ink in the Ball Point Penn was not refillable. It came in a small tub. Once the ink finished the pen had to be disposed of.
Rollerball Pens were almost the exact thing as Ball Point Pens. The only difference was the type of ink used in the pen. The roller ball used a water-based gel instead of the oil based ink system.

Where the Pen stands today?
There is a saying that says, “Old habits die hard.” So today some of the older pens still exist and are used. The Quill Pen is rarely used, however it is in many historic museums. The Fountain Pen is also used today. It is used more often than the Quill Pen, but it still isn’t the dominant design. Today the Ball Point and Roller Ball pens are the most popular. Major Pen brands include: Pilot, Sheaffer, Parker and BIC. Pens today, however don’t just come in black ink. Standard colors now include, blue, red, black and green.
I looked around my dorm room and every pen had the brand BIC. This is mainly because BIC sells in bulk. Most students tend to lose pens very easily. For this reason Companies like BIC and Pilot thrive because they both sell in bulk.
Now, all pens do not contain just ink. There are special types of pens for erasing, highlighting, coloring, electronic purposes and there are custom pens. Often times when we write, we make careless errors. Ink for the most part is permanent on a piece of paper. Here’s an example. Sometimes we may write, “Today was was a great day.” The error is the second was. This can be corrected by simply crossing or scratching the second “was” out in more pen ink. Now if this was the only error in a long document written in ink, then it might not stand out. But now imagine if you saw many of these errors with ‘scratch outs’ in the document? Wouldn’t that look tacky and unprofessional? It is for this reason that the Whiteout pen was created. This pen oozes a white substance onto the paper it was written on then covers the ink. When the “white ink” dries, it is possible to write over it. Whiteout has proven to be very convenient and handy.
Highlighters are special type of pen used to place a bright transparent streak of color over ink. The tip of the highlighter is thick, whereas the Ballpoint tip is very skinny. Highlighters are now widely used throughout the world. When one has to read a long document or a long excerpt from a book it can be tough to remember everything one reads. Honestly, there are many paragraphs in a reading that are irrelevant to what you want or need to remember. The highlighter allows one to simply highlight what he or she thinks is important. That text then stands out. How can you miss a bright yellow highlighted mark on a white page? Highlighters come in many different colors. The tip of the highlighter also comes in different shapes and sizes.
In the late 19th century, the Marker was created. The Marker is very similar to the highlighter. The only thing different is the style of ink that each produces. Instead of the transparent bright color, the Marker provides solid colors that are not transparent. Markets are usually used to write large text on things. For example, writing an address on a box to be mail somewhere. There are also special Markets used for artwork. There are Markers that are used to color things.
Electronic Pens are now on the rise. They include: Digital Pens and styluses. A Digital Pen is a rather clever device that digitally records written text and converts it to digital text on a computer. Instead of a mouse, a digital pen provides a very natural way to hand write and hand draw into the computer. In addition, since it stores everything internally, the data transfer to the computer via wireless or USB can be done at a later time (digital pen Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia). Digital pens or Smart Pens are also used to record audio as one writes. So, in the event that a sentence or phrase is missed while writing, the digital recording would have recorded everything that was missed. These products are fairly expensive however, ranging from 70 to 150 dollars, according to These pens are costly, but arguably worth the expense.
The other form of electronic pen, the stylus, is also on the rise. The stylus is a form of pen that can interact with the screen of an electronic device. The original Stylus had no ink or any other features. As time passed however, the ‘half stylus half pen’ was created, a multi function pen that can write on both paper and the screen of an electronic device.
Today, human beings live in a world of rapidly expanding technological advancements. The personal computer, laptops, palm pilots, smart phones, electronic gaming devices, tablets and televisions. These are but a few of the technologies that are widely accepted and use today. Most of these devices allow one to type text on the device instead of the traditional pen and paper. However the invention of the stylus was a step forward and backward at the same time. Maybe the world can’t give up the unique feel of writing with the hand and a pen?
Currently I have an Apple IPad. I have an application that allows me to either type text or draw text on my device. I use both functions. Typing surely much is faster than writing. But, I can’t type every thing that a professor writes on a board. I can’t type a diagram or a set of specific symbols. There are programs that allow one to add shapes and symbols, however I find it too time consuming. I can see why the pen still exists even in such a technological age. Sometimes it simply is more convenient.
Pens today are not just used to write, color, highlight or whiteout. The Swiss army knife is now available in pen form. The top half of the pen is writing part and the bottom half can contain knives, scissors, corkscrews and any other small useful tool. These all in one pens can be very handy but they are not as cheap as regular on function pens. I am positive that our military has developed ‘super pens’. Maybe they have pens that can shoot lasers or even bullets? Who knows? But one thing is for certain, with and innovative mind any thing is possible.
What will the Pen become in the Future?
Maybe the correct question is, “Will the pen still be around in the future?” Predicting the future is no easy task. For instance, I’m still awaiting a “flying car” or teleportation devices.
I think that the concept of the pen will remain in the future. After all, we are living in the 21st century with pens still around. But, I don’t think that ink pens will survive. Some people will argue that nothing beats the feel of a crisp piece of paper and a sturdy pen to write on it. However, with technology advancing so quickly, compatibility may become an issue. If everyone is using an electronic device to complete work tasks, why would you be the ‘lone ranger’ using pen and paper? It just would be inconvenient to all the computer users.
I think that pens will be more digitally based. People will use this digital pen/stylus to write on notepads, which will be computerized. This has already been introduced, but in the future the experience should be 100 times better.
In addition to my previous theory, I think that pens themselves will become computers and projectors. I believe that users will be able to write anything in mid air. The pen will project what ever the user writes. Projected images will be fully interactive. This means that once the word dog is written, you would be able to tap the word dog to see an image from the Internet of the search its definition.
This new all in one pen device will revolutionize the way people right and enjoy the little things in life. Imagine wanting to draw a building right in front of you. With the all in one pen you could simply look at a building in front of you and outline or trace it in using the air as you median of writing. This futuristic pen will also be able to capture images. It will capture them by projecting a scan on the object and basically replicating the image, detail for detail. The all-in-one pen will be able to wirelessly sync with any electronic device.
The all-in-one pen will also be able to sync with a users brain. This will allow thoughts to be automatically written by the pen or projected for the user to see. How cool would that be?
I think this product will have a relatively long product life cycle. The growth stage should occur rather quickly. I think everyone would benefit from using such a mind-boggling device. This new pen technology will take decades to be outdated. The technology will be so advanced that a new idea will take a very long time to surface and become a reality. Improvements to the product will be made after its launch date, but I do not think that they will be radical.
Generating profit should be relatively easy for companies to do. Advertising will play a key roll. Futuristic captivating television advertisements should reel many customers in. I think that short trials will also benefit customers. If they can get a free glimpse of what the product can do for a limited time, they will either love it or hate it. Complimentary goods can also help to generate rents. Easier said than done however. Complimenting such a technologically filled product will be tricky. A probable compliment could be a rechargeable pen case.
Protecting such an innovative product will be a priority of most companies. The inventor company can patent the process of creating the product. This could allow the product time to mature and gain good sales without rival companies’ trying to copy the product.
Human beings have developed many technologies through the process of innovation. The pen was a great invention. It allowed people to write and draw words or images. Some of these recordings became history. The pen went from being a feather to becoming a solid plastic or metal frame with a dispensable ink system. In the future I think that the pen and ink will no longer be necessary. Electronically advanced pens will take over. I believe that the all-in-one pen can be a possible reality maybe in the next 20 to 30 years. Will the classic inked filled pen be missed? Possibly, for a short time, but as humans have done since the beginning of time, we will adapt.

Works Cited
Carroll, Maxfield. History of Pen and Ink Rendering | 2013 йил 11-April. <>.
Curtiss, Joshua. Pen & Ink History . 13 April 2013 <>.
—. Pen & Ink History . 13 April 2013 <>. digital pen Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia. <>.

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Disruptive Marketing is Innovative and Boon to the Consumers - a Conceptual Thought Article by Dr. Maruthi Ram. R. Professor and Head – MBA (BU), DSCMIT, Bengaluru Co-Authors Manjunatha.N. Research Scholar, University of Mysore, And Lecturer, NCET, Bengaluru and Shashikala.R. Asst. Professor, DSCMIT, Bengaluru Submitted to DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT PROGRAM CMR INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BENGALURU For NATIONAL LEVEL CONFERENCE on “Disruptive Marketing — The Way Forward?” 27th April, 2012 Disruptive Marketing is Innovative and Boon to the Consumers - A Conceptual Thought Introduction Human beings are a very special creation of God. It is this creature that could think compared to the many other creatures in the world. Man can even think of innovative ideas and also implement the same for his convenient living. The good old saying quotes “Necessity is the mother of invention”, has embedded a detailed meaning in it. If we take the example of the invention of the “WEEL” by the ancient man of the Stone Age man we can really understand how innovative in the thinking of Man. The other invention of human beings is the formation of fire. These are a few examples and the list goes on and on. Disruptive Marketing The contemporary world is of the highest civilization this universe has ever witnessed. The innovative mind of human beings has unfolded itself into multifold activity and taken different shapes. In fact the changes that have taken...

Words: 2755 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Strategic Management

... The alternative strategy used by IonTech Sdn Bhd is the intensive strategy. It emphasizes on product development and market development. 5.1 Product Development Firstly, product development. It is where this strategy is use to boost up the company’s sales and profit. There will be an innovation and modification to the existing product which is pen. A normal pen will be transform into a smart pen. This innovation is prior to the demand of consumers based on their needs and wants. Furthermore, the smart pen will be very useful and handy as it is multipurpose. Nowadays, consumers demand for a product which can make their life easier than before. This is where the smart pen comes into action. IonTech smart pen is portable and multipurpose. It could help the consumers to do their job with a click of a pen. Moreover, there are five functions of the smart pen which includes a writing tool, recorder, projector, USB pendrive and laser pointer. It is a 5 in 1 product. IonTech smart pen can ease the work of the consumer especially in business field. It can help them to save time and cost, be more effective and efficient and to achieve their goals. Besides, the smart pen can be use to write and the ink can be refill. It can be use as a recorder to record any important information that the consumer might left out as the brain cannot absorb all the information at once but a recorder can. This can help the consumer to listen back to the audio and interpret the information...

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Introduction to Innovation Management Prof. Paul Collins UWB Learning Objectives • Understand the Language of Innovation • Distinguish between innovation as artifact and process • Be able to explain the three innovation imperatives • Be versed in how innovation affects firm growth and performance • Articulate why managing innovation matters Prof. Collins UWB 2 I. The Competitive Challenge Techno-economic Revolution •We are in the middle of an estimated 50 year technoeconomic revolution that creates new growth opportunities and disrupts the basis of competition in many established industries (Hiemtra,2000) •Global markets mean increased competitiveness in terms of cost, quality, and innovation •Affects consumer demand by providing more options that offer multiple performance advantages simultaneously. Prof. Collins UWB UWB 3 Moore’s Law – Powering the Techno-economic Revolution •According to Moore’s Law, the number of transistors on a chip roughly doubles every two years (at less cost per unit of performance). •As transistor counts climb so does the ability to increase device complexity and integrate many capabilities onto a chip. • How does this affect your industry? Company? Prof. Collins UWB 4 Evidence (Forbes Study) Drivers of Value Creation Drivers of Value Creation What Forbes' Research Established (rank order) 1. INNOVATION 2. ABILITY TO ATTRACT TALENTED EMPLOYEES 3. ALLIANCES What Forbes' Readers Said (rank...

Words: 1217 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Project on Marketing

...MindGrip® Pens[pic] Introduction La Innovators International launches its sensational new product ‘MindGrip’ range of pens. ‘MindGrip’ pens represent a new milestone achieved in the technology space and is bound to grab eyeballs and will develop a market for itself owing to its unique product proposition and the comprehensive plan chalked out by the marketers at La Innovators International. ‘MindGrip’ is basically a unique new pen gadget which catches the brain waves while one is thinking and holding the pen, converts those waves into alphabets forming words and consequently sentences. It thus capitalizes on the growing dearth of time which working professionals face these days. The random thoughts can be stored , analyzed, processed and sequentially presented in the desired format. Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning Segmentation: As per Population Census of India 2011, the Literacy rate of India is 74.04%. Out of the total literate population, La Innovators International has segmented the market based upon 3 main parameters: Geographic: |Geographic Segmentation | | |Cities |Characteristics | |Metro |Delhi NCR, Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai |Fairly well established markets with technologically...

Words: 1475 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...The main production of various high profile multi functioning pen included different features like 3 refill (blue, red & black),pencil link,2 megapixel camera, video recording, 8GB pen drive, ear phone, mp4 music player and accu weather. 2. Industry detail 3. Company detail MULTI FUNCTIONING PEN INDUSTRY CO.,LTD The Multi functioning Pen Industry Co., Ltd. is a professional production of all kinds of pen manufacturers, is located in the juhu (mumbai) , " the india County , convenient transportation.  The company was founded in 2013, after nearly a decade of development, the plant area of over 4000 square meters, 20sets of injection molding machines, more than 100 employees, and the annual production capacity of more than 3,000 million. The main production of various high profile multi functioning pen ( 3 refill (blue, red & black),pencil link,2 megapixel camera, video recording, 8GB pen drive, ear phone, mp4 music player and accu weather.) can also be designed and manufactured according to the different needs of merchants, products are mainly exported to the international market, domestic and foreign customers praise. The company has a group of skilled personnel and state-of-the-art equipment, from raw materials to the finished product to the new product development can own independently. Years of stability built in the development process, the company always adhere to the "people oriented, innovation". We have always stressed the heavy product quality contract, the principle...

Words: 716 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Case Summary for Gillette

...until 1962, when Wilkinson Sword introduced its stainless steel blade. After 1962, Sword-Schick became Gillette’s primary competitor. Over the years both Gillette and Schick focused on improvements in razors and each of them introduced their own line of products. When Gillette introduced Mach3 (3-bladed razor), Schick responded with its Quattro (4-bladed razor). Gillette has always been known for its innovation and the peak of its innovation occurred in 2006 with the introduction of the Fusion 5-bladed razor. Schick is yet to respond to Fusion. Now under the ownership of Proctor & Gamble, Gillette faces a saturated US market that fluctuates only when new products are introduced. Going back to the way Gillette Company was founded; in 1895 King Camp Gillette had a brilliant idea when he was shaving. It was almost impossible at that time to come up with a blade that is hard, thin and disposable. After few unsuccessful attempts, in 1901, Gillette partnered with an MIT graduate William Nickerson in creating a razor with a safe, inexpensive, hard, thin and disposable blade. This innovation gave birth to Gillette Safety Razor Company. Since then, for many years, Gillette enjoyed the...

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Clique Pens

...For the exclusive use of K. Larsen, 2016. 9-914-525 DECEMBER 16, 2013 FRANK V. CESPEDES JAMES KINDLEY Clique Pens: The Writing Implements Division of U.S. Home A fierce thunderstorm had just brought brief relief to the sweltering mid-August temperatures in Tampa, Florida, as Elise Ferguson, president of the writing implements division of U.S. Home, Clique Pens, stared at the notepad in front of her. She had jotted some thoughts about just whose needs were more important for Clique to satisfy—its retailers or its consumers? Fortunately, the 2013 back-to-school sales of her core writing implements product lines appeared to be on goal for a 3% increase over 2012. These sales were not without a cost, however, as various discounts, allowances, and other off-invoice deals had pushed gross profit margin down from 42% in 2010 to just over 36% in 2012. (See Exhibit 1.) Another one of Ferguson’s primary goals for Clique was to stop this decline in gross profit margin percentage and grow its overall gross profit by 4%. She hoped to accomplish this by growing revenues and increasing the gross profit margin. At this point, she felt it was unlikely that the latter would happen this year (2013). Ferguson wondered, were all these “giveaways” to retailers necessary? If so, couldn’t the monies be shifted to a form referred to generally as Market Development Funds (MDF), which would in theory allow Clique to have more control over their use in driving sales of its products...

Words: 5477 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Diabetes Kit Industry

...DIABETES TEST KIT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY ANALYSIS STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 1 SECTION A | GROUP 9 IIM RAIPUR Submitted by: Anshoo Saini 15PGP008 Gautham Balaji 15PGP015 Isha Tayal 15PGP018 Koundinya Niggamadda 15PGP026 Piyush Gaurav 15PGP037 Shekhar Suman 15FPM009 Index Industry Definition…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….2 Industry Activities 2 Similar Industries 2 Market Participants 2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis 3 PESTEL Analysis 4 Industry Outlook 5 Products & Markets 6 Future Outlook 7 Competitive Landscapes, Success factors and Business Locations 7 Major Companies 8 Strategic Recommendations 10 Industry Analysis Industry Definition This industry develops and produces blood glucose meters and testing supplies that help users monitor blood glucose levels. Most manufacturers also develop other medical devices. Industry Activities * Diabetes market research * Glucose meter monitoring research and development * Glucose meter * Glucose meter accessory Similar Industries * Dental Laboratories * Diagnostic & Medical Laboratories * Dialysis Equipment Manufacturing * Health & Medical Insurance * Hearing Aid Manufacturing * Medical Device Manufacturing * Medical Instrument & Supply Manufacturing * Ophthalmic Instrument Manufacturing * Pacemaker Manufacturing * Robotic Surgery Equipment Manufacturing * Syringes & Injection Needle Manufacturing ...

Words: 3282 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...2005 Masters Business Administration (Leadership) Menakha a/p Rathana Singgam KLCP119004 1. Evaluate product innovation at Gillette throughout its history. Has Gillette been a victim of its own success? Has product innovation in the wet-shaving market come to an end? Explain. King C. Gillette has founded Gillette in 1901. It was one of the first great multinational organizations and a marvel of marketing effectiveness. Gillette has set a goal for his company: To offer consumers high-quality shaving products that would satisfy basic grooming needs at a fair price. Throughout its history Gillette has always strived to be on cutting edge of shaving technology in a market that thrives on innovation. Gillette did a great job in razor market dominance. Its innovation also expanded to other products like introducing the refillable Paper Mate pen and the Cricket disposable lighters and the Soft & Dri antiperspirant. Meanwhile Gillette's Trac II razor was a great success. The Colman Mockler era was one of the most successful in Gillette's history, producing memorable innovations as the Atra razor, the Good News! Disposable razor and the Daisy razor for women. With such product additions, Gillette held majority of the US shaving market and also 75% of the global market share. Gillette has been throughout its history a first runner in innovation. Its introduction of new products that were developed in its research laboratories helped boost sales in razor and blades,...

Words: 1798 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Has Gillette Been a Victim

...1. Evaluate product innovation at Gillette throughout its history. Has Gillette been a victim of its own success? Has product innovation in the wet-shaving market come to an end? Explain. 2. What do you make of the razor wars, first between Gillette and Schick, and now with online competitors? Does Gillette face a serious threat from competitive inroads? Explain. 3. What actions would you recommend over the next five years that could help Gillette maintain its worldwide dominance? What specific marketing program decisions would you recommend? Should Gillette be worried about its pricing strategy? Explain. Products Founder of Gillette Safety Razor Company- King Camp Gillette Traveling salesmen Met William Painter who told him a successful invention was one bought over and over again by a satisfied customer. Intrigued, he spent the next 14 years considering new inventions but ended up rejecting them all One morning while shaving, came up with the brilliant idea of a razor with a safe, inexpensive, and disposable blade Technical experts claimed it would be impossible However, in 1901, with the technical partnership of MIT graduate William Nickerson, the original Gillette safety razor blade was produced, establishing the foundation of the company Gillette. Benefit Segmentation Strategy--> Selective Targeting M1: Male customers who are either in their 20's or early 30's, have a high disposable income (if student, then those who spend comfortably), are salaried...

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ergonomics of Pens

...Ergonomics of Pens * Mitali Prakash Vrinda Gupta Ask anyone who’s ever taken a timed, hand-written exam about the disadvantage of using a poorly-designed pen. Not only can writing with a sub-par utensil cost you time, but pain too. That’s because standard pens are not made with your ergonomic well-being in mind. In fact, the typical, “run-of-the-mill” ballpoint pen is designed to do one thing and one thing only: write. But as you grip the simple, straight shaft of the average pen, you begin to realize that it takes an increasingly high amount of pressure to keep the pen in your fingers. Indeed, because your fingers are fatiguing, and your fingertips sweating, more and more pressure is needed to continue to write. The problem with this of course, is that for all the pressure you exert on the pen, it exerts an equal amount of force on the bones, ligaments, and tendons of your wrist and forearm. This kind of random pressure can wreak havoc on your joints. In fact, it’s one of the leading causes of Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSIs) and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). Luckily, this problem has been recognized by the designers of several leading pen manufacturers. These companies have stepped forward, creating writing utensils made to eliminate pressure points, allowing you to write with ease for hours on end. Introduction The design of hand writing instruments has been based primarily on touch, feel, aesthetics and muscle exertion (Kao, 1977, 2004), and has mostly being...

Words: 2084 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Eli Liily of marketing strategy. Other mistakes on the product development efforts was that the market research they did wasn’t not very extended; this was a because they thought they didn’t need it because of their market share and brand positioning Lilly had. In my personal opinion I think that they should emphasize more on the research... Ely Lilly originally pioneered the diabetes care market. It had some prosperous years, but eventually failed. In 1995, Novo, a major competitor, dominated the European market, and was building a new plant in the US, in order to produce insulin cartridges for its pen. Simultaneously, Lilly was working on its own pen, seeking to reverse its decline. The basis of competition evolves from functionality, to reliability, to convenience, and then price. The shift from functionality to reliability, results from product innovation overshooting market need; product performance progresses faster than the market is able to absorb. Hence, markets become...

Words: 273 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Consumer Behavior

...|Contents | |Title |Page no. | |Introduction |01 | |Model of consumer behavior |02 | |Physical influences within an individual |03 | |Motivation |04 | | Perception |05 | |Learning |06 | |Attitudes |06 | |Lifestyle |06 | |Social influences affect consumer behavior ...

Words: 2501 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

University Application I wish to study the Art and Design program at the University of Ryerson because I want to devote my passion to art and design under an insightful guidance, broaden my understanding of the art world and strengthen my painting and creating skills. Last year, I took an Art and Design course to build up a solid foundation for painting and designing skills as preparation for my first year at university. In the course, I was captured by mixing and testing with colors, discovering diverse concepts and using several types of mediums to illustrate my idea. Additionally, in a group project under a topic of “Life and Sky”, I contributed to design and make a pen with my team members, which had the shape as a scaling airplane with two wings at both sides. It can be used by pushing two wings with springs back into the pen and this pen was acknowledged as an excellent sample for my juniors with a mark of 96%. Afterwards, I realized that art is closely linked with our daily life. This course has strengthened my ability to be creative and unremitting as well as provided me with eyes of discovering the beauty in our daily life. As I knew that the Art and Design program requires a foundation of knowledge that includes art history and famous art pieces since I was young, so I found a part-time job as a custodian in Nanjing Art Museum from 2006 to 2009 and in Singapore Art Museum from 2011 to 2012 in order to understand art pieces from diverse cultures. In the museum, I learned detailed information...

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Pasbul, San Juan, Lubao, Pampanga Tel #: 971 5080/971 7040 Core Learning Area Standards: The learners utilize gained scientific skills and attitudes in understanding the nature of waves as carriers of energy. They become acquainted with the different types of waves, know the different characteristics and properties of each disturbance, and through the process, develop appreciation on the importance of wave to man’s life and his environment.Year Level Standards: Understand the nature of wave as energy carriers, differences between electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves, and their characteristics and properties | Waves | Number of Days – 20 days | Content Standards * Demonstrate understanding on: * the nature of waves as energy carriers and the wave properties of reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference * differences between electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves and give examples of each * characteristics of waves, amplitude, crest, frequency, period, trough, and wavelength * different properties of waves | Performance StandardsConduct research works, carry out mathematical equations, and produce outputs that will reflect the existence of waves including their importance and impact to man and his environment | Lesson Number/Title | Key Understanding and Key Questions | Knowledge | Skills | Teaching Strategies | Assessment Strategies | Resources | 1. Vibrational MotionNumber of Days: 5 daysLesson Focus: * - Simple Harmonic Motion *...

Words: 817 - Pages: 4