Free Essay

Japan Cultural Changed

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Anutra
Words 1805
Pages 8
Anutra Rujivipat
5602640020

1. What are the triggers of cultural change in Japan during the 1990s? How is cultural change starting to affect traditional values in Japan?

As we know that when time changes, everything will be changed. Culture does not stay constant. Many different period of times also have many different cultures, social values, believes, and so on. In japan, the old generations, which are collectivism, have a strong belief of nationalism. They grew up with many difficulties and have to work hard in order to make their family, their country success so that it takes a lot of patient. In consequences, they must seek for the convenience of life for example, cheap accommodation, retirement bonus, and guaranteed lifetime employment. Therefore, they are willing to work hard and pay royalty to the company to exchange with those rewards. On the other hand, the new generations like people who born after 1964 have lacked popularity of their parents. Those new generations grew up in the richer and more stable society. The only two things that they concerned are their selves and their family, not about the country anymore. Therefore, with the different style of living, social value, Japan’s culture changed. The idea that the company has to take care of its employees with wide range of benefits in order to gain respect from those employees does not exist anymore because of the fact that the new generations do not pay royalty to the company like the old ones. Moreover, they do not want to be salary-man and work at the same company for all of their life. The way of doing businesses in Japan also have to change in order to suit with the new generations.

2. How might Japan’s changing culture influence the way Japanese businesses operate in the future? What are the potential implications of such changes for the Japanese economy?

According to Japan’s changing culture that discussed earlier, it influences Japanese businesses to change the way of operating. The company has to change its policy to adapt with the current situation. For example that described in the case, the new system was introduced and available for employees. Three choices to choose the most suit choice for them. The first choice is stated with the traditional one that the employees were eligible to live in subsidized company housing, go buy subsidize services such as banking from group companies, go free to company organized social events, and receive the retirement bonus equal to his two years salaries. The second alternative is provided for those who do not want any retirement bonus. They can get the higher amount of starting salary and keep company housing. The last scheme is more preferable to the new generation that they have to lose both retirement bonus and the subsidized services while being compensated by the higher starting salary, which is also higher than the second choice. From the statistic, 44 percent of all employees choose to lose their retirement bonus, 41 percent choose the second alternative and 3 percent choose the third one. When huge amount of people do not have a retirement bonus, it will increase the government’s burden that Japanese government has to subsidiary more money for the retired person. Therefore, government must seek for more funds in order to have an ability to hold this duty. In consequences, the government might need to charge more tax from working people who has income or borrow from aboard like IMF. This might lead to government budget deficit that the government has to change its policy and the way of controlling the country.

3. How did traditional Japanese culture benefit Matsushita during the period from the 1950s to the 1980s? Did traditional values become more of liability during the 1990s and early 2000s? How so?

From 1950s to the 1980s, Japanese culture benefit Matsushita in doing its business because the company could get along well with its employees. The old generations, as discussed earlier, were collectivism, have a strong belief of nationalism, and willing to scarify their lifetime doing a hard work in order to exchange with many convenience things that could get from their own company. In the business point of view, it was great that their employees give royalty to the firm. Therefore, the company is also willing to give its employees the convenience of life too. For example, retirement bonus, guaranteed lifetime employment, and cheap accommodation. It is a win-win situation between Matsushita and workers. However, when time passed, Japanese cultural is also changed. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the new generations grew up in richer society with more comfortable and easier life. They did not want to spend all of their lifetime being the employees in the same corporation so that they did not want to scarify their life to the company anymore. This type of organization did not create any value or advantage like before. It could be counted as liabilities to the business because the firm has to waste its money, offers, and so on to its workers who did not actually want it. The loyalty to the company might not be reciprocated and it was a bad situation to both company and workers. Therefore, those win-win situation, which appeared during 1950s to 1980s, did not still exist anymore.

4. What is Matsushita trying to achieve with human resource changes it has announced? What are the impediments to successfully implementing these changes? What are the implications for Matsushita if (a) the changes are made quickly or (b) it takes years or even decades to fully implement the changes?

Once Matsushita trying to achieve with human resource changes, it said that it would close 30 factories in Japan, cut 13,000 jobs including 1,000 management jobs. This announcement implies that the company wants to keep a skill worker who aims to work, sacrificed his life to work hard, and has a very nice job. Moreover, the company also wants to terminate those poor performances who are unwilling to work, lazy, and do not work well. Therefore, employees might feel that they are under pressure and have more incentive to work harder if they still do not want to get fired by their employers. The impediments to successfully implementing these changes are the command inside choices of controlling its managers. Remind that although the employees have 3 alternatives to choose which one is the best suit for them, they all are still under the condition that offers them so that they cannot even create their own choice. In case that the Japanese business made the changes so quickly, it would be alienate for those old generation that they might not adjust themselves to be familiar with the new circumstance and method of working. On the other hand, if the changes take many years or even decades in order to fully implement the changes, those who have poor performances in which being discussed earlier would take a benefit from the company so it means that Japanese companies would be traded off because they have to pay salaries to people who do not deserve it. The more of poor worker stay in the company, the less profit the company will get.

5. Why do you think Matsushita reorganized itself into stand-alone worldwide business divisions?

Before Japanese company has been faced with cultural changes that force the company to change the way of managing its firm, shareholders, managers, and all employees, the method of the organization in Matsushita that was called “Byzantine organizational structure”, which merges all departments in the company. They have to work dependently as every department has to work altogether. This type of management could create a problem that it was so difficult in order to detect what sector or department was done the un-qualified job in order to give it a punishment and find out what sector was done the great job in order to give it a reward or bonus. In 2002, Matsushita undertook a significant reorganization. Matsushita’s design moved into new industries in order to adjust itself with the current culture in Japan at that time. For example, the network communications technology and software engineering. It began to praise democratization of employees and also has sought to encourage individuality by replacing the old system with 17 stand-alone worldwide businesses in which all departments will be obviously separated into an independent one and focused on a particular product sector. This kind of management could make it a lot easier in order to detect what department was done a wrong thing and seek out what sector was done a well-qualify task. Moreover, it is easier to choose the employees who deserve the reward from the company and who deserved to get fired or reduced salary. Furthermore, work cycle in the company would go faster together with higher quality increasing because all works are done systematically.

6. What does the Matsushita case teach you about the relationship between societal culture and business success?

As we know that every culture has its sub culture and that sub culture also has its own sub culture too. This is the reason why we do not have the same culture as our parents. Moreover, different people have a different belief, thinking, and style or different kinds of companies, even in the different departments also do not have exactly the same culture too. In real life, changes in culture always come up with changes in business form too. Matsushita is one of the best example cases of the relationship between societal culture and business success. We can see in this case that societal culture is the very importance key factor that drives business for their success. The way of managing business changes according to the change in cultural because the firm has to adapt with all situations. However, such a change cannot be made too quick or too slow because it would come up with negative result as discussed earlier. Moreover, the most important key factor in order to achieve the aims of succession is an ethic. Every company must have ethic in doing its business. Ethics concern an individual's moral judgments about right and wrong. Decisions taken within an organization may be made by individuals or groups, but whoever makes them will be influenced by the culture of the company. The decision to behave ethically is a moral one. Both employers and employees must decide what they think is the right course of action. This may involve rejecting the route that would lead to the biggest profit to the company. The firm also has to compromise and have alternatives for both old generation and new generation. Nowadays, not only Japanese business but also all of the businesses around the world have the ethical part along with other strategies.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Japanese Cultural Evaluation

...Japanese Cultural Evaluation XBCOM 275 Mr. Abel March 05, 2014 Japan is a country full of cultural differences, some of which are long practiced traditions that affect the business aspects of the country’s economy. Taking the practiced traditions into consideration means that business presentations or arguments must be changed and conveyed accordingly. First we look at some of the culture differences within the country and then we will look at the different ways that presentations or arguments would need to be changed based on those differences. The people of Japan still practice traditions in such a way that may appear unfamiliar to most. Most of the country holds value dimensions, in this order, to be very important to their survival in the country. The first and foremost important aspect of the value of the Japanese is power distance. This is simply a well respected superior who looks out for his company and his employees (Onken, 2014). The second aspect of value in the Japanese culture is uncertainty avoidance. The Japanese people must know what is going to happen next, at all times. There are even specific laws and procedures in place to help keep a sense of nationalism. The country is very important to the people. Thirdly, there is collectivism. The people have a very strong sense of dependence and a very strong sense of belonging to “the organization” (Onken, 2014). According to a Japanese culture website, due to the social pressures and fear of humiliation,......

Words: 662 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cultural Evaluation Paper

...Cultural Evaluation Paper XBCOM/275 12/6/13 Rene Cintron Cultural is the characteristics of a particular group of people. The group of people can be defined by language, religion, cuisine, or social habits. The cultural in the US is called the western culture and was heavily influenced by European immigration. This culture’s roots come from the classical period of the Greco-Roman era and the rise of Christianity. The culture in Japan is called the eastern culture. The eastern culture and the western culture were both heavily influenced by religion during its early development. The culture in Japan has not changed much since its development in 660 BC. Japanese people are still extremely protective of their culture and their society. “One good way to make yourself unpopular in Japan is to quote studies that indicate the Japanese are descendants from immigrants from mainland Asia” (Morrison & Conway, 2006, p. 280). In Japan their government is a parliamentary democracy under a constitution monarch. This means that there is an emperor who rules the country. The current emperor of Japan is Akihito. Akihito has been on the throne since 1989. Akihito is extremely respected because in Japan people respect their elders to the highest degree. Therefore younger members of a team should remain quite during meetings. Younger members of the team are on the team to go out to social events at night and build relationships with other younger members of the opposite team. During...

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gay Marriage: Should It Be Allowed?

...partner passes away. It is unjust. Marriage should exist between two people who love each other, despite gender. To state one of the reasons against gay marriage is procreation is absurd. If that is the case, ‘traditional’ couples should not be allowed to marry if they cannot procreate or choose not to. Many people have changed their minds about gay marriage over the last decade. In 2003, 58% of adult Americans were opposed to gay marriage while 33% were in favor. Then in 2013, 44% of adult Americans are still opposed, but 49% are in favor of gay marriage (Growing Support for Gay Marriage: Changed Minds and Changing Demographics, 2013). Among those Americans are ‘Millenials’ which are people who were born since 1980 and between the ages of 18 and 32. Millenials make up a larger portion of the adult population today and 70% of the millenials are supporters of gay marriage (Growing Support for Gay Marriage: Changed Minds and Changing Demographics, 2013). The reasons behind the mind change are because they know of someone who is homosexual, they have just grown older, they realize the world is changing and gay marriage is inevitable. The rest say they changed their minds because they believe people should be free to choose who they love and whatever makes them happy. That is what marriage is (or should be)…the union of two people who want to spend the rest of their lives together because they love each other and it makes them happy. As far as children are......

Words: 2349 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Do You Think

...Case Study: Panasonic and Japan’s Changing Culture Summary This case study focuses on the globalization and change in culture of Panasonic established in Japan in 1920. Japanese culture hasn’t changed but the world around Japan has changed. Panasonic tried very hard to adhere to the values that were already in motion but as the times changed so did Panasonic. Although this was a drastic change it allowed Panasonic to grow. “As the decade progressed, one Japanese firm after another was forced to change its traditional ways of doing business” (Global Business Today, 2011, pp. 126). Globalization played a huge role in the outcome of the Japanese businesses. Questions 1. The triggers of cultural change in Japan during the 1990s were that the generation born after 1964 wasn’t as motivated and grew up in a much richer and prosperous Japan. Another trigger was that the Japanese economy was sucked into a slump. Due to the fact that the companies in Japan were trying to keep their traditions and values, keep their employees happy and maintain good and efficient business caused the companies to suffer. Cultural change is starting to affect traditional values in Japan because it is causing companies to change their values. Companies are no longer following the set of values and folkways from previous years. They are beginning to follow the same rules and regulations of the society. Panasonic was also letting go of employees and modifying the social structure to......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cultural Anthropology Essay

...American Economics and Death in Japan Jacob K. Donlan ANT 101: Cultural Anthropology Instructor James Turner September 7, 2015 Introduction This paper will show an overview of the American economic system today from an etic (outsider’s) point of view as well as examine how the Japanese culture treats death from an introspective view to show readers how areas where they may already have an opinion on can be seen from other perspectives. In Part I, readers will be shown from an etic perspective how Americans have, over time, developed an addiction to indebtedness and live in abundance on credit, not caring of growing deficits and interest burdens. In his 2013 book, “Cultural Anthropology,” Crapo describes an etic analysis as “an outsider’s or observer’s allegedly “objective” account.” In Part II, the Japanese culture surrounding death will be described as how an insider would understand it. Crap described an emic analysis as “an insider’s or native’s meaningful account.” (Ch. 1.1). For various cultures around the world to truly understand and empathize with one another, it is important to be able to see things from each other’s perspective. Being able to understand an issue in America as an outsider would see it, and likewise to look at something that might seem strange to us as an insider would will help us grow beyond our preconceived notions and ignorance. Part......

Words: 1490 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Jollibee

...Google in Asia | | [Type the document subtitle] | | Humber College | [Pick the date] | 寿司 寿司 | Sushi Summary Every country has created something which went has gone global. Some creations are sports, food, clothing, etc. Sushi is the creation of Tokyo Japan which has gone global shortly after its creation and is known as a big dish in the USA. Japan has been known since the 1970’s of making healthy dishes and for its food design. Another factor in why sushi went global is the marketing of its product in cuisines and all sorts of various sushi dishes. Everything is about trade, one country has oil, one country has vegetables and etc, and in order for other countries to obtain these resources they need to trade, so in this case, Japan Is the world’s primary market for fresh tuna for sushi. Sushi has gone global with some countries involved such as New England for its Bluefin, which was traded to Tokyo and Spain for capturing its fish from their nets. Many countries and local farms have developed this global mechanism for sushi which has made it so popular and delicious product for consumers. How did Sushi become Global? Like some cuisines in Japan, the sushi incorporated many foreign influences. The history of sushi is much like the food itself simple, adaptable enough to satisfy consumer budgets ranging from fast-food to stratospheric levels. We can trace sushi's origin back to the 4th century in Southeast Asia. As a preserved food,......

Words: 1310 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cultural Differences Between China and Japan

...In order to achieve success in global business, it’s critical to know cultural differences between target countries and our native country. National culture is the set of shared values and beliefs that affects the perceptions, decisions, and behavior of the people from a particular country. Even two countries whose geographic distance is close, their cultural differences may vary a lot, for example, China and Japan. From the graph I get on the website, the biggest cultural difference between China and Japan is on uncertainty avoidance, which is the degree to which people in a country are uncomfortable with unstructured, ambiguous, unpredictable situations. The fact that China has a comparatively low score on this dimension reflects that Chinese are adaptable and entrepreneurial, and comfortable with ambiguity. On the contrary, at 92 Japan is one of the most uncertainty avoiding countries on earth. Japanese learned to prepare themselves for any uncertain situation. This goes not only for the emergency plan and precautions for sudden natural disasters but also for every other aspects of society. On long term orientation, both China and Japan have relatively high scores. This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future. Therefore, these two countries show an ability to adapt traditions easily to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness, and......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cultural Evaluation

...Cultural Evaluation Paper June 7, 2014 Business Communications and Critical Thinking Kris Dunn Abstract This paper will discuss identify the ways that arguments or a presentation of the arguments would need to be changed as the result of cultural differences in Japan. Cultural Evaluation Paper Having a good understanding of a particular culture before beginning an argument or a presentation is crucial. One should take the time to learn about the audience’s culture as well as the way that certain things, such as humor, can be perceived as offensive. Failing to do these simple tasks can result in a failed argument or presentation. In the case of the Japanese, it is important to understand and educate oneself in their strict customs. The better prepared one is the more likely their message will be received as intended. One of the most important things to know prior to meeting with someone from Japan is their traditional greeting technique. It is customary in Japan for someone who is of lower seniority to bow to their superior first. This is considered much more important than a handshake and is a sign of respect. Similarly, when gathering for a casual meeting, one should never introduce themselves. It is customary in Japan for the host to introduce their guests. In order to ensure that a good first impression is made, it is critical that one remember these points. According to the cultural training firm Roland & Associates, there......

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Cultural Eval Japan

...Different cultural practices affect every area of life, the family dynamic, labor force, education, cultural economics, death, reproduction, religion etc. The cultural practices in the United States are eclectic in many ways considering all the different ethnicities that reside in the U.S. In Japan, the religious views tend to lend towards liberal views on the family dynamic and sexual expression. I intend to compare the differences between the two countries as it relates to sex and gender roles in the family. In terms of comparative cultural characteristics at the cultural map of the world according to the World Value Survey describes Japan as average-high in Self Expression Values. The gender roles in Japanese homes are reverse in comparison to some traditional gender roles in America. Typically the wife handles and completely controls the household finances. She gives her husband a monthly allowance and has total control over the rest of the family’s income. Half of the husbands in one survey reported they were unhappy with the amount of the allowance but could do little if anything about it. Traditionally, in past times, American household income was predominately earned and controlled by the husband in the home. But according to the U.S Department of Labor women comprise 46.5% of the total U.S labor force and are projected to account for 47% of the labor force in 2016. That being said, the traditional roles in the American home have changed considerably. Women are......

Words: 318 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Japan

...Economic Stagnation: 2020 Tokyo Olympic, Establishment of Foreign Companies and Cultural Reform/Cultural Ramification Before Japan was globalized it was secluded from the rest of the world for nearly two centuries from1603 to 1868. This time period was called the Tokugawa Period. Even though Japan closed its ports to foreign trade, it was self sustainable and independent. This self sustainable society was maintained through its unique producer-consumer relationship and the "reuse recycle" practice in commerce due to the island's limited resources. Repair merchants such as tinker, ceramics repairers and truss hoop repairers supported a society where nothing was thrown away but instead carefully repaired and reused until the products were truly un-amendable. For example, tinkers used special techniques and charcoal heat to weld holes in pots and kettles with other metals; ceramic repairers glue broken ceramic pieces together with sticky rice and applied heat; paper makers buy used papers and blend them to make a variety of paper from writing paper to toilet paper (Staff). The Tokugawa Period served as a model of a flourishing sustainable society to the Japanese. After Japan was introduced to globalization during the Second World War, the nation benefited from becoming a export driven economy, business policies such as the lifetime employment policy promoted the efficiency of the company, and the cultural influences on business management such as respect for authority and......

Words: 3659 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Technology in Japan

...Emül 1 Recep Emül Miyouki Aoki Girardelli HIST 48G 08.04.2008 TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN Technology is one of the most important elements that a country must have. It makes life easier and leads people to a modern age. In history, there had been some countries which were more advanced in technology than the others. Japan was not one of these countries. Today, however, it is the leader of the world in technology and science. Japan was not a leader country in technology; it borrowed the knowledge and the machinery of the western world during the middle ages. For example, while developing optics the Western World provided many innovations for Japan. The arrival of the ‘peeping box’ is one of them. Those innovations were modified when they came into Japan because there were cultural differences. Usually the names of the foreign inventions were adapted to the Japan and their technical specifications also changed due to the fact that the Japanese’s use of them different from the others. When ‘peeping box’ became known in Japan, its name did not stay the same for the Japanese too. Timon Screech gives a clear example in his book: “The VOC register goes on the note that the Japanese referred to the novel box as a gocracqbaco, presumably gokuraku-bako, or ‘paradise box’ (119). Apart from optics there are also more serious subjects taken from the Western world; “In the latter half of Tokugawa period learning of Western natural science and medicine through Dutch books spread Emül......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Toys “R” Us Adaptation to Japanese Market

... 170 in Japan, and 700 in other overseas locations. Toys “R” Us is divided into 5 corporate divisions which are Toys “R” Us, U.S., Toys “R” Us, International, Kids “R” Us, Babies “R” Us, and Imaginarium; accumulating between the 5 divisions an estimated business value of around $11 billion. Japan is an Asian country with 377,835 sq. kilometers and an estimated population of a little over 127 million inhabitants, it is known as an economically powerful an stable country. Japan’s economy is among the 3 largest economies worldwide and is the second most technologically powerful economy. From a cultural perspective Japan has strong cultural values greatly influenced by Confucianism and western cultures. When analyzing Japan from Hoftede Cultural dimension point of view it is clear that is low power distance culture with high collectivism, high masculinity, high uncertainty avoidance, and long-term oriented. This tendencies are reflected in marketing practices and consumer behavior, it also has a great impact on management as long-term oriented employment, high uncertainty avoidance, and long-life employment are expected from both employers and employees. Also managers have to be aware there is preference to local and high quality products, however there are some entry barriers and large competitors. After TRU started its international expansion in 1984 it had to rapidly learn to adapt to different competitive retail situations that it entered. The main cultural barrier......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bb.Cc

...Executive Summary This report tells how BONIA Corporation Bhd expands its market into Japan market. In this research we know that Japan economy is growing and getting a job is getting easier. Even their social cultural is quite conservative due to certain festival they will wear their cultural apparel also they are up to date about latest fashion. So BONIA Corporation Bhd should know their capabilities when doing business in Japan fashion industry. 2.0 Introduction BONIA Group is a high-end retailer which founded in 1974 by Mr. S.S Chiang and was the leading local leatherwear manufacturers and leading company of the quality leatherwear fashion house in Malaysia. The company converted into public limited company and changed its name to BONIA Corporation Berhad and being listed in Second Board of KLSE on 18 September 1994 and transferred to Main Board of Bursa Saham on 23 April 2007. BONIA Corporation had 700 sales outlet and 70 boutiques throughout the world.   3.0 Environmental Analysis Regarding Japan 3.1 Economic Factors Japan had a great economy since Japan GDP growth rate had increased from -6.3% in 2009 to 3.0% in 2010 which Japan became the 3rd largest economy in the world. This indicates that Japan economy growth is increasing. This means that Japan standard of living also had increased to a better standard where their GDP per capita had increase from RM32, 600 to RM34, 000. Japan unemployment rate had been decreased about 0.30% in 2010 which is 4.90%......

Words: 491 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cross Cultural Communication with Japan

...Cross Cultural Communications between Canada and Japan Management 340 December 2, 2010 Executive Summary Japan witch is located off the eastern edge of Asia has a current population of 127 million people. Japan witch operates as a free market has the 3rd largest economy in the world and has a labour force of over 65 million people. In Japanese culture is expected that employees have lifetime commitment to their employers. The Japanese people recognize responsibility and work as extremely important characteristics of their culture. The responsibilities are divided into very small details and are incorporated into a family-style working environment. Business leaders and management participate in all activities. The employees in Japan are motivated by private recognition, the corporate missions of the company, stability, and most importantly being part of a winning team. Formal meetings are considered times for employee to share ideas and visions. In Japanese culture employees can contribute regardless of status. Furthermore informal meetings are seen as occasions to build personal relationships and should contain no direct business discussions. Since Japan has one of the most indirect languages, and many messages are metaphorical it is important to refrain from saying terms such as “No” and “You”; these terms can be seen as rude and should be placed with appropriate terms. Instead of saying “You”, refer to contact by their last......

Words: 6130 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Europeans on the Margin: Missionaries and Indigenous Response in East Asia

...CHAPTER 2 Europeans on the Margin: Missionaries and Indigenous Response in East Asia QUESTION FOR DISCUSSION 1. Describe the approach of the Jesuit missionaries in China and Japan to convert these peoples to Christianity. When the Portuguese sea-captain, Vasco da Gama, introduced a new route to East Asia rounded the Cape of Good Hope, he marked the entrance of early modern Europeans in the maritime world of Asia. The Europeans were interested in spice trades and other luxury goods such as silk and textiles. The Portuguese, Spaniards and Italian people also brought Christian missionaries through this famous sea route. The Jesuit missionaries remade their own religion and cultural habits to suit the needs of the Japanese and Chinese. They hoped that this would increase the number of East Asian converts. In China the missionaries approached by emulate Chinese Confucian elite. They were also dressing and wearing their hair in the Confucian style, but there were few converts. The Jesuit missionaries used a similar method to convert the Japanese. They dressed in kimonos and took the Japanese cultural to other factors, which led to several more conventions than China. 2. How were the Jesuit missionaries in making Christian converts in Japan and China? The Jesuit missionaries were impacted as much of not more than the cultures they entered. They came to identify with the culture and way of the life of their hosts, but were themselves converted to the host culture.......

Words: 707 - Pages: 3