Free Essay

Justification by Faith


Submitted By rstalvey
Words 2907
Pages 12
Justification by Faith


Russell D. Stalvey

Introduction A statement that is ancient but also timeless and just as relevant for today’s believers is that we are justified by faith. The Apostle Paul gave insight to this statement very distinctly and in great aspect but to completely understand the statement, we first must possess a foundational comprehension of what it means to be justified. In understanding justification we will see that it is inseparably interrelated to faith, but not just any faith. We will also see that the undertaking of justification by faith has overwhelming effects on the justified.
Justification is seen as an act of God’s wonderful grace, free grace that is available to all sinners. God exonerations all of the sins, receives the sinners, not because of anything fashioned in the sinner or performed by the sinner, but only for the unflawed submission and complete satisfaction of the Lord, through God’s impartation and received by faith alone. The Westminster Larger Catechism answers the definition of justification in this manner: “Justification is an ‘act’. It is a courtroom verdict .We are the defendants and charges have been filed against us. The judge passes his verdict. Logically there are only two verdicts available to the judge. One of these verdicts is ‘condemned’, and the other is ‘justified’. If we are ‘condemned’, then the judge has pronounced us ‘guilty’. If we are ‘justified’, then the judge has pronounced us ‘righteous’. (Dabney, 1878)
Edwards give another view of what justification means: In Romans, it is undeniable that Paul’s favorite term for redemption is the heavily theological word, ‘justification’ (dikaiosune). It is well agreed that justification for Paul is a legal or forensic term referring to the imputed righteousness the believer receives the moment of faith. Paul has discussed justification in great detail in 3:21: 5:11, climaxing his treatise with a discussion of a few of its marvelous blessings (5:1-11). Paul’s thorough treatment of justification has been completed in chapters long before he arrives at the Rom 10:9-10 argument. (J. Edwards 1992)

“The gospel brings salvation to people because it reveals God’s promised way of putting people into right relationship with himself (Moo 2008). Moo continues by stating that similar to that of justification, righteousness can be considered a forensic act, “it does not mean that people are ‘made right´ in a moral sense but that they are ‘declared to be right´ in a judicial sense (Moo 2008). Justification has been termed the fortitude of Paul’s description of the gospel. Mullins observes: Justification is a judicial act of God in which he declares the sinner free form condemnation, and restores him to divine favor. It takes place when the sinner trusts in Christ and his merits for salvation. These two statements contain the essential elements of the New Testament doctrine of justification. (Mullins, 1939)
Paul the apostle entrenched, after his conversion, his ministry based on his first hand knowledge of justification from a first person point of view. It was the almighty God that had discharged him from the law of condemnation (Gal. 2:15–21).
Henry depicts the work of Christ in this manner: Jesus Christ is the great propitiation, or propitiatory sacrifice, typified by the hilastrrion, or mercy-seat, under the law. He is our throne of grace, in and through whom atonement is made for our sin, and our persons and performances are accepted of God, 1 John 2:2, He is all in all in our reconciliation, not only the maker but the matter if it – our priest, our sacrifice, our altar, our all. God was in Christ as his mercy-seat, reconciling the world unto himself (Henry 1961)

A fundamental blessing available to all sinners is the acquitting a judgmental past and the promise of glory coming. Romans 3:25 – 26 tells it was Christ who satisfied the claims of the law by bearing its penalty in our place. Christ who was without sin and knew no sin willfully took the punishment of our sin, which through His righteousness, we have faith ascribed to us. My personal view of justification is the divine act of almighty God who not only forgives the persons sins but at the same time imputes to the now believer the righteousness of His son Jesus Christ. As stated in Romans 5:1 and Galatians 3:24 through faith alone comes justified. It cannot be won through works. Being declared righteous we as Christians are then free from sin’s guilt and shame.
Justification makes the following two assumptions; sin and grace. If there was no sin then justification would not be needed and there would also not be any need for grace. Since we find in virtually every chapter of the Bible from the third chapter of Genesis to Revelation we also see through God there is grace in His promises found in His covenant. The climatic of God is found through the work of Christ Jesus and the Spirit. We view that justification is possible by grace personified as shown by virtue of the cross where sin was defeated and the blood of Christ brought about the new covenant. In biblical terms, the way to deal with sin is to punish it: in Gethsemane, and on the cross itself, Jesus obeys his Father's saving purposes by drinking the cup of the wrath of God, so that his people may not drink it. Justification presumes the Spirits work that was promised in the Old Testament as one that would transcribe the laws of God on the heart of the new covenant believers. Justification is brought about on the foundation of faith in that they believe that Jesus is the Lord of all and was raised from the dead by God. Justification is not brought about through the process of God making one a Christian, rather it is God righteous affirmation that one is already a Christian. It is because of the labor of Jesus the Son and the Spirit that Christians are confirmed as members in the covenant family. In summary, the basis of justification is the wonderful grace of God our Father unreservedly bestowed to all undeserving sinners. Paul’s thesis is that God justifies sinners on just ground, namely, that claims of God’s law upon them have been fully satisfied. The law has not been altered, or suspended, or flouted for their justification, but fulfilled – by Jesus Christ.
Faith comes first and it is there to for the purpose of being justified. Galatians 2:16 states “We have believed in Christ Jesus in order to be justified by faith in Christ, and not by works of the law because by works of the law shall no one be justified”. Romans chapter 4 defends the fact that we are justified by faith and not by works, just as Abraham and David portrays.
Faulkner is correct when notes: The means or condition of justification is faith (Romans 3:22, 25, 26, 28), which rests upon the pure grace of God and itself, therefore, His gift (Ephesians 2:8). This making faith the only instrument of justification is not arbitrary, but because, being the receptive attitude of the soul, it is in the nature of the case the only avenue through which Divine blessing can come (Faulkner, 1939).

No scriptures every state that we are considered justified due to the characteristic of goodness of ones faith. It will never permit anyone to think that our faith within itself could ever earn God’s favor instead it is through scripture that we define that are justified “by means of” our faith, accepting ones faith as the instrument by which our faith is given. God chose faith as an attitude of the heart, which is reverse of one depending on them. In coming to Christ through faith, we are effectively stating that we realize that we cannot ourselves become righteous, we cannot be contingent on our good work; we basically say we give up. Understanding the doctrine of justification is important for a Christian. First, it is the very knowledge of justification and of grace that motivates good works and spiritual growth; thus, justification leads to sanctification.
Time factors Justification is not and should not be viewed as a continuous process that transpires over time, or an event that transpires in multiple stages. It is a divine act by God that is once-for-all, demonstrating that every genuine believer in Jesus has the full declaration of salvation. Christ being incarnate is deemed as God’s completed work and justification through faith is instantaneous act, contrasting to sanctification, which is identified as a continual process of growing becoming more like Christ. The believer's view of justification is always spoken of in the original dialectal as a current state, and passive voice, which denotes something, that has been done to the believer, not something the advocate does or cooperates with. Justification demonstrates God declares God’s work where the righteousness of Jesus is reckoned to the sinner, so that the sinner is known as being considered righteous under the Law (Rom. 4:3, 5:1, 9, Gal. 2:16, 3:11) and that this righteousness is not earned or kept by any determination of the saved. Justification is an instantaneous manifestation with the result of that manifestation being eternal life. This view is foundational solely on the sacrifice made on the cross of Calvary by Jesus Christ alone. No works are required whatsoever to receive justification. Else, it would not nor could not be a gift (Rom. 6:23).

The effective result of justification is because Christ died for us, and we now live for God. Our good works, that the Reformers were so notable in saying, are accomplished out of gratefulness and not as a means to obtain salvation. Sanctification is the finalization of regeneration and not of justification. Brought about by the works of a new birth through God, we are brought to perfection and the continuation of that is holiness. We must look at the event of justification as a complete and separate act. Justification should be viewed as a statement that as believers we expect a verdict on the last day and that as believers, we are in the right and we prescribe to the conclusion that sanctification and regeneration are actions of grace which transforms the heart and life. Holiness is a result of justification in that it accepts the new birth. Justification restated is the results in hope and holiness and is prove that already in existence is understanding that the doctrine is not immoral, scandalous, reprehensible nor incoherent. Justification leads us back to the cross of Christ, and it is not a fictitious writing, or a systematic procedure, but it is a declaration of our God’s righteousness that those who believe in the life, death and resurrection of His son Jesus Christ is a participant and a member of the family who through the cross of Calvary our sins are no longer our guilt to carry and we are therefore guaranteed eternal life.
When we are justified, there is nothing else that need to be accomplished wherein we achieve entrance to heaven. Since justification comes by faith in Christ, based on His work on our behalf, our own works are disqualified as a means of salvation. There are many religious systems with complicated theologies that attempt to explain the incorrect doctrine that justification is by one works. But they are teaching “a different gospel—which is really no gospel at all” (Galatians 1:6–7). Without an through understanding of justification by faith alone, it is impossible to really perceive God glories gift called grace also called the unmerited favor of God. The principle of justification by faith assists us in sustaining “pure devotion to Christ” (2 Corinthians 11:3). Adhering to justification by faith prevents one from falling for the falsehood that we warrant heaven. It is paramount that we realize that through no ritual, sacrament, nor any deed that can deem us commendable of the wonderful righteousness of Christ. His grace, in reaction to our faith, that God has ascribed to us the sanctity of His Son. In the Old and New Testaments we discover the saying, “The just shall live by faith” (Habakkuk 2:4; Romans 1:17; Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38).
The blessed hope of and surety of eternal life, it the assurance we have as Christians. Assurance should never be seen as an additional blessing added to justification, but the realization that the one who inspired our faith and now inspires love will endure until, at the resurrection. Because justification is considered the finished work of God, demonstrates to us as Christians, that we can have assurance of our salvation through Him. Also, the fact that justification is a finished work of God means that Christians have assurance of their salvation. In God’s eyes, believers have the righteousness necessary to gain eternal life. We have read and understood that justification is based on the outpouring of Jesus Christ blood and through his blood we gain assurance that God’s wrath has been fulfilled, that the penalization for sin has been compensated and no longer do Christians need to be afraid of divine condemnation. Through our profession of faith in the efforts of Christ, we are protected from the impending wrath of God. The basis for the confidence is that we were adversaries of God, nevertheless we were acquiescent to God by means of the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Understanding this view of being reconciled by His death, we are unrestricted in enjoying the benefits of His life. The death of Christ brought about great benefits for the believers and the promise for those things that yet await us are what He has in store for us.
Throughout the book of Romans we find many things that conveys to us the graciousness of the Father God. We are taken through the process of redemption and justification, which must be understood as a free gift from God. Paul should influence us that there can never be anything a sinner does that will bring about the merited favor of God. We only achieve that through having faith in the atoning work of Christ. We are all sinful and were it not for the completed work of Christ on the cross, we could not called ourselves the sons of God. We are filled with peace, our hearts become pure and our joy is abounding. From the teaching of the New Testament we understand that justification arrives to the sinner by means of the compensating labor of Jesus and that application is made to the sinner on an individual basis. It is God that exonerations and receives believing sinners, which is the exactness that is preserved in the dogma of justification by faith.


Cho, Dongsun. "Ambrosiaster on justification by faith alone in his commentaries on the Pauline epistles." The Westminster Theological Journal 74, no. 2 (September 2012): 277-290. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 15, 2015).

Cranfield, C. E. B. Romans: A Short Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1985.
Cranfield, C.E.B. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1975 and 1979,
Dabney, Robert. Systematic Theology.Richmond: Union Theological Seminary, 1878.

Drewery,, Benjamin. “Martin Luther.” A Survey of Christian Doctrine. Hubert Cunliffe-Jones, ed. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1981.

Edwards, James R., and W. Ward Gasque. New International Biblical Commentary: Romans. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1992.

Faulkner, John A., “Justification” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed/ James Orr Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1939.

Grudem, Wayne, Systematic Theology: An introduction to Theology, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2000

Moo, Douglas J. The NIV Application Commentary: Romans. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000.

Moody, Josh. No other gospel: 31 reasons from Galatians why justification by faith alone is the only gospel. Wheaton, Ill: Crossway, 2011. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 10, 2015).

Mulllins, Edgar Y., “Holy Spirit” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed James Orr Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1939.

Murray, John. The Epistle to the Romans; the English Text with Introduction, Exposition, and Notes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959.

Nazir-Ali, Michael J Bp. Justification by faith: orientating the church's teaching and practice to Christ. London: Latimer Trust, 2013. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 13, 2015).

Oden, Thomas C. Classic Christianity: A Systematic Theology. New York: Harper One, 1992.

Packer, J.L. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic ;, 2001.

Towns, Elmer L. The Essence of the New Testament: A Survey / Elmer L. Towns, Ben Gutierrez, Editors. Nashville, Tenn.: B & H Academic, 2012.

Waters, Guy Prentiss. "Justification defined." Churchman 123, no. 1 (2009 2009): 67-81. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 12, 2015).

Wright, N T. (Nicholas Thomas) Bp. "Justification by (covenantal) faith to the (covenantal) doers: Romans 2 within the argument of the letter." The Covenant Quarterly 72, no. 3-4 (August 2014): 95-108. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed November 12, 2015).

[ 1 ]. C. E. B. Cranfield, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1975 and 1979, 106
[ 2 ]. J.L. Packer, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic ;, 2001. 645

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Justification by Faith

...LIBERTY UNIVERSITY JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH RESEARCH PAPER SUBMITTED TO PROFESSOR BRADLEY MCDANIEL 201540 FALL 2015 BIBL 161-B01 LUO BY DEIRDRE JONES-SHOOK LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA OCTOBER 2015 Table of Contents Definition 3-5 How is the term justification defined by scholars? What is your own definition based on your research? Basis 5-6 What is the act of being justified based or grounded on, that is, what is necessary to have happened or to be true in order for justification to be possible? Means 6-7 How does one obtain justification? What is the means by which one is justified? Time Factors 7-8 Is justification an act or a process? Is it instantaneous or gradual? Results/Fruits 8-10 Once one has been justified, what benefits or results follow? Assurance 10-12 How can one be assured of justification? Conclusion 12 Bibliography 13 JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH “Justification by faith alone” (justificatio sola fide) summarizes the doctrine of justification that has come to us as the great legacy of the Protestant Reformation. We frequently hear this formula used in preaching and teaching. The doctrine of justification by faith is a biblical doctrine. The Apostle Paul gives a full exposition of this doctrine. The letters he wrote to the Galatians and the Romans are especially important in this connection. However, the core message of justification by faith is found in the Old Testament. Paul himself argues from the...

Words: 3443 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Jstification by Faith

...Liberty University Justification by Faith A Research paper submitted to Professor Laverne Smith In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for BIBL 161-D01 Willmington School of the Bible By Jason Miller Lynchburg, Virginia FRIDAY November 28, 2014 CONTENTS Introduction 1 Man’s Unrighteousness 1 Man’s Need for Redemption 2 The Righteousness of God 3 Justification by Faith 4 Salvation from God’s Wrath 6 Contemporary Church’s View of Justification 6 Conclusion 7 Introduction The Protestant Reformation began when Martin Luther’s study of the scriptures revealed to him that mankind can only be justified by faith. This truth from God’s Word transformed Luther’s life and opened the door for believers to break free of religious bondage. Luther would say that justification by faith is the article upon which the church stands or falls. The reformer John Calvin would later echo that sentiment by stating that justification by faith is the hinge by which everything else turns. In reading Paul’s letter to the Romans one can easily see that the doctrine of justification is truly a cornerstone of the Christian faith. This doctrine is a theme that appears throughout the book. By examining man’s unrighteous state and his need for redemption the apostle Paul methodically shows the reader that not only is a person justified by faith alone but also that they are saved from God’s...

Words: 2518 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Luther on Simul Justus Et Peccator

...relationship between the gospel and the law and others that sought to explain justification by faith. Unlike the Christian teachings during his time, Luther affirmed that the Christian righteousness is only acquired from without. He suggested that the righteousness not only comes from Christ but is also Christ’s righteousness that is ascribed to Christians through faith. In this regard, Luther explored the dissimilarities between the righteousness accorded to Christians as a gift through faith and Christian’s own proper righteousness which works in the power of the gift through Jesus to do different works of mercy and love. Consequently, Luther presented a Latin phrase that further described Christian justification, “Simul Justus et Peccator” which is directly interpreted as “simultaneously just and sinners.” Therefore, this paper will explain and evaluate Martin Luther’s ideas of the double righteousness possessed by Christians using his commentaries on Galatians and Romans as well as his 1519 sermon on two kinds of righteousness. Luther’s ideas on Simul Justus et Peccator and Justification Luther’s sermon on the two kinds of righteousness is associated with the reformers belief of salvation and living by faith and not works. The original justice presented by Luther is the alien righteousness that comes from without. This kind of righteousness is the righteousness of Jesus Christ and is ascribed through faith. Luther quotes the Bible in John 14:6 where Jesus Christ says ‘I Am...

Words: 2814 - Pages: 12

Free Essay


...3:21-22) (Moo, pg. 126). This righteousness is received through faith not by obeying the law (Romans 3:22,26,28). Even though it is awarded apart form deeds, it was announced by the Law of Moses and the Prophets and establishes the former law; it does not destroy it (Romans 3:21,31). How does he build his case? Paul presents three implications of justification through faith apart from deeds in Romans 3:27-31. First, justification by faith excludes boasting (Romans 3:27-28). Salvation does not come through what we have done (our works or deeds), but by putting our trust in Christ. We are to lift up Christ by exalting in the works he has done, not our own works (Moo, pg. 142). Second, justification by faith excludes ethnic barriers (Romans 3:29-30). If it is by faith, then it cannot be by circumcision, race, or nationality. Every believer in Christ will be justified by God, regardless of origin. Third, justification by faith excludes antinomianism (Moo, pg. 129). Though some may charge the Apostle Paul with promoting lawlessness, the accusation is unfounded. We do not reject God’s law by affirming salvation by grace; we place law in its proper context within both salvation history and in the life and practice of the believer. What is his conclusion? Compare Paul's conclusion here with James 2:14-26. The Apostle Paul uses the 4th chapter of Romans to defend and explain the doctrine of justification through faith from the Old Testament scriptures. He uses Abraham, before the...

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Bible Worldview Essay

...compassion that provided our means to pass through the needles eye, to receive deliverance through his Son Jesus Christ, who paid for our sins through his sacrificial death. We have the opportunity to accept Christ as Savior and believe in his atoning work, and through this act of Faith we are saved. Jesus' righteousness is credited to us. Not by works so that none can boast. When Jesus finished his time here in the flesh He said, It is better that I leave then the counselor (Holy Spirit) will come. The Holy Spirit is at work in helping us avoid sin and grow in godliness. God's plan is intolerant and impartial and at the same time fair and just. This is true for both Jews and Gentiles. All are worthy to come to Christ and receive salvation. Salvation is a gift from God wholly separate from any human effort or achievement. Paul wrote that he would pray they would receive spiritual gifts to empower them to minister as He is also. He states "That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me. (1:12) " This is a humble statement by Paul and his way of trying to make them understand the equality of the believers in Christ. Paul also identifies justification by faith as the topic of the letter in 1:16-17; he addresses the cause of man’s separation from God-- sin. No one is righteous before God, "Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin" (3:9). The Law given to the Jews was unable to vindicate them, rather it incriminated them. And...

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Faith of Jesus Christ

...THE FAITH OF JESUS CHRIST by K. R. Blades |  The apostle Paul uses the above expression at least 7 times in his epistles to us, and with it speaks of something that often times is not fully appreciated by Christians as it ought to be. The expression strikes many as a peculiar one. “Faith” is something that we think of with respect to ourselves. We place OUR faith IN Christ. Therefore, to find Paul talking about “the faith OF Jesus Christ,” or CHRIST'S faith, seems puzzling. Because of this, unfortunately, many times the expression is treated as if it were a misstatement. Christians are told, or led to think, that the expression really does refer to our faith IN Christ, but it has just been mistranslated. The impression is given that the expression is just a funny wording in the original Greek. It really does say “the faith OF Jesus Christ,” but it's to be looked upon as just a funny way of referring to our faith IN Him. And with this, many English translations make the expression refer to our faith IN Christ, though some do at least acknowledge in a foot note that literally the expression is “the faith OF Jesus Christ.” However, unfortunately, by doing this a wonderful truth is largely obscured, if not completely obliterated. A wonderful God be thanked truth which is marvelously conveyed in the expression “the faith OF Jesus Christ.” There are two things that ought to make it apparent that Paul's reference to “the faith of Jesus Christ” is referring to something special with...

Words: 2073 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Justified by Faith in Jesus Christ”

...Justified by faith in Jesus Christ” Gal. 3:23-29 “In Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith.” [Gal. 3:26] Synopsis: Apostle Paul in his letter to Galatians is revealing a great fortune, an emphatic exposition of justification through faith which was kept as mystery to mankind. Until then mankind was shackled in the clutches of law. Human race was led by law towards justification where no compassion, personal aspect or relational attributes were present. It’s also worth noting; who else is the best qualified to witness and teach about justification and salvation through faith than Apostle Paul himself who got justified from Saul to Apostle Paul. Let us direct our muse based on below three aspects mentioned in verses 23-29.  Christ The Guardian  Children Of God  Convergence Of Subjects 1. Christ The Guardian: We humans are elevated to a noble status. Our lord and savior Jesus Christ is assuming the default role of guardian in place of law which was instituted in the era of Mosses. The human race is being freed from the bondage of sins with no blemish of imperfections; our in-obedience is forgiven and expunged without traces when we repent truly with heart. We are being assured that we will be justified through our faith, through our faith we will be counted as righteousness. In 2 Corinthians 5:7 we are reminded “For we live by faith, not by sight”. It’s all about the promise Jesus the guardian who makes us stand firm on our feet again without...

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...take to receive the ultimate gifts of Justification, Sanctification and Salvation from God himself? God wants the world to know through him there is no condemnation through him you will have enteral life and that you are truly blessed. As you read Romans you will discover how God’s wrath is revealed to the Romans and the imputed of God’s grace and mercy and the solution to salvation. After read Romans you should be able to provide steps that you would take to achieve Justification, Sanctification and Salvation. The Natural World Paul was given the mission to preach the gospel according to God himself. According to Romans 1:20, since the creation of the world attributes are clearly seen, and understood by things made through the power of God. The Romans choose to practice the ungodliness or unrighteousness will be judge according to God’s grace. The Ten Commandments are the perfect example of what not to do. The scripture “For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith as it is written the one who is righteous by faith will live .(Romans 1:17). The ones who practice ungodliness will such as sexual immorality, covetousness, maliciousness, full of envy, strife, murder and deceit or anything that is consider ungodly will be surly be put to death. “Do not fear for God has come to test you and that his fear may be before you so that you may not sin” provides justification for Rome. (Exodus 20:20)...

Words: 1025 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

A Rhetorical Analysis Of Vegetarianism

...therefore explaining Luther’s descriptive and emotional account of his coming to faith, as typical of a confessional. Paradoxically, the passage is a dogmatic account of his own ‘Pietism’. God is constantly mentioned, and complements theological terms, including sin, law...

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Søren Kierkegaard's Fear And Trembling

...Søren Kierkegaard’s Fear and Trembling is an interpretation of the scriptural story of Abraham and his son Isaac. This account from Genesis involves God commanding Abraham to leave his home for an unknown land where he will, by way of a forthcoming son, become the father of a great nation. Time elapses well past the point when Abraham could father a son, but God holds to His promise and Isaac is miraculously born. God then demands Abraham offer up Isaac in sacrifice and Abraham, without hesitation, sets out to fulfill God’s will. This seems on its face a horrific act and one unfitting of a man subsequently hailed as the father of the Christian faith. Kierkegaard contends, however, that Abraham is justified in his actions and that few people...

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Belief Tok Essay

...Discuss. A belief is a conviction based on cultural or personal faith, morality or values. They are not based on facts or other evidence. They cannot be disproved or even contested in a rational or logical manner. They are inarguable. They cannot serve as a thesis of formal argument. An example of a belief is that God created the world we live in today and everyone who resides on Planet Earth. Knowledge has traditionally been understood as “justified true belief”. This is the idea of people initially having faith in something they believe to be true and then logically thinking about in order to justify their belief. Once agreed it is a justified true belief it becomes common knowledge between everyone. This later introduces the idea of Epistemology which is how beliefs can be verified. Some beliefs are justified through epistemology making them a true belief thus disproving the fact that there is no such thing as a true belief.  People who believe them have good reason to believe them. For much of what we believe however, we do not have any good reasons: we make guesses; we take things on faith. Epistemology is important because it is fundamental to how we think. Without some means of understanding how we acquire knowledge, how we rely upon our senses, and how we develop concepts in our minds, we have no coherent path for our thinking. Some beliefs would appear to be justified solely by the use of reason (WOK). Justification of that kind is said to be a priori: prior to any kind of...

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Wise Blood Doubt Quotes easier without any doubt and assuming each step to take in life. However certainty may have its disadvantages as certainty may be influenced by a higher justification and not one’s opinions. Having doubt creates an obstruction in one’s life, while putting in thought and reason into the issue, improving society altogether. O’Connor’s Wise Blood centers around Hazel Motes, who has a firm disbelief of all faith and religion, even so that he creates his own church, the Church Without Christ, however, Hazel would find himself surrounded by Christian Traditions. When responding to a taxi cab driver about religion, the driver responds to him by arguing "That's the trouble with you preachers," he said. "You've all got too good to believe in anything,”(O’Connor 28). Although he made it evident that he does not believe in any faith, he is still assumed as a preacher, which he resented. Moreover it is said that “There was already a deep black wordless conviction in him that the way to avoid Jesus was to avoid sin”(O’Connor 16). Although the purpose of the ideology that he adopted was to avert the Christian faith and its higher beings, he is contradicting himself in terms of how he is trying to fulfill his purpose. Avoiding sin in Christianity is one of its most important values. Avoiding sin is following Jesus and the Christian faith, therefore Hazel has been following Christianity throughout his life. Hazel cannot get away from Christianity as he is always assumed as a preacher, whom...

Words: 1138 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...Kierkegaard felt that subjective reflection was more crucial to the individual life than objective reflection, because subjective reflection focuses on passion and human existence rather than logic and impersonal truth. The objective world is the world of facts and truth, independent of the perceptions of humans.  Objective reflection focuses on what actually is, in the real world. Objective reflection centers on the things and ideas in the world that give meaning to life. The subjective world is the world of human thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.  It focuses on the relationship between people and their thoughts, feelings and perceptions, in respect to their lives. It centers on how meaning in life is viewed subjectively, or how humans find meaning in their lives.  To Kierkegaard, subjective reflection is the relationship to what a person values in life.         One major difference I noticed in the reading, between the objective and subjective realms, is in regards to 'being' versus 'becoming'.  Kierkegaard stated, “the objective world is as it is: being”. The subjective world is always 'becoming' something else through internal conflicts and struggle. However, the latter difference then creates a chain, as another difference arises between the two realms. The objective world is based in reason, while the subjective world is based in passion.        Kierkegaard believed that subjective reflection is the key understanding meaning in life. In a sense, he complains about the...

Words: 666 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Abraham and

...justified by faith and not by the law According to Romans the fourth chapter, we are saved through faith in Jesus and not by our adherence to the law. This is the same case for Abraham. He believed God and it was credited to him for righteousness (Romans 4:3). At that time, Abraham was not circumcised. Abraham had a covenant with God and was therefore justified before he was circumcised. God promised Abraham a son and although he it had not come to fruition, he still believed. He and Sarah were up in age and it didn’t seem like their promise was going to come to pass. Abraham believed in God’s ability to change circumstances by calling those things that do not exist as though they did exist (Romans 4:17). Abraham had an authentic faith that did not deny that there was an obstacle, but believed that God was greater than the obstacle. There was no pretense where he was concerned. On the other hand, if Abraham was justified by the law, it would have been for what he had done and not his faith. He would have something to boast about (Romans 4:2). Justification would have been according to his flesh. The Jewish people esteemed him highly and put him on a pedestal. They put him close to God and he could do nothing wrong. They believed that he followed the law perfectly and that was the reason for his justification. The entire premise as it relates to Abraham is that because he believed, God imputed righteousness on him. His salvation and eternal forgiveness was because of his faith. David...

Words: 470 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Examine How Luther’s Personal Experiences Affected His Ideas for Reform of the Church

...monastery disillusioned with the Church. During this time, he was in deep spiritual torture and despair and he said: “I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, and made of him the jailor and hangman of my poor soul”. He began to see God as an angry judge whose only purpose was to condemn sinners. However, he then had his ‘tower experience’ in which he finally started to identify the real God who was not, he said, a vengeful judge and he discovered that the way to salvation was through scripture and faith. His strong, new beliefs were expressed when Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar began selling indulgences in Wittenberg. He was angered by this and wrote to his local bishop, the Archbishop of Mainz and enclosed a copy of his 95 theses protesting the sale of indulgences. The Church at the time preached that scripture and faith alone were not enough for salvation. Roman Catholic theology stated that faith alone, cannot justify man; justification rather depends only on such faith...

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6