Premium Essay

Keeping Others in Mind: the Very Social Cognition of Asian Managers

In: People

Submitted By stone0072005
Words 10198
Pages 41
Keeping Others in Mind: The Very Social Cognition of Asian Managers

Zhixing Xiao* Steven K. Su**



Do we need a separate model of psychology to describe how Asians process information in the managerial context? Do Asian and Western managers evaluating the same business decision take fundamentally different paths and reach different conclusions? One view might hold that just as the rules of mathematics are identical in the East and West, the rules of analysis in business will tend to be very similar, and hence no special differentiation is necessary for the Asian context. We suggest that while business organizations in each culture engage in similar behavior, there are nonetheless deep social differences that pervade how information is processed. We offer as an analogy the difference between dining in China and dining in the West. In both contexts, the major activity of the patrons is to receive a meal in exchange for payment. Aside from the fact that the food in these restaurants tastes different, many differences in venue reflect different social beliefs and assumptions. In the West, restaurants are usually equipped with rectangular tables, often suitable for two to four people, at which the diners randomly take seats. In China, it is more common to have large round tables that allow each individual to directly face a large number of compatriots. Seats around the table are not random, but instead have hierarchical status: those facing the door are usually taken by those more senior in status, just as seats on the left tend to be taken by the more senior. In the West, each person is presented a menu and from which personal selections are made. In China, only one menu is presented to the host, who orders a table full of dishes - to be shared by the whole group. During the dinner, a toast is ordinarily a brief ritual in the West. At Chinese...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Cognitive Preferences of Successful Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

...Areas of Entrepreneurship Research i. Personality Traits • Motivation • Risk Propensity and Uncertainty ii. Cognition • Intention and Opportunity Seeking • Innovation iii. Population Ecology c. Topic for this Study/Theoretical Framework i. The Broad Research Problem 5 5 7 9 9 10 10 10 11 12 13 13 13 14 14 15 16 16 16 16 18 18 19 22 24 27 27 29 30 b. 3. Hypothesis for Research a. Hypothesis Statements 4. Methodology 5. Analysis of Survey Data a. b. Data Compilation Analysis & Findings i. Background Data of Respondents ii. Findings 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cognition in Basic Business Areas Do Emotions Figure? Preferences for Source of Funds Preferences in Knowledge Acquisition More Specific Business Aspects i. Holding Company Together ii. Growth Factors iii. Continual Growth . HELP University College, 28 October 2009 Page 1 of 43 Entrepreneurship Research, April 2008 KC Lim 6. Limitations 7. Recommendations 8. Conclusion 9. Appendix 10. References 32 32 33 35 36 . HELP University College, 28 October 2009 Page 2 of 43 Entrepreneurship Research, April 2008 KC Lim Abstract This paper presents the findings of a general opinion survey on successful small entrepreneurs in Malaysia and some of the factors (both psychological and external) that may account for their levels of success in the running of their ventures. The focus is on the cognitions of these successful entrepreneurs on the business and management aspects in the running of their......

Words: 17064 - Pages: 69

Premium Essay

Implications of Retrenchment on Human Resource Personnel and Its Functions: a Case of Mines in Masvingo Province

...Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 8 [Special Issue – April 2013] Implications of Retrenchment on Human Resource Personnel and its Functions: A Case of Mines in Masvingo Province Maunganidze F Faculty of Social Sciences Great Zimbabwe University Zimbabwe Mupezeni L Pfebeni G Faculty of Applied Social Sciences Zimbabwe Open Univesity Zimbabwe Abstract The study focused on the implications on human resource personnel of conducting and driving the retrenchment exercise. The research study was prompted by the economic and social decline which Zimbabwe was subjected to for the past couple of years. This scenario necessitated the need for many organisations, including mines to engage in some retrenchment exercises. Previous studies have largely focused on how the retrenched would be affected before, during and after the retrenchment exercise. It has been a norm for organisations to try to cushion their departing organisational members from possible financial, social and psychological effects of the retrenchment exercise through some workshops such as stress management and entrepreneurship. The retrenched were viewed as the only victims of the retrenchment exercise. This study however took a different approach by considering the effects of the retrenchment exercise on the drivers of the program, the human resource personnel, taking into consideration the fact that some bonds would have been existing among employees, especially having in mind the collective......

Words: 5056 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

Marketing Paper

...allow consumer research to function as a direct input into engineering specifications rather than become a secondary concern after the product is designed. Since the corporate philosophy is to serve customers, consumer inputs are more likely to be used develop better new products.  2. In what ways is Toyota's manufacturing system designed to serve customers? There are a number of features in Toyota's manufacturing systems that are designed to serve customers, including the following features.  Employees, even on the assembly line, are trained to consider their output as a product that should satisfy the next employee (the "customer") who receives it. If everyone in the company is satisfied with the quality of the work received from others, it is more likely that the ultimate consumer will be satisfied with the final product. Toyota's manufacturing system has close relationships with suppliers and demands high-quality products from them. Toyota is...

Words: 30618 - Pages: 123

Premium Essay


...Cataloging-in-Publication Data The handbook of negotiation and culture / edited by Michele J. Gelfand and Jeanne M. Brett. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0-8047-4586-2 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Negotiation. 2. Conflict management. 3. Negotiation—Cross-cultural studies. 4. Conflict management—Cross-cultural studies. I. Gelfand, Michele J. II. Brett, Jeanne M. bf637.n4 h365 2004 302.3—dc22 2003025169 Typeset by TechBooks in 10.5/12 Bembo Original printing 2004 Last figure below indicates year of this printing: 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 Contents List of Tables and Figures Foreword Preface xi xv ix part one. basic psychological processes Introduction 3 1. The Evolution of Cognition and Biases in Negotiation Research: An Examination of Cognition, Social Perception, Motivation, and Emotion 7 Leigh Thompson, Margaret Neale, and Marwan Sinaceur 2. Cultural Differences and Cognitive Dynamics: Expanding the Cognitive Perspective on Negotiation 45 Michael W Morris and Michele J. Gelfand . 3. I...

Words: 186303 - Pages: 746

Premium Essay

The Social

... 1969 The Social Animal, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Readings About the Social Animal, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2004; (with J. Aronson), 2008 Social Psychology (with R. Helmreich), 1973 Research Methods in Social Psychology (with J. M. Carlsmith & P. Ellsworth), 1976 The Jigsaw Classroom (with C. Stephan et al.), 1978 Burnout: From Tedium to Personal Growth (with A. Pines & D. Kafry), 1981 Energy Use: The Human Dimension (with P. C. Stern), 1984 The Handbook of Social Psychology (with G. Lindzey), 3rd ed., 1985 Career Burnout (with A. Pines), 1988 Methods of Research in Social Psychology (with P. Ellsworth, J. M. Carlsmith, & M. H. Gonzales), 1990 Age of Propaganda (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992, 2000 Social Psychology, Vols. 1–3 (with A. R. Pratkanis), 1992 Social Psychology: The Heart and the Mind (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 1994 Cooperation in the Classroom: The Jigsaw Method (with S. Patnoe), 1997 Nobody Left to Hate: Teaching Compassion After Columbine, 2000 Social Psychology: An Introduction (with T. D. Wilson & R. M. Akert), 2002, 2005, 2007 The Adventures of Ruthie and a Little Boy Named Grandpa (with R. Aronson), 2006 Mistakes Were Made (But Not By Me) (with C. Tavris), 2007 Books by Joshua Aronson Improving Academic Achievement, 2002 The Social Animal To Vera, of course The Social Animal, Tenth Edition Sponsoring Editor: Erik Gilg Executive Marketing Manager: Renée......

Words: 208005 - Pages: 833

Free Essay

Construal Level and Ingroup Bias

...Question, 9-13 August 2013, Lake Buena Vista (Orlando), Florida. This file was downloaded from: c Copyright 2013 [please consult the author] Notice: Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as copy-editing and formatting may not be reflected in this document. For a definitive version of this work, please refer to the published source:           #10541, p. 1   CONSTRUAL LEVEL AND INGROUP BIAS           Abstract The causal relationship between mental construal level and ingroup bias remains elusive. This paper uncovers a boundary condition and a mechanism underlying the relationship. We predict and find support for our hypotheses in four experiments conducted in East Asian and Western cultures. Data showed that a high- (vs. low-) level construal activated state belongingness, but had no effect on state rejection, state self-esteem, positive emotion, or negative emotion in participants from Korea (Experiment 1) and Australia (Experiment 3). Moreover, a high- (vs. low-) level construal triggered greater ingroup bias for Koreans (Experiment 2) and Australians (Experiment 3) primed with a relational self, but not for those primed with an independent self. This construal level effect on ingroup bias was eliminated when belongingness was primed at both a high- and a low-level construal; instead, relationals under a low-level construal were more ingroup-biased when they were primed with a belongingness (vs.......

Words: 13466 - Pages: 54

Premium Essay

Management of Organization and Marketing

...success of international companies such as Apple, Starbucks, Facebook and I was trying to find answers for these business phenomena. I started to ask myself: why are people in developed countries suddenly buying overpriced coffee from Starbucks Coffee Shops? Why is a company like Apple experiencing a business comeback after many years of mediocre performance in the personal computer business? Why are people thrilled to share their personal information on a social media platform and how can a company like Facebook make money with it? My answers to those questions are manifold, however whether these successes are based on smart strategic decisions, excellent marketing management or new business models, I would like to understand in a more detailed and structured way how international businesses are set up and performing. In today's fast changing mobile society I believe a fundamental expertise of international business processes and company strategies are a compulsory knowledge for an effective global business manager and leader in the future. In the following I would like to constitute a more precise understanding of the marketers’ world based on contemplation of the organizations point of view and additionally through an examination of the different roles of customers and especially consumer behaviour. I hope to connect the dots between both manifolds topics and at the end I am going to adapt four of the presented frameworks on a company. As an appropriate......

Words: 6218 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay


...1009-0001-158C-0000158D Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Professor Emerita, University of Northern Colorado University of New Hampshire ISBN 0-558-65860-1 Boston ● Columbus ● Indianapolis ● New York ● San Francisco ● Upper Saddle River Amsterdam ● Cape Town ● Dubai ● London ● Madrid ● Milan ● Munich ● Paris ● Montreal ● Toronto Delhi ● Mexico City ● Sao Paula ● Sydney ● Hong Kong ● Seoul ● Singapore ● Taipei ● Tokyo Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, Seventh Edition, by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Published by Allyn & Bacon. Copyright © 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Editor-in-Chief: Paul A. Smith Development Editor: Christina Robb Editorial Assistant: Matthew Buchholz Vice President, Director of Marketing: Quinn Perkson Marketing Manager: Jared Brueckner Production Editor: Annette Joseph Editorial Production Service: Marty Tenney, Modern Graphics, Inc. Manufacturing Buyer: Megan Cochran Electronic Composition: Modern Graphics, Inc. Interior Design: Denise Hoffman, Glenview Studios Photo Researcher: Annie Pickert Cover Designer: Studio Montage For related titles and support materials, visit our online catalog at Copyright © 2011, 2008, 2006, 2003, 2000, 1998, 1995 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Allyn & Bacon, 501 Boylston St., Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be...

Words: 101358 - Pages: 406

Free Essay


...Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, Eighth Edition, by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. Vice President and Editorial Director: Jeffery W.  Johnston Vice President and Publisher: Kevin Davis Editorial Assistant: Lauren Carlson Development Editor: Christina Robb Vice President, Director of Marketing: Margaret Waples Marketing Manager: Joanna Sabella Senior Managing Editor: Pamela D. Bennett Project Manager: Kerry Rubadue Senior Operations Supervisor: Matthew Ottenweller Senior Art Director: Diane Lorenzo Text Designer: Candace Rowley Cover Designer: Candace Rowley Media Project Manager: Noelle Chun Cover Image: © Purestock / Alamy Full‐Service Project Management: Jouve North America Composition: Jouve North America Printer/Binder: Courier / Kendallvile Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color / Hagerstown Text Font: Adobe Garamond Pro Credits and acknowledgments for materials borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in...

Words: 244561 - Pages: 979

Premium Essay

Hawthorn Arms

...(EC) ve e were not g good. It was May 27, 2009 and Voser w addressin 200 of She 9, was ng ell’s top mana agers in Berlin His n. all-white, male, Swiss, American, an British eig nd ght-person team was a sig gnificant depa arture from th of hat his predecessor, Jeroen van der V n Veer. Absent were the two female members: Linda Cook, a 25 year o a 5 veteran w who had lost the battle to become CE and whos track recor in growin the firm’s LNG o EO se rd ng business h had brought her wide rec cognition, an Roxanne D nd Decyk, forme erly Corporat Affairs dir te rector, who took on a new po osition as hea of governm ad ment relations in the Unite States. The were no D s ed ere Dutch members, strange for a firm headqu uartered in Th Hague and founded in 1907 through the alliance of the he d h oil compa any Royal Du utch Petroleum Company and the Brit tish Shell Tra ansport and T Trading Com mpany. Nor were there any Asian membe e A ers—despite i being a ma it ajor thrust of Shell’s strategic growth (See f h. Exhibit 1 for the 2008 and 2009 EC Voser wo Cs.) orried that the new EC wo e ould be seen as a signal th he hat was moving away fr...

Words: 15443 - Pages: 62

Free Essay

Industrial Organisation Psycholoy

...Management and Organizational Learning 9 Knowledge Management Processes and Goals 10 Current Knowledge Management Systems 11 Organizational Learning 11 Knowledge Management in Organizations 12 The Knowledge Management Processes Cycle 12 KM Strategies 14 Codification Sub-Strategies – Earl’s codification-oriented sub-strategies are: 15 2. MOTIVATION 16 2.1 Motivational Concept 16 Ego-focused versus other-focused emotions 17 2.2 HIERARCHY OF NEEDS 19 Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory 20 2.3 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES 21 MOTIVATION THEORIES ARE OFTEN CULTURE-BOUND 23 Maslow's Needs Hierarchy. 23 McClelland's Three Needs Theory 23 Adams' Equity Theory 23 Hertzberg's Two-Factor Theory 23 3. RECRUITMENT 23 3.1 Sources of recruitment 23 The traditional recruitment sources were: 24 The modern recruitment sources are: 24 3.2 Internal recruitment 24 3.3 External recruitment 25 3.4 Recruitment process 26 4. EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS 27 4.1 Frustration and Anxiety 27 The specific goals are to help organizations, managers, and employees 27 Understanding the Causes of Conflict 28 4.2 Stress – Strain and Pressure 30 4.3 Drug use in the Industry 32 The Benefits of Going Drug-Free 32 U.S. Department of Labor 34 5. JOB EVALUATIONS 35 5.1 Evaluation Overview 35 The Challenge: Disconnection 35 5.2 Evaluation Vision 36...

Words: 43803 - Pages: 176

Premium Essay


...Chapter 1 SIGMUND FREUD AN INTRODUCTION Sigmund Freud, pioneer of Psychoanalysis, was born on 6th May 1856 in Freiberg to a middle class family. He was born as the eldest child to his father’s second wife. When Freud was four years old, his family shifted and settled in Vienna. Although Freud’s ambition from childhood was a career in law, he decided to enter the field of medicine. In 1873, at the age of seventeen, Freud enrolled in the university as a medical student. During his days in the university, he did his research on the Central Nervous System under the guidance of German physician `Ernst Wilhelm Von Brucke’. Freud received his medical degree in 1881and later in 1883 he began to work in Vienna General Hospital. Freud spent three years working in various departments of the hospital and in 1885 he left his post at the hospital to join the University of Vienna as a lecturer in Neuropathology. Following his appointment as a lecturer, he got the opportunity to work under French neurologist Jean Charcot at Salpetriere, the famous Paris hospital for nervous diseases. So far Freud’s work had been entirely concentrated on physical sciences but Charcot’s work, at that time, concentrated more on hysteria and hypnotism. Freud’s studies under Charcot, which centered largely on hysteria, influenced him greatly in channelising his interests to psychopathology. In 1886, Freud established his private practice in Vienna specializing in nervous......

Words: 155674 - Pages: 623

Free Essay


...NATURE OF MAN HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE IN 10 MODULES E. Kolawole Ogundowole, Ph.D., D.Sc. Professor & Head of Philosophy Department University of Lagos. Akoka, Lagos. Nigeria Correct Counsels Limited Research. Counselling. Publishing. Book Supply First published 2003 Correct Counsels Ltd. P. O. Box 53 Akoka, Lagos. C E. Kolawole Ogundowole, 2003 ISBN: 978 -37004 - 0 – 5 This book is copyright. All rights reserved under the Copyright La Enquiries should be addressed to the Publishers. Printed in Nigeria by: Mustard Press Enterprises 16, Ogundola Street Sungas-BAriga. PREFACE A few words about the overall objectives of the course is appropriate as a starting point. Historically, philosophy was the first form of theoretical knowledge. As a rational theoretical tool of comprehending the world, philosophy arose in ancient Greece in stiff battle with mythology and religious consciousness. It came out to lay the foundation for the evolvement of scientific consciousness and the emergence and development of the sciences - Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc. In an environment rife with various and varying superstitions and myths, the study of the History of Science and Philosophy of Science becomes crucial, lest science itself falls within the ambit of mythology and superstition and becomes another form of myth even in the hands of the tutored. The study of the History of......

Words: 54229 - Pages: 217

Premium Essay

Education Diversity

...individual sources of diversity. 3. Describe approaches to teaching in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. 4. Explain the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. 5. Explain the characteristics of students with exceptionalities. 6. Describe the role of the teacher in the inclusive classroom. Imagine You Are the Teacher It Is The First Teaching year at Lincoln Elementary School for Ms. Branson. She has 30 fifth-graders of whom 13 are girls and 17 are boys, 12 participate in the free and reduced lunch program, 5 are English language learners, and 4 have individualized education programs (IEPs). As she plans her lesson on paragraph writing, she is trying to keep the special needs of each of her students in mind. Because Jessica has a hearing impairment, Ms. Branson decides to make a written outline that includes the important parts of a paragraph and examples of good and bad paragraphs. She also decides to go over the outline several times because Fred and Alex have a reading disability. In her plan, there is also a note to herself to find a bigger pencil and wide-lined paper for Suzy, who requires these modifications according to her IEP. Based on past writing experiences, she expects Monica to finish writing her paragraph pretty quickly, so she needs to think about an appropriate second task to keep her busy and motivated—most likely, a creative writing assignment. Ms. Branson feels about ready for the lesson, except for Jung Ju, a......

Words: 31653 - Pages: 127

Premium Essay


...HLTHIR403C. Work effectively with culturally diverse clients and co-workers Author John Bailey Copyright Text copyright © 2008 by John N. Bailey. Illustration, layout and design copyright © 2008 by John N. Bailey. Under Australia's Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), except for any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission from John N. Bailey. All inquiries should be directed in the first instance to the publisher at the address below. Copying for Education Purposes The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be copied by an educational institution for its educational purposes provided that that educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to JNB Publications, Disclaimer All reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the quality and accuracy of this publication. JNB Publications assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions and no warranties are made with regard to this publication. Neither JNB Publications nor any authorised distributors shall be held responsible for any direct, incidental or consequential damages resulting from the use of this publication. To Order this Publication This publication can be ordered in a wire......

Words: 39856 - Pages: 160