Free Essay

Labs

In: Science

Submitted By M3wantcookie
Words 120457
Pages 482
INSTRUCTOR GUIDE

Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual
MAIN VERSION, Eighth Edition Update CAT VERSION, Ninth Edition Update FETAL PIG VERSION, Ninth Edition Update

ELAINE N. MARIEB, R.N., Ph.D Holyoke Community College SUSAN T. BAXLEY, M.A. Troy University, Montgomery Campus NANCY G. KINCAID, Ph.D Troy University, Montgomery Campus
PhysioEx™ Exercises authored by Peter Z. Zao, North Idaho College Timothy Stabler, Indiana University Northwest Lori Smith, American River College Greta Peterson, Middlesex Community College Andrew Lokuta, University of Wisconsin—Madison

San Francisco • Boston • New York Cape Town • Hong Kong • London • Madrid • Mexico City Montreal • Munich • Paris • Singapore • Sydney • Tokyo • Toronto

Editor-in-Chief: Serina Beauparlant Project Editor: Sabrina Larson PhysioEx Project Editor: Erik Fortier Editorial Assistant: Nicole Graziano Managing Editor: Wendy Earl Production Editor: Leslie Austin Composition: Cecelia G. Morales Cover Design: Riezebos Holzbaur Design Group Senior Manufacturing Buyer: Stacey Weinberger Marketing Manager: Gordon Lee Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 1301 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 1900 E. Lake Ave., Glenview, IL 60025. For information regarding permissions, call (847) 486-2635. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Pearson Benjamin Cummings™ is a trademark, in the U.S. and/or other countries, of Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates.

ISBN: 0-321-54154-5 ISBN: 978-0-321-54154-3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—TCS—12 11 10 09 08 www.aw-bc.com

Contents
Preface vi viii x Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Safety Procedures Trends in Instrumentation

Part One: Exercises
Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5A Exercise 6A Exercise 7 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Exercise 10 Exercise 11 Exercise 12 Exercise 13 Exercise 14 Exercise 15 Exercise 17 Exercise 19 Exercise 20 Exercise 21 Exercise 22 Exercise 23 Exercise 24 Exercise 25 Exercise 26 Exercise 27 The Language of Anatomy Organ Systems Overview The Microscope 11 19 25 7 1

The Cell: Anatomy and Division Classification of Tissues The Integumentary System 35 43

The Cell: Transport Mechanisms and Permeability–Wet Lab

Classification of Covering and Lining Membranes

49

Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages 53 The Axial Skeleton The Fetal Skeleton 59 67 81 87 93 103 77 The Appendicular Skeleton

Articulations and Body Movements

Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System Histology of Nervous Tissue 113 119 125

Exercise 16A Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Frogs and Human Subjects Exercise 18A Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Wet Lab Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves Electroencephalography Human Reflex Physiology General Sensation 153 157 167 177 173 Special Senses: Vision 133

Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and the Autonomic Nervous System 145

137

Special Senses: Hearing and Equilibrium Special Senses: Olfaction and Taste

Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands

iii

Exercise 28A Role of Thyroid Hormone, Pituitary Hormone, Insulin, and Epinephrine: Wet Lab 183 Exercise 29A Blood Exercise 30 Exercise 31 Exercise 32 189 199 205 209 Anatomy of the Heart

Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography Anatomy of Blood Vessels

Exercise 33A Human Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations 217 Exercise 34A Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Wet Lab Exercise 36 Exercise 38 Exercise 40 Exercise 42 Exercise 43 Exercise 44 Exercise 45 Exercise 46 Anatomy of the Respiratory System 247 257 265 273 285 291 297 Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Urinary System 279 241 227 235 Exercise 35A The Lymphatic System and Immune Response Exercise 37A Respiratory System Physiology

Exercise 39A Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Wet Lab Exercise 41A Urinalysis

Anatomy of the Reproductive System Survey of Embryonic Development Principles of Heredity 303 311 Surface Anatomy Roundup

Physiology of Reproduction: Gametogenesis and the Female Cycles

Part Two: Cat Dissection Exercises
Dissection Exercise 1: Dissection and Identification of Cat Muscles Dissection Exercise 2: Dissection of Cat Spinal Nerves 319 321 323 327 329 331 333 315

Dissection Exercise 3: Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Cat Dissection Exercise 4: Dissection of the Blood Vessels of the Cat Dissection Exercise 5: The Main Lymphatic Ducts of the Cat 325

Dissection Exercise 6: Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Cat Dissection Exercise 7: Dissection of the Digestive System of the Cat Dissection Exercise 8: Dissection of the Urinary System of the Cat

Dissection Exercise 9: Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Cat

Part Three: Fetal Pig Dissection Exercises
Dissection Exercise 1: Dissection and Identification of Fetal Pig Muscles Dissection Exercise 2: Dissection of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves of the Fetal Pig 339 iv 335

Dissection Exercise 3: Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Fetal Pig Dissection Exercise 5: Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Fetal Pig Dissection Exercise 6: Dissection of the Digestive System of the Fetal Pig Dissection Exercise 7: Dissection of the Urinary System of the Fetal Pig 351 353 347 349

341 343

Dissection Exercise 4: Dissection of the Blood Vessels and Main Lymphatic Ducts of the Fetal Pig

Dissection Exercise 8: Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Fetal Pig

Part Four: PhysioEx Exercises
Exercise 5B Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Computer Simulation 355 363 371 377

Exercise 16B Skeletal Muscle Physiology

Exercise 18B Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Computer Simulation Exercise 28B Endocrine System Physiology: Computer Simulation Exercise 29B Blood Analysis: Computer Simulation 385 393 401 409 Exercise 33B Cardiovascular Dynamics: Computer Simulation

Exercise 34B Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Computer Simulation Exercise 37B Respiratory System Mechanics: Computer Simulation Exercise 39B Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Computer Simulation 417 Exercise 41B Renal System Physiology: Computer Simulation Exercise 47 Acid-Base Balance: Computer Simulation 433 425

PhysioEx Frequently Asked Questions 439 Appendices
Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E List of Laboratory Materials List of Supply Houses Solution Preparation Multimedia Resources 453 455 463 473 441

Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors

v

PREFACE
Organization of this Instructor Guide
The Instructor Guide for Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manuals, Main Version, Eighth Edition Update, and Cat and Fetal Pig Versions, Ninth Edition Updates by Elaine N. Marieb and Susan J. Mitchell continues to feature a wealth of information for the anatomy and physiology laboratory instructor. Each exercise in this manual includes detailed directions for setting up the laboratory, comments on the exercise (including common problems encountered), some additional or alternative activities, and answers to the questions that appear in the text of the lab manual. (Answers to questions regarding student observations and data have not been included.) Answers to the Review Sheets that are offered in the laboratory manual have been integrated to follow each exercise. In some cases several acceptable answers have been provided. Answers to the dissection review questions are located in this guide with the dissection exercises. Directions for use of the kymograph have been removed from the laboratory manual but appear in Exercise 16 in the Instructor Guide. Several complete laboratory exercises incorporating PowerLab®, iWorx®, and Intelitool® computer data acquisition and compilation systems can be downloaded from the Instructor Resource section of the new myA&P™ website for the Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manuals, and may be duplicated for student use. The time allotment at the beginning of each exercise, indicated by the hour glass icon, is an estimate of the amount of in-lab time it will take to complete the exercise, unless noted otherwise. If you are using multimedia, add the running time to the time allotted for a given exercise. Suggested multimedia resources, indicated by the computer icon, are listed for each exercise. Format options include VHS, CD-ROM, and DVD. In addition, the address of the website for the Interactive Physiology® Modules (also available on CD-ROM) is provided. The resources are also listed by system in Multimedia Resources in Appendix D of the guide. Information includes title, format, running time, and distributor. The key to format abbreviations is on the Multimedia Resources page. Street and web addresses of the distributors are listed in Appendix E. Each exercise includes directions for preparing needed solutions, indicated by the test tube icon. A complete list of solution preparation instructions may be found in Appendix C of the guide. The A.D.A.M.® icon indicates links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy® in the appendix of the Lab Manuals.

vi

Trends in Instrumentation includes information about laboratory techniques and equipment, including information on PowerLab, iWorx, and Intelitool. There are some suggestions about additional investigations using techniques and equipment not described in the laboratory manual. The list of laboratory materials that appears in Appendix A is intended as a convenience when ordering. Amounts listed assume a laboratory class of 24 students working in groups of four. Information about several supply houses appears in Appendix B. Note: The information provided is not an exhaustive list of suppliers.

Laboratory Safety
Always establish safety procedures for the laboratory. Students should be given a list of safety procedures at the beginning of each semester and should be asked to locate exits and safety equipment. Suggested procedures may be found on pp. viii–ix, along with a student acknowledgment form. These pages may be copied and given to the students. Signed student acknowledgment forms should be collected by the instructor once the safety procedures have been read and explained and the safety equipment has been located. Special precautions must be taken for laboratories using body fluids. Students should use only their own fluids or those provided by the instructor. In many cases, suitable alternatives have been suggested. All reusable glass and plasticware should be soaked in 10% bleach solution for 2 hours and then washed with laboratory detergent and autoclaved if possible. Disposable items should be placed in an autoclave bag for 15 minutes at 121°C and 15 pounds of pressure to ensure sterility. After autoclaving, items may be discarded in any disposal facility. Disposal of dissection materials and preservatives should be arranged according to state regulations. Be advised that regulations vary from state to state. Contact your state Department of Health or Environmental Protection Agency or their counterparts for advice. Keep in mind that many dissection specimens can be orderd in formaldehyde-free preservatives; however, even formaldehyde-free specimens may not be accepted by local landfill organizations.

Acknowledgments
Thanks to the team at Benjamin Cummings: Serina Beauparlant, Editor-in-Chief; Sabrina Larson, Project Editor; Stacey Weinberger, Senior Manufacturing Buyer; and Gordon Lee, Marketing Manager. Many thanks also to Wendy Earl, Managing Editor, and Leslie Austin, Production Editor. Susan Baxley & Nancy Kincaid

vii

Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Safety Procedures
1. Upon entering the laboratory, locate exits, fire extinguisher, fire blanket, chemical shower, eye wash station, first aid kit, broken glass containers, and cleanup materials for spills. 2. Do not eat, drink, smoke, handle contact lenses, store food, or apply cosmetics or lip balm in the laboratory. Restrain long hair, loose clothing, and dangling jewelry. 3. Students who are pregnant, taking immunosuppressive drugs, or who have any other medical condition (e.g., diabetes, immunological defect) that might necessitate special precautions in the laboratory must inform the instructor immediately. 4. Wearing contact lenses in the laboratory is inadvisable because they do not provide eye protection and may trap material on the surface of the eye. If possible, wear regular eyeglasses instead. 5. Use safety glasses in all experiments involving liquids, aerosols, vapors, and gases. 6. Decontaminate work surfaces at the beginning and end of every laboratory period, using a commercially prepared disinfectant or 10% bleach solution. After labs involving dissection of preserved material, use hot soapy water or disinfectant. 7. Keep liquids away from the edge of the lab bench to help avoid spills. Liquids should be kept away from the edge of lab benches. Clean up spills of viable materials using disinfectant or 10% bleach solution. 8. Properly label glassware and slides. 9. Use mechanical pipetting devices; mouth pipetting is prohibited. 10. Wear disposable gloves when handling blood and other body fluids, mucous membranes, or nonintact skin, and/or when touching items or surfaces soiled with blood or other body fluids. Change gloves between procedures. Wash hands immediately after removing gloves. (Note: Cover open cuts or scrapes with a sterile bandage before donning gloves.) 11. Place glassware and plasticware contaminated by blood and other body fluids in a disposable autoclave bag for decontamination by autoclaving or place them directly into a 10% bleach solution before reuse or disposal. Place disposable materials such as gloves, mouthpieces, swabs, and toothpicks that come into contact with body fluids into a disposable autoclave bag, and decontaminate before disposal. 12. To help prevent contamination by needle stick injuries, use only disposable needles and lancets. Do not bend needles and lancets. Needles and lancets should be placed promptly in a labeled puncture-resistant leakproof container and decontaminated, preferably by autoclaving. 13. Do not leave heat sources unattended. 14. Report all spills or accidents, no matter how minor, to the instructor. 15. Never work alone in the laboratory. 16. Remove protective clothing and wash hands before leaving the laboratory.

viii

Laboratory Safety Acknowledgment Sheet
I hereby certify that I have read the safety recommendations provided for the laboratory and have located all of the safety equipment listed in Safety Procedure Number 1 of these procedures. Student’s Name Course Instructor’s Name
Adapted from: Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. “Guidelines for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Hepatitis B Virus to Health-Care and Public-Safety Workers.” MMWR: 38 (S6). —. 1987. “Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings.” MMWR: 36 (2s). Johnson, Ted, and Christine Case. 2007. Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology, Eighth Edition. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co. School Science Laboratories: A Guide to Some Hazardous Substances. 1984. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Washington, D.C. 20207. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes for Health, Fourth Edition. May 1999. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. http://www.cdc.gov.od/ohs/manual/labsfty.htm.

Date

ix

Trends in Instrumentation
Robert Anthony and Alan Wade, Triton College Peter Zao, North Idaho College
This section is designed for instructors interested in incorporating additional laboratory technologies and instrumentation into their anatomy and physiology courses. The following techniques will introduce students to some standard approaches and instrumentation currently used in clinical and research facilities. Although these techniques are used in various biology and chemistry laboratory courses, many students in basic anatomy and physiology are not routinely introduced to these skills. Rather than detailing specific laboratory procedures, this discussion will provide insight into some of the options for bringing technology into the introductory anatomy and physiology laboratory. One of the standard methods available to medical technicians and researchers is computerized data acquisition. Currently available computer packages can measure and analyze various aspects of cardiac, reflex, muscle, and respiratory physiology. Other standard methods include chromatography, spectrophotometry, and electrophoresis. Applications of available computer data acquisition systems and clinical technologies for use in an anatomy and physiology laboratory are listed on the following pages. Included in each application are relevant exercises in the laboratory manual and a brief description of each possible application. A list of companies offering appropriate products is included at the end of this section.

Computerized Data Acquisition
Computerized equipment is commonly used to monitor patients in today’s allied health areas. We have found that students appreciate the brief exposure to computers in our labs and begin to realize that a computer is not an intimidating machine, but a tool that allows them to perform specific tasks. Incorporating computer-based exercises into the lab also generates increased interest because most students realize that they will be using computers in their chosen professions. Analog-to-digital converters can be used to create customized physiological data collection systems. Easy to use computer data acquisition systems include PowerLab, BIOPAC®, Intelitool, iWorx, and Vernier® systems. The packages are designed for use in college-level courses and require minimal computer experience. Directions for BIOPAC are included in the lab manual. Exercises using PowerLab, iWorx, and Intelitool can be downloaded from the Instructor Resource section of the myA&P companion website for the laboratory manuals at www.myaandp.com. The Vernier system can be easily adapted to sections of Exercises 31 and 31A.

General Tips for Computer Data Acquisition Systems Use in the Laboratory
The following ideas are general guidelines designed as an introduction to the operation of computer acquisition systems. Each system contains the software, equipment, and basic instructions needed to conduct the experiments on a computer. x Starting the Laboratory • Prepare the laboratory for a computer-assisted data acquisition exercise by connecting the transducers and cables to the computer. • Run through each exercise yourself so that you have a good idea of how much time is required to complete the activities in the given lab time period. • You may wish to start the program so that the main menu is visible as the students sit down to work. If computer novices are left to start and prepare the system by themselves, their initial frustration may waste valuable lab time and detract from the experience. • Once the program menu is up, students should be able to follow the exercise procedures in exercises without difficulty. • It may be helpful to have an introductory lab designed to introduce the students to the general operation of the system.

Exercises Based on the PowerLab system
Laboratory Exercises with PowerLab instructions are available for download from the Instructor Resource section of myA&P for the following laboratory exercises: Exercise 16A Exercise 22 Exercise 31 Exercise 33A Exercise 34A Exercise 37A Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Frog and Human Subjects Human Reflex Physiology Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography Human Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Wet Lab Respiratory System Physiology

Comments and tips specific to each exercise are included in the instructions.

Exercises Based on iWorx
Laboratory Exercises with iWorx instructions are available for download from the Instructor Resource section of myA&P for the following laboratory exercises: Exercise 16A Exercise 20 Exercise 22 Exercise 31 Exercise 33A Exercise 34A Exercise 37A Electromyography in a Human Subject Using iWorx Electroencephalography Using iWorx Measuring Reaction Time Using iWorx Electrocardiography Using iWorx Measuring Pulse Using iWorx Recording Baseline Frog Heart Activity Measuring Respiratory Variations

xi

Exercises Based on Intelitool Systems
Laboratory exercises with Intelitool instructions are available for download from the Instructor Resource section of myA&P for the following laboratory exercises: Exercise 16i Exercise 22i Exercise 31i Exercise 38i Muscle Physiology Human Reflex Physiology Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography Respiratory System Physiology

Comments and tips specific to each exercise are included on a separate Tips for Instructors page preceding each exercise.

Exercises in Cell Physiology and Clinical Chemistry
Modern cell physiology lab exercises frequently involve biochemical analysis of cellular components and products. A number of techniques can be used to detect and quantify the constituents of cells and body fluids. Some of the more commonly used clinical and research techniques include chromatography, spectrophotometry, and electrophoresis.1 Chromatography
Exercise 4: The Cell: Anatomy and Division Introduce molecular separation techniques when

discussing the cell (or macromolecules).
Exercise 29: Blood Separate protein and lipid components during blood analysis. Application

Chromatographic techniques have a number of applications in cell physiology and chemistry. Chromatography is used for separation and identification of components in mixtures containing amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, vitamins, steroids, antibiotics, and other drugs. The major forms of chromatography for the college physiology laboratory include thinlayer, paper, column, gas-liquid, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Descriptions of these procedures and their clinical applications can be found in a number of clinical method manuals.2 Gas and high-performance liquid chromatography offer the greatest sensitivity and quantitative ability, but the high initial investment usually makes these systems prohibitive unless they are already in place. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are economical, and they can be performed with a minimum of equipment. Both methods can be used as qualitative or semiquantitative screening techniques to detect the presence of both endogenous and exogenous compounds.3

1. Due to the hazards associated with the laboratory use of human body fluids, it may be advisable to avoid using student-drawn blood samples for analysis. There are a wide variety of commercially available blood components, both normal and abnormal, as well as blood component standards. 2. A. J. Pesce and L. A. Kaplan. 1987. Methods in Clinical Chemistry. C.V. Mosby Co.; M. L. Bishop, J. L. Duben-Von Laufen, E. P. Fody. 1985. Clinical Chemistry—Principles, Procedures, Correlations. J.B. Lippincott Co. 3. J. C. Touchstone and M. F. Dobbins. 1983. The Practice of Thin-Layer Chromatography. John Wiley and Sons.

xii

An example of a clinically significant screening test is the determination by thin-layer chromatography of abnormal levels of certain amino acids that are associated with genetic diseases affecting metabolism. The disorders phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, and homocystinuria result in abnormal levels of phenylalanine, homogentisic acid, and methionine, respectively, in the urine and blood. The sample and standards are applied to a thin-layer plate coated with cellulose acetate, or a silica gel, or to a Whatman #4 chromatography paper, and run in a butanol/acetic acid/water solvent. For visualization and identification of amino acids, an indicator such as ninhydrin may be used. The color intensity for the appropriate amino acids can be compared to normal values. Spectrophotometry
Exercise 29A: Blood Analyze protein or lipid composition, or enzyme hydrolysis. Exercise 41A: Urinalysis Analyze various substances present in urine. Exercise 39A: Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Quantitative spectrophotometric

analysis of enzyme hydrolysis.
Application

Spectrophotometry is a common procedure used in clinical and research settings for determining concentrations of substances in solution, based on the amount of radiant energy transmitted through or absorbed by a substance in solution. Spectrophotometric measurements include total protein, total lipid, cholesterol, lipoprotein, and hemoglobin. Spectrophotometry can also be used as a quantitative measure of enzymatic hydrolysis using commercially available colorigenic substrates. Most determinations in spectrophotometry utilize wavelengths in visible or ultraviolet ranges. For a more detailed description of the theory of spectrophotometry and use of the equipment, refer to a biochemistry or clinical methods manual. Diagnostic kits (for specific diseases) include: 1. Bilirubin (liver disease) 2. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (atherosclerosis) 3. Creatine kinase (striated muscle damage) 4. Hemoglobin (anemia) 5. Creatinine (kidney disease) Electrophoresis
Exercise 29A: Blood Analyze protein and lipid components of blood. Exercise 45: Principles of Heredity DNA fingerprinting systems, comparison of adult and

sickle cell hemoglobin.
Application

Electrophoretic techniques, which demonstrate the migration and separation of charged solutes in an electrical field, have many important applications in cell and molecular biology. The most commonly used techniques involve zone electrophoresis, in which migration

xiii

occurs within a semisolid support medium. In a majority of these procedures, agarose, polyacrylamide, or sodium dodecyl sulfate gels are used as the support medium. Sample migration can be horizontal or vertical, depending on the type of apparatus. Directions for agarose gel separation of hemoglobin can be found in Exercise 45 of the laboratory manual. An increasing number of supply companies are recognizing the importance of studies in molecular biology and their impact on the study of cell physiology and human disease. The companies are becoming involved with biotechnology education by offering lab systems that are designed to introduce the methods of molecular biology and biotechnology to students at the pre-college and college levels. These systems are often in kit form and facilitate hands-on experience with a variety of important procedures. Some of the experimental systems available are: 1. Molecular weight determination (proteins) 2. Separation and identification of serum proteins 3. Cardiac risk assessment—analysis of lipoproteins 4. DNA fingerprinting—restriction fragmentation patterns Sources of Equipment and Reagents Supplies for the biochemical techniques described in the above section can be obtained from the supply houses listed in Appendix B. The list is by no means complete but includes companies that are familiar to most educators. The Intelitool products are best obtained directly from the company rather than through another vendor, as delivery times are much quicker.

xiv

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

1

The Language of Anatomy

If time is a problem, most of this exercise can be done as an out-of-class assignment.

Time Allotment: (in lab): 1/2 hour. Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out human torso models and have articulated skeletons available. 2. Obtain three preserved kidneys (sheep kidneys work well). Cut one in transverse section, one in longitudinal section (usually a sagittal section), and leave one uncut. Label the kidneys and put them in a demonstration area. You may wish to add a fourth kidney to demonstrate a frontal section. 3. The day before the lab, prepare gelatin or Jell-O® using slightly less water than is called for and cook the spaghetti until it is al dente. Pour the gelatin into several small molds and drop several spaghetti strands into each mold. Refrigerate until lab time. 4. Set out gelatin spaghetti molds and scalpel.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students will probably have the most trouble understanding proximal and distal, often confusing these terms with superior and inferior. They also find the terms anterior/ventral and posterior/dorsal confusing since these terms refer to the same directions in humans, but different directions in four-legged animals. Other than that there should be few problems.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Practicing Using Correct Anatomical Terminology (p. 4) The wrist is proximal to the hand. The trachea (windpipe) is anterior or ventral to the spine. The brain is superior or cephalad to the spinal cord.
1

The kidneys are inferior or caudal to the liver. The nose is medial to the cheekbones. The thumb is lateral to the ring finger. The thorax is superior/cephalad to the abdomen. The skin is superficial to the skeleton. Activity 4: Identifying Organs in the Abdominopelvic Cavity (p. 7) Name two organs found in the left upper quadrant: stomach, spleen, large intestine Name two organs found in the right lower quadrant: small intestine, large intestine, appendix What organ is divided into identical halves by the median plane line? urinary bladder

2

Exercise 1

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

1

The Language of Anatomy
Surface Anatomy
1. Match each of the following descriptions with a key equivalent, and record the key letter or term in front of the description. Key: a. b. a; buccal d; digital f; scapular

buccal calcaneal 1. 2. 3.

c. d.

cephalic digital

e. f.

patellar scapular e; patellar b; calcaneal c; cephalic

cheek pertaining to the fingers shoulder blade region

4. 5. 6.

anterior aspect of knee heel of foot pertaining to the head

2. Indicate the following body areas on the accompanying diagram by placing the correct key letter at the end of each line. Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. abdominal antecubital axillary brachial cervical crural femoral fibular gluteal inguinal lumbar occipital oral popliteal pubic sural thoracic umbilical

m e q

l

c b r j o g n h f p i a d k

3. Classify each of the terms in the key of question 2 above into one of the large body regions indicated below. Insert the appropriate key letters on the answer blanks. b, c, d, f, g, h, n, p

1.

appendicular

a, e, i, j, k, l, m, o, q, r

2.

axial

Body Orientation, Direction, Planes, and Sections
Standing erect, feet together, head and toes pointed 4. Describe completely the standard human anatomical position. _________________________________________________ forward, arms hanging at sides with palms forward. 3

A cut along an imaginary plane through the body wall or organ. 5. Define section. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

6. Several incomplete statements are listed below. Correctly complete each statement by choosing the appropriate anatomical term from the key. Record the key letters and/or terms on the correspondingly numbered blanks below. Key: a. b. c. anterior distal frontal d. e. f. inferior lateral medial g. h. i. posterior proximal sagittal j. k. superior transverse

In the anatomical position, the face and palms are on the _1_ body surface; the buttocks and shoulder blades are on the __2_ body surface; and the top of the head is the most _3_ part of the body. The ears are _4_ and _5_ to the shoulders and _6_ to the nose. The heart is _7_ to the vertebral column (spine) and _8_ to the lungs. The elbow is _9_ to the fingers but _10_ to the shoulder. The abdominopelvic cavity is _11_ to the thoracic cavity and _12_ to the spinal cavity. In humans, the dorsal surface can also be called the _13_ surface; however, in quadruped animals, the dorsal surface is the _14_ surface. If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts, the section is a _15_ section; but if the heart is cut so that superior and inferior portions result, the section is a _16_ section. You are told to cut a dissection animal along two planes so that both kidneys are observable in each section. The two sections that will always meet this requirement are the _17_ and _18_ sections. A section that demonstrates the continuity between the spinal and cranial cavities is a _19_ section. 1. a; anterior 2. g; posterior 3. j; superior 4. f; medial 5. j; superior 6. e; lateral 7. a; anterior 7. Correctly identify each of the body planes by inserting the appropriate term for each on the answer line below the drawing. 8. f; medial 9. h; proximal 10. b; distal 11. d; inferior 12. a; anterior 13. g; posterior 14. j; superior 15. i; sagittal 16. k; transverse 17. c; frontal 18. k; transverse 19. i; sagittal

(a)

(b)

(c)

median (mid-sagittal) plane

frontal plane

transverse plane

4

Review Sheet 1

8. Draw a kidney as it appears when sectioned in each of the three different planes.

frontal section

sagittal section

transverse section

9. Correctly identify each of the nine areas of the abdominal surface by inserting the appropriate term for each of the letters indicated in the drawing. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. epigastric region right hypochondriac region left hypochondriac region umbilical region right lumbar region left lumbar region hypogastric (pubic) region right iliac reigon left iliac region
(h) (e) (b) (a) (c) (d) (f) (g) (i)

Body Cavities
10. Which body cavity would have to be opened for the following types of surgery or procedures? (Insert letter of key choice in same-numbered blank. More than one choice may apply.) Key: a. b. e, f a, f b, c

abdominopelvic cranial 1. 2. 3.

c. d.

dorsal spinal

e. f.

thoracic ventral a, f a, f d, c

surgery to remove a cancerous lung lobe removal of the uterus, or womb removal of a brain tumor

4. 5. 6.

appendectomy stomach ulcer operation delivery of pre-operative “saddle” anesthesia
Review Sheet 1 5

diaphragm 11. Name the muscle that subdivides the ventral body cavity. ____________________________________________________ Skeletal, muscular, integumentary 12. Which organ system would not be represented in any of the body cavities? _______________________________________ Dorsally, the vertebral column; laterally and anteriorly, 13. What are the bony landmarks of the abdominopelvic cavity? __________________________________________________ the pelvis ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ Abdominal 14. Which body cavity affords the least protection to its internal structures? _________________________________________ The serous membranes produce a lubricating fluid (serous 15. What is the function of the serous membranes of the body? ___________________________________________________ fluid) that reduces friction as organs slide across one another or against the cavity walls during their functioning. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

16. Using the key choices, identify the small body cavities described below. Key: a. b. middle ear cavity nasal cavity c. oral cavity d. orbital cavity e. synovial cavity c; oral cavity ________________ 4. e; synovial cavity ________________ 5.

d; orbital cavity _________________ 1. a; middle ear cavity _________________ 2. b; nasal cavity _________________ 3.

holds the eyes in an anterior-facing position houses three tiny bones involved in hearing contained within the nose

contains the tongue lines a joint cavity

17. On the incomplete flowchart provided below: • Fill in the cavity names as appropriate to boxes 3–8. • Then, using either the name of the cavity or the box numbers, identify the descriptions in the list that follows.
Body cavities

1 Dorsal body cavity

2 Ventral body cavity

3

cranial
(superior)

cavity

4 vertebral/spinal cavity (inferior)

5

thoracic
(superior)

cavity

6 abdominopelvic cavity (inferior)

7 abdominal cavity (superior)

8

pelvic
(inferior)

cavity

1 8 1, 3, 4 2

a. b. c. d.

contained within the skull and vertebral column houses female reproductive organs the most protective body cavity its name means belly

5 6 or 7 5 6 or 7

e. f. g. h.

contains the heart contains the small intestine bounded by the ribs its walls are muscular

6

Review Sheet 1

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

2

Organ Systems Overview

Time Allotment: 11/2 hours (rat dissection: 1 hour; if performing reproductive system dissection: 1/2 hour each for male and female); dissectible human torso model: 1/2 hour). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Homeostasis (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Homeostasis: The Body in Balance (HRM, IM, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Organ Systems Working Together (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) The Incredible Human Machine (CBS, 60 minutes, VHS) Solutions: Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage and disposal of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts, for state regulations. 2. Designate a disposal container for organic debris, set up a dishwashing area with hot soapy water and sponges, and provide lab disinfectant such as Wavicide-01 (Carolina) or bleach solution for washing down the lab benches. 3. Set out safety glasses and disposable gloves for dissection of freshly killed animals (to protect students from parasites) and for dissection of preserved animals. 4. Decide on the number of students in each dissecting group (a maximum of four is suggested, two is probably best). Each dissecting group should have a dissecting pan, dissecting pins, scissors, blunt probe, forceps, twine, and a preserved or freshly killed rat. 5. Preserved rats are more convenient to use unless small mammal facilites are available. If live rats are used, they may be killed a half-hour or so prior to the lab by administering an overdose of ether or chloroform. To do this, remove each rat from its cage and hold it firmly by the skin at the back of its neck. Put the rat in a container with cotton soaked in ether or chloroform. Seal the jar tightly and wait until the rat ceases to breathe. 6. Set out dissectible human torso models and a dissected human cadaver if available.
7

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may be overly enthusiastic when using the scalpel and cut away organs they are supposed to locate and identify. Therefore, use scissors to open the body. Have blunt probes available as the major dissecting tool. 2. Be sure the lab is well ventilated, and encourage students to take fresh air breaks if the preservative fumes are strong. If the dissection animal will be used only once, it can be rinsed to remove most of the excess preservative. 3. Organic debris may end up in the sinks, clogging the drains. Remind the students to dispose of all dissection materials in the designated container. 4. Inferior vena cava and aorta may be difficult to distinguish in uninjected specimens.

Answers to Questions
Activity 5: Examining the Human Torso Model (p. 24) 2. From top to bottom, the organs pointed out on the torso model are: brain, trachea, thyroid gland, lung, heart, diaphragm, liver, stomach, spleen, large intestine, greater omentum, small intestine 3. Dorsal body cavity: brain, spinal cord Thoracic cavity: aortic arch, bronchi, descending aorta (thoracic region), esophagus, heart, inferior vena cava, lungs, and trachea Abdominopelvic cavity: adrenal gland, descending aorta (abdominal region), greater omentum, inferior vena cava, kidneys, large intestine, liver, mesentery, pancreas, rectum, small intestine, spleen, stomach, ureters, urinary bladder Note: The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity. Right upper quadrant: right adrenal gland, right kidney, large and small intestine, liver, mesentery, pancreas, stomach, right ureter Left Upper Quadrant: left adrenal gland, descending aorta, greater omentum, left kidney, large and small intestine, mesentery, pancreas, spleen, stomach, left ureter Right Lower Quadrant: large and small intestine, mesentery, rectum, right ureter, urinary bladder Left Lower Quadrant: descending aorta, greater omentum, large and small intestine, left ureter, urinary bladder 4. Digestive: esophagus, liver, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, large instestine (including rectum) Urinary: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder Cardiovascular: heart, descending aorta, inferior vena cava Endocrine: pancreas, adrenal gland, thyroid gland Reproductive: none Respiratory: lungs, bronchi, trachea Lymphatic/Immunity: spleen Nervous: brain, spinal cord
8 Exercise 2

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

2

Organ Systems Overview
1. Use the key below to indicate the body systems that perform the following functions for the body. Then, circle the organ systems (in the key) that are present in all subdivisions of the ventral body cavity. Key: a. b. c. k; urinary c; endocrine j; skeletal a; cardiovascular c; endocrine (h; reproductive) d; integumentary e; lymphatic/immunity b; digestive i; respiratory a; cardiovascular f; muscular k; urinary c; endocrine c; endocrine d; integumentary

cardiovascular digestive endocrine

d. e. f.

integumentary lymphatic/immunity muscular

g. h. i.

nervous reproductive respiratory

j. k.

skeletal urinary

1. rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes 2. is affected by removal of the thyroid gland 3. provides support and levers on which the muscular system acts 4. includes the heart 5. causes the onset of the menstrual cycle 6. protects underlying organs from drying out and from mechanical damage 7. protects the body; destroys bacteria and tumor cells 8. breaks down ingested food into its building blocks 9. removes carbon dioxide from the blood 10. delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues 11. moves the limbs; facilitates facial expression 12. conserves body water or eliminates excesses and h; reproductive 13. facilitate conception and childbearing

14. controls the body by means of chemical molecules called hormones 15. is damaged when you cut your finger or get a severe sunburn

2.

Using the above key, choose the organ system to which each of the following sets of organs or body structures belongs. e; lymphatic/immunity

1. 2.

thymus, spleen, lymphatic vessels bones, cartilages, tendons pancreas, pituitary, adrenals trachea, bronchi, alveoli

d; integumentary

5. 6.

epidermis, dermis, and cutaneous sense organs testis, ductus deferens, urethra esophagus, large intestine, rectum muscles of the thigh, postural muscles
9

j; skeletal

h; reproductive

c; endocrine

3. 4.

b; digestive

7. 8.

i; respiratory

f; muscular

3.

Using the key below, place the following organs in their proper body cavity. Key: a. abdominopelvic 1. 2. 3. b. stomach esophagus large intestine cranial c. spinal 4. 5. 6. d. liver spinal cord urinary bladder thoracic d; thoracic d; thoracic a; abdominopelvic

a; abdominopelvic d; thoracic a; abdominopelvic

a; abdominopelvic c; spinal a; abdominopelvic

7. 8. 9.

heart trachea rectum

4.

Using the organs listed in question 3 above, record, by number, which would be found in the abdominal regions listed below.
3, 6, 9 3 3

1. 2. 3.

hypogastric region right lumbar region umbilical region

1, 3, 4 3 1, 3, 4

4. 5. 6.

epigastric region left iliac region left hypochondriac region , tissue ,

5.

The levels of organization of a living body are chemical, cell organ , organ system

, and organism.

6.

A body part (or structure) that is made up of two or more tissue types and performs a specific body Define organ.____________________________________________________________

___________________________ function, e.g., the stomach, the kidney ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

7.

Using the terms provided, correctly identify all of the body organs provided with leader lines in the drawings shown below. Then name the organ systems by entering the name of each on the answer blank below each drawing. Key: blood vessels brain heart kidney nerves sensory receptor spinal cord ureter urethra urinary bladder

brain sensory receptor kidney spinal cord nerves heart ureter urinary bladder urethra blood vessels

a. 8.

nervous system

b.

cardiovascular system

c.

urinary system

Many of the external and internal structures are Why is it helpful to study the external and internal structures of the rat? _________________________________________ similar to those in the human. Studying the rat can help you to understand your own structure. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _

10

Review Sheet 2

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

3

The Microscope

If students have already had an introductory biology course where the microscope has been introduced and used, there might be a temptation to skip this exercise. I have found that most students need the review, so I recommend spending this time early in the course to make sure they are all comfortable with the microscope, as it is used extensively throughout the laboratory manual.

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Solutions: Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Physiologic Saline (Mammalian, 0.9%) Weigh out 9 grams of NaCl. Add distilled/deionized water to a final volume of 1 liter. Make fresh just prior to experiment.

Advance Preparation
1. Provide each student with a compound microscope, millimeter ruler, bottle of immersion oil, lens paper, and millimeter grid slide. A supply of glass cleaner, such as Windex, should be available for lens cleaning. 2. Have available slides of the letter e and slides of crossed colored threads. Some instructors prefer to have slides for an entire semester available in individual boxes, which can be handed out to students. Others prefer to keep the slides on trays to be distributed as needed. 3. Set up an area for wet mount supplies, including clean microscope slides and coverslips, flat-tipped toothpicks, physiologic saline, methylene blue stain, and filter paper, or set out prepared slides of cheek epithelial cells. 4. Set up a disposal area containing a 1L beaker of 10% bleach solution and an autoclave bag. Note: Detailed instructions for treatment and disposal of materials used in labs involving human tissue and excretions are found in the preface of this Instructor’s Guide.

11

5. If the microscopes are binocular rather than monocular, give additional instructions on focusing. a. After the parts of the microscope have been identified, turn on the light and adjust the interpupillary distance so that a single circle of light is visible through the eyepieces. This is difficult for some students, usually because they are moving back and forth and changing their eye position. Have each student record his/her own interpupillary distance for later use. b. For a microscope with an adjustable left eyepiece, focus the microscope as directed, using the right eye only. c. Focus using the left eyepiece with the right eye closed. Both eyepieces should now be focused on the specimen. (Reverse the directions if the right eyepiece is adjustable.) 6. The directions for perceiving depth (p. 33) are for microscopes with objective lenses that advance and retract during focusing. If the stage moves during focusing, the superior thread will come into focus first if these directions are followed. Alter instructions if necessary. 7. Set out stereomicroscopes for each student.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Be sure to have the students check the orientation of the letter e on the slide before putting the slide on the microscope. If they forget to check, they will miss the point of the exercise. 2. Beware of common focusing problems: dirty lenses, inverted slide, objective lens not securely in place, and wrong lens in position (oil immersion instead of high-power). 3. It is difficult to use a millimeter ruler to measure the working distance of the high-power and oil immersion lenses on some microscopes. A best estimate is usually sufficient. 4. Many students have difficulty with the section on determining the size of the microscope field. The direct measurement is usually no problem, although some students measure area rather than diameter, and some students will have both the letter e slide and the grid on the stage at the same time. Emphasize that direct measurement should be done using only one lens. Otherwise, measuring discrepancies cause confusion. The problem is often with the math involved. It is probably worthwhile to stop the class and work through the use of the formula (p. 32) when you see that most students are at this point in the exercise. 5. Clarify what is meant by “detail observed” in the chart on p. 30. 6. Students may forget safety precautions when preparing the wet mount. Emphasize the importance of following directions for safe disposal of toothpicks and proper cleanup of glassware. 7. Many students forget to adjust the iris diaphragm and may end up using the light at its highest intensity, which is hard on the bulb. Remind students that the iris diaphragm should be adjusted so that the field is just filled with light when observed with the ocular lens removed. In practice, it may be necessary to adjust the iris diaphragm for best contrast, although some resolution may be lost.

12

Exercise 3

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Viewing Objects Through the Microscope (pp. 29–31) 5. Answers will vary depending on the lenses used. The correct answer for total magnification is the product of the objective lens and ocular lens used. The e appears upside down and backwards. 6. The image moves toward you. The image moves to the right. 7. and 8. Grains begin to appear and are very visible with the high-power lens. Again, total magnification depends on the lenses used. The image is much larger. The entire e is visible with the low-power lens, but less than 1/4 of the letter is probably visible with the high-power lens. The field is smaller. The object must be centered so that it falls into the field of the higher power lens. The light to the field is reduced as the iris diaphragm is closed. The light intensity often must be increased when changing to a higher magnification, as the lens has a smaller diameter and therefore lets in less light. In practice, if the microscope does not have a variable light intensity adjustment, the iris diaphragm should be adjusted to obtain the best contrast. 9. Yes. Probably 1000×. It depends on the magnifying power of the lenses. The working distance is less than that of the high-power lens. It is desirable to begin focusing with a low-power lens because the field is larger, making it easier to find the specimen on the slide, and the working distance is larger, reducing the chance of hitting the slide with the lens. Activty 3: Estimating the Diameter of the Microscope Field (p. 32) 3. Answers depend on the field diameter of lenses used. For lenses with field diameters of 1.8 millimeters, 0.45 millimeter, and 0.18 millimeter respectively, the estimated lengths are about 1.2 millimeters, 0.14 millimeter, and 1.8 millimeters. 4. No. The entire length of the object cannot be seen in one field. The estimate should be made with a lower-power objective lens. Activity 4: Perceiving Depth (p. 33) 2. Answers depend on the order of the threads on the particular slides used. When the stage descends, the first clearly focused thread is the bottom thread; the last clearly focused thread is the top one. Activity 5: Preparing and Observing a Wet Mount (pp. 33–34) 8. Most of the cells are separated from each other rather than in a continuous sheet. 10. A cheek epithelial cell is about 80–100 micrometers (μ) (0.08–0.1 millimeter) in diameter. They are easier to measure because they are in a continuous sheet.

Exercise 3

13

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

3

The Microscope
Care and Structure of the Compound Microscope
1. Label all indicated parts of the microscope.

Ocular lenses

Head

Arm

Rotating nosepiece Objective lenses

Power switch

Stage Light control Mechanical stage Iris diaphragm lever

Condenser Substage light

Coarse adjustment knob Fine adjustment knob

Base

2. Explain the proper technique for transporting the microscope.
Carry with two hands—one supporting the base, the other holding the arm.

15

3. The following statements are true or false. If true, write T on the answer blank. If false, correct the statement by writing on the blank the proper word or phrase to replace the one that is underlined. with grit-free lens paper low-power or scanning

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The microscope lens may be cleaned with any soft tissue. The microscope should be stored with the oil immersion lens in position over the stage. When beginning to focus, the lowest-power lens should be used. When focusing, always focus toward the specimen. A coverslip should always be used with wet mounts and the high-power and oil lenses.

T away from T

4. Match the microscope structures given in column B with the statements in column A that identify or describe them. Column A i d

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. coarse adjustment knob condenser fine adjustment knob iris diaphragm mechanical stage or spring clips movable nosepiece objective lenses ocular stage

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

platform on which the slide rests for viewing used to increase the amount of light passing through the specimen secure(s) the slide to the stage delivers a concentrated beam of light to the specimen used for precise focusing once initial focusing has been done carries the objective lenses; rotates so that the different objective lenses can be brought into position over the specimen

e b c

f

5. Define the following terms. virtual image: An image that is erect and appears to be where it is not.

resolution: Ability to discriminate two closely situated objects as separate.

16

Review Sheet 3

Viewing Objects Through the Microscope
6. Complete, or respond to, the following statements: working distance

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The distance from the bottom of the objective lens in use to the specimen is called the _____. Assume there is an object on the left side of the field that you want to bring to the center (that is, toward the apparent right). In what direction would you move your slide? The area of the specimen seen when looking through the microscope is the _____. If a microscope has a 10 ocular and the total magnification at a particular time is 950 , the objective lens in use at that time is _____ . Why should the light be dimmed when looking at living (nearly transparent) cells? If, after focusing in low power, only the fine adjustment need be used to focus the specimen at the higher powers, the microscope is said to be ______. If, when using a 10 ocular and a 15 objective, the field size is 1.5 mm, the approximate field size with a 30 objective is _______ mm. If the size of the high-power field is 1.2 mm, an object that occupies approximately a third of that field has an estimated diameter of ______ mm.

to the left

field 95

increases contrast parfocal

0.75

0.4

7. You have been asked to prepare a slide with the letter k on it (as shown below). In the circle below, draw the k as seen in the low-power field.

k

8. Figure out the magnification of fields 1 and 3, and the field size of 2. (Hint: Use your ruler.) Note that the numbers for the field sizes below are too large to represent the typical compound microscope lens system, but the relationships depicted are accurate. 2.5 ____ mm 5 mm 0.5 mm 1. ➛ 50 ________ 2. ➛ 100 3. ➛˚ 500 ________ ➛ ➛ ➛

9. Say you are observing an object in the low-power field. When you switch to high-power, it is no longer in your field of view. Why might this occur?
The field decreases proportionately as magnification increases. Therefore, unless the object is

centered at low power, it might be outside the higher-power field.

What should be done initially to prevent this from happening?

Center the object that you wish to view.

10. Do the following factors increase or decrease as one moves to higher magnifications with the microscope? resolution: increases (to a point) decreases

amount of light needed: depth of field: decreases working distance:

k

increases

Review Sheet 3

17

11. A student has the high-dry lens in position and appears to be intently observing the specimen. The instructor, noting a working distance of about 1 cm, knows the student isn’t actually seeing the specimen. How so? The working distance for the h.p. lens is closer to 1 mm. 12. Describe the proper procedure for preparing a wet mount.
Place the specimen on the slide with a medicine dropper or place a drop of water or saline on the slide. Mix specimen into drop using a toothpick. If staining, add a drop of stain and mix with a toothpick. Hold a coverslip with forceps so that the coverslip touches one side of the specimen drop, and then slowly and carefully lower the angled coverslip onto the specimen.

13. Indicate the probable cause of the following situations arising during use of a microscope. a. Only half of the field is illuminated: The lens is not correctly rotated into place.

b.

Field does not change as mechanical stage is moved: The slide is not correctly positioned in the clamp on the

mechanical stage and does not move when the mechanical stage moves.

18

Review Sheet 3

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

4

The Cell: Anatomy and Division

The Anatomy of the Composite Cell section can be given as an out-of-class assignment to save time. This might be necessary if audiovisual material is used.

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. A Journey Through the Cell (FHS, VHS, DVD) Part One: Cells: An Introduction (25 minutes) Part Two: Cell Functions: A Closer Look (25 minutes) An Introduction to the Living Cell (CBS, 30 minutes, VHS) Mitosis and Meiosis (UL, 23 minutes, VHS) Inside the Cell (CE, CD-ROM) Inside the Living Cell (WNS, VHS, set of 5) Mitosis (CE, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. Set out slides (one per student) of simple squamous epithelium, teased smooth muscle, human blood cell smear, sperm, and whitefish blastulae. Students will also need lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil, and compound microscopes. 2. Set out a model or a lab chart of a composite cell, and models of mitotic stages. 3. If available, arrange a viewing area for the mitosis video.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Observing differences and similarities in cell structure often gives students trouble, as many of them have never seen any cells other than epithelial cells. Slides or pictures of these cell types might help.

19

Answers to Questions
Activity 5: Observing Various Cell Structures (pp. 44–45) 4. Simple squamous epithelial cells are relatively large and irregularly (“fried egg”) shaped. Smooth muscle cells are also relatively large, but are long and spindle-shaped. Red blood cells and sperm are both examples of small cells. Red blood cells appear round, while sperm cells are streamlined with long flagella. Cell shape is often directly related to function. Epithelial cells fit tightly together and cover large areas. Elongated muscle cells are capable of shortening during contraction. The red blood cells are small enough to fit through capillaries, and are actually biconcave in shape, which makes them flexible and increases surface area (not obvious to the students at this point). Sperm cells’ streamlined shape and flagella are directly related to efficient locomotion. The sperm cells have visible projections (flagella), which are necessary for sperm motility. The function of sperm is to travel through the female reproductive system to reach the ovum in the uterine tubes. This requires motility, provided by the flagella. None of the cells lack a plasma membrane. Mature red blood cells have no nucleus. Nucleoli will probably be clearly visible in the epithelial cells, and possibly visible in the other nuclei. No. Identifiable organelles are not visible in most of these cells. Filaments may be visible in the smooth muscle preparations. The details of organelle structure are usually below the limit of resolution of the light microscope. Unless special stains are used, there is no way to see or distinguish the organelles at this level.

20

Exercise 4

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

4

The Cell: Anatomy and Division
Anatomy of the Composite Cell
1. Define the following terms: organelle: Highly organized intracellular structure that performs a specific (metabolic) function(s) for the cell.

cell: The basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. 2. Although cells have differences that reflect their specific functions in the body, what functions do they have in common?
Ability to metabolize, to reproduce, to grow (increase in mass), to respond to a stimulus, and move.

3. Identify the following cell parts: plasma membrane

1. external boundary of cell; regulates flow of materials into and out of the cell; site of cell signaling 2. contains digestive enzymes of many varieties; “suicide sac” of the cell 3. scattered throughout the cell; major site of ATP synthesis 4. slender extensions of the plasma membrane that increase its surface area 5. stored glycogen granules, crystals, pigments, and so on 6. membranous system consisting of flattened sacs and vesicles; packages proteins for export 7. control center of the cell; necessary for cell division and cell life 8. two rod-shaped bodies near the nucleus; direct formation of the mitotic spindle 9. dense, darkly staining nuclear body; packaging site for ribosomes

lysosome mitochondria microvilli inclusions Golgi apparatus nucleus centrioles nucleolus

microfilaments 10. contractile elements of the cytoskeleton rough ER or endoplasmic reticulum

11. membranous system; involved in intracellular transport of proteins and synthesis of membrane lipids 12. attached to membrane systems or scattered in the cytoplasm; synthesize proteins 13. threadlike structures in the nucleus; contain genetic material (DNA) 14. site of free radical detoxification

ribosomes chromatin or chromatin threads peroxisome

21

4. In the following diagram, label all parts provided with a leader line.
Nuclear envelope Chromatin Nucleolus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Cytosol Pore (nuclear pore) Nucleus Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Lysosome Ribosomes Centrioles Microvilli

Golgi apparatus

Microtubule Mitochondrion Intermediate filaments Peroxisome

Differences and Similarities in Cell Structure
5. For each of the following cell types, list (a) one important structural characteristic observed in the laboratory, and (b) the function that the structure complements or ensures. squamous epithelium a. b. sperm a. b. smooth muscle a. b. cells fit closely together like floor tiles ____________________________________________________________

_________________ often a lining or covering tissue ____________________________________________________________

_________________ has a tail or flagellum ____________________________________________________________

_________________ allows sperm to propel itself to an egg ____________________________________________________________

_________________ cells have an elongated shape ____________________________________________________________

_________________ a long axis allows a greater degree of shortening ____________________________________________________________

_________________

22

Review Sheet 4

red blood cells a. b.

anucleate (or no nucleus); disc-shaped ____________________________________________________________

________________________ large surface area; more “room” to carry hemoglobin or oxygen ____________________________________________________________

________________________

Limited life span. Does not reproduce. 6. What is the significance of the red blood cell being anucleate (without a nucleus)? _________________________________ The nucleus is gone; therefore, the cell cannot manufacture new proteins, etc. ____________________________________________________________

________________________________________ Yes Before its release into the bloodstream. Did it ever have a nucleus? __________ If so, when? ________________________________________________________

7. Of the four cells observed microscopically (squamous epithelial cells, red blood cells, smooth muscle cells, and sperm) sperm smooth muscle or sperm (variable) which has the smallest diameter? _________ Which is longest? _______________________________________________

Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
8. Identify the three phases of mitosis in the following photomicrographs.

a.

metaphase

b.

anaphase

c.

prophase

Provides cells for body growth and for repair of damaged tissue or 9. What is the importance of mitotic cell division? ____________________________________________________________

provides additional cells with the same genetic makeup. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

10. Draw the phases of mitosis for a cell that contains four chromosomes as its diploid or 2n number.

Review Sheet 4

23

11. Complete or respond to the following statements: Division of the 1 is referred to as mitosis. Cytokinesis is division of the 2 . The major structural difference between chromatin and chromosomes is that the latter are _ 3 . Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers by undivided structures called 4 . If a cell undergoes mitosis but not cytokinesis, the product is 5 . The structure that acts as a scaffolding for chromosomal attachment and movement is called the 6 . 7 is the period of cell life when the cell is not involved in division. Two cell populations in the body that do not undergo cell division are 8 and 9 . The implication of an inability of a cell population to divide is that when some of its members die, they are replaced by 10 .

nucleus 1. ______________________________ cytoplasm 2. ______________________________ coiled/condensed/shortened 3. ______________________________ centromeres 4. ______________________________ a binucleate cell or multinucleated cell 5. ______________________________ spindle 6. ______________________________ interphase 7. ______________________________ neurons 8. ______________________________ skeletal and cardiac muscle cells 9. ______________________________ scar (connective) tissue 10. ______________________________

12. Using the key, categorize each of the events described below according to the phase in which it occurs. Key: a. anaphase d a e e c d d b b d d (or a, c, and d) e a

b.

interphase

c.

metaphase

d.

prophase

e.

telophase

1. Chromatin coils and condenses, forming chromosomes. 2. The chromosomes are V-shaped. 3. The nuclear envelope re-forms. 4. Chromosomes stop moving toward the poles. 5. Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell. 6. The nuclear envelope fragments. 7. The mitotic spindle forms. 8. DNA synthesis occurs. 9. Centrioles replicate. 10. Chromosomes first appear to be duplex structures. 11. Chromosomal centromeres are attached to the kinetochore fibers. 12. Cleavage furrow forms. and c (possibly d)

13. The nuclear envelope(s) is absent.

13. What is the physical advantage of the chromatin coiling and condensing to form short chromosomes at the onset of mitosis?
Short, compact bodies are mechanically much easier to manipulate during mitosis than are long, thin chromatin threads. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

24

Review Sheet 4

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

5A

The Cell: Transport Mechanisms and Permeability—Wet Lab
This exercise has many parts to it. If students have had an introductory cell biology course, much of it should be review.

Time Allotment: Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Agar Gel—set up: 5 minutes; observation: 60 minutes Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Water—observations at end of lab session: 10 minutes Observing Diffusion Through Nonliving Membranes—set up: 15 minutes; diffusion: 60 minutes; observation: 20 minutes Investigating Diffusion Through Living Membranes: 25 minutes Experiment 1—set up: 10 minutes; observation: 60 minutes Experiment 2—15 minutes Observing the Process of Filtration—15 minutes Observations for diffusion through living membranes, osmometer, and filtration can be done while waiting for the results of the other experiments. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. An Introduction to the Living Cell (CBS, 30 minutes, VHS) Mitosis and Meiosis (IM, UL, DVD, 23 minutes) The Outer Envelope (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS) The Plasma Membrane and Cellular Transport (CE, CD-ROM) Solutions: Agar Gel, 1.5% Weigh out 15 grams of dried agar. Slowly add 1 liter of distilled water while heating. Bring slowly to a boil, stirring constantly until the agar dissolves. For immediate use, allow the agar to cool to about 45°C. Pour into petri dishes to solidify. Refrigerate in an inverted position. If the plates are to be kept for a longer time (more than one day), autoclave the agar solution in the flask, pour into sterile petri plates, allow the agar to solidify, invert the plates, and store in a refrigerator.

25

Benedict’s Solution • 173.0 grams sodium citrate • 100.0 grams sodium carbonate, anhydrous • 17.3 grams cupric sulfate (pure crystalline) Add the citrate and carbonate salts to 700–800 milliliters distilled water and heat to dissolve. Add the cupric sulfate to 100 milliliters distilled water and heat to dissolve. Cool the solutions and then combine. Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Benedict’s solution is available for purchase from biology supply companies, i.e. Carolina, Ward’s, or Fischer. Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of bleach and add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Glucose, 40% For each 100 milliliters of solution, weigh out 40 grams of glucose and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the glucose into solution. Refrigerate when not in use. Methylene Blue Solution, 3.5% Weigh out 3.5 grams of methylene blue powder and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. Physiologic Saline (Mammalian, 0.9%) Weigh out 9 grams of NaCl. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter. Make fresh immediately prior to experiment. Potassium Permanganate solution, 1.6% Weigh out 1.6 grams of potassium permanganate crystals and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. Silver Nitrate (2.9 or 3%) Weigh out 2.9 grams (for 2.9%) or 3 grams (for 3%) of silver nitrate. Use caution, this is an oxidizing substance. Add distilled water to make 100 milliliters of solution. Store in light-resistant bottles. Make fresh for each use. Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 10% For each 100 milliliters of solution, weigh out 10 grams of NaCl and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the NaCl into solution. Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 1.5% Weigh out 1.5 grams NaCl. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Sucrose, 40% (with Congo Red Dye) For each 100 milliliters of solution, weigh out 40 grams of sucrose and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. Add Congo red dye as necessary to color the solution red. It may be necessary to heat the solution to get the sucrose into solution. Refrigerate when not in use.

26

Exercise 5A

Uncooked Starch Solution Add 20 grams of corn starch to 100 milliliters of distilled water and gently stir to form a milky solution. After 15 minutes, stir again. Stir before making filtration solution. Refrigerate when not in use.

Advance Preparation
Note: This lab has many components. Either clearly designate supply areas for each part of the lab, or provide each lab group with its own set of supplies at the outset. The supplies for each part of the exercise are listed separately in case sections of the exercise are omitted. Some equipment is common to several parts of the lab.

1. Set out slides and coverslips. Have compound microscopes available. 2. Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Agar Gel. Set out 0.1M or 3.5% methylene blue solution (Carolina) and 0.1M or 1.6% potassium permanganate solution (Carolina), 1.5% agar plates (12 milliliters of 1.5% agar per plate, one per group), medicine droppers, and millimeter rulers. 3. Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Water (Demonstration). On the morning of the laboratory session, place some crystals of potassium permanganate in the bottom of a 1000milliliter graduated cylinder. Slowly and carefully fill the cylinder to the 1000-milliliter mark with water. Record the time at which the demonstration is set up. Set out millimeter rulers. 4. Observing Diffusion Through Nonliving Membranes. For each group, set out four dialysis sacs (Ward’s) or 10-centimeter lengths of dialysis tubing (Carolina), five 250-milliliter beakers, a wax marking pencil, 750 milliliters of distilled water, 20 milliliters of 10% NaCl solution, 20 milliliters of 40% sucrose-Congo red dye solution, 150 milliliters of 40% glucose solution, dropper bottles of Benedict’s solution (Carolina, or see above), silver nitrate, four test tubes, a test tube rack, test tube holder, small graduated cylinder, a small funnel, hot plate, and balance. Dialysis sacs can be prepared from cut sections of dialysis tubing. Soak dialysis tubing in a beaker of water for about 15 minutes. Once dialysis tubing has been soaked, open it by rubbing it between the thumb and forefinger until the tubing material separates. Tie the ends with fine twine or close with dialysis tubing closures (Carolina). Small Hefty® “alligator” sandwich bags can also be used to make dialysis bags. 5. Observing Osmometer Results (Demonstration). At the beginning of the laboratory session, set up an osmometer, using a thistle tube and molasses. Fill the expanded end of the thistle tube with molasses and cover it securely with a differentially permeable membrane. Clamp the thistle tube to a stand and put the broad end into a beaker of distilled water. Mark the level of the molasses in the tube and record the time that the osmometer is set up. Set out millimeter rulers. 6. Investigating Diffusion Through Living Membranes Experiment 1: Deshell eggs 48 to 72 hours before the day of the lab. To deshell eggs: immerse eggs in vinegar. After 24 hours, gently rub eggs under running water to remove shell. If there is any shell remaining, immerse in fresh vinegar. Repeat rubbing under

Exercise 5A

27

water and immersion in fresh vinegar until all shell has been removed. Give each group 2 deshelled eggs, two 400-ml beakers, 200 ml distilled water, 200 ml 30% glucose solution, wax markers, paper towels, weight boat, and laboratory balance. Experiment 2: Give each group 6 microscope slides and coverslips, dropper bottles of distilled water, filter paper, plastic gloves, physiologic saline, 1.5% NaCl, a vial of animal blood, and medicine droppers (one per student). Set out a basin of 10% bleach, a wash bottle of 10% bleach, and a disposable autoclave bag. 7. Observing the Process of Filtration. Give each group a ring stand with ring clamp and ring attached, a funnel, a piece of filter paper, a beaker, a 10-ml graduated cylinder, 100 ml filtration solution, and dropper bottle of Lugol’s iodine. Prepare the filtration solution by mixing 100 ml starch solution, 10 grams copper sulfate, and 10 grams powdered charcoal.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Caution students to keep careful track of time during the diffusion experiments. Lab timers might help. Suggestions for variables include different concentrations of solutions. 2. Dialysis sacs may leak. Check to see that they are tightly sealed. 3. You may substitute Clinitest tablets for Benedict’s solution. 4. Silver nitrate will stain and possibly damage clothing. Warn students to be careful. 5. Note that the 40% glucose solution used in sac 1 of the osmosis experiment is not isoosmotic to the 10% NaCl solution in sac 3, so caution students about the types of conclusions they may draw from this experiment. Also, sometimes no glucose will be present in the beaker at the end of the hour. You may need to extend the time for this part of the experiment. 6. Emphasize the importance of labeling test tubes and slides. 7. Red blood cells in physiologic saline may begin to crenate as the slide begins to dry out. Encourage students to make their observations quickly. If there is still trouble with crenation, use a slightly hypotonic saline solution. 8. Caution students to be careful when pouring starch solution into filter paper so that the solution does not overflow or cause the filter paper to collapse.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Agar Gel (p. 55) 6. Potassium permanganate (MW 158) diffused more rapidly than methylene blue (MW 320). The smaller the molecular weight, the faster the rate of diffusion. The dye molecules moved because they possess kinetic energy. Activity 2: Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Water (p. 56) 4. Potassium permanganate diffuses more rapidly through the water. Although the agar gel is largely water, it does contain more solid particles, which hinder free diffusion.

28

Exercise 5A

Activity 3: Observing Diffusion Through Nonliving Membranes (pp. 56–57) 5. After 1 hour, sac 1 (originally containing 40% glucose) should have gained weight. Water is moving into the sac by osmosis. Glucose is still present in the sac, and a small amount of glucose may also be present in the beaker. If the Benedict’s test is positive, glucose was able to pass through the dialysis membrane. 6. There should be no net weight change in sac 2. Since the concentrations of glucose and water are the same on both sides of the membrane, there is no net movement of water or glucose. 7. Sac 3 will increase in weight, perhaps only by a small amount. There has been a net movement of water into the sac and the weight of the water was not completely offset by the movement of the NaCl out of the sac. The solution in beaker 3 reacts with silver nitrate, indicating the presence of chloride in the beaker. Net dialysis of NaCl occurred. 8. There should be an increase in weight in sac 4. The water color did not turn pink; the dye was not able to diffuse out of the sac. The Benedict’s test for sugar was negative. Sucrose did not diffuse from the sac to the beaker. The dye and sucrose are too large to diffuse through the pores in the membrane or their rate of diffusion is too slow given the allowed time. 9. Net osmosis occurred in situations 1, 3, and 4. Net simple diffusion occurred in situations 1, 3, and 4. Water molecules are very small, and move quickly down a concentration gradient. Na+ and Cl– in solution behave like slightly larger molecules, but are smaller than glucose molecules, which move slowly, if at all, through the dialysis tubing. (See item 5 in Comments and Pitfalls.) Note: Students may only be able to conclude that Na+ and Cl– in solution and water molecules are small, and glucose, sucrose, and Congo red dye molecules are larger, or that Na+ and Cl– in solution and water and glucose molecules are smaller than sucrose molecules. The dialysis sac is often compared to the plasma membrane of the cell. Activity 5: Investigating Diffusion Through Living Membranes— Experiment 1 (p. 58) The egg placed in the distilled water gained weight because the egg is hypertonic to the distilled water. The egg placed in 30% sucrose solution lost weight because the egg (14% solution) is hypotonic to the 30% sucrose solution. Water moves from the area of higher water concentration into an area of lower water concentration. Activity 5: Investigating Diffusion Through Living Membranes— Experiment 2 (pp. 58–59) 3. The cells begin to shrink and develop a multipointed star shape. 4. When distilled water is added, the cells should begin to revert to their normal shape. Eventually they begin to look very bloated, and finally begin to disappear as their membranes burst open.

Exercise 5A

29

Activity 6: Observing the Process of Filtration (p. 60) 3. Passed: starch, copper sulfate, water Retained: powdered charcoal The filter paper represents a cell membrane. The filtration rate was greatest during the first 10-second counting period because the hydrostatic pressure was greater during that period. The characteristic of the three solutes that determines whether or not they passed through the filter paper is their size in relation to the size of the pores in the filter paper.

30

Exercise 5A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

5A

The Cell: Transport Mechanisms and Permeability—Wet Lab
Choose all answers that apply to questions 1 and 2, and place their letters on the response blanks to the right. a, d 1. Molecular motion __________________________________________. a. b. reflects the kinetic energy of molecules reflects the potential energy of molecules c. d. is ordered and predictable is random and erratic

b, c 2. Velocity of molecular movement ______________________________. a. b. c. is higher in larger molecules is lower in larger molecules increases with increasing temperature d. e. decreases with increasing temperature reflects kinetic energy

3. Summarize the results of Activity 3, diffusion through nonliving membranes, below. List and explain your observations relative to tests used to identify diffusing substances, and changes in sac weight observed. Sac 1: 40% glucose suspended in distilled water Glucose diffused from the sac into the water; using the Benedict’s test indicated the presence of the glucose that passed ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ through the membrane. Water moved into the sac by osmosis; sac gained weight. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Sac 2: 40% glucose suspended in 40% glucose There was no net diffusion of glucose or osmosis because the water concentration on both sides of the membrane was the ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ same. Net movement occurs only when there is a concentration gradient. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Sac 3: 10% NaCl in distilled water NaCl diffused from the sac into the water; silver nitrate added to the water showed the presence of Cl–. Osmosis caused ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ water to enter the sac because the solution in the sac was hypertonic to the distilled water in the beaker. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Sac 4: 40% sucrose and Congo red dye in distilled water The Congo red dye did not diffuse from the sac into the water; the water in the beaker did not turn red. The sucrose did not diffuse from the sac; upon boiling, some of the sucrose bonds are hydrolyzed, releasing glucose and fructose. Using ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Benedict’s test then indicates the presence of glucose if sucrose passed through the membrane; the Benedict’s test was negative. Water moved into the sac by osmosis; the sac gained weight. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

31

4. What single characteristic of the differentially permeable membranes used in the laboratory determines the substances that Size of pores can pass through them? ____________________________________________________________

___________________ In addition to this characteristic, what other factors influence the passage of substances through living membranes? Solubility in the lipid portion of the membrane and/or presence of membrane “carriers” for the substance(s). ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ 5. A semipermeable sac containing 4% NaCl, 9% glucose, and 10% albumin is suspended in a solution with the following composition: 10% NaCl, 10% glucose, and 40% albumin. Assume that the sac is permeable to all substances except albumin. State whether each of the following will (a) move into the sac, (b) move out of the sac, or (c) not move. a; moves into sac glucose: _______________________________________ b; moves out of sac water: _________________________________________ c; does not move albumin: __________________________________________ a; moves into sac NaCl: ____________________________________________

6. Summarize the results of Activity 5, Experiment 1 (diffusion through living membranes—the egg), below. List and explain your observations. The egg gained weight because the concentration of the egg, 14%, is hypertonic to the water. Egg 1 in distilled water: ____________________________________________________________

___________________ Water moves by osmosis from an area of higher water concentration into an area of lower water concentration. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ The egg lost weight because the concentration of the egg, 14%, is hypotonic to the 30% sucrose Egg 2 in 30% sucrose: ____________________________________________________________

____________________ solution. Water moves by osmosis from an area of higher water concentration into an area of lower water concentration. ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________ __ _ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ 7. The diagrams below represent three microscope fields containing red blood cells. Arrows show the direction of net osmosis. c crenated Which field contains a hypertonic solution? _________ The cells in this field are said to be ___________________. Which b a field contains an isotonic bathing solution? ____ Which field contains a hypotonic solution? ________ What is happening Hemolysis; they are bursting as excessive water entry occurs. to the cells in this field? ____________________________________________________________

___________________ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

(a)

(b)

(c)

32

Review Sheet 5A

8. Assume you are conducting the experiment illustrated in the next figure. Both hydrochloric acid (HCl) with a molecular weight of about 36.5 and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) with a molecular weight of 35 are volatile and easily enter the gaseous state. When they meet, the following reaction will occur: HCl NH4OH → H2O NH4Cl

Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) will be deposited on the glass tubing as a smoky precipitate where the two gases meet. Predict which gas will diffuse more quickly and indicate to which end of the tube the smoky precipitate will be closer. a. b. NH4OH The faster-diffusing gas is _________________. HCl The precipitate forms closer to the __________________ end.
Rubber stopper Cotton wad with HCl Cotton wad with NH4OH

Support

Whether or not the cell must provide ATP for the 9. What determines whether a transport process is active or passive? ______________________________________________ process; if so, the process is active. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ 10. Characterize membrane transport as fully as possible by choosing all the phrases that apply and inserting their letters on the answer blanks. a, c, e b, d, f Passive processes: __________________ Active processes: ____________________ a. b. c. d. e. f. account for the movement of fats and respiratory gases through the plasma membrane explain solute pumping, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis include osmosis, simple diffusion, and filtration may occur against concentration and/or electrical gradients use hydrostatic pressure or molecular energy as the driving force move ions, amino acids, and some sugars across the plasma membrane

11. For the osmometer demonstration (Activity 4), explain why the level of the water column rose during the laboratory session. The thistle tube was immersed in a dialysis sac which, in turn, was immersed in water. Since water will move down its ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ concentration gradient if it is able, water diffused from the beaker into the sac, where its concentration was much lower. As a result, the fluid column (molasses and entering water) rose in the thistle tube. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

Review Sheet 5A

33

12. Define the following terms. Movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to an area where they are in lower diffusion: ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________ __ concentration. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ Diffusion of water through a semipermeable or differentially permeable membrane. Water moves from an area osmosis: ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________ of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration, from hypotonic to hypertonic solution. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ Movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower simple diffusion: ____________________________________________________________

________________________ _ concentration. Its driving force is kinetic energy of the molecules themselves. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ Passage of substances across a membrane from an area of higher hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower filtration: ____________________________________________________________

______________________________ hydrostatic pressure. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ A transport system that requires that the cell provide ATP. One such system moves substances across _ active transport: ____________________________________________________________

________________________ the cell membrane attached to a carrier molecule called a solute pump. _ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Engulfment of extracellular particles by pseudopod formation. “Cell eating.” phagocytosis: ____________________________________________________________

___________________________ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ Intake of extracellular fluids by vesicle formation. “Cell drinking.” fluid-phase endocytosis: ____________________________________________________________

__________________ _ ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ _ ¸

34

Review Sheet 5A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

6A

Classification of Tissues

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Histology Slides for Life Science (BC, 35-mm slides) Histology Videotape Series (UL, 26-part series, 30 minutes each, VHS) Basic Human Histology (CBS) Eroschenko’s Interactive Histology (UL, VHS, CD-ROM) PhysioEx: Exercise 6B (BC, CD-ROM) Ward’s Histology Collection (WNS, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. Set out prepared slides of simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamous (nonkeratinized), pseudostratified ciliated columnar, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar, and transitional epithelium. 2. Set out prepared slides of mesenchyme; adipose tissue, areolar connective tissue, reticular connective tissue, dense connective tissue regular (tendon), and irregular (dermis) varieties; elastic connective tissue (wall of large artery); hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage; bone (cross section); and blood (smear). 3. Set out prepared slides of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle (longitudinal sections) and teased smooth muscle. 4. Set out prepared slides of spinal cord smear. 5. Set out lens paper and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Slides of the lung are suggested for simple squamous epithelium and slides of the kidney are suggested for simple cuboidal epithelium. An analogy using a quarter or pavement stone will help students visualize the 3-dimensional shape of a squamous cell.

35

2. The dense fibrous regular connective tissue slide is sometimes labeled white fibrous tissue. 3. Students may have trouble locating the appropriate tissue on slides with multiple tissue types. Encourage them to consult lab manual Figures 6A.3–6A.7, available histology texts, and each other for help. 4. A television camera with a microscope adapter and monitor is very useful in this lab. By watching the monitor, students can observe the instructor locating the correct area of tissue on the slide (see item 3 in Comments and Pitfalls). It also makes it easier to answer student questions and share particularly good slides with the class. Activity 2: Examining Connective Tissue Under the Microscope (pp. 75 and 81) All connective tissues consist of cells located within a matrix. Blood is no exception, but its cells float freely in a liquid matrix. The matrix ground substance is the strawcolored fluid called plasma. Its proteins are soluble, rather than fibrous, and include albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen.

36

Exercise 6A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

6A

Classification of Tissues
Tissue Structure and Function—General Review
A group of cells similar to one another in structure that perform a common or related function. 1. Define tissue. ____________________________________________________________

___________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ 2. Use the key choices to identify the major tissue types described below. Key: a. connective tissue b. epithelium c. muscle d. nervous tissue

b; epithelium c; muscle d; nervous c; muscle a; connective b; epithelium d; nervous c; muscle b; epithelium a; connective a; connective a; connective d; nervous

1. lines body cavities and covers the body’s external surface 2. pumps blood, flushes urine out of the body, allows one to swing a bat 3. transmits electrochemical impulses 4. anchors, packages, and supports body organs 5. cells may absorb, secrete, and filter 6. most involved in regulating and controlling body functions 7. major function is to contract 8. synthesizes hormones 9. the most durable tissue type 10. abundant nonliving extracellular matrix 11. most widespread tissue in the body 12. forms nerves and the brain

Epithelial Tissue
3. Describe five general characteristics of epithelial tissue. _____________________________________________________
Little intercellular material between the cells. Avascular. Membrane has a free edge. Generally has a high regenerative capacity. The cells fit closely together, forming sheetlike membranes.

4. On what basis are epithelial tissues classified?

Number of layers and cell shape.

37

5. List five major functions of epithelium in the body, and give examples of each. protection skin Function 1: ______________________________________ Example: __________________________________________ absorption cells lining digestive tract Function 2: ______________________________________ Example: __________________________________________ filtration and secretion kidney tubule cells Function 3: ______________________________________ Example: __________________________________________ secretion glandular cells or kidney cells Function 4: ______________________________________ Example: __________________________________________ sensory reception free endings of sensory neurons Function 5: ______________________________________ Example: __________________________________________ Stratified epithelia have more 6. How does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of simple epithelia? ___________________________ layers for protection. Simple epithelia allow materials to move across them and are less protective.

7. Where is ciliated epithelium found? Lining of the respiratory tract and of the male and female reproductive tracts (ductus deferens and uterine tubes, respectively).

What role does it play? In the respiratory tract, it acts to sweep mucus superiorly away from the lungs. In the reproductive tract, it acts to propel sperm or ova (male and female tracts respectively) along the tract.

8. Transitional epithelium is actually stratified squamous epithelium with special characteristics. How does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia? When stretched, its top layers are squamous, but when not stretched, its top layers are pillow-shaped.

How does the structural difference support its function? The surface cells have the ability to slide over one another, increasing the internal volume of the organ (e.g., bladder) as it fills and maintaining an intact lining whether stretched or contracted. Endocrine glands are ductless glands. They 9. How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function? ______________________________________ produce hormones, which are liberated directly to the blood. Exocrine glands maintain their ducts and manufacture secretions of various types (perspiration, oil, digestive enzymes, etc.), which are ducted to the body (or membrane) surface.

10. Respond to the following with the key choices. Key: a. pseudostratified ciliated columnar b. simple columnar e; stratified squamous b; simple columnar

c. simple cuboidal d. simple squamous

e. stratified squamous f. transitional

1. lining of the esophagus 2. lining of the stomach

38

Review Sheet 6A

d; simple squamous c; simple cuboidal e; stratified squamous f; transitional d; simple squamous

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

alveolar sacs of lungs tubules of the kidney epidermis of the skin lining of bladder; peculiar cells that have the ability to slide over each other forms the thin serous membranes; a single layer of flattened cells

Connective Tissue
Common origin of connective tissue from mesenchyme, 11. What are three general characteristics of connective tissues? __________________________________________________ varied degrees of vascularity, and a large amount of extracellular matrix that varies with tissue type all characterize connective tissue.

12. What functions are performed by connective tissue? Protection, support, and the binding together of other body tissues.
Transportation of substances within the body.

13. How are the functions of connective tissue reflected in its structure? There is a wide variety in the structures of connective tissue. This is reflected in the wide variety of functions they perform. Also, the large amount of nonliving matrix seen provides the strength needed to protect the body and carry out the normal functions of the body.

14. Using the key, choose the best response to identify the connective tissues described below. c; dense a; adipose c; dense e; fibrocartilage h: osseous b: areolar g; hyaline cartilage d; elastic cartilage g; hyaline cartilage h: osseous a; adipose

1. attaches bones to bones and muscles to bones 2. acts as a storage depot for fat 3. the dermis of the skin 4. makes up the intervertebral discs 5. forms the hip bone

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

adipose connective tissue areolar connective tissue dense fibrous connective tissue elastic cartilage fibrocartilage hematopoietic tissue hyaline cartilage osseous tissue

6. composes basement membranes; a soft packaging tissue with a jellylike matrix 7. forms the larynx, the costal cartilages of the ribs, and the embryonic skeleton 8. provides a flexible framework for the external ear 9. firm, structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth 10. matrix hard owing to calcium salts; provides levers for muscles to act on 11. insulates against heat loss

15. Why do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel? They contain a large fat-filled vacuole occupying most of the cell volume. The nucleus is pushed to the periphery, giving the cell a “signet ring” appearance. Review Sheet 6A 39

Nervous Tissue
Irritability and conductivity. 16. What two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons (nerve cells)?______________________________

They contain a nucleus and the usual organelles. 17. In what ways are neurons similar to other cells? ___________________________________________________________

How are they different? Their cytoplasm is drawn out into long processes. 18. Describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the body.
Neurons conduct impulses over relatively long distances in the body. This is facilitated by their long cytoplasmic extenstions.

Muscle Tissue
19. The three types of muscle tissue exhibit similarities as well as differences. Check the appropriate space in the chart to indicate which muscle types exhibit each characteristic.
Characteristic Voluntarily controlled Involuntarily controlled Striated Has a single nucleus in each cell Has several nuclei per cell Found attached to bones Allows you to direct your eyeballs Found in the walls of the stomach, uterus, and arteries Contains spindle-shaped cells Contains branching cylindrical cells Contains long, nonbranching cylindrical cells Has intercalated discs Concerned with locomotion of the body as a whole Changes the internal volume of an organ as it contracts Tissue of the heart Skeletal Cardiac Smooth

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

40

Review Sheet 6A

For Review
20. Label the tissue types illustrated here and on the next pages, and identify all structures provided with leaders.
Connective tissue

Cilia

Simple columnar epithelial cell Pseudostratified epithelial layer Basement membrane
(a) Simple columnar epithelial (b) Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial

Basement membrane Connective tissue

Nuclei of epithelial cells

Basement membrane Basement membrane Connective tissue
(d) Transitional epithelial

(c) Stratified squamous epithelial

Nucleus of fibroblast

Mast cell Fibers of matrix

Nucleus of fibroblast Collagen fibers

(e) Areolar connective tissue

(f) Dense fibrous connective tissue, or dense

regular connective tissue Review Sheet 6A 41

Canaliculi Lacuna Matrix

Matrix Chondrocyte

Lacunae

(g) Bone (osseous tissue)

(h) Hyaline cartilage

Nuclei of fat cells Vacuole containing fat droplet

Smooth muscle cell Nuclei

(i) Adipose tissue

(j) Smooth muscle tissue

Nuclei

Intercalated discs Nucleus of cardiac muscle cell

Skeletal muscle fiber (cell)

(k) Skeletal muscle tissue

(l) Cardiac muscle tissue

42

Review Sheet 6A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

7

The Integumentary System

Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. How the Body Works: Skin, Bones, and Muscles (NIMCO, 19 minutes, VHS) Skin (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Skin (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) The Senses: Skin Deep (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Solution: Lugol’s Iodine (IKI) • 20 grams potassium iodide • 4 grams iodine crystals Dissolve potassium iodide in 1 liter distilled water. Add the iodine crystals and stir to dissolve. Store in dark bottles.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out models of the skin, prepared slides of human scalp with hair follicles and skin of palm or sole, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. 2. Terminology for layers of the epidermis differs from text to text. Decide on the terminology to be used, and inform the students at the onset of the laboratory session if there is a discrepancy between the laboratory manual and the text. 3. Set out 20# bond paper ruled in 1-centimeter squares, scissors, Betadine swabs, or Lugol’s iodine (Carolina, or see above), cotton swabs, and adhesive tape. 4. Prepare a data collection sheet for “palm” and “forearm” sweat gland data. 5. Set out 2 × 3 index cards, Parelon® fingerprint pad or portable inking foils, ink cleaner towelettes, and magnifying glasses (all available from Sirchie® Finger Print Laboratories, Inc., 1-800-356-7311 or www.sirchie.com, and Kinderprint Co., Inc., 1-800-227-6020 or www.kinderprint.com).

43

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may have difficulty finding the arrector pili muscles and sweat glands. Some students will confuse the fibers of the dermis (dense fibrous irregular connective tissue) with smooth muscle.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Comparison of Hairy and Relatively Hair-free Skin Microscopically (p. 97) 1. The stratified squamous epithelium of the skin is comprised of several recognizable layers, the outermost of which are keratinized or dead. Hair follicles are also present. Both types of epithelia are protective, but the skin epithelium also protects against water loss to the external environment, UV damage, and chemical damage in addition to protecting against mechanical damage and bacterial invasion. 2. The thickness of the skin can be attributed to the presence of a fifth epithelial layer, the stratum lucidum, and a thicker stratum corneum and dermis. Thick skin lacks hair follicles, arrector pili, and sebaceous glands that are present on thin skin of the scalp. Activity 4: Differentiating Sebaceous and Sweat Glands Microscopically (p. 98) Eccrine sweat glands have long, straight, or undulating ducts with twisted coils at their base. In contrast, sebaceous glands have short ducts leading from a fan-shaped base. Sebaceous glands are usually associated with hair follicles. Activity 5: Plotting the Distribution of Sweat Glands (p. 99) 6. In most students, the palm has a greater density of sweat glands when compared to the forearm. However, some students show a greater sweat gland density in the forearm when compared to their palm. Activity 7: Taking and Identifying Inked Fingerprints (pp. 99–100) 7. Sometimes it was easy to classify the prints; at other times it was difficult. This has to do with the clarity of the prints taken and the fact that more information on fingerprints is necessary to make accurate identifications. The same individual would probably affect the fingerprinting process in the same way each time.

44

Exercise 7

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

7

The Integumentary System
Basic Structure of the Skin
1. Complete the following statements by writing the appropriate word or phrase on the correspondingly numbered blank: The two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are dense irregular connective tissue, which makes up the dermis, and 1 , which forms the epidermis. The tough water-repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called 2 . The pigments melanin and 3 contribute to skin color. A localized concentration of melanin is referred to as a 4 . 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. Four protective functions of the skin are a. b.
Prevents dessication. ____________________________________________ Prevents bacterial invasion. ____________________________________________ stratified squamous epithelium _____________________________ keratin _____________________________ carotene _____________________________ freckle _____________________________

c. d.

Protects against thermal damage. _________________________________________ Protects against UV radiation. _________________________________________

3. Using the key choices, choose all responses that apply to the following descriptions. Key: a. b. c. stratum basale stratum corneum stratum granulosum d. e. f. stratum lucidum stratum spinosum papillary layer g. reticular layer h. epidermis as a whole i. dermis as a whole

d; stratum lucidum b & d; stratum corneum and lucidum f; papillary layer i; dermis (or f, g) h; epidermis a; stratum basale b; stratum corneum e; stratum spinosum i; dermis (or g) a; stratum basale e; stratum spinosum f; papillary layer

1. translucent cells in thick skin containing keratin fibrils 2. dead cells 3. dermal layer responsible for fingerprints 4. vascular region 5. major skin area that produces derivatives (nails and hair) 6. epidermal region exhibiting the most rapid cell division 7. scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off 8. mitotic cells filled with intermediate filaments 9. has abundant elastic and collagenic fibers 10. location of melanocytes and Merkel cells 11. area where weblike pre-keratin filaments first appear 12. region of areolar connective tissue

45

4. Label the skin structures and areas indicated in the accompanying diagram of thin skin. Then, complete the statements that follow.

Hair shaft

Stratum corneum Stratum granulosum

Epidermis

spinosum Stratum basale
Stratum

Layers

Dermal papillae Hair root Dermis Sebaceous gland Hair follice Arrector pili muscle
Reticular layer

Sweat gland
Blood vessel Subcutaneous tissue or

Hair bulb Nerve fiber
Adipose cells

hypodermis

Pacinian corpuscle
(deep pressure receptor)

a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

Laminated (or lamellated)

granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusion through . glands. . .

the epidermis. Fibers in the dermis are produced by fibroblasts

Glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the sebaceous (and apocrine sweat) Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called Langerhans’ cells

A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a Merkel disc What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin? Stratum lucidum What cell-to-cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together? Desmosomes

46

Review Sheet 7

5. What substance is manufactured in the skin that plays a role in calcium absorption elsewhere in the body?
Vitamin D

6. List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin. Pain, pressure, touch, heat, and cold.

7. A nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic. Define cyanosis. A blue cast to the skin. What does its presence imply? Inadequate oxygenation of the blood. 8. What is a bedsore (decubitus ulcer)? Localized area of tissue necrosis and death. Why does it occur? Pressure areas (points of increased pressure over bony areas) restrict the blood supply to the area.

Accessory Organs of the Skin
9. Match the key choices with the appropriate descriptions. Key: a. b. c. arrector pili cutaneous receptors hair d. e. f. hair follicle nail sebaceous glands g. h. sweat gland—apocrine sweat gland—eccrine

f; sebaceous glands a; arrector pili h; sweat gland—eccrine d; hair follicle g; sweat gland—apocrine

1. produces an accumulation of oily material that is known as a blackhead 2. tiny muscles, attached to hair follicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold 3. perspiration glands with a role in temperature control 4. sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues 5. less numerous type of perspiration-producing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions 6. found everywhere on the body except the palms of hands and soles of feet 7. primarily dead/keratinized cells 8. specialized nerve endings that respond to temperature, touch, etc. 9. secretes a lubricant for hair and skin 10. “sports” a lunula and a cuticle

f; sebaceous glands c, e; hair, nail b; cutaneous receptors f; sebaceous glands e; nail

Review Sheet 7

47

10. Describe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature. (1) When capillary blood flow to the skin is enhanced (by nervous system controls), heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of blood flow conserves body heat. (2) Activity of sweat glands, i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.

11. Several structures or skin regions are listed below. Identify each by matching its letter with the appropriate area on the figure. c a. b. c. d. e. f.

adipose cells dermis epidermis hair follicle hair shaft sloughing stratum corneum cells d a f e b

Plotting the Distribution of Sweat Glands
12. With what substance in the bond paper does the iodine painted on the skin react? The starch 13. Based on class data, which skin area—the forearm or palm of hand—has more sweat glands? Palm
Yes Was this an expected result? ______ Explain. For most people, hands sweat more than the forearm.

Which other body areas would, if tested, prove to have a high density of sweat glands? Face, axillae

14. What organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands? Nervous system (sympathetic division)

Dermography: Fingerprinting
15. Why can fingerprints be used to identify individuals?
Everyone’s fingerprints are genetically distinct.

16. Name the three common fingerprint patterns. loops , arches

, and whorls

48

Review Sheet 7

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

8

Classification of Covering and Lining Membranes

Time Allotment: 1/2 hour. Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out slides of trachea (cross section), esophagus, small intestine (cross section), and a serous membrane such as mesentery (Ward’s). If a slide of mesentery is unavailable, use the visceral serosa on a slide of a cross section of the ileum, or substitute a slide of an artery (cross section) and study the endothelium. Have compound microscopes, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution available. 2. Arrange with a butcher or meat packer for a longitudinally cut fresh beef joint. Set out the beef joint and provide disposable gloves at the demonstration area.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. The students have not been introduced to the respiratory or digestive systems yet, and they may have difficulty locating the appropriate tissues. Remind them to look for free surfaces to find epithelium. The intestine slide may be confusing due to the presence of villi in longitudinal and cross sections. A simple diagram on the board may help, or refer students to appropriate exercises later in the lab manual. 2. Start looking early for a butcher who will saw through a beef joint.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Examining the Microscopic Structure of Mucous Membranes (p. 107) Goblet cells are found in both the tracheal and the intestinal epithelia. The mucous membranes of the trachea and esophagus are mainly protective, while that of the small intestine is specialized for absorption. These membranes protect underlying tissues and the tracheal and intestinal epithelia secrete mucus.

49

Activity 2: Examining the Microscopic Structure of a Serous Membrane (pp. 107–108) The serous membranes of the heart and pericardial cavity are the visceral and parietal pericardia. The membranes of the abdominal viscera and visceral cavity are the visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum.

50

Exercise 8

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

8

Classification of Covering and Lining Membranes
1. Complete the following chart.
Tissue types: membrane composition (epithelial/connective) epithelial, connective

Membrane cutaneous

Common locations The skin

General functions Secretion (oil, sweat) Waterproofing (keratin) Bacteriostatic (acid mantle and sebum) Protection against chemical and mechanical damage (keratinization and continuity) Secretion (mucus) Absorption Ciliated for movement of substances Secretion (serous fluid); decreases friction Secretion (synovial fluid); decreases friction

mucous

epithelial, connective (lamina propria)

Lining of the digestive, respiratory, and urogential tracts

serous

epithelial, connective

Lining of closed ventral body cavities Lining of joint cavities of freely movable joints

synovial

connective tissue

2.

Respond to the following statements by choosing an answer from the key. Key: a. cutaneous d c a

b. 1. 2.

mucous

c.

serous

d.

synovial

membrane type in joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths epithelium of this membrane is always simple squamous epithelium membrane types not found in the ventral body cavity the only membrane type in which goblet cells are found the dry membrane with keratinizing epithelium “wet” membranes adapted for absorption and secretion has parietal and visceral layers

, b a

d

3. 4. 5.

b

,

c b c

,

d

6. 7. 8.

51

3.

Using terms from the key above the figure, specifically identify the different types of body membranes (cutaneous, mucous, serous, and synovial) by writing in the terms at the end of the appropriate leader lines. Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. cutaneous membrane (skin) esophageal mucosa gastric mucosa mucosa of lung bronchi nasal mucosa oral mucosa g. h. i. j. k. l. parietal pericardium parietal pleura synovial membrane of joint tracheal mucosa visceral pericardium visceral pleura

e f b j

a

d

c

i

h l k g

4.

Knowing that -itis is a suffix meaning “inflammation of,” what do peritonitis, pleurisy, and pericarditis (pathological conditions) have in common?
All are inflammations of serous membranes. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

5.

When serous membranes become inflamed, insufficient Why are these conditions accompanied by a great deal of pain? _______________________________________________ serous fluid may be produced. As a result, friction increases and adhesions may form. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

52

Review Sheet 8

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

9

Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages

Time Allotment: 45 minutes. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. How the Body Works: Skin, Bones, and Muscles (NIMCO, 19 minutes, VHS) Muscle and Bone (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Our Flexible Frame (WNS, 20 minutes, VHS) Skeletal System: The Infrastructure (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Skeleton: An Introduction (UL, 46 minutes, VHS) Skeletal System (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS) Solution: Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 10% Add 36 milliliters of 36% HCl to 200 milliliters of distilled water. Add water to a final volume of 360 milliliters.

Advance Preparation
1. If you have a local source, arrange to have a long bone sawed longitudinally. Keep refrigerated or frozen until used. Preserved, sawed long bones can be used instead. Provide disposable gloves at the demonstration area. 2. Bake some long bones (chicken or turkey bones work well) at 250°F for 2 hours or until they are brittle and snap or crumble easily. Prepare these the day before lab observations are to take place. 3. Soak some long bones in 10% hydrochloric acid or vinegar until flexible. Overnight soaking is usually sufficient for the hydrochloric acid; vinegar will take longer. Prepare well in advance. 4. Prepare numbered samples of long, short, flat, and irregular bones. These can be set out at a station in the lab where students can work on identification.

53

5. Put out prepared slides of ground bone (cross section), developing long bone undergoing endochondral ossification, hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage. Also set out lens paper and lens cleaning solution, and have compound microscopes available. 6. Set out models of the microscopic structure of bone.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may initially have some trouble classifying bones by shape; other than that, this lab should cause no problems. 2. Emphasize that all long bones have a long axis, but some long bones are much shorter than others! Long bones include most of the bones of the upper and lower limbs (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges). Short bones include the carpals and the tarsals. Flat bones are thin and include the bones of the roof of the cranial cavity, sternum, scapula, and ribs. Irregular bones include some skull bones, the vertebrae, and possibly bones of the pelvic girdle. Bones included in each of these categories vary from author to author.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Examining the Effects of Heat and Hydrochloric Acid on Bones (p. 115) The treated bones still have the same general shape as the untreated bones, although the acid-soaked bone may appear more fibrous. The heated bone is very brittle and responds to gentle pressure by breaking. The acid-treated bone is very flexible. The acid appears to remove the calcium salts from the bone. Heating dries out the organic matrix. The acid-treated bone most closely resembles the bones of a child with rickets.

54

Exercise 9

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

9

Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages
Bone Markings
1. Match the terms in column B with the appropriate description in column A. Column A l; spine n; tubercle b; crest o; tuberosity g; head j; ramus a; condyle d; fissure h; meatus e; foramen f; fossa k; sinus m; trochanter c; epicondyle i; process

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. condyle crest epicondyle fissure foramen fossa head meatus process ramus sinus spine trochanter tubercle tuberosity

1. sharp, slender process* 2. small rounded projection* 3. narrow ridge of bone* 4. large rounded projection* 5. structure supported on neck† 6. armlike projection† 7. rounded, articular projection‡ 8. narrow opening‡ 9. canal-like structure‡ 10. round or oval opening through a bone‡ 11. shallow depression† 12. air-filled cavity 13. large, irregularly shaped projection* 14. raised area on or above a condyle* 15. projection or prominence

*a site of muscle attachment † takes part in joint formation ‡ a passageway for nerves or blood vessels

Classification of Bones
2. The four major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular. Which category has the least amount
Long of spongy bone relative to its total volume? _________________ 55

3. Place the name of each labeled bone in Figure 9.1, page 112, into the appropriate column of the chart here.
Long humerus, radius, ulna, phalanges, metacarpals, femur, tibia, metatarsals, fibula Short carpals, tarsals, patella, calcaneus Flat skull or cranium, sternum, scapula, ribs, clavicle Irregular vertebra, ilium, ischium, pubis, bones of pelvic girdle

Gross Anatomy of the Typical Long Bone
4. Use the terms below to identify the structures marked by leader lines and braces in the diagrams (some terms are used more than once). Key: a. b. c. d. articular cartilage compact bone diaphysis endosteum e. f. g. h. epiphyseal line epiphysis medullary cavity nutrient artery i. j. k. l. periosteum red marrow cavity trabeculae of spongy bone yellow marrow d b f e l b i j (k)

b
(b)

c h

i

g k e

f a
(a) (c)

56

Review Sheet 9

5. Match the terms in question 4 with the information below. f c j d , i

1. contains spongy bone in adults 2. made of compact bone 3. site of blood cell formation 4. major submembranous site of osteoclasts

c g (l) e i

5. scientific term for bone shaft 6. contains fat in adult bones 7. growth plate remnant 8. major submembranous site of osteoblasts

Compact bone appears 6. What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye? ______________________________ homogenous; spongy bone has obvious spaces. ____________________________________________________________

________________________________________ Protects the bone and is the structure from which blood vessels and nerves enter 7. What is the function of the periosteum? ____________________________________________________________

______ bone. It provides an attachment site for tendons and ligaments and supplies osteoblasts for new bone. ____________________________________________________________

________________________________________

Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone
8. Trace the route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna. perforating canal → → Periosteum ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________ central (Haversian) canal canaliculus → → ____________________________________________________________

______________________________ osteocyte

9. Several descriptions of bone structure are given below. Identify the structure involved by choosing the appropriate term from the key and placing its letter in the blank. Then, on the photomicrograph of bone on the right (208 ), identify all structures named in the key and bracket an osteon. Key: a. c canaliculi

b.

central canal

c.

concentric lamellae

d.

lacunae

e.

matrix

1. layers of bony matrix around a central canal 2. site of osteocytes 3. longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves 4. minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon 5. inorganic salts deposited in organic ground substance a d b

c d b e

a

e

Review Sheet 9

57

Chemical Composition of Bone
To provide flexibility (and strength). 10. What is the function of the organic matrix in bone? _________________________________________________________ Cells, collagen fibers, and ground substance (proteoglycans and glycoproteins). 11. Name the important organic bone components. ____________________________________________________________

_

12. Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?
To provide hardness and strength and resist compression. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ water calcium salts 13. Baking removes _________________________ from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes _________________________.

Ossification: Bone Formation and Growth in Length
14. Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate.
Cartilage cells are resting and relatively inactive. Right below this, the cartilage cells are rapidly reproducing. Epiphyseal face: ____________________________________________________________

________________________ Chondrocytes are dying, the matrix is calcifying, and the cartilage is being replaced by bone. Diaphyseal face: ____________________________________________________________

_________________________

Cartilages of the Skeleton
15. Using the key choices, identify each type of cartilage described (in terms of its body location or function) below. Key: a. a; elastic b; fibrocartilage c; hyaline

elastic

b.

fibrocartilage

c.

hyaline b; fibrocartilage c; hyaline b; fibrocartilage

1. supports the external ear 2. between the vertebrae 3. forms the walls of the voice box (larynx) 4. the epiglottis 5. articular cartilages

6. meniscus in a knee joint 7. connects the ribs to the sternum 8. most effective at resisting compression 9. most springy and flexible 10. most abundant

a; elastic c; hyaline

a; elastic c; hyaline

58

Review Sheet 9

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

10

The Axial Skeleton

Time Allotment: 21/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Skull Anatomy Series (UL, 9-part series, VHS) Thoracic Skeleton, The (UL, 18 minutes, VHS) Interactive Skeleton: Sports & Kinetic (LP, CD-ROM) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out one intact skull per group. A group of 3–4 students is ideal. 2. Set out labeled samples of disarticulated vertebrae, an articulated spinal column, a disarticulated skull, and a Beauchene skull. 3. Have articulated skeletons available. There should be a minimum of two, one male and one female. 4. Display X rays of individuals with scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, if available. Students are often willing to bring in X rays for the class to use if none are available. 5. Set out blunt probes, pipe cleaners, or unsharpened pencils with erasers for the students to use while studying the bones. Caution them against marking the bones with pencils or markers.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Point out sutures; remind students to look for sutures surrounding each bone. 2. Suggest that students identify all bones of the skull before identifying bone features. 3. Students may have some trouble with the numerous foramina of the skull. You may wish to have them locate all of the foramina at this time, but hold them responsible for identifying a smaller number.

59

4. The ethmoid bone may cause some problems, especially if the skulls are old and the conchae have begun to crumble. The disarticulated and Beauchene skulls will come in handy here. 5. “Saddle block” anesthesia is similar to epidural anesthesia. 6. There is the occasional student who asks whether males have one less rib than females. A trip to the articulated skeletons provides the answer: no.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Examining Spinal Curvatures (p. 133) 2. When the fibrous disc is properly positioned, the spinal cord and peripheral nerves are not impaired in any way. If the disc is removed, the intervertebral foramina are reduced in size, and might pinch the nerves exiting at that level. Slipped discs often put pressure on spinal nerves, causing pain and/or loss of feeling.

60

Exercise 10

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

10
Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. ethmoid frontal hyoid lacrimal mandible maxilla nasal occipital palatine parietal sphenoid temporal

The Axial Skeleton
The Skull
1. First, match the bone names in column B with the descriptions in column A (the items in column B may be used more than once). Then, circle the bones in column B that are cranial bones. Column A b; frontal n; zygomatic e; mandible g; nasal i; palatine j; parietal h; occipital k; sphenoid d; lacrimal f; maxilla a; ethmoid l; temporal k; sphenoid a; ethmoid e; mandible l; temporal a; ethmoid k; sphenoid h; occipital h; occipital c; hyoid l; temporal m; vomer (a; ethmoid) a; ethmoid e; mandible

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. , b; frontal 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. , f; maxilla

forehead bone cheekbone lower jaw bridge of nose posterior bones of the hard palate much of the lateral and superior cranium most posterior part of cranium single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial floor tiny bones bearing tear ducts anterior part of hard palate superior and medial nasal conchae formed from its projections site of mastoid process site of sella turcica site of cribriform plate site of mental foramen site of styloid processes , f; maxilla , and

m. vomer n. zygomatic

four bones containing paranasal sinuses condyles here articulate with the atlas foramen magnum contained here small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscles attach middle ear found here nasal septum bears an upward protrusion, the “cock’s comb,” or crista galli 24. contain alveoli bearing teeth

61

2. Using choices from the numbered key to the right, identify all bones and bone markings provided with leader lines in the two diagrams below. 2 29 Key: 1. carotid canal
9 23

2. coronal suture
34 33

8 28 30 35 3

3. ethmoid bone 4. external occipital protuberance 5. foramen lacerum 6. foramen magnum 7. foramen ovale 8. frontal bone 9. glabella
12

10. incisive fossa 11. inferior nasal concha 12. inferior orbital fissure 13. infraorbital foramen 14. jugular foramen 15. lacrimal bone 16. mandible 17. mandibular fossa 18. mandibular symphysis 19. mastoid process 20. maxilla 21. mental foramen 22. middle nasal concha of ethmoid

15 22 37 11 13 36 20 21 16 18 10 27 26 13 20

23. nasal bone 24. occipital bone 25. occipital condyle 26. palatine bone 27. palatine process of maxilla
30 7 17 5

37 8

38 36

28. parietal bone 29. sagittal suture 30. sphenoid bone 31. styloid process 32. stylomastoid foramen 33. superior orbital fissure 34. supraorbital foramen 35. temporal bone 36. vomer 37. zygomatic bone 38. zygomatic process of temporal bone

31

19 1 35 32 14 25 28 4 6 24

62

Review Sheet 10

3. Define suture. Fibrous joint between skull bones. 4. With one exception, the skull bones are joined by sutures. Name the exception. Joint(s) between the mandible and temporal bones.

5. What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture? occipital and parietal

What bones are connected by the squamous suture? temporal and parietal

6. Name the eight bones of the cranium. frontal sphenoid occipital ethmoid right parietal right temporal left parietal left temporal

(1) Lighten the skull, (2) resonance chambers for speech. 7. Give two possible functions of the sinuses. ____________________________________________________________

____

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________
Bony socket for the eye. 8. What is the orbit? ____________________________________________________________

________________________ Ethmoid, lacrimal, frontal, sphenoid, zygomatic, maxillary, What bones contribute to the formation of the orbit? _________________________________________________________ palatine ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ It articulates with all of the other cranial bones. 9. Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor? _________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

The Vertebral Column
10. The distinguishing characteristics of the vertebrae composing the vertebral column are noted below. Correctly identify each described structure by choosing a response from the key. Key: a. b. c. atlas axis cervical vertebra—typical 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. d. e. coccyx lumbar vertebra f. g. sacrum thoracic vertebra

c; cervical (also a & b) b; axis g; thoracic f; sacrum e; lumbar d; coccyx a; atlas

vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1) transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs; spinous process pointing sharply downward composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally massive vertebrae; weight-sustaining “tail bone”; vestigial fused vertebrae supports the head; allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles

Review Sheet 10

63

11. Using the key, correctly identify the vertebral parts/areas described below. (More than one choice may apply in some cases.) Also use the key letters to correctly identify the vertebral areas in the diagram. Key: a. body b. intervertebral foramina c. lamina i a e a

d. e. f.

pedicle spinous process facet of superior articular process

g. h. i.

transverse process vertebral arch vertebral foramen e 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

cavity enclosing the nerve cord weight-bearing portion of the vertebra provide levers against which muscles pull provide an articulation point for the ribs openings providing for exit of spinal nerves structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord f g

c

h

, g , g b a

, h

i

d

a

Via the intervertebral foramina found between the pedicles 12. Describe how a spinal nerve exits from the vertebral column. _________________________________________________ of adjacent vertebrae. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

13. Name two factors/structures that permit flexibility of the vertebral column.
Intervertebral discs curvatures ________________________________________________ and ______________________________________________ Fibrocartilage 14. What kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs? ______________________________________________________ A ruptured disc in which a portion of the disc protrudes outward. 15. What is a herniated disc? ____________________________________________________________

__________________ It might compress a nerve, leading to pain and possibly paralysis. What problems might it cause? ____________________________________________________________

_____________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________
Thoracic sacral 16. Which two spinal curvatures are obvious at birth? __________________________ and ____________________________ The cervical curvature develops when the baby begins to Under what conditions do the secondary curvatures develop? _________________________________________________ raise its head independently. The lumbar curvature forms when the baby begins to walk (assumes upright posture). ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

64

Review Sheet 10

17. On this illustration of an articulated vertebral column, identify each curvature indicated and label it as a primary or a secondary curvature. Also identify the structures provided with leader lines, using the letters of the terms listed in the key below. Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. atlas axis intervertebral disc sacrum two thoracic vertebrae two lumbar vertebrae vertebra prominens g a b Cervical–secondary
(curvature)

e

Thoracic–primary
(curvature)

c

f

Lumbar–secondary
(curvature)

d Sacral–primary
(curvature)

Review Sheet 10

65

The Thoracic Cage ribs 18. The major bony components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) are the ________________________________

and the sternum

.

A true rib has its own costal cartilage attachment to the sternum; a false 19. Differentiate between a true rib and a false rib. ____________________________________________________________

_ rib attaches to the sternum indirectly or not at all. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Is a floating rib a true or a false rib? False
Inverted cone shape 20. What is the general shape of the thoracic cage? ____________________________________________________________

21. Using the terms in the key, identify the regions and landmarks of the bony thorax. c f b g h j a

Key: a. b. c. d. i body clavicular notch costal cartilage false ribs floating ribs jugular notch manubrium sternal angle sternum true ribs xiphisternal joint xiphoid process

e. f.

l k

g. h. i.

d

j. k. e L1 vertebra

l.

66

Review Sheet 10

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

11

The Appendicular Skeleton

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Anatomy of a Runner (Structure and Function of the Lower Limb) (UL, 38 minutes, VHS) Anatomy of the Hand (FHS, 14 minutes, VHS, DVD) Anatomy of the Shoulder (FHS, 18 minutes, VHS, DVD) Bones and Joints (FHS, 20 minutes, 1995) Knee Joint (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) Interactive Foot and Ankle (LP, CD-ROM) Interactive Shoulder (LP, CD-ROM) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Have articulated skeletons (male and female) available. 2. Set out disarticulated skeletons. One per group of 3–4 students is ideal. 3. Set out male and female articulated pelves in a demonstration area. 4. Set out blunt probes, pipe cleaners, or unsharpened pencils with erasers for use during bone identfication. 5. Set out X rays of bones of the appendicular skeleton.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may have trouble distinguishing between right and left samples of bones. Remind them to review the bone markings before checking the disarticulated skeleton. 2. Stress the importance of bony landmarks for muscle location and identification.

67

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

11

The Appendicular Skeleton
Bones of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Extremity
1. Match the bone names or markings in column B with the descriptions in column A. Column A g; deltoid tuberosity

Column B a. acromion b. capitulum

1. raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches 2. arm bone , p; scapula , t; ulna

i; humerus d; clavicle o; radius a; acromion p; scapula d; clavicle

c. carpals 3. 4. bones of the shoulder girdle d. clavicle forearm bones e. coracoid process

5. scapular region to which the clavicle connects f. coronoid fossa 6. shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton g. deltoid tuberosity 7. shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the bony thorax 8. depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerus 9. process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment 10. the “collarbone” 11. distal condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna 12. medial bone of forearm in anatomical position 13. rounded knob on the humerus; adjoins the radius 14. anterior depression, superior to the trochlea, which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed 15. forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow joint 16. wrist bones 17. finger bones 18. heads of these bones form the knuckles , q; sternum 19. bones that articulate with the clavicle h. glenoid cavity i. humerus j. metacarpals k. olecranon fossa l. olecranon process m. phalanges n. radial tuberosity o. radius p. scapula q. sternum r. styloid process s. trochlea t. ulna

h; glenoid cavity e; coracoid process d; clavicle s; trochlea t; ulna b; capitulum f; coronoid fossa

t; ulna c; carpals m; phalanges j; metacarpals p; scapula

69

2. How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic cage?
The clavicle acts as a strut to hold the glenoid cavity of the scapula (therefore the arm) laterally away from the narrowest dimension of the rib cage.

3. What is the total number of phalanges in the hand? 14 4. What is the total number of carpals in the wrist? 8 Name the carpals (medial to lateral) in the proximal row. pisiform, triangular, lunate, scaphoid In the distal row, they are (medial to lateral) hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium 5. Using items from the list at the right, identify the anatomical landmarks and regions of the scapula. a b

Key: a. k j

acromion coracoid process glenoid cavity inferior angle infraspinous fossa lateral border medial border spine superior angle superior border suprascapular notch supraspinous fossa

b. i c. d. e. l c

f. g.

h f e

h. i. j. k.

g

l.

d

70

Review Sheet 11

6. Match the terms in the key with the appropriate leader lines on the drawings of the humerus and the radius and ulna. Also decide whether the bones shown are right or left bones and whether the view shown is an anterior or a posterior view. e d l a f n o r b t k

Key: a. anatomical neck b. coronoid process c. distal radioulnar joint d. greater tubercle e. head of humerus f. head of radius g. head of ulna h. lateral epicondyle i. medial epicondyle j. olecranon fossa k. olecranon process l. proximal radioulnar joint

m

m. radial groove n. radial notch o. radial tuberosity c p. styloid process of radius q. styloid process of ulna

i h g p q

r. surgical neck s. trochlea

s

j

t. trochlear notch

Circle the correct term for each pair in parentheses: The humerus is a (right/left) bone in (an anterior/a posterior) view. The radius and ulna are (right/left) bones in (an anterior/ a posterior) view.

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
7. Compare the pectoral and pelvic girdles by choosing appropriate descriptive terms from the key. Key: a. b. c. flexibility most important massive lightweight a d. e. f.

insecure axial and limb attachments secure axial and limb attachments weight-bearing most important Pelvic: b Pectoral: 8.

,

c

,

d

,

e

,

f

What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle? Uterus (female), urinary bladder, small intestine, rectum

Review Sheet 11

71

The true pelvis is the region inferior to the pelvic brim, which is encircled 9. Distinguish between the true pelvis and the false pelvis.______________________________________________________ by bone. The false pelvis is the area medial to the flaring iliac bones and lies superior to the pelvic brim.

10. Use letters from the key to identify the bone markings on this illustration of an articulated pelvis. Make an educated guess as to whether the illustration shows a male or female pelvis and provide two reasons for your decision. d b j e

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. acetabulum ala of sacrum anterior superior iliac spine iliac crest iliac fossa ischial spine pelvic brim pubic crest pubic symphysis sacroiliac joint sacrum

g

c

g. h. i. j.

a f

k

i

h

k.

This is a male

(female/male) pelvis because:

Acetabula are close together; pubic angle/arch is less than 90°; narrow sacrum, heart-shaped pelvic inlet.

11. Deduce why the pelvic bones of a four-legged animal such as the cat or pig are much less massive than those of the human.
The pelvic girdle does not have to carry the entire weight of the trunk in the quadruped animal.

12. A person instinctively curls over his abdominal area in times of danger. Why? Abdominal area organs receive the least protection from the skeletal system.

13. For what anatomical reason do many women appear to be slightly knock-kneed? The pelvis is broader and the acetabula and ilia are more laterally positioned. Thus, the femur runs downward to the knee more obliquely than in the male.

14. What does fallen arches mean? A weakening of the tendons and ligaments supporting the arches of the foot.

72

Review Sheet 11

15. Match the bone names and markings in column B with the descriptions in column A. Column A i; ilium t; pubis k; ischium s; pubic symphysis h; iliac crest a; acetabulum

Column B , and a. acetabulum b. calcaneus c. femur d. fibula e. gluteal tuberosity f. greater and lesser trochanters g. greater sciatic notch h. iliac crest i. ilium j. ischial tuberosity k. ischium l. lateral malleolus m. lesser sciatic notch n. linea aspera o. medial malleolus p. metatarsals q. obturator foramen r. patella s. pubic symphysis t. pubis u. sacroiliac joint v. talus w. tarsals x. tibia y. tibial tuberosity

, k; ischium

1. fuse to form the coxal bone 2. “sit-down” bone of the coxal bone 3. point where the coxal bones join anteriorly 4. superiormost margin of the coxal bone 5. deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone 6. joint between axial skeleton and pelvic girdle 7. longest, strongest bone in body 8. thin lateral leg bone 9. heavy medial leg bone , x; tibia 10. bones forming knee joint

u; sacroiliac joint c; femur d; fibula x; tibia c; femur y; tibial tuberosity r; patella x; tibia o; medial malleolus l; lateral malleolus b; calcaneus w; tarsals p; metatarsals q; obturator foramen e; gluteal tuberosity

11. point where the patellar ligament attaches 12. kneecap 13. shinbone 14. medial ankle projection 15. lateral ankle projection 16. largest tarsal bone 17. ankle bones 18. bones forming the instep of the foot 19. opening in hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami and f; greater and lesser trochanters

20. sites of muscle attachment on the proximal femur

v; talus x; tibia v; talus

21. tarsal bone that “sits” on the calcaneus 22. weight-bearing bone of the leg 23. tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia

Review Sheet 11

73

16. Match the terms in the key with the appropriate leader lines on the drawings of the femur and the tibia and fibula. Also decide if these bones are right or left bones and whether the view shown is an anterior or a posterior view. b d i e p h l s q f m g

Key: a. distal tibiofibular joint b. fovea capitis c. gluteal tuberosity d. greater trochanter e. head of femur f. head of fibula g. intercondylar eminence r c

h. intertrochanteric crest i. lateral condyle j. lateral epicondyle k. lateral malleolus l. lesser trochanter m. medial condyle

j n a m i k o

n. medial epicondyle o. medial malleolus p. neck of femur q. proximal tibiofibular joint r. tibial anterior border s. tibial tuberosity

Circle the correct term for each pair in parentheses: The femur is a (right/left) bone in (an anterior/a posterior) view. The tibia and fibula are (right/left) bones in (an anterior/ a posterior) view.

Summary of Skeleton
17. Identify all indicated bones (or groups of bones) in the diagram of the articulated skeleton on page 163.

74

Review Sheet 11

parietal frontal temporal occipital sternum (manubrium) sternum (body) sternum (xiphiod process) scapula rib (false or vertebrosternal) humerus radius vertebra (lumbar) ulna ilium head of femur sacrum carpals metacarpals phalanges maxilla mandible clavicle

pubic bone/pubis

femur

ischium talus calcaneus metatarsals phalanges

patella tibia fibula tarsals

Review Sheet 11

75

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

12

The Fetal Skeleton

Time Allotment: 1/2 hour.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out an isolated fetal skull and fetal skeleton in a demonstration area, unless enough are available for each group. If you don’t already know it, figure out the approximate age of the fetus, since someone is sure to ask. Developmental charts are usually available in developmental anatomy texts. 2. Have an adult articulated skeleton available.

Answers to Questions
Activity: Examining a Fetal Skeleton and Skull (pp. 165–166) 2. Yes, the fetal and adult skulls have the same bones, although the fetal frontal bone is bipartite as opposed to the single frontal bone seen in the adult skull. The fetal face is foreshortened and overshadowed by the cranium; the maxillae and mandible are very tiny. In the adult skull the cranium is proportionately smaller and the facial skeleton proportionately larger.

77

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

12

The Fetal Skeleton
Yes 1. Are the same skull bones seen in the adult also found in the fetal skull? __________________________________________ Face is foreshortened, overshadowed by the large cranium. Maxillae 2. How does the size of the fetal face compare to its cranium?___________________________________________________ and mandible are very tiny. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ In the adult the cranium is proportionately smaller and the facial bones are proportionHow does this compare to the adult skull?____________________________________________________________

_____ ately larger and more prominent. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________
These are ossification (growth) centers. 3. What are the outward conical projections on some of the fetal cranial bones?____________________________________ A fibrous membrane connecting fetal skull bones. 4. What is a fontanel? ____________________________________________________________

______________________ Progressively ossified; replaced by a suture. What is its fate?____________________________________________________________

_________________________ Allow fetal skull to be compressed slightly during birth passage; allow for What is the function of the fontanels in the fetal skull?_______________________________________________________ fetal (and infant) brain growth. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

5. Describe how the fetal skeleton compares with the adult skeleton in the following areas:
In the fetus, only the primary curvatures (thoracic and sacral) are present. vertebrae:____________________________________________________________

______________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________
In the fetus the ilium, ischium, and pubis are separate bones. In the adult they form the hip bones (ossa coxae or ossa coxae:____________________________________________________________

____________________________ coxal bones). ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Not ossified in the fetus. carpals and tarsals:____________________________________________________________

______________________ Its component parts are not fused in the fetus. sternum:____________________________________________________________

_______________________________ Bipartite superiorly in the fetus; fused in the adult. frontal bone:____________________________________________________________

___________________________ May be absent in the fetus; if present, is unossified. patella:____________________________________________________________

________________________________ Compressed laterally forming a pointed anterior rib cage surface in the fetus. rib cage:____________________________________________________________

_______________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

79

The head is disproportionately large. 6. How does the size of the fetus’s head compare to the size of its body?___________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 7. Using the terms listed, identify each of the fontanels shown on the fetal skull below. Key: a. b. c. d. anterior fontanel mastoid fontanel posterior fontanel sphenoidal fontanel
Posterior fontanel
Parietal bone

Anterior fontanel Sphenoidal fontanel
Frontal bone

Occipital bone

Mastoid fontanel
Temporal bone

80

Review Sheet 12

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

13

Articulations and Body Movements

Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Anatomy of a Runner (Structure and Function of the Lower Limb) (UL, 38 minutes, VHS) Bones and Joints (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Knee Joint (UL, 16 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Skeleton: Types of Articulations (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. If you have a local source, obtain a sagittally sawed, fresh diarthrotic beef joint from a butcher or meat packing company. Refrigerate or freeze until use. Preserved joints could be used instead. Have disposable gloves available. 2. Have available the articulated skeleton and isolated skull. 3. Set out any available anatomical charts of joint types, models of joint types, etc., that are available. 4. Display any available X rays of normal and arthritic joints. 5. There are several methods of joint classification. If your text and the lab manual use different systems, decide on the preferred system for your course. 6. Have water balloons and clamps available.

81

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Some students may have trouble interpreting the movements in Figure 13.5. It may help to have the students perform all of these movements together during lab. 2. Students may be confused by movement at the shoulder joint. Flexion occurs when the arm is moved forward and upward, and extension returns the arm to the anatomical position. Activity 4: Demonstrating the Importance of Friction-Reducing Structures (p. 173) 4. The fluid-filled sac greatly reduces the friction between the two surfaces. The water balloon represents a synovial cavity, bursae, or tendon sheaths. The fists represent two articulating bones on opposite sides of a synovial cavity. They may also represent muscles, tendons, or ligaments in the case of bursae and tendon sheaths. Activity 6: Demonstrating Uniaxial, Biaxial, and Multiaxial Movements (pp. 174–175) 1. Name of joint (any two of these) elbow (hinge) joint radioulnar (pivot) atlas and dens of axis (pivot) finger (interphalangeal) ankle toe (interphalangeal) temporomandibular 2. Name of joint (any two) carpometacarpal of digit 1 knuckles (metacarpophalangeal) atlanto-occipital wrist knee metatarsophalangeal 3. Name of joint (any two) shoulder hip sternoclavicular Movement allowed flexion and extension rotation rotation flexion and extension dorsiflexion and plantar flexion flexion and extension rotation Movement allowed flexion, extension flexion, extension flexion, extension flexion, extension flexion, extension flexion, extension Movement allowed abduction, adduction abduction, adduction lateral flexion, circumduction abduction, adduction rotation abduction, adduction Movement allowed circumduction, rotation circumduction, rotation

Movement allowed flexion, extension flexion, extension moves in all axes

Movement allowed abduction, adduction abduction, adduction

82

Exercise 13

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

13

Articulations and Body Movements
Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial Joints
1. Use key responses to identify the joint types described below. Key: a. cartilaginous 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. b. fibrous c. synovial

a; cartilaginous a; cartilaginous b; fibrous b; fibrous a; cartilaginous c; synovial

typically allows a slight degree of movement includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis essentially immovable joints sutures are the most remembered examples characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity all are freely movable or diarthrotic bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue include the hip, knee, and elbow joints

c; synovial b; fibrous c; synovial

2. Describe the tissue type and function of the following structures in relation to a synovial joint and label the structures indicated by leader lines in the diagram. ligament: Dense fibrous connective tissue; attaches bones together; reinforces joints ________________________________________________ Bone Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid Articular cartilage

tendon: Dense fibrous connective tissue attaching tendon to bone; reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint ________________________________________________

articular cartilage: Hyaline cartilage; reduces friction where bones articulate ________________________________________________ Synovial membrane Articular capsule Bone Periosteum

synovial membrane: Loose connective tissue; produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the ________________________________________________ joint capsule ________________________________________________

bursa: Fluid-filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone ________________________________________________

83

3. Match the synovial joint categories in column B with their descriptions in column A. Column A e; pivot a; ball and socket c; gliding b; condyloid d; hinge d; hinge c; gliding d; hinge b; condyloid d; hinge b; condyloid a; ball and socket b; condyloid or d; hinge or

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. ball and socket condyloid gliding hinge pivot saddle

1. joint between the axis and atlas
2. hip joint

3. intervertebral joints (between articular processes)
4. joint between forearm bones and wrist

5. elbow 6. interphalangeal joints 7. intercarpal joints 8. joint between tarsus and tibia/fibula 9. joint between skull and vertebral column 10. joint between jaw and skull 11. joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones 12. a multiaxial joint f; saddle e; pivot

13. biaxial joints 14. uniaxial joints

4. Indicate the number of planes in which each joint can move. one _______________ uniaxial joints two _______________ biaxial joints three or more _______________ multiaxial joints

All consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective 5. What characteristics do all joints have in common? _________________________________________________________ tissue. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

Selected Synovial Joints
Hip 6. Which joint, the hip or the knee, is more stable? ____________________________________________________________

Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the hip joint.
Deep socket for femur strongly reinforced articular capsule ______________________________________________ and _________________________________________________

Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee.
The menisci ligaments and tendons crossing joint ______________________________________________ and _________________________________________________

84

Review Sheet 13

7. The diagram shows a frontal section of the hip joint. Identify its major structural elements by using the key letters. a d f e

Key: a. b. c. d. c g b

acetabular labrum articular capsule articular cartilage coxal bone head of femur ligamentum teres synovial cavity

e. f. g.

8. The shoulder joint is built for mobility. List four factors that contribute to the large range of motion at the shoulder: The large head of the humerus moves easily against the shallow glenoid cavity of the scapula. 1. ____________________________________________________________

___________________________________ The glenoid labrum only slightly deepens the glenoid cavity. 2. ____________________________________________________________

___________________________________ The articular capsule is thin and loose. 3. ____________________________________________________________

___________________________________ There are few ligaments that strengthen the joint. 4. ____________________________________________________________

___________________________________ The humerus usually dislocates in the forward and downward 9. In which direction does the shoulder usually dislocate? ______________________________________________________ direction.

Movements Allowed by Synovial Joints
10. Which letter of the adjacent diagram marks the origin of the muscle? tion? B A Which letter marks the inserA Muscle contracting

Insert the words origin and insertion into the following sentence: insertion During muscle contraction, the ________________ moves origin toward the ________________.
Tendon

B

Review Sheet 13

85

11. Complete the descriptions below the diagrams by inserting the type of movement in each answer blank.

flexion (b) extension
(a)

of the elbow of the knee

abduction (d) adduction
(c)

of the shoulder of the hip

(e)

circumduction

of the shoulder

(f)

inversion

of the foot

(g)

rotation

of the head

(h)

pronation

of the hand

Joint Disorders
Degenerative changes (adhesions and bone spurs) begin to “sprout up” 12. What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?_____________________________________________________ in diarthrotic joints; intervertebral discs begin to degenerate. These changes lead to increased joint stiffness and pain. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

13. Define the following terms.
Ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, or torn away from the bony attachment. sprain: ____________________________________________________________

________________________________ Bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity. dislocation: ____________________________________________________________

___________________________ __

14. What types of tissue damage might you expect to find in a dislocated joint?
Torn or stressed ligaments and inflammation. The joint capsule and ligaments may remain stretched. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________
86 Review Sheet 13

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

14

Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle

Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Human Musculature Videotape (BC, 23 minutes, VHS) Muscles (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Muscles and Joints: Muscle Power (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) The New Living Body: Muscles (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Skeletal and Muscular Systems (IM, 24 minutes, VHS) Solution: Saline Solution, 0.9% Weigh out 0.9 gram of NaCl. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Interactive Physiology: Muscular System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue The Neuromuscular Junction Sliding Filament Theory Muscle Metabolism Contraction of Motor Units Contraction of Whole Muscle

Advance Preparation
1. Purchase chicken breasts or thighs from the meat market (one per lab). Refrigerate until used. Cut or tear the meat into small strips just before the lab. Provide gloves. 2. Set out forceps, dissecting needles, 0.9% saline solution in dropper bottles, and microscope slides and coverslips for each student. Designate an organic matter disposal area.

87

3. Set out prepared slides of skeletal muscle (longitudinal and cross sections), and slides showing neuromuscular (myoneural) junctions. (Because the latter slides are expensive, a demonstration microscope is an alternative to providing a slide for each student.) Set out lens paper and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. 4. Set out any available models of skeletal muscle cells and neuromuscular junctions.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may have difficulty observing the muscle banding pattern. This is usually because the light intensity is set too high and the iris diaphragm is not closed down. 2. Emphasize the importance of understanding the organization and terminology of muscle structure. The organization and terminology of the nerves are very similar.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Examining Skeletal Muscle Cell Anatomy (pp. 189–190) 4. The banding pattern and limits of the cells are much clearer on the prepared slides.

88

Exercise 14

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

14
Key: a. b. c. d. endomysium epimysium fascicle fiber myofibril myofilament perimysium sarcolemma sarcomere sarcoplasm tendon

Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal Muscle Cells and Their Packaging into Muscles
1. Use the items in the key to correctly identify the structures described below. g; perimysium c; fascicle i; sarcomere d; fiber a; endomysium h; sarcolemma e; myofibril

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

connective tissue ensheathing a bundle of muscle cells bundle of muscle cells contractile unit of muscle a muscle cell thin reticular connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell plasma membrane of the muscle fiber a long filamentous organelle with a banded appearance found within muscle cells actin- or myosin-containing structure cord of collagen fibers that attaches a muscle to a bone

e. f. g. h. i. j. k.

f; myofilament k; tendon

2. List three reasons why the connective tissue wrappings of skeletal muscle are important.
The connective tissue wrappings (a) bundle the muscle fibers together, increasing coordination of their activity; (b) add strength to the muscle; and (c) provide a route for entry and exit of blood vessels and nerves to the muscle fibers.

3. Why are there more indirect—that is, tendinous—muscle attachments to bone than there are direct attachments?
They conserve space (less bulky than fleshy muscle attachments) and are more durable than muscle tissue where bony prominences must be spanned.

4. How does an aponeurosis differ from a tendon structurally? An aponeurosis is a sheet of white fibrous connective tissue; a tendon is a band or cord of the same tissue.

How is an aponeurosis functionally similar to a tendon? Both serve to attach muscles to bones or to other muscles.

89

5. The diagram illustrates a small portion of several myofibrils. Using letters from the key, correctly identify each structure indicated by a leader line or a bracket. Key: a. b. c. A band actin filament I band d. e. f. myosin filament T tubule terminal cisterna h a c d b i g f e g. h. i. triad sarcomere Z disc

6. On the following figure, label a blood vessel, endomysium, epimysium, a fascicle, a muscle cell, perimysium, and the tendon.
Perimysium

Blood vessel

Endomysium

Muscle cell Tendon Epimysium Fascicle

90

Review Sheet 14

The Neuromuscular Junction
7. Complete the following statements: The junction between a motor neuron’s axon and the muscle cell membrane is called a neuromuscular junction or a __1__ junction. A motor neuron and all of the skeletal muscle cells it stimulates is called a __2__. The actual gap between the axon terminal and the muscle cell is called a __3__. Within the axon terminal are many small vesicles containing a neurotransmitter substance called__4__. When the __5__ reaches the ends of the axon, the neurotransmitter is released and diffuses to the muscle cell membrane to combine with receptors there. The combining of the neurotransmitter with the muscle membrane receptors causes the membrane to become permeable to both sodium and potassium. The greater influx of sodium ions results in __6__ of the membrane. Then contraction of the muscle cell occurs. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. myoneural ________________________ motor unit ________________________ synaptic cleft ________________________ acetylcholine ________________________ nerve impulse (action potential) ________________________ depolarization ________________________

8. The events that occur at a neuromuscular junction are depicted below. Identify by labeling every structure provided with a leader line. Key: d
Action potential

a. b. a e c. d. e.

axon terminal mitochondrion muscle fiber myelinated axon sarcolemma synaptic cleft synaptic vesicle T tubule

Nucleus

c
(a)

f. g. h.

g b f
Junctional folds of the sarcolemma

h
Part of a myofibril

(b)

Review Sheet 14

91

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

15

Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System

Time Allotment: 2–3 hours in lab plus time outside of lab. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Anatomy of a Runner (Structure and Function of the Lower Limb) (UL, 38 minutes, VHS) Abdomen and Pelvis (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) Human Musculature Videotape (BC, 23 minutes, VHS) Lower Extremity (UL, WNS, 28 minutes, VHS) Major Skeletal Muscles and their Actions (UL, 19 minutes, VHS) The New Living Body: Muscles (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Upper Extremity (UL, WNS, 36 minutes, VHS) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out models of the human torso and upper and lower limbs. It helps to have the muscles labeled on some of the models. Have model keys available. 2. Set out anatomical charts of human musculature. 3. If possible, have a prosected human cadaver available. Be prepared to inform students as to which muscles should be identified. 4. Set out functional knee and hip models available from biology supply companies. (There are two varieties of each model type. Although more expensive, the SOMSO ® model is much more flexible and comes with a key.)

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Identification of the intercostal and abdominal oblique muscles will be much easier if students carefully observe muscle fiber direction.

93

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

15

Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System
Classification of Skeletal Muscles
1. Several criteria were given for the naming of muscles. Match the criteria (column B) to the muscle names (column A). Note that more than one criterion may apply in some cases. Column A e, g a, g d, e e, f a, c, e b e, f e, f

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. action of the muscle shape of the muscle location of the origin and/or insertion of the muscle number of origins location of the muscle relative to a bone or body region direction in which the muscle fibers run relative to some imaginary line relative size of the muscle

1. gluteus maximus 2. adductor magnus 3. biceps femoris 4. transversus abdominis 5. extensor carpi ulnaris 6. trapezius 7. rectus femoris 8. external oblique

2. Match the key terms to the muscles and movements described below. Key: a. prime mover (agonist) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. b. antagonist c. synergist d. fixator

a; prime mover c; synergist b; antagonist b; antagonist a; prime mover d; fixator

term for the biceps brachii during elbow flexion term that describes the relation of brachialis to biceps brachii during elbow flexion term for the triceps brachii during elbow flexion term for the iliopsoas during hip extension term for the gluteus maximus during hip extension when walking up stairs terms for the rotator cuff muscles and deltoid when the elbow is flexed and the hand grabs a tabletop to lift the table

95

Muscles of the Head and Neck
3. Using choices from the key at the right, correctly identify muscles provided with leader lines on the diagram. Key: a. buccinator b. corrugator supercilii
Galea aponeurotica

c. depressor anguli oris d. depressor labii inferioris e. epicranius (frontal belly) f. epicranius (occipital belly) g. levator labii superioris

e b j g n a k i d c l g m h

f

h. masseter i. mentalis j. orbicularis oculi k. orbicularis oris l. platysma m. trapezius n. zygomaticus major and minor

4. Using the key provided in question 3, identify the muscles described next. n a j c

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

used in smiling used to suck in your cheeks used in blinking and squinting used to pout (pulls the corners of the mouth downward) raises your eyebrows for a questioning expression

b

6. 7. 8. 9.

used to form the vertical frown crease on the forehead your “kisser” prime mover to raise the mandible tenses skin of the neck during shaving

k h l

e

96

Review Sheet 15

Muscles of the Trunk
5. Correctly identify both intact and transected (cut) muscles depicted in the diagram, using the key given at the right. (Not all terms will be used in this identification.) Key:
Coracoid process Bursa Clavicle Sternum

a. biceps brachii b. brachialis c. deltoid (cut)

m c i

d. external intercostals e. external oblique f. internal oblique g. latissimus dorsi

l

h. pectoralis major (cut) i. pectoralis minor

a d

j. rectus abdominis k. rhomboids l. serratus anterior

b

m. subscapularis n. transversus abdominis o. trapezius

6. Using the key provided in question 5 above, identify the major muscles described next. j g h

1. 2. 3.

a major spine flexor prime mover for arm extension prime mover for arm flexion assume major responsibility for forming the abdominal girdle (three pairs of muscles) prime mover of shoulder abduction

g, h

6. important in shoulder adduction; antagonists of the shoulder abductor (two muscles) 7. moves the scapula forward and rotates scapula upward 8. small, inspiratory muscles between the ribs; elevate the ribs 9. extends the head 10. pull the scapulae medially

l

e, f, n, (j) 4.

d

c

5.

o k

Review Sheet 15

97

Muscles of the Upper Limb
7. Using terms from the key on the right, correctly identify all muscles provided with leader lines in the diagram. (Note that not all the listed terms will be used in this exercise.) Key: a n b
Medial epicondyle of humerus

a. biceps brachii b. brachialis c. brachioradialis d. extensor carpi radialis longus

l c f d j g h

e. extensor digitorum f. flexor carpi radialis g. flexor carpi ulnaris h. flexor digitorum superficialis

i

k
Flexor retinaculum

i. flexor pollicis longus j. palmaris longus
Palmar aponeurosis

k. pronator quadratus l. pronator teres m. supinator n. triceps brachii

8. Use the key provided in question 7 to identify the muscles described next. a m b, c

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

flexes the forearm and supinates the hand synergist for supination of hand forearm flexors; no role in supination (two muscles) elbow extensor

k, l i d e

7. pronate the hand (two muscles) 8. flexes the thumb 9. extends and abducts the wrist 10. extends the wrist and digits 11. flat muscle that is a weak wrist flexor; tenses skin of the palm

n f h

j

power wrist flexor and abductor flexes wrist and middle phalanges

98

Review Sheet 15

Muscles of the Lower Limb
9. Using the terms from the key on the right, correctly identify all muscles provided with leader lines in the diagram below. (Not all listed terms will be used in this exercise.) Key: q a. adductor group b. biceps femoris c. extensor digitorum longus

b
Patella

d. fibularis brevis
Head of fibula

e. fibularis longus c f. flexor hallucis longus g. gastrocnemius

g

o

h. gluteus maximus i. gluteus medius j. rectus femoris

e

m

k. semimembranosus l. semitendinosus

d f
Fibular retinaculum

Superior and inferior extensor retinacula

m. soleus n. tensor fasciae latae o. tibialis anterior p. tibialis posterior

Lateral malleolus 5th metatarsal

q. vastus lateralis

10. Use the key terms in question 9 to respond to the descriptions below. f d, e

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

flexes the great toe and inverts the foot lateral compartment muscles that plantar flex and evert the foot (two muscles) abduct the thigh to take the “at ease” stance (two muscles)

p o a

6. prime mover of inversion of the foot 7. prime mover of dorsiflexion of the foot 8. adduct the thigh, as when standing at attention 9. extends the toes 10. extend thigh and flex knee (three muscles) 11. extends knee and flexes thigh

i, n

c h g, m

used to extend the hip when climbing stairs b, k, l

prime movers of plantar flexion (two muscles) of the foot

j

Review Sheet 15

99

General Review: Muscle Recognition
11. Identify the lettered muscles in the diagram of the human anterior superficial musculature by matching the letter with one of the following muscle names: jj g i e s ee r j l u ll kk m ff cc b v x k n aa c h dd o ii bb mm z y u 1. adductor longus a 2. biceps brachii 3. brachioradialis 4. deltoid 5. extensor digitorum longus 6. external oblique f e d

v w x c y z

b

aa bb g cc

7. fibularis longus 8. flexor carpi radialis 9. flexor carpi ulnaris 10. frontalis 11. gastrocnemius 12. gracilis 13. iliopsoas 14. internal oblique 15. latissimus dorsi 16. masseter 17. orbicularis oculi 18. orbicularis oris 19. palmaris longus 20. pectineus 21. pectoralis major 22. platysma 23. pronator teres 24. rectus abdominis 25. rectus femoris 26. sartorius 27. serratus anterior 28. soleus 29. sternocleidomastoid 30. sternohyoid a hh t gg d m n

dd h i j k l ee ff gg

hh ii jj o p q kk

r s t ll mm

31. temporalis 32. tensor fasciae latae 33. tibialis anterior 34. transversus abdominis 35. trapezius

f p q w

36. triceps brachii 37. vastus lateralis 38. vastus medialis 39. zygomaticus

100

Review Sheet 15

12. Identify each of the lettered muscles in this diagram of the human posterior superficial musculature by matching its letter to one of the following muscle names: t u b c m d

1. adductor magnus 2. biceps femoris 3. brachialis 4. brachioradialis 5. deltoid 6. extensor carpi radialis longus 7. extensor carpi ulnaris 8. extensor digitorum 9. external oblique a j k

f g q e i s r v h n p j x w k o l a

l m n o

10. flexor carpi ulnaris 11. gastrocnemius 12. gluteus maximus 13. gluteus medius 14. gracilis 15. iliotibial tract (tendon) 16. infraspinatus

b c d e f g q r s p

t h u v w x

17. latissimus dorsi 18. occipitalis 19. semimembranosus 20. semitendinosus i 21. sternocleidomastoid 22. teres major 23. trapezius 24. triceps brachii

Review Sheet 15

101

General Review: Muscle Descriptions
13. Identify the muscles described by completing the following statements. 1. deltoid vastus lateralis gluteus medius The _____________________________, _____________________________, and ____________________________

are commonly used for intramuscular injections (three muscles). 2. 3. 4. quadriceps The insertion tendon of the _________________________________ group contains a large sesamoid bone, the patella. calcaneal The triceps surae insert in common into the ________________________ tendon. proximal The bulk of the tissue of a muscle tends to lie _______________________________ to the part of the body it causes to

move. 5. 6. humerus, radius, and ulna The extrinsic muscles of the hand originate on the ______________________________________________________. anterior Most flexor muscles are located on the ___________________________________________ aspect of the body; most posteriorly extensors are located ____________________________________________. An exception to this generalization is the

extensor-flexor musculature of the knee

.

102

Review Sheet 15

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

16 A

Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Frogs and Human Subjects
This exercise may be divided into two parts. The first demonstrates muscle contraction at the cellular level, and the second investigates contraction of the muscle as a whole. If desired, this exercise can be done in conjunction with Exercise 18 (Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses) to save animals. Alternatively, the instructor may prefer to have the class observe the computer simulation of this material (PhysioEx Exercise 16B).

Suggestion for Alternative Equipment Instructions for using PowerLab equipment can be found on myA&P.

Time Allotment: ATP Muscle Kit: 1 hour+ (depends largely on dissecting dexterity of students). Muscle Fatigue in Humans: 1/2 hour. Induction of Contraction in the Frog Gastrocnemius Muscle: 2 hours+. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Muscles and Joints: Muscle Power (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Muscular System: The Inner Athlete (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Biochemistry of Muscle (ED, CD-ROM) Interactive Physiology: Muscular System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue The Neuromuscular Junction Sliding Filament Theory Muscle Metabolism Contraction of Motor Units Contraction of Whole Muscle

103

Solution: Ringer’s Solution, Frog • 6.50 grams sodium chloride • 0.14 gram potassium chloride • 0.12 gram calcium chloride • 0.20 gram sodium bicarbonate Combine salts in a flask and add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution.

Advance Preparation—ATP Muscle Kit
1. Order the ATP muscle kits (Carolina) to be delivered no more than seven days before the lab. One kit provides generously for eight students. Extra vials of the chemical solutions can be ordered separately (Carolina) and will reduce waiting time. Just before the lab begins, cut the muscle bundles into 2-centimeter lengths and place the accompanying glycerol in a petri dish. 2. Glass dissecting needles can be made from glass stirring rods. Use a Bunsen burner with a flame spreader attachment. Holding a stirring rod with oven mitts, heat the center while turning the rod until the flamed area glows orange. Pull the ends gently but firmly apart until the glass separates. With practice, fine-tipped needles can be made.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may have great difficulty separating the muscle bundles into individual fibers. Often two or three fibers remain together and it is the best they can do. 2. Remind the students to keep the fibers in a pool of glycerol to prevent them from drying out. 3. Sometimes the fibers curl as they contract. Caution the students to measure the uncurled length of the fiber. 4. Occasionally there is great variability in the results (probably due to technical errors). Try rinsing the slides and glass needles in distilled water before use. This is a good exercise to collect class data and have the students compare individual results with the class results. You can discuss the importance of controlled experiments and repeated trials.

Advance Preparation—Frog Gastrocnemius Muscle
1. If animal maintenance facilities are limited, order frogs to be delivered about 2–3 days prior to the date of the lab exercise. Healthy frogs can be maintained for a short time in a clean aquarium with a small amount of chlorinated water that is changed daily. Provide the frogs with a rock extending above the water line. Northern frogs require slightly cooler conditions (10–15°C) than southern frogs (15–20°C). One frog per lab group should be sufficient. 2. Designate a disposal area for the frogs. Have disposable gloves available for handling the frogs.
104 Exercise 16A

3. Pith frogs as needed, or if you prefer to have students pith their own frogs, provide them with copies of the pithing instructions on the following page. 4. Set up work stations according to the amount of equipment available. Ideally there should be four students to a group. Each work station should include: a computer and associated equipment or a physiograph and associated equipment, a beaker of frog Ringer’s solution, a medicine dropper, scissors, a glass needle, cotton thread, forceps, and a glass or porcelain plate. 5. Acquaint students with the operation of the recording equipment. Once the students are comfortable with the equipment, they should proceed with the experiment. Taking time here is worthwhile. a. Physiograph. There are several different brands of physiographs in use. It is best to consult the manual that comes with your equipment for specific details of operation. Have the students locate the switch regulating paper speed and practice running the paper at different speeds. The paper should then be rewound for future use. The students should also test the time marker at different settings with the paper running, and depress the event marker to observe the response. They should understand that the event marker will be automatically depressed when stimuli are applied to the muscle preparation. Be sure the ink is flowing smoothly through the writing tips, and be sure the tips are adjusted to record on horizontal lines of the paper grid. b. BIOPAC. It is helpful to have experienced student assistants to help with BIOPAC. Introduce students to the basic features of BIOPAC use before beginning this lab exercise.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students often fail to keep the muscle moist. Someone in the group should be in charge of keeping the muscle moist. 2. If the muscle is not lined up vertically on the equipment, it pulls at an angle. 3. Students may forget to record data. One person in the group should be the designated recorder. 4. Sometimes the ink does not flow smoothly. To help avoid this, test the equipment before beginning the experiment. 5. When determining the effect of load on skeletal muscle, remind students to loosen the afterload screw (if present) on the muscle lever. 6. If the sensitivity control or gain on the physiograph is at its most sensitive setting, you may have electrical interference. 7. If students are having trouble obtaining a muscle response, have them check to be sure that the connections are not loose and that the stimulator electrode is making contact with the muscle.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Observing Muscle Fiber Contraction (pp. 236–238) 8. The contracted fiber appears wider and the edges appear scalloped. The I and H zones (or bands) have disappeared.
105

Exercise 16A

10. Generally there is little or no contraction with ATP alone. There is no contraction with the salt solutions alone. Maximum contraction occurs in the presence of ATP and the proper concentrations of potassium and magnesium ions. It is expected that not all groups will obtain exactly the same results. The observed differences may be explained by inadvertent damage occurring to the muscle cells during separation, failure to separate completely to individual cells, and imprecision in measurements. Activity 2: Demonstrating Muscle Fatigue in Humans (p. 238) 7. As load increases, the period of contraction shortens as the muscle fatigues more quickly. Activity 3: Inducing Contraction in the Frog Gastrocnemius Muscle (pp. 238–243)
Observing Graded Muscle Response to Increased Stimulus Intensity

4. As the voltage increases, more motor units respond. The name for this is motor unit recruitment. 5. Once maximal stimulus is reached, all the motor units are contracting. Additional voltage has no effect.
Inducing Muscle Fatigue

4. After a period of rest, the muscle contracts again upon stimulation. A physiological basis for this may be that accumulated lactic acid diffuses out of the cells, raising the pH and allowing the enzymes necessary for ATP production to function again and the Na+/K+ pump to restore correct ionic distribution.
Dissecting needle To pith the spinal cord, insert and twist Foramen magnum To pith the brain, insert and twist

Figure 16A.1 Procedure for pithing a frog

106

Exercise 16A

Activity 4: Electromyography in a Human Subject Using BIOPAC (pp. 244–252)
Part 1: Temporal and Multiple Motor Unit Summation

7. The intensity of each of the values increases with increasing force of muscle contraction. The maximum voltage is reflective of the number of motor units being activated. The p-p value gradually increases reflecting an increased number of active motor units.
Part 2: Force Measurement and Fatigue

4. There may or may not be a difference in the maximal force between the forearms, but usually the maximal force in the dominant forearm is 10–20% greater than in the non-dominant forearm. Muscle cells are amitotic. When a muscle gets larger in diameter, it is because of an increase in size (diameter) of the muscle cells, not because of an increase in the number of muscle cells. One normally observes more rapid fatigue in the non-dominant forearm.
Gastrocnemius muscle Muscle clamp Kymograph drum (with paper) Stimulator electrode

Clamped stimulating electrode Muscle lever

Writing points Signal magnet Kymograph base Signal magnet outlet (on back) Electronic stimulator

Weight

Ring stand

Frequency Du ration REPEAT SINGLE Power

Volts Out Gnd

Figure 16A.2 Kymograph setup for frog gastrocnemius experiments

Exercise 16A

107

Advance Preparation for the Kymograph
1. Set up work stations according to the amount of equipment available. Ideally there should be four students to a group. Acquaint students with the operation of the equipment. 2. If smoked paper is to be used for kymograph recording, set up an area in a fume hood for smoking the paper, another hooded area with glazing fluid or fixative, and a line and clips for drying the paper.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Kymograph paper is smoked in a fume hood using a smoky flame produced by passing natural gas through benzene. Since benzene is a known carcinogen, alternative recording methods should be sought. Muscle levers and signal magnets with ink recording tips can be purchased. If the budget is tight, small right-angled felt-tip markers can be attached to each smoke-writing stylus for satisfactory results. Students should practice putting paper tightly on the drum and lining up the signal magnet and muscle lever writing tips. If the muscle lever is equipped with an afterload screw, have the students adjust it to bring the muscle lever to a horizontal position. Be sure the ink is flowing smoothly (if applicable). Have the students set the signal magnet to deliver one pulse per second, and calculate the drum speed in mm/sec for each setting. 2. Students may brush against the smoked paper before it has been fixed and destroy the recordings. If shellac is used as the glazing fluid, be sure students put paper into the shellac with the smoked side up. Spray lacquers are easier to use.

108

Exercise 16A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

16 A

Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Frogs and Human Subjects
Muscle Activity
1. The following group of incomplete statements refers to a muscle cell in the resting state just before stimulation. Complete each statement by choosing the correct response from the key items. Key: a. Na diffuses out of the cell g. relative ionic concentrations on the two sides of the membrane b. K diffuses out of the cell h. electrical conditions c. Na diffuses into the cell i. activation of the sodium-potassium pump, which moves K into the cell d. K diffuses into the cell and Na out of the cell e. inside the cell j. activation of the sodium-potassium pump, which moves Na into the cell f. outside the cell and K out of the cell There is a greater concentration of Na f ; there is a greater concentration of K

e

. When the

stimulus is delivered, the permeability of the membrane at that point is changed; and c

, initiating the depolariza-

tion of the membrane. Almost as soon as the depolarization wave has begun, a repolarization wave follows it across the membrane. This occurs as b g . Repolarization restores the h .

of the resting cell membrane. The

is (are) reestablished by i

2. Number the following statements in the proper sequence to describe the contraction mechanism in a skeletal muscle cell. Number 1 has already been designated. 1 ____________________ Depolarization occurs, and the action potential is generated.
5 ____________________ The muscle cell relaxes and lengthens. 3

The calcium ion concentrations at the myofilaments increase; the myofilaments slide past one another, and the cell shortens. The action potential, carried deep into the cell by the T tubules, triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The concentration of the calcium ions at the myofilaments decreases as they are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

2

4

3. Refer to your observations of muscle fiber contraction on pages 236–238 to answer the following questions. a. b. Did your data support your hypothesis? yes/no
2 Explain your observations fully. Optimal muscle contraction requires Mg , K , and ATP. Without ATP (the energy source)

no contraction can occur once energy stores are exhausted. Mg2 and K are necessary for ATPase activity.

109

c.

Draw a relaxed and a contracted sarcomere below. myosin z line myosin z line

actin Relaxed

actin Contracted

Induction of Contraction in the Frog Gastrocnemius Muscle
4. Why is it important to destroy the brain and spinal cord of a frog before conducting physiological experiments on muscle contraction? Renders the frog unable to feel pain and prevents reflex movements that would confuse experimental results.

5. What is the most common stimulus for muscle contraction in the body? Electrochemical 6. Give the name and duration of each of the three phases of the muscle twitch, and describe what is happening during each phase. a. latent ,
2.78 m sec, electrical/chemical changes preparatory to contraction, i.e. depolarization, release of Ca2

b. contraction c. relaxation s ,

23.33 m sec, muscle shortens due to sliding of myofilaments

2 , 174.90 m sec, Ca is reabsorbed by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the muscle cells lengthen

and relax.

7. Use the items in the key to identify the conditions described. Key: a. b. c. maximal stimulus multiple motor unit summation subthreshold stimulus d c e f 1. 2. 3. 4. d. e. tetanus threshold stimulus f. g. treppe wave summation

sustained contraction without any evidence of relaxation stimulus that results in no perceptible contraction stimulus at which the muscle first contracts perceptibly increasingly stronger contractions in the absence of increased stimulus intensity

g b a

5. 6. 7.

increasingly stronger contractions owing to stimulation at a rapid rate increasingly stronger contractions owing to increased stimulus strength weakest stimulus at which all muscle cells in the muscle are contracting

110

Review Sheet 16A

8. Complete the following statements by writing the appropriate words on the correspondingly numbered blanks at the right. When a weak but smooth muscle contraction is desired, a few 1 motor units are stimulated at a ____ rate. If blue litmus paper is pressed to the cut surface of a fatigued muscle, the paper color changes to red, indicating low pH. This situation is caused by the 2 accumulation of ____ in the muscle. Within limits, as the load on a 3 muscle is increased, the muscle contracts ____ (more/less) strongly. 1. 2. 3. very rapid lactic acid more

9. During the frog experiment on muscle fatigue, how did the muscle contraction pattern change as the muscle began to fatigue?
The distance of the contraction peak from the baseline continued to decrease. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________
(student data) How long was stimulation continued before fatigue was apparent? _____________________________________________

If the sciatic nerve that stimulates the living frog’s gastrocnemius muscle had been left attached to the muscle and the stimulus had been applied to the nerve rather than the muscle, would fatigue have become apparent sooner or later?
Sooner ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ Fatigue of the neuromuscular junctions generally occurs before a muscle becomes fatigued and unable to Explain your answer. ____________________________________________________________

_____________________ contract. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

10. What will happen to a muscle in the body when its nerve supply is destroyed or badly damaged?
The muscle becomes flaccid, paralyzed, and eventually atrophies. Nerve stimulation is necessary for viable muscles. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________
Strength of contraction increases as 11. Explain the relationship between the load on a muscle and its strength of contraction. ______________________________ the load increases until the load becomes excessive. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 12. The skeletal muscles are maintained in a slightly stretched condition for optimal contraction. How is this accomplished?
By the manner in which they are attached to the skeleton. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

Why does stretching a muscle beyond its optimal length reduce its ability to contract? (Include an explanation of the events
Overstretching prevents myosin cross-bridge interaction since the myofilaments no longer at the level of the myofilaments.) ____________________________________________________________

____________ overlap. If the cross bridges cannot make contact, no sliding force (contraction) can be generated. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 13. If the length but not the tension of a muscle is changed, the contraction is called an isotonic contraction. In an isometric contraction, the tension is increased but the muscle does not shorten. Which type of contraction did you observe most often durIsotonic ing the laboratory experiments? _____________________________

Review Sheet 16A

111

Electromyography in a Human Subject Using BIOPAC
14. If you were a physical therapist applying a constant voltage to the forearm, what might you observe if you gradually increased the frequency of stimulatory impulses, keeping the voltage constant each time?
One is likely to observe an increase in the duration of motor units activation. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________
Motor unit recruitment refers to the process by which an increasing 15. Describe what is meant by the term motor unit recruitment. ___________________________________________________ number of motor units in a muscle are activated by gradually increasing levels of stimulation (e.g., voltage). ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

16. Describe the physiological processes occurring in the muscle cells that account for the gradual onset of muscle fatigue.
A deficit in ATP, an accumulation of lactic acid, and ionic imbalances all contribute to muscle fatigue. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 17. Given that most subjects use their dominant forearm far more than their nondominant forearm, what does this indicate about degree of activation of motor units and these factors: muscle fiber diameter, maximum muscle fiber force, and time to muscle fatigue? (You may need to use your textbook for help with this one.)
Generally, since people use their dominant forearm more, the muscle fibers in that arm are activated for more prolonged periods. Thus, ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ increase in muscle fiber diameter (muscular hypertrophy) usually results allowing for increased force. Increased activity generally ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ leads to increased respiratory and contractual efficiency resulting in a greater time to muscle fatigue. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________
Dynamometry is the process of measuring force. 18. Define dynamometry. ____________________________________________________________

_________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 19. How might dynamometry be used to assess patients in a clinical setting? _________________________________________
Dynamometry can assist the clinician in the assessment of muscle function allowing for the study of contractual deficits and the re__________________________________________________________

_________________________________________ covery of muscle function. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

112

Review Sheet 16A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

17

Histology of Nervous Tissue

Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. The Living Body: Nerves at Work (FHS, 27 minutes, VHS, DVD, 1990) Nerves at Work (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Interactive Physiology: Nervous System I (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Nervous I Orientation Anatomy Review Ion Channels The Membrane Potential The Action Potential

Advance Preparation
1. Set out slides of ox spinal cord smear and teased myelinated fibers, Purkinje cells (cerebellum), pyramidal cells (cerebrum), dorsal root ganglia, and nerve cross section. 2. Set out lens paper, immersion oil, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. 3. Set out models of neurons, if available.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may focus on the wrong cells. Encourage them to use histology atlases and help each other. 2. Students may have difficulty with the connective tissue sheaths. Remind them of the similarities to muscle terminology.

113

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Identifying Parts of a Neuron (pp. 261–262) 3. The nodes are at regular intervals. Action potentials will occur at regular intervals along the axon as local currents open voltage-gated sodium channels. This allows the electrical signal to jump from node to node and travel very fast. Activity 2: Studying the Microscopic Structure of Selected Neurons (p. 263) The Purkinje and pyramidal cells are multipolar. The dorsal root neurons are unipolar.

114

Exercise 17

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

17

Histology of Nervous Tissue
1. The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. What is the major function of this cell type?
To generate and transmit nerve impulses. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

2. Name four types of neuroglia in the CNS, and list a function for each of these cells. (You will need to consult your textbook for this.) Types microglia a. ________________________________

Functions phagocytosis of debris (dead cells, bacteria, etc.) a. ________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________ oligodendrocytes b. ________________________________ myelinate neuron processes in the CNS thus forming the myelin sheath b. ________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________ astrocytes c. ________________________________ support the neurons; may serve nutritive function and help regulate c. ________________________________________________________ the chemical environment of the neurons __________________________________________________________ ependymal cells d. ________________________________ line cavities of the brain (and spinal cord); aid in circulation of d. ________________________________________________________ cerebrospinal fluid __________________________________________________________

Schwann cell Name the PNS glial cell that forms myelin. ____________________________________________________________

_____ satellite cell Name the PNS glial cell that surrounds neuron cell bodies in ganglia. ___________________________________________ 3. Match each statement with a response chosen from the key. Key: a. b. c. d. c f k l b j e d

afferent neuron association neuron central nervous system efferent neuron

e. f. g. h.

ganglion neuroglia neurotransmitters nerve

i. j. k. l.

nuclei peripheral nervous system synapse tract

1. the brain and spinal cord collectively 2. specialized supporting cells in the CNS 3. junction or point of close contact between neurons 4. a bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS 5. neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons 6. ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves 7. collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS 8. neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands

115

a g

9. neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery 10. chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors

Neuron Anatomy
4. Match the following anatomical terms (column B) with the appropriate description or function (column A). Column A c b d e g f h a

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. axon axon terminal axon hillock dendrite myelin sheath neurofibril neuronal cell body Nissl bodies

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

region of the cell body from which the axon originates secretes neurotransmitters receptive region of a neuron insulates the nerve fibers site of the nucleus and is the most important metabolic area may be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically impulse generator and transmitter

5. Draw a “typical” neuron in the space below. Include and label the following structures on your diagram: cell body, nucleus, nucleolus, Nissl bodies, dendrites, axon, axon collateral branch, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier, axon terminals, and neurofibrils. Cell body Nodes of Dendrites Nissl body Ranvier Axon Axonal terminal Axon collateral branch Neurofibrils Myelin sheath

Nucleolus

Nucleus of cell body

neurotransmitters 6. What substance is found in synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal? _____________________________________________ Carries electrical impulse from one neuron to the next What role does this substance play in neurotransmission? ____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

116

Review Sheet 17

7. What anatomical characteristic determines whether a particular neuron is classified as unipolar, bipolar, or multipolar?
The number of processes issuing from the cell body. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

Make a simple line drawing of each type here.

Unipolar neuron

Bipolar neuron

Multipolar neuron

8. Correctly identify the sensory (afferent) neuron, association neuron (interneuron), and motor (efferent) neuron in the figure below.
Sensory neuron Which of these neuron types is/are unipolar? ____________________________________________________________

___ Motor neuron, association neuron, or interneuron Which is/are most likely multipolar? ____________________________________________________________

__________ Sensory neuron
Receptors (thermal and pain in the skin)

Association or interneuron

Motor (efferent) neuron

Effector (biceps brachii muscle)

9. Describe how the Schwann cells form the myelin sheath and the neurilemma encasing the nerve processes.
Schwann cells begin to wrap themselves around the axon in jellyroll fashion, thus forming a tight coil of membranous material which ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ forms the myelin sheath. The neurilemma is the bulge of Schwann cell cytoplasm external to myelin sheath and the outermost (exposed) Schwann cell membrane. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

Structure of a Nerve
A bundle of neuron processes wrapped in connective tissue wrappings. Extends from the CNS to structures of the 10. What is a nerve? ____________________________________________________________

_________________________ body viscera or periphery. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

Review Sheet 17

117

11. State the location of each of the following connective tissue coverings.
Surrounds the neuron process. endoneurium: ____________________________________________________________

___________________________ Surrounds a bundle of neuron processes. perineurium: ____________________________________________________________

____________________________ Surrounds all of the neuron processes contributing to a nerve. epineurium: ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________ To protect and insulate the delicate nerve fibers. 12. What is the function of the connective tissue wrappings found in a nerve? _______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________
Nerve containing both motor (efferent) and sensory (afferent) fibers. 13. Define mixed nerve. ____________________________________________________________

______________________

____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 14. Identify all indicated parts of the nerve section.

Nerve fiber (axon) Neurilemma (myelin sheath)

Endoneuriun

Perineurium Epineurium

Blood vessel Fascicle

118

Review Sheet 17

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

18 A

Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Wet Lab
If desired, part of this investigation of the nerve impulse may be done in conjunction with Exercise 16A (Muscle Physiology) to save animals.

Time Allotment: 1–11/2 hours (more if oscilloscope is used). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Brain and Nervous System: Your Information Superhighway (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Nerve Impulse Conduction (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) Interactive Physiology: Nervous System I and II (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Nervous I Nervous II Orientation Orientation Anatomy Review Anatomy Review Ion Channels Ion Channels Synaptic Potentials and Cellular Integration The Membrane Potential The Action Potential Synaptic Transmission Solutions: Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 0.01% Add 0.27 milliliter of 1N HCl (Carolina) to 90 milliliters of distilled water. Add water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Or, beginning with 37% HCl (d 1.2), prepare a 1N solution by adding 8 milliliters of 37% HCl to 90 milliliters of water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Ringer’s Solution, Frog • 6.50 grams sodium chloride • 0.14 gram potassium chloride • 0.12 gram calcium chloride • 0.20 gram sodium bicarbonate Combine salts in flask and add distilled water to make a liter of solution.

119

Tubocurarine, 0.5% Weigh out 0.125 gram of D-tubocurarine chloride. Add distilled water to make 25 milliliters. Label: Poison. Use extreme care. Note: Solution should be placed in a serum bottle (Aldrich) for use.

Advance Preparation
1. Order frogs to be delivered 2–3 days prior to the date of the lab, if animal maintenance facilities are limited. Frogs may be pithed just prior to the lab to save time (see Exercise 16A). Each group will need two to three frogs. Have disposable gloves available for handling the frogs. 2. Set out for each group dissecting instruments and tray, safety glasses, two dropper bottles of frog Ringer's solution (at room temperature and iced), a small ice bath, thread, several glass rods or glass probes, a laboratory stand and two clamps, several glass slides or glass plates, platinum electrode, stimulator, filter paper, a dropper bottle of 0.01% HCl solution, NaCl crystals, heat-resistant mitts or a slide holder, a Bunsen burner, absorbent cotton, and a disposable pipet and bulb. Have a small container of ether available. Note: Ether is highly flammable and should be used with care in a fume hood. 3. For Claude Bernard’s experiment, set out disposable gloves, a frog board, thread, and a 1-cc syringe with small-gauge needle. Have a small container of 0.5% tubocurarine solution available. Note: Tubocurarine is extremely toxic. Wear disposable gloves when handling the tubocurarine. 4. If oscilloscopes are to be used, set out nerve chambers, set up the oscilloscopes, and provide instructions. Allow time for the students to become familiar with the equipment.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Be sure the muscle nerve preparation is kept moist and not touched by metal dissection equipment. Be careful that the nerve does not get stretched or damaged during dissection and setup. 2. Ether has a very low ignition temperature. Conduct ether experiments in a lab hood. If a hood is not available, do this part of the experiment with the windows open and after all Bunsen burners have been put out. Do not attempt to put out an ether fire with water; use a CO2 extinguisher. Order ether in small amounts and do not store it for long periods of time. Keep it in an explosion-proof refrigerator when not in use. 3. When performing Claude Bernard’s experiment, students may need to increase the stimulus intensity when testing the muscles, as muscle threshold is generally higher than nerve threshold.

120

Exercise 18A

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Eliciting a Nerve Impulse (p. 272) 2. Repeated stimuli should cause the muscle to contract to tetanus. 3. Mechanical stimulation should result in muscle contraction. 4. HCl and NaCl should both cause muscle contraction. 5. Thermal stimulation also results in muscle contraction. These experiments indicate that a variety of stimuli can result in conduction of an impulse. Activity 2: Inhibiting the Nerve Impulse (pp. 272–274) 2. (Ether) The anesthetized part of the nerve does not respond, but the unanesthetized area distal to the anesthetized area responds to the stimulus, resulting in muscle contraction. 3. (Ether) Ether exerts its blocking effect on the nerve fibers. The muscle was still able to contract when the nerve was stimulated beyond the anesthetized section. 4. (Curare) Eventually the nonligated muscle will show reduced or no contraction in response to the stimulus. Curare travels throughout the frog’s circulatory system and eventually finds its way to myoneural junctions. The left muscle is not affected because the ligation cuts off circulation to the tissue in that area. The right muscle does not respond to nervous stimulation because the curare blocks the acetylcholine receptor sites in the myoneural junction. 5. (Curare) Both gastrocnemius muscles should respond to direct stimulation, as direct stimulation of the muscle does not require action at the myoneural junction. The difference between the right and left nerve response is the result of the curare block to the acetylcholine receptor sites. When the muscles are stimulated directly, the stimulus bypasses the chemically gated channels that respond to acetylcholine. Curare acts at the myoneural junction by blocking the acetylcholine receptor sites. Note: It is beyond the scope of this lab to prove that the nerve to the right muscle is still conducting an impulse. Activity 3: Visualizing the Action Potential with an Oscilloscope (pp. 274–275) 7. The amplitude of the action potential will increase until maximal amplitude is reached. 9. If the first impulse was recorded traveling left to right, from a proximal to distal position on the nerve, then reversing the nerve (distal to proximal) would still give a recording on the oscilloscope because the impulse would be traveling on different neurons within the nerve.

Exercise 18A

121

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

18 A
a. b. c. d. e. f. absolute refractory period action potential depolarization relative refractory period repolarization sodium-potassium pump

Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Wet Lab
The Nerve Impulse
1. Match the terms in column B to the appropriate definition in column A. Column A a Column B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

period of depolarization of the neuron membrane during which it cannot respond to a second stimulus reversal of the resting potential due to an influx of sodium ions period during which potassium ions diffuse out of the neuron due to a change in membrane permeability period of repolarization when only a strong stimulus will elicit an action potential mechanism in which ATP is used to move sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell; restores the resting membrane voltage and intracellular ionic concentrations

c e, d

d

f

2. Define the term depolarization. A decrease in the membrane potential as the membrane becomes less negative inside, moving toward zero at a specific site on a nerve fiber or muscle cell membrane. How does an action potential differ from simple depolarization? An action potential is a large transient depolarization event that is conducted along the membrane of a neuron or muscle cell. It does not decrease in strength with distance from the initial site of stimulation. 3. Would a substance that decreases membrane permeability to sodium increase or decrease the probability of generating an action potential? Why? Decrease; with stimulation, sodium enters the cell causing depolarization and anything that blocks sodium’s entry prevents the change in membrane potential toward zero that is necessary to generate an action potential. 4. The diagram here represents a section of an axon. Complete the figure by illustrating an area of resting membrane potential, an area of depolarization, and local current flow. Indicate the direction of the depolarization wave.
Depolarization waves Resting membrane potential

[K+]

[Na+]

+ + + + + +
Area of stimulus application

+ + +

Area of depolarization

+

+

+ +
123

+

+

+ + + + +

[Na+]

[K+]

+ + +

Physiology of Nerve Fibers: Eliciting and Inhibiting the Nerve Impulse
5. Respond appropriately to each question posed below. Insert your responses in the corresponding numbered blanks to the right. 1–3. Name three types of stimuli that resulted in action potential generation in the sciatic nerve of the frog. 4. Which of the stimuli resulted in the most effective nerve stimulation? 5. Which of the stimuli employed in that experiment might represent types of stimuli to which nerves in the human body are subjected? 6. What is the usual mode of stimulus transfer in neuron-toneuron interactions? 7. Since the action potentials themselves were not visualized with an oscilloscope during this initial set of experiments, how did you recognize that impulses were being transmitted? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. electrical shock chemical (acid or salt) thermal (heat) or mechanical (pinching) electrical shock all of them chemical or electrochemical contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle

6. How did the site of action of ether and tubocurarine differ? Ether exerts its blocking effect on the nerve while tubocurarine blocks the ACh receptor site of the muscle. In the curare experiment, why was one of the frog’s legs ligated? As a control to prevent the tubocurarine (in the blood) from reaching that muscle.

Visualizing the Action Potential with an Oscilloscope
7. Explain why the amplitude of the compound action potential recorded from the frog sciatic nerve increased when the voltage of the stimulus was increased above the threshold value. More and more muscle fibers were being recruited (multiple motor unit summation).

8. What was the effect of cold temperature (flooding the nerve with iced Ringer’s solution) on the functioning of the sciatic nerve tested? Cold temperature increases the threshold for excitation and may result in complete inexcitability of the nerve. Yes, on that nerve it 9. When the nerve was reversed in position, was the impulse conducted in the opposite direction? traveled in the opposite direction. How can this result be reconciled with the concept of one-way conduction in neurons? Nerves are usually composed of multiple neurons, their axons carrying action potentials in both directions. Axons from individual neurons only transmit action potentials in one direction. So a single nerve could have sensory neurons carrying impulses in one direction and motor neurons carrying impulses in the opposite direction.

124

Review Sheet 18A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

19

Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Anatomy of the Human Brain (FHS, 35 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Brain (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Brain (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Brain Anatomy Series (UL, 6-part series, VHS) Brain and Nervous System: Your Information Superhighway (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Brain in Situ (FHS, 19 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Nervous System: Human Brain and Cranial Nerves Videotape (BC, 28 minutes, VHS) Neuroanatomy (UL, 19 minutes, VHS) Sheep Brain Dissection (WNS, 22 minutes, VHS) Animated Neuroscience and the Action of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Marijuana in the Brain (FHS, VHS, DVD) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage, disposal, and cleanup of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts, for state regulations. 2. Designate a disposal container for organic debris, and a dishwashing area with hot soapy water, sponges, and a lab disinfectant such as 10% bleach solution or Wavicide-01 (Carolina) for washing down the lab benches. 3. Set out disposable gloves and safety glasses. 4. Set out dissectible human brain models (ideally one per group), and preserved human brains.
125

5. Set out dissection kits, dissection trays, and sheep brains with meninges and cranial nerves intact. 6. For testing cranial nerve function, set out dropper bottles of oil of cloves and vanilla, eye chart, ophthalmoscope, penlight, safety pins, mall probes (hot and cold), cotton, salty, sweet, sour, and bitter solutions, cotton swabs, ammonia, tuning forks, and tongue depressors. Set out autoclave bag for disposables.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students who are not careful readers confuse or do not distinguish between cerebellar and cerebral. 2. Hasty removal of the meninges removes the pituitary gland before its connection to the brain by the infundibulum can be established; occasionally even the optic chiasma is lost. Encourage the students to go slowly and use the scalpel sparingly. 3. The arachnoid meninx may be hard to identify, as it is usually poorly preserved.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Identifying and Testing the Cranial Nerves (p. 292) 3. The trigeminal ganglion is located between the pons and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and is associated with the trigeminal nerve. The geniculate ganglion is in the inner ear cavity and is associated with the facial nerve. The inferior ganglion is near the parotid salivary gland and is associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve. The superior ganglion is just external to the jugular foramen and is associated with the glossopharyngeal nerve. The spiral ganglion is in the cochlea and is associated with the vestibulocochlear nerve. The vestibular ganglion is in the inner ear and is associated with the vestibulocochlear nerve. Dissection: The Sheep Brain (pp. 293–297) 1. The sheep’s cerebral hemispheres are smaller than those of the human.
Ventral Structures

1. The olfactory bulbs are larger in the sheep. The sense of smell is more important to the sheep than it is to humans for both protection and locating food.
Dorsal Structures

1. The cerebrum is not as deep. 2. The falx cerebelli is not present in the sheep. 4. The corpora quadrigemina are reflex centers for visual and auditory stimuli.
Internal Structures

2. The sheep fornix is large in relation to the size of the sheep’s brain when compared to the fornix of the human brain. The fornix links regions of the limbic system, which provides strong emotional response to odors, among other things. Sheep have a more acute sense of smell than humans and rely more on smell to alert them to danger, food sources, etc.

126

Exercise 19

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

19 f g

Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves
The Human Brain
1. Match the letters on the diagram of the human brain (right lateral view) to the appropriate terms listed at the left. h b j f c a i g e

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

frontal lobe parietal lobe temporal lobe precentral gyrus parieto-occipital sulcus postcentral gyrus lateral sulcus central sulcus cerebellum l d k e a b c d h i j

k

10. medulla 11. occipital lobe 12. pons

l

2. In which of the cerebral lobes would the following functional areas be found? auditory area: temporal primary motor area: frontal primary sensory area: parietal olfactory area: temporal visual area: occipital Broca’s area: frontal

3. Which of the following structures are not part of the brain stem? (Circle the appropriate response or responses.) cerebral hemispheres pons midbrain cerebellum medulla diencephalon

4. Complete the following statements by writing the proper word or phrase on the corresponding blanks at the right. 1 _ A(n) _____ is an elevated ridge of cerebral tissue. The convolutions seen in the cerebrum are important because they increase 2 _. 3 _. the _____ Gray matter is composed of _____ White matter is 4 _. composed of _____ A fiber tract that provides for communication between different parts of the same cerebral hemisphere is called 5 _, a(n) _____ whereas one that carries impulses to the cerebrum from, and from the cerebrum to, lower CNS areas is called a(n) 6 _ _____ tract. The lentiform nucleus along with the caudate nuclei 7 _. are collectively called the _____ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. gyrus surface area neuron cell bodies myelinated fibers association tract projection basal nuclei 127

5. Identify the structures on the following sagittal view of the human brain stem and diencephalon by matching the numbered areas to the proper terms in the list.
18 15 1

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

cerebellum cerebral aqueduct (small part of) cerebral hemisphere cerebral peduncle choroid plexus corpora quadrigemina

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

14 10 13 2 4 16 6 5 8 19

corpus callosum fornix fourth ventricle hypothalamus intermediate mass mammillary bodies
7 12 9
8 9

n. o. p.

optic chiasma pineal body pituitary gland

17 3 11

q. r. s.

pons septum pellucidum thalamus

m. medulla oblongata

6. Using the terms from question 5, match the appropriate structures with the descriptions given below. j c f a s m

1. site of regulation of body temperature and water balance; most important autonomic center 2. consciousness depends on the function of this part of the brain 3. located in the midbrain; contains reflex centers for vision and audition 4. responsible for regulation of posture and coordination of complex muscular movements 5. important synapse site for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex 6. contains autonomic centers regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rhythm, as well as coughing, sneezing, and swallowing centers 7. large commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres 8. fiber tract involved with olfaction 9. connects the third and fourth ventricles 10. encloses the third ventricle

g h b s

128

Review Sheet 19

7. Embryologically, the brain arises from the rostral end of a tubelike structure that quickly becomes divided into three major regions. Groups of structures that develop from the embryonic brain are listed below. Designate the embryonic origin of each group as the hindbrain, midbrain, or forebrain. forebrain hindbrain forebrain

1. 2. 3.

the diencephalon, including the thalamus, optic chiasma, and hypothalamus the medulla, pons, and cerebellum the cerebral hemispheres

8. What is the function of the basal ganglia? They are involved in the regulation, modulation, and refinement of voluntary motor activity. 9. What is the corpus striatum, and how is it related to the fibers of the internal capsule? The fibers of the internal capsule pass between the basal nuclei, giving them a striped appearance; therefore, a striped body or corpus striatum.

10. A brain hemorrhage within the region of the right internal capsule results in paralysis of the left side of the body. Explain why the left side (rather than the right side) is affected. Because most of the motor fibers cross over to the opposite side at the level of the medulla oblongata.

11. Explain why trauma to the base of the brain is often much more dangerous than trauma to the frontal lobes. (Hint: Think about the relative functioning of the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem structures. Which contain centers more vital to life?)
Trauma to the base of the brain might damage the medulla oblongata, which contains vital respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor centers. Also, the reticular activating system, which helps to maintain consciousness, spans the length of the brain stem.

12. In “split brain” experiments, the main commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres is cut. First, name this commissure.
Corpus callosum

Then, describe what results (in terms of behavior) can be anticipated in such experiments. (Use an appropriate reference if you need help with this one!)
The disconnection of verbal naming and mathematical functions of the left side of the brain from the spatial recognition abilities of the right side (i.e. associating names with faces); some patients report that they no longer dream; isolated patients are mute for a brief time after surgery and have difficulty controlling the left side of the body.

Review Sheet 19

129

Meninges of the Brain
13. Identify the meningeal (or associated) structures described below: dura mater

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

outermost meninx covering the brain; composed of tough fibrous connective tissue innermost meninx covering the brain; delicate and highly vascular structures instrumental in returning cerebrospinal fluid to the venous blood in the dural sinuses structure that forms the cerebrospinal fluid middle meninx; like a cobweb in structure its outer layer forms the periosteum of the skull a dural fold that attaches the cerebrum to the crista galli of the skull a dural fold separating the cerebrum from the cerebellum

pia mater arachnoid villi

choroid plexus arachnoid mater dura mater falx cerebri tentorium cerebelli

Cerebrospinal Fluid
14. Label the structures involved with circulation of cerebrospinal fluid on the accompanying diagram.
Lateral ventricle Third ventricle

Interventricular foramen

Cerebral aqueduct Fourth ventricle

Lateral aperture

Add arrows to the figure above to indicate the flow of cerebrospinal fluid from its formation in the lateral ventricles to the site of its exit from the fourth ventricle. Then fill in the blanks in the following paragraph. Cerebrospinal fluid flows from the fourth ventricle into the (1) central canal of the spinal cord and the __ _ space surrounding ____ the brain and spinal cord. From this space it drains through the (3) (2) ____ ____. __ _ into the __ _ 1. 2. 3. subarachnoid space arachnoid villi dural sinuses

130

Review Sheet 19

Cranial Nerves
15. Using the terms below, correctly identify all structures indicated by leader lines on the diagram. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. abducens nerve (VI) accessory nerve (XI) cerebellum cerebral peduncle decussation of the pyramids facial nerve (VII) frontal lobe of cerebral hemisphere glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) hypoglossal nerve (XII) j. k. l. longitudinal fissure mammillary body medulla oblongata s. t. u. v. pituitary gland pons spinal cord temporal lobe of cerebral hemisphere

m. oculomotor nerve (III) n. o. p. q. r. olfactory bulb

w. trigeminal nerve (V) olfactory tract x. optic chiasma y. optic nerve (II) z. optic tract j trochlear nerve (IV) vagus nerve (X) vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

g

n o

q s p v k r m d x w a f t h c l i e u b y z

Review Sheet 19

131

16. Provide the name and number of the cranial nerves involved in each of the following activities, sensations, or disorders. accessory (XI) olfactory (I) oculomotor (III)

1. rotating the head 2. smelling a flower 3. raising the eyelids; pupillary constriction 4. slows the heart; increases motility of the digestive tract 5. involved in Bell’s palsy (facial paralysis) 6. chewing food

vestibulocochlear (VIII) facial (VII)

7. listening to music; seasickness 8. secretion of saliva; tasting wellseasoned food 9. involved in “rolling’’ the eyes (three nerves—provide numbers only) 10. feeling a toothache 11. reading the newspaper 12. purely sensory in function (three nerves—provide numbers only)

III, IV, VI

vagus (X)

trigeminal (V) optic (II) I, II, VIII

facial (VII)

trigeminal (V)

Dissection of the Sheep Brain
17. In your own words, describe the firmness and texture of the sheep brain tissue as observed when cutting into it.
Very soft; much like thickened oatmeal in consistency.

Because formalin hardens all tissue, what conclusions might you draw about the firmness and texture of living brain tissue?
It must be very soft and fragile.

18. When comparing human and sheep brains, you observe some profound differences between them. Record your observations in the chart below.
Structure Human Sheep

Olfactory bulb

Smaller Pons large; anterior to medulla; medulla relatively smaller Medial; located in the fold of the peduncle Two; posterior to optic chiasma Thick bundle in human; fornix is thinner than corpus collosum Smaller Smaller

Relatively much larger Pons small; anterior to medulla; medulla relatively large Medial; located on top of the peduncle One relatively large one; posterior to optic chiasma Relatively thin in sheep; fornix is the same size or slightly thicker than the corpus collosum Relatively larger Larger, especially the superior colliculi Relatively larger

Pons/medulla relationship

Location of cranial nerve III

Mammillary body

Corpus callosum Intermediate mass of thalamus Relative size of superior and inferior colliculi

Pineal gland

Smaller

132

Review Sheet 19

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

20

Electroencephalography

Time Allotment: 30 minutes for each subject. Allow additional time if students are not acquainted with the recording equipment.

Advance Preparation
1. Prepare a set of instructions for the particular recording equipment you will be using. If you are using a physiograph or BIOPAC, students may be familiar with it from Exercise 16A. Be sure to include instructions on correct calibration of the equipment so that meaningful recordings can be made. 2. Set out recording equipment. This can be either an oscilloscope and EEG selector box, a physiograph and high-gain preamplifier, or BIOPAC data acquisition unit. 3. Prepare a quiet, dimly lit space with a cot. Have electrodes, electrode leads, electrode gel, and collodion gel available. Long elastic EEG straps or adhesive bandages may be used in place of the collodion.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. It is very important to choose subjects who can relax. 2. Clean the area where the electrode will be attached to provide a better contact.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Observing Brain Wave Patterns (pp. 306–307) 5. The frequency of the brain waves should increase and the amplitude should decrease. It may be characterized as a beta rhythm if the amplitude decreases and the frequency is in the range of 15 to 30 cycles per second. 6. The frequency of the brain waves should increase to become beta waves. 7. Hyperventilation results in alkalosis, which causes overexcitability of the nervous system. The tracings may resemble those of an epileptic seizure.

133

Activity 2: Electroencephalography Using BIOPAC (pp. 307–311) 17. The alpha rhythm is observed when the subject is relaxed with the eyes closed, and it usually diminishes when the eyes are open. The beta rhythm is usually most pronounced when the eyes are open and attentive, or when the subject is performing mental tasks. The alpha waveforms are greater during the segments recorded when the subject’s eyes are closed; the beta waveforms are slightly more pronounced during the signal recorded when the subject’s eyes are opened as well as during the segment when the subject’s eyes are reclosed. The alpha signal appears more varied than the beta signal. The delta and theta rhythms are the most varied, especially under these subject conditions. They are most easily observed when the subject makes the transition from mild sleep to deep sleep. It is unlikely that a significant difference can be discerned under these conditions.

134

Exercise 20

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

20

Electroencephalography
Brain Wave Patterns and the Electroencephalogram
A record of the electrical activity of the brain. 1. Define EEG. ____________________________________________________________

___________________________

2. Match each statement below to a type of brain wave pattern. delta ________ below 4 Hz; slow, large waves; normally seen during deep sleep alpha ________ rhythm generally apparent when an individual is in a relaxed, nonattentive state with the eyes closed beta ________ correlated to the alert state; usually about 15 to 30 Hz A change from an alpha rhythm to increased frequency waves as a result of increased 3. What is meant by the term alpha block? ____________________________________________________________

______ alertness, mental concentration, excitement, etc. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Epileptic foci, infections, tumors, abscesses, 4. List at least four types of brain lesions that may be determined by EEG studies. ___________________________________ blood clots ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ Unconsciousness 5. What is the common result of hypoactivity or hyperactivity of the brain neurons? _________________________________

Observing Brain Wave Patterns
By clapping your hands, which caught the attention of the 6. How was alpha block demonstrated in the laboratory experiment? ______________________________________________ subject. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ (Should have) increased the frequency of the brain 7. What was the effect of mental concentration on the brain wave pattern? _________________________________________ waves from the level of the alpha rhythm. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________
Produced a fast, irregular pattern. 8. What effect on the brain wave pattern did hyperventilation have? ______________________________________________

135

Electroencephalography Using BIOPAC
9. Observe the average frequency of the waves you measured for each rhythm. Did the calculated average for each fall within the specified range indicated in the introduction to encephalograms?
The average should fall within the normal range. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ 10. Suggest the possible advantages and disadvantages of using electroencephalography in a clinical setting.
EEG is a useful tool in the clinical setting to assess cerebral activity in generalized brain regions. Because EEG is indirectly recording, ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ via the scalp, the activity of millions of nerve cells simultaneously, it is less effective in assessing the function of very specific regions of ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________ the brain. ____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

____________________________________________________________

______________________________________

136

Review Sheet 20

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

21

Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and the Autonomic Nervous System
Time Allotment: 11/2 hours (1 hour can be completed outside of lab). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Brain and Nervous System: Your Information Superhighway (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Nerves Videotape (BC, 28 minutes, VHS) The Peripheral Nervous System (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage, disposal, and cleanup of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts, for state regulations. 2. Designate a disposal container for organic debris, and a dishwashing area with hot soapy water and sponges. Provide a lab disinfectant such as Wavicide-01 (Carolina) for washing down the lab benches. 3. Set out disposable gloves and safety glasses. 4. Set out dissection tools, trays, and spinal cord sections from cow specimens or saved from the brain dissection. 5. Set out charts and models of the spinal cord, and red and blue pencils. 6. Set out slides of spinal cord cross section, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution. 7. Set out dissecting microscopes. Have compound microscopes available. 8. Check to be sure that the diagram of the spinal tracts in the text you are using is similar to that in Figure 21.3. If there are differences, decide which you will use and make the appropriate adjustments to the assignment if necessary.

137

9. Set out equipment and materials for the conduction of the BIOPAC activity. Introduce your students to the basic features of the equipment prior to beginning the lab activity.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may have trouble distinguishing between gray and white matter in the spinal cord dissection. A drop or two of methylene blue stain with a water rinse may help.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Identifying Spinal Cord Tracts (p. 318) Labels for Figure 21.3 Left (top to bottom) - Ascending Tracts Fasciculus gracilis Fasciculus cuneatus Posterior spinocerebellar tract Anterior spinocerebellar tract Lateral spinothalamic tract Anterior spinothalamic tract Right (top to bottom) - Descending Tracts Lateral reticulospinal tract Lateral corticospinal tract Rubrospinal tract Medial reticulospinal tract Anterior corticospinal tract Vestibulospinal tract Tectospinal tract

Fasciculus gracilis - joint, muscle position sense, fine touch localization (lower trunk and limbs) Fasciculus cuneatus - same as above (neck, upper trunk and limbs) Posterior spinocerebellar - proprioception Anterior spinocerebellar - proprioception Lateral spinothalamic - pain and temperature Anterior spinothalamic - pressure and crude touch Lateral corticospinal - cross in medulla, stimuli to skeletal muscles (pyramidal) Anterior corticospinal - cross at level of synapse, stimuli to skeletal muscles (pyramidal) Rubrospinal - some upper limb movement Tectospinal - mediate head movements toward visual targets Vestibulospinal - posture and balance Medial reticulospinal - muscle tone and visceral motor functions Lateral reticulospinal - muscle tone and visceral motor functions

138

Exercise 21

Dissection: Spinal Cord (pp. 318–319) 1. The third meninx is the pia mater, which adheres closely to the surface of the brain and spinal cord. 2. The posterior horns are more tapered than the anterior horns. 3. The central canal is more oval than circular. It is lined with ependymal cells. In a living specimen it contains cerebrospinal fluid. Students may observe that the posterior medial sulcus touches the posterior gray commissure (gray matter) of the spinal cord. Neuron cell bodies can be seen in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The large neurons are motor neurons; others are interneurons. Activity 5: Comparing Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Effects (p. 329)
Organ or function Heart Bronchioles of lungs Digestive tract activity Urinary bladder Iris of the eye Blood vessels (most) Penis/clitoris Sweat glands Adrenal medulla Pancreas Parasympathetic effect Sympathetic effect

Decreases rate Constricts Increases motility; secretion Contracts wall; relaxes sphincter Constricts pupil Little or no efect Causes erection No effect No effect Stimulates secretion

Increases rate and force Dilates Decreases activity; closes sphincters Relaxes wall; constricts sphincter Dilates pupil Constricts most vessels Causes ejaculation Stimulates secretion Stimulates medulla to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine Inhibits secretion

Activity 6: Exploring the Galvanic Skin Response within a Polygraph Using BIOPAC (pp. 329–335) 12. It is likely that the most significant changes will be observed when the face is touched. There may or may not be a significant change after each color presentation. The responses will vary from student to student depending on the affective nature of the question. Colors can affect mood that can be observed through a subsequent change in autonomic activity. Specific questions might elicit an emotional response that can be observed through a subsequent change in autonomic activity.

Exercise 21

139

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

21

Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and the Autonomic Nervous System
Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
1. Match each anatomical term in the key to the descriptions given below. Key: a. d c b a

cauda equina 1. 2. 3. 4.

b.

conus medullaris

c.

filum terminale

d.

foramen magnum

most superior boundary of the spinal cord meningeal extension beyond the spinal cord terminus spinal cord terminus collection of spinal nerves traveling in the vertebral canal below the terminus of the spinal cord

2. Match the key letters on the diagram with the following terms. k a c h g 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. arachnoid mater central canal dorsal (posterior) horn dorsal ramus of spinal nerve dorsal root ganglion o n a

n j o d l

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

dorsal root of spinal nerve dura mater

f m i

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

spinal nerve ventral (anterior) horn ventral ramus of spinal nerve ventral root of spinal nerve white matter

gray commissure lateral horn pia mater e b

b c

m

d

l

e f

k

g

h j

i

141

3. Choose the proper answer from the following key to respond to the descriptions relating to spinal cord anatomy. Key: a. d b a

sensory 1. 2. 3.

b.

motor

c.

both sensory and motor b a c

d. 4. 5. 6.

interneurons

neuron type found in dorsal horn neuron type found in ventral horn neuron type in dorsal root ganglion

fiber type in ventral root fiber type in dorsal root fiber type in spinal nerve

4. Where in the vertebral column is a lumbar puncture generally done? Between the third and fourth or fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae. Why is this the site of choice? The spinal cord ends at the level of L2; thus there is little chance of damaging it below that level.

5. The spinal cord is enlarged in two regions, the cervical

and the lumbar

regions.

What is the significance of these enlargements? Nerves serving the limbs issue from these regions of the spinal cord.

6. How does the position of the gray and white matter differ in the spinal cord and the cerebral hemispheres?
In the spinal cord, the white matter surrounds the gray matter. In the cerebral hemisphere, there is an outer “rind” of gray matter and deep to that is white matter with a few scattered islands of gray matter.

7. From the key, choose the name of the tract that might be damaged when the following conditions are observed. (More than one choice may apply.) e, f, g c, d e, f, g h a, b, i

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

uncoordinated movement lack of voluntary movement tremors, jerky movements diminished pain perception diminished sense of touch

Key: a. fasciculus cuneatus b. fasciculus gracilis c. lateral corticospinal tract d. anterior corticospinal tract e. tectospinal tract f. rubrospinal tract g. vestibulospinal tract h. lateral spinothalamic tract i. anterior spinothalamic tract j. posterior spinocerebellar tract k. anterior spinocerebellar tract

Dissection of the Spinal Cord
8. Compare and contrast the meninges of the spinal cord and the brain. Both the spinal cord and the brain have three meninges: pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater. In the brain the dura mater has two layers—periosteal and meningeal. The spinal cord has only the meningeal layer. In the spinal cord there exists an epidural space between the vertebral bone and the dura, but the dura of the brain is tightly adhered to the skull. 9. How can you distinguish between the dorsal and ventral horns? The ventral horns are wider than the dorsal horns. The dorsal horns extend closer to the edge of the spinal cord.

142

Review Sheet 21

Spinal Nerves and Nerve Plexuses
10. In the human, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, named according to the region of the vertebral column from which they issue. The spinal nerves are named below. Indicate how they are numbered. cervical nerves C1 – C8 lumbar nerves L1 – L5 sacral nerves S1 – S5 thoracic nerves T1 – T12 ,

11. The ventral rami of spinal nerves C1 through T1 and T12 through S4 take part in forming plexuses which serve the limbs and anterior trunk between the ribs to serve the intercostal muscles serve the posterior body trunk .

of the body. The ventral rami of T2 through T12 run . The dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

12. What would happen if the following structures were damaged or transected? (Use the key choices for responses.) Key: a. b a

loss of motor function 1. 2.

b.

loss of sensory function c c. 3.

loss of both motor and sensory function ventral ramus of a spinal nerve

dorsal root of a spinal nerve ventral root of a spinal nerve

13. Define plexus. A complex network of joining and diverging nerves.

14. Name the major nerves that serve the following body areas. cervical phrenic sciatic common fibular, tibial, sural, medial and lateral plantar median, ulnar radial, musculocutaneous lumbar femoral ulnar

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

head, neck, shoulders (name plexus only) diaphragm posterior thigh leg and foot (name two) anterior forearm muscles (name two) arm muscles (name two) abdominal wall (name plexus only) anterior thigh medial side of the hand

The Autonomic Nervous System
15. For the most part, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers serve the same organs and structures. How can they exert antagonistic effects? (After all, nerve impulses are nerve impulses—aren’t they?)
They release different neurotransmitters, which bind to different receptors.

Review Sheet 21

143

16. Name three structures that receive sympathetic but not parasympathetic innervation.
Adrenal glands, arrector pili muscles, and sweat glands. (Most blood vessels receive only sympathic innervations.)

17. A pelvic splanchnic nerve contains (circle one): a. b. preganglionic sympathetic fibers postganglionic sympathetic fibers c. preganglionic parasympathetic fibers d. postganglionic parasympathetic fibers

18. The following chart states a number of conditions. Use a check mark to show which division of the autonomic nervous system is involved in each.

Sympathetic division ✓

Condition Secretes norepinephrine; adrenergic fibers Secretes acetylcholine; cholinergic fibers Long preganglionic axon; short postganglionic axon

Parasympathetic division

✓ ✓



Short preganglionic axon; long postganglionic axon Arises from cranial and sacral nerves ✓



Arises from spinal nerves T1 through L3 Normally in control ✓



“Fight-or-flight” system Has more specific control (Look it up!) ✓

Galvanic Skin Response Using BIOPAC
19. Describe exactly how, from a physiological standpoint, GSR can be correlated with activity of the autonomic nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system controls sweat glands of the skin. Increased moisture on the skin decreases its electrical resistance, which can be recorded.

20. Based on this brief and unprofessional exposure to a polygraph, explain why this might not be an exact tool for testing the sincerity and honesty of a subject.
It is not possible to state with certainty that every subject who lies will have an absolutely predictable autonomic nervous system response. For this reason, although GSR is useful as an investigative tool, it is not accepted as an exact measurement tool.

144

Review Sheet 21

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

22

Human Reflex Physiology

Suggestion for Alternative Equipment Computerized (Intelitool) and PowerLab alternatives to this traditional exercise can be found on myA&P.

Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Decision (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Solution: Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter.

Advance Preparation
1. Fill a large laboratory bucket with 10% bleach solution and set out an autoclave bag for disposable items. Set out wash bottles of 10% bleach solution. 2. For each group, set out a reflex hammer, a sharp pencil, a small piece of sterile absorbent cotton, a tongue depressor, a metric ruler, a 12-inch ruler or reaction time ruler, a flashlight, a 100- or 250-milliliter beaker, a 10- or 25-milliliter graduated cylinder, a dropper bottle of lemon juice, and wide-range pH paper. 3. Set out equipment and materials for the conduction of the BIOPAC activity. Introduce your students to the basic features of the equipment prior to beginning the lab activity.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Be sure that the same student does all parts of the stretch reflex experiment. 2. Pupillary reflexes are more easily tested on subjects with light-colored irises.

145

3. Students do not always distinguish between the general term “pupillary reflexes” and the pupillary light reflex. Emphasize that the pupillary light reflex and the consensual response are both examples of pupillary reflexes. 4. Students often erroneously try to catch the ruler with their hands rather than between the thumb and forefinger in the section on Reaction Time of Unlearned Responses. Also, be sure that the same subject does all four parts of this experiment.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Initiating Stretch Reflexes (pp. 343–344) 1. The leg swings forward as the quadriceps muscles contract. (The hamstrings are reciprocally inhibited.) The femoral nerve is carrying the impulses. 2. The response is usually greater than the first response. Mental distraction seems to increase the reflex response. 3. The response during other muscle activity is usually more vigorous due to increased facilitation in the spinal cord. 4. Fatigue results in a less vigorous response. Muscle function is responsible. This is probably due to changes in pH, ATP, and Ca2+ levels in the muscle. Excitation-contraction coupling is hindered, reducing the response of the muscle cells to nervous stimulation. 5. Plantar flexion due to the contraction of the triceps surae (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) is the result. Contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle usually results in plantar flexion of the foot. Activity 2: Initiating the Crossed Extensor Reflex (p. 344) The subject withdraws the pricked hand by flexion of the elbow. Then the other elbow extends. The extensor part of the reflex is relatively slow, probably due to the fact that many association neurons are involved. Activity 3: Initiating the Plantar Reflex (p. 345) The normal response is downward flexion (curling) and adduction of the toes. Activity 4: Initiating the Corneal Reflex (p. 345) The subject blinks. The function is to protect the eye. The subject experiences discomfort (if not pain) because the cornea lacks pressure receptors but is richly supplied with pain receptors. Activity 5: Initiating the Gag Reflex (p. 345) The posterior pharyngeal walls elevate as pharyngeal muscles contract, and the subject gags. Activity 6: Initiating Pupillary Reflexes (p. 346) 3. The left pupil contracts (the pupillary light reflex). 4. The right pupil also contracts. The contralateral (consensual) reflex indicates that there is some connection between the pathways for each eye. This is a test of the parasympathetic nervous system. These responses protect the retina from damage by bright light.
146

Exercise 22

Activity 7: Initiating the Ciliospinal Reflex (p. 346) 1. The left pupil dilates, the right pupil does not. 2. Sympathetic innervation of the irises does not seem to be as closely integrated as parasympathetic innervation since a contralateral response was not observed. Activity 8: Initiating the Salivary Reflex (pp. 346–347) 3. The volume of saliva is much greater after stimulation with lemon juice. The final saliva pH should be close to the initial reading (usually pH 6–7). It is much less acidic than the reading 10 seconds after the application of lemon juice, as saliva contains sodium bicarbonate. The copious thin watery secretion is the result of parasympathetic stimulation. Activity 9: Testing Reaction Time for Basic and Acquired Reflexes (pp. 347–348) 3. Addition of a signal word should increase reaction time because it takes time to discriminate the words. 4. The large variation in reaction time is due to the variation in the ability of the subject to formulate a response to the stimulus word. Activity 10: Measuring Reaction Time Using BIOPAC (pp. 348–350) 5. It is possible that there will be a difference between Segment 1 and Segment 2. If Segment 2 appears to be faster, this is likely due to the learning that occurred from the experience acquired during Segment 1. Responses may be more rapid during Segment 4 than in Segment 3 for the same reason.

Exercise 22

147

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

22
,

Human Reflex Physiology
The Reflex Arc
1. Define reflex. Motor response to a stimulus which is mediated over a neural pathway called a reflex arc.

2. Name five essential components of a reflex arc: receptor integration center

, sensory neuron , and effector

, motor neuron

3. In general, what is the importance of reflex testing in a routine physical examination? Allows the condition of the nervous system to be assessed. Pathology is indicated by exaggeration, distortion, or absence of reflexes normally present.

Somatic and Autonomic Reflexes
4. Use the key terms to complete the statements given below. Key: a. b. c. abdominal reflex Achilles reflex ciliospinal reflex d. e. f. corneal reflex crossed-extensor reflex gag reflex g. h. i. patellar reflex plantar reflex pupillary light reflex

a b d e f g h Reflexes classified as somatic reflexes include a _______, _______, _______, _______, _______, ________, and ______. b g a h Of these, the simple stretch reflexes are ________ and ________, and the superficial cord reflexes are ______ and ______. c i Reflexes classified as autonomic reflexes include ________ and ________.

5. Name two cord-mediated reflexes. Achilles reflex also cord-mediated)

and patellar reflex (crossed extensor reflex is

Name two somatic reflexes in which the higher brain centers participate. and plantar (also the corneal and gag reflexes)

abdominal

Yes, in a 6. Can the stretch reflex be elicited in a pithed animal (that is, an animal in which the brain has been destroyed)? __________ singly pithed frog in which the cord is intact.

Explain your answer. It is a cord-mediated reflex (initiated and executed at the spinal cord level).

149

7. Trace the reflex arc, naming efferent and afferent nerves, receptors, effectors, and integration centers, for the two reflexes listed. (Hint: Remember which nerve innervates the anterior thigh, and which nerve innervates the posterior thigh.) patellar reflex: Proprioceptors (stretch receptors) in the quadriceps muscle → afferent fibers of femoral nerve → spinal cord → efferent fibers of femoral nerve → quadriceps muscle.

Achilles reflex: Proprioceptors (stretch receptors) in the gastrocnemius muscle → afferent fibers of sciatic nerve → spinal cord → efferent fibers of sciatic nerve → gastrocnemius (triceps surae) muscle.

8. Three factors that influence the rapidity and effectiveness of reflex arcs were investigated in conjunction with patellar reflex testing—mental distraction, effect of simultaneous muscle activity in another body area, and fatigue. Which of these factors increases the excitatory level of the spinal cord? Simultaneous muscle activity Which factor decreases the excitatory level of the muscles? Muscle fatigue (exercise) When the subject was concentrating on an arithmetic problem, did the change noted in the patellar reflex indicate that brain activity is necessary for the patellar reflex or only that it may modify it? Only that it may modify it. Will occur in any case.

9. Name the division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for each of the reflexes listed. ciliospinal reflex: sympathetic pupillary light reflex: parasympathetic 10. The pupillary light reflex, the crossed-extensor reflex, and the corneal reflex illustrate the purposeful nature of reflex activity. Describe the protective aspect of each. pupillary light reflex: Protects the retina from excessive illumination, which is damaging to the photoreceptors. corneal reflex: Protects the eye from trauma. crossed-extensor reflex: Withdraws the injured limb from the painful stimulus while simultaneously extending the opposite limb. If the upper limbs are involved, extension of the opposite limb acts to push the stimulus away. If the lower limbs are involved, extension of the opposite limb prepares the limb to receive the body weight.

salivary reflex: parasympathetic

11. Was the pupillary consensual response contralateral or ipsilateral? Contralateral Why would such a response be of significant value in this particular reflex? If the light source was intense, both eyes would probably be illuminated.

150

Review Sheet 22

12. Differentiate between the types of activities accomplished by somatic and autonomic reflexes. Autonomic reflexes involve the activation of smooth or cardiac muscle and glands. Somatic reflexes involve the activation of skeletal muscles.

13. Several types of reflex activity were not investigated in this exercise. The most important of these are autonomic reflexes, which are difficult to illustrate in a laboratory situation. To rectify this omission, complete the following chart, using references as necessary.

Reflex Micturition (urination)

Organ involved Bladder

Receptors stimulated Stretch receptors in the bladder wall

Action Impulse goes to cord (afferent fibers) and returns (efferent fibers), causing bladder contraction and relaxation of its internal sphincter.

Hering-Breuer

Lungs

Stretch receptors in the lungs

Upon excessive inspiration, afferent impulses are sent to the pons and medulla oblongata, which in turn send efferent impulses to terminate the inspiratory effort.

Defecation

Rectum

Stretch receptors in the rectal walls (colon terminus)

Afferent impulses to the sacral region of the cord followed by efferent impulses to the muscles of the rectum and the anal sphincters to initiate feces evacuation.

Carotid sinus

Carotid artery

Pressure receptors in the carotid sinus

When arterial pressure increases excessively, sensory impulses travel to the cardioinhibitory center in the medulla oblongata, which in turn sends efferent impulses via the vagus nerve to slow the heart, thus decreasing its rate and the blood pressure.

Review Sheet 22

151

Reaction Time of Basic and Learned or Acquired Reflexes
14. How do basic and learned or acquired reflexes differ? Although there is no clear-cut distinction, in general basic reflexes are inborn and use a specific reflex arc. Learned or acquired reflexes are the result of practice and repetition, involving more neural pathways and higher intellectual activities.

15. Name at least three factors that may modify reaction time to a stimulus. Receptor sensitivity, nerve conduction velocity, and the number of neurons and synapses involved.

16. In general, how did the response time for the learned activity performed in the laboratory compare to that for the simple patellar reflex?
The response time for the learned activity was much longer.

Yes 17. Did the response time without verbal stimuli decrease with practice? _____________ Explain the reason for this. The subject was anticipating the stimulus.

18. Explain, in detail, why response time increased when the subject had to react to a word stimulus.
Choice and decision making about the response involved and the large number of synapses involved increased the response time.

19. When measuring reaction time in the BIOPAC activity, was there a difference in reaction time when the stimulus was predictable versus unpredictable? Explain your answer.
It is most likely that the reaction time will be shorter during the segments with predictable, evenly-spaced stimuli, than during the random segments. The subject can more easily predict the onset of the stimulus, reducing reaction time.

152

Review Sheet 22

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

23

General Sensation

Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Mystery of the Senses (IM, VHS) (5-part series) Touch (30 minutes)

Advance Preparation
1. Set out prepared slides of Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner’s corpuscles, Golgi tendon organs, and muscle spindles. If time is a problem, set these up as a demonstration. 2. Set out lens paper, lens cleaning solution, and immersion oil. Have compound microscopes available. 3. Place half of the mall probes (one per group, biology supply company) in a small water bath set at 45°C. 4. Place the remaining mall probes in a beaker containing chipped ice and water. 5. Set out black, red, and blue felt-tipped markers, Von Frey’s hairs or sharp pencils, calipers or two-point discriminators or esthesiometers (sometimes called anesthesiometers), and millimeter rulers (one each per group). 6. Have at least four nickels or quarters available. 7. For each group, set out three large finger bowls or beakers, a thermometer, and paper towels. Have ice water available.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Remind the students to use caution when adjusting the width of the calipers or two-point discriminators in the two-point discrimination test. Caution the students against dragging the sharp tips along the surface of the skin. Wooden toothpicks may be substituted for calipers. 2. If a student has Raynaud’s disease and is the subject in the Referred Pain experiment, he or she may experience temporary numbness of the hand. This experiment works best on subjects with thin arms.
153

3. Use water-based, felt-tipped pens or have some sort of stain remover available. 4. Adaptation of the hand to ice water may take longer than two minutes. You may wish to warn students that it may be painful to keep their hands in the ice water long enough to experience adaptation.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Determining the Two-Point Threshold (pp. 357–358) Fingertips and lips usually have the greatest density of touch receptors. Activity 3: Testing Tactile Localization (p. 358) 2. The ability to locate the stimulus should not improve with repeated trials because the receptor density remains unchanged. Activity 4: Plotting the Relative Density and Location of Touch and Temperature Receptors (pp. 358–359) 6. Touch receptors and cold receptors are both more abundant than heat receptors. Touch receptors will probably appear to be the most abundant. Activity 5: Demonstrating Adaptation of Touch Receptors (p. 359) 3. The pressure sensation returns when coins are added to the stack. The same receptors are probably being used. Generator potentials are graded and stronger stimuli produce larger potentials and thus increased frequency of nerve impulses. 4. The sensation is greater when the hair springs back. Without adaptation there would be continuous impulses from and awareness of the bending hairs. Activity 6: Demonstrating Adaptation of Temperature Receptors (pp. 359–360) 1. The water will feel warm to the left hand. After the left hand has been in the warm water for one minute the water will feel much less warm; the water will feel very warm to the right hand. Yes, adaptation has occurred in the left hand. 3. After two minutes the warm water will begin to feel lukewarm to the right hand. The hand in the ice water may hurt and the experiment may have to go longer than two minutes to observe adaptation. Adaptation to the cold seems to take longer. The right hand adapts more quickly. 4. The water feels cool to the right hand and warm to the left hand. Activity 7: Demonstrating the Phenomenon of Referred Pain (p. 360) Initially the elbow feels cold and then begins to hurt. After a while a tingling sensation can be felt in the fingers and the palm of the hand. The fingers may then begin to ache. The ulnar nerve serves several hand and finger muscles as well as the skin of a portion of the hand. All above sensations fade during the three minutes after removal.

154

Exercise 23

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

23

General Sensation
Structure of General Sensor y Receptors
1. Differentiate between interoceptors and exteroceptors relative to location and stimulus source. interoceptor: In viscera or deep in body tissues; internal stimuli exteroceptor: At or close to the body surface; stimuli in external environment 2. A number of activities and sensations are listed in the chart below. For each, check whether the receptors would be exteroceptors or interoceptors; and then name the specific receptor types. (Because visceral receptors were not described in detail in this exercise, you need only indicate that the receptor is a visceral receptor if it falls into that category.)

Activity or sensation Backing into a sun-heated iron railing Someone steps on your foot Reading a book

Exteroceptor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

Interoceptor

Specific receptor type Pain receptors Pain receptors Pacinian corpuscles Rods/cones of the eye (photoreceptors)

Leaning on your elbows Doing sit-ups The “too full” sensation ✓ Seasickness

✓ ✓ ✓

Pacinian corpuscles Proprioceptors Proprioceptors Visceral receptors (stretch) Equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear

Receptor Physiology
3. Explain how the sensory receptors act as transducers. Convert other energy types, e.g. pressure (mechanical energy), to the electrochemical nerve impulse.

4. Define stimulus. An irritant capable of producing a response. 5. What was demonstrated by the two-point discrimination test? The relative density of touch receptors in various body areas (lips, fingertips, etc.)

How well did your results correspond to your predictions?

What is the relationship between the accuracy of the subject’s tactile localization and the results of the two-point discrimnation test? Areas with the most accurate touch localization were demonstrated to have the smallest two-point thresholds.
155

6. Define punctate distribution. Having specific localization or found at certain descrete points.

7. Several questions regarding general sensation are posed below. Answer each by placing your response in the appropriately numbered blanks to the right. 1. Which cutaneous receptors are the most numerous? 2–3. Which two body areas tested were most sensitive to touch? 4–5. Which two body areas tested were least sensitive to touch? 6. Which appear to be more numerous—receptors that respond to cold or to heat? 7–9. Where would referred pain appear if the following organs were receiving painful stimuli—(7) gallbladder, (8) kidneys, and (9) appendix? (Use your textbook if necessary.) 10. Where was referred pain felt when the elbow was immersed in ice water during the laboratory experiment? 11. What region of the cerebrum interprets the kind and intensity of stimuli that cause cutaneous sensations? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. pain receptors lips fingertips ventral forearm back of neck cold right inferior thorax lumbar right lower quadrant of abdominal surface medial aspect of hand (medial aspect of upper arm) somatosensory association area

8. Define adaptation of sensory receptors. Decline in receptor sensitivity and stimulation with prolonged unchanging stimuli.

9. Why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stimuli, whether heat, cold, or pressure?
Because all of these stimuli, if excessive, cause tissue damage.

Why is the nonadaptability of pain receptors important? Pain is a warning of actual or potential tissue damage.

10. Imagine yourself without any cutaneous sense organs. Why might this be very dangerous? Many external stimuli (heat, cold, pressure) which can threaten homeostasis might go undetected, and proper protective measures might not be taken.

11. Define referred pain. An experience in which pain is perceived as coming from a site other than that receiving the painful stimulus. What is the probable explanation for referred pain? (Consult your textbook or an appropriate reference if necessary.)
Both the site of referred pain and the visceral region receiving the actual painful stimulus are innervated by different sensory neurons that then stimulate the same interneurons in a specific spinal segment of the cord. These sensations are then interpreted by the primary cortex.

156

Review Sheet 23

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

24

Special Senses: Vision

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. The Eye: Structure, Function, and Control of Movement (FHS, 54 minutes, VHS, DVD) Eyes and Ears (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Mystery of the Senses (IM, VHS) (5-part series) Vision (30 minutes) Optics of the Human Eye Series (UL, VHS, 4-part series) The Senses (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Sheep Eye Dissection (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS) Visual Reality (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. Solutions: Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of bleach. Add water to final volume of 1 liter.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage and disposal of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection for state regulations. 2. Designate a disposal container for organic debris and a dishwashing area with hot soapy water and sponges. Provide lab disinfectant such as Wavicide-01 (biology supply company) or 10% bleach solution for washing down the lab benches. 3. Set out disposable gloves and safety glasses.

157

4. Set out dissecting kits, dissecting pans, and preserved cow or sheep eyes. Plan for groups of two or individual dissections. 5. Set out dissectible eye models and eye anatomy charts. 6. Set out slides of the eye showing retinal layers, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. As an alternative, set up a demonstration slide of the retina. 7. Hang up a Snellen eye chart in a well-lit part of the room. Measure back 20 feet from the chart and mark the distance on the floor with masking tape. 8. Set out Ishihara’s color-blindness plates. 9. Set out a box of common pins. 10. Set out test tubes, pencils, metric rulers, and meter sticks (one each per group). 11. Set out several laboratory lamps, penlights, or bright flashlights. 12. Set out the ophthalmoscopes (check to be sure ophthalmoscope batteries are working).

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Preserved cow eyes are often misshapen, and inexperienced students may need help locating and identifying the cornea at the beginning of the dissection. 2. Some students will have difficulty with the ophthalmoscope. Remind the subject to look straight ahead at a fixed object while the examiner looks through the pupil at a slight angle. Caution the examiner to limit illuminating the retina to one minute or less. Switch to the other eye if necessary. Do not examine the macula for more than one second at a time. 3. For demonstration of the blind spot, emphasize that the dot disappears when the right eye is tested, and the X disappears when the left eye is tested. Some student is sure to claim that he/she has no blind spot in the left eye as the dot never disappeared!

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Identifying Accessory Eye Structures (p. 364) Right eye: medial rectus Left eye: lateral rectus (and on occasion the superior or inferior oblique) Dissection: The Cow (Sheep) Eye (pp. 368–369) 6. The optic disc.

158

Exercise 24

Activity 4: Predicting the Effects of Visual Pathway Lesions (p. 370) A lesion in the right optic nerve affects medial and lateral vision of the right eye. A lesion through the optic chiasma affects medial vision in both eyes. A lesion in the left optic tract affects left lateral and right medial vision. A lesion in the visual area of the right cerebral cortex affects right lateral and left medial vision. Activity 10: Tests for Binocular Vision (p. 373) It is much easier to put the pencil in the test tube with both eyes open. Activity 11: Demonstrating Reflex Activity of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Eye Muscles (pp. 373–374)
Photopupillary Reflex

When exposed to bright light, the pupil constricts. The pupil of the opposite eye will also be slightly constricted.
Accommodation Pupillary Reflex

As the eye focuses on printed material, the pupil constricts. This reduces divergent light rays and aids in formation of a sharper image. It also restricts the amount of light entering the eye.
Convergence Reflex

The eyeballs will both move medially to focus on the object. This reflex keeps the image focused on the fovea.

Exercise 24

159

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

24

Special Senses: Vision
Anatomy of the Eye
1. Name five accessory eye structures that contribute to the formation of tears and/or aid in lubrication of the eyeball, and then name the major secretory product of each. Indicate which has antibacterial properties by circling the correct secretory product.
Accessory structures lacrimal glands conjunctiva tarsal or meibomian glands caruncle ciliary glands Product saline solution; lysozyme mucus oily secretion whitish, oily secretion sweat

2. The eyeball is wrapped in adipose tissue within the orbit. What is the function of the adipose tissue?
To package, protect, and cushion the eyeball in the bony orbit. ____________________________________________________________

________ _______________________________

3. Why does one often have to blow one’s nose after crying? Because tears drain into the nasal cavities via the nasolacrimal ducts.

4. Identify the extrinsic eye muscle predominantly responsible for each action described below. lateral rectus medial rectus inferior oblique inferior rectus superior rectus superior oblique

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

turns the eye laterally turns the eye medially turns the eye up and laterally turns the eye inferiorly and medially turns the eye superiorly and medially turns the eye down and laterally

5. What is a sty? Inflammation of a small oil or sweat gland associated with the eye exterior.

Conjunctivitis? Inflammation of the conjunctiva.

161

6. Correctly identify each lettered structure in the diagram by writing the letter next to its name in the numbered list. a l c d b

c l t f p

1. anterior chamber 2. anterior segment 3. bipolar neurons 4. choroid 5. ciliary body and processes 6. ciliary muscle 7. cornea 8. dura mater 9. fovea centralis 10. ganglion cells 11. iris 12. lens 13. optic disc 14. optic nerve 15. photoreceptors 16. posterior chamber 17. retina 18. sclera 19. scleral venous sinus 20. suspensory ligaments (ciliary zonule) 21. posterior segment

e m n o p f

e a j g q u o

Blowup of photosensitive retina u

h

b t s r Pigmented epithelium i q

r k s n i j k

h d m

g

Notice the arrows drawn close to the left side of the iris in the diagram above. What do they indicate?
The flow of aqueous humor from the ciliary processes of the ciliary body to the scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm).

7. The iris is composed primarily of two smooth muscle layers, one arranged radially and the other circularly. Which of these dilates the pupil? The radial layer 8. You would expect the pupil to be dilated in which of the following circumstances? Circle the correct response(s). a. in bright light b. in dim light c. focusing for near vision d. observing distant objects

9. The intrinsic eye muscles are controlled by (circle the correct response): autonomic nervous system
162 Review Sheet 24

somatic nervous system

10. Match the key responses with the descriptive statements that follow. Key: a. b. c. d. aqueous humor choroid ciliary body ciliary processes of the ciliary body e. f. g. h. i. cornea fovea centralis iris lens optic disc j. k. l. m. retina sclera scleral venous sinus vitreous humor

a; aqueous humor k; sclera i; optic disc c; ciliary body

1. fluid filling the anterior segment of the eye 2. the “white” of the eye 3. part of the retina that lacks photoreceptors 4. modification of the choroid that controls the shape of the crystalline lens and contains the ciliary muscle 5. drains the aqueous humor from the eye 6. layer containing the rods and cones 7. substance occupying the posterior segment of the eyeball 8. forms the bulk of the heavily pigmented vascular layer 9. smooth muscle structures (2) 10. area of critical focusing and discriminatory vision 11. form (by filtration) the aqueous humor 12. light-bending media of the eye (4)

l; scleral venous sinus j; retina m; vitreous humor b; choroid c; ciliary body g; iris __________________ , ________________ f; fovea centralis d; ciliary processes of the ciliary body a; aqueous humor e; cornea __________________ , ________________ m; vitreous humor h; lens __________________ , ________________ e; cornea k; sclera

13. anterior continuation of the sclera—your “window on the world” 14. composed of tough, white, opaque, fibrous connective tissue

Microscopic Anatomy of the Retina
11. The two major layers of the retina are the epithelial and neural layers. In the neural layer, the neuron populations are arranged as follows from the pigmented epithelial layer to the vitreous humor. (Circle the proper response.) bipolar cells, ganglion cells, photoreceptors ganglion cells, bipolar cells, photoreceptors 12. The axons of the ganglion photoreceptors, ganglion cells, bipolar cells photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells cells form the optic nerve, which exits from the eyeball.

13. Complete the following statements by writing either rods or cones on each blank. The dim light receptors are the rods mostly rods . Only cones are found in the fovea centralis, whereas are the photoreceptors that operate best

are found in the periphery of the retina. Cones

in bright light and allow for color vision.
Review Sheet 24 163

Dissection of the Cow (Sheep) Eye
14. What modification of the choroid that is not present in humans is found in the cow eye? Tapetum lucidum What is its function? To reflect light that enters the eye, thus increasing light stimulation of the retina under dim light conditions.

15. What does the retina look like? Thin yellowish white membrane. (Often becomes crumpled during dissection of the eye.) At what point is it attached to the posterior aspect of the eyeball? At the optic disc.

Visual Pathways to the Brain
16. The visual pathway to the occipital lobe of the brain consists most simply of a chain of five cells. Beginning with the photoreceptor cell of the retina, name them and note their location in the pathway. 1. photo receptor cell; retina 2. bipolar cell; retina 3. ganglion cell; retina 17. Visual field tests are done to reveal destruction along the visual pathway from the retina to the optic region of the brain. Note where the lesion is likely to be in the following cases. Normal vision in left eye visual field; absence of vision in right eye visual field: Right optic nerve Normal vision in both eyes for right half of the visual field; absence of vision in both eyes for left half of the visual field:
Right optic tract (or right optic cortex)

4. neuron; lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus cortical neuron; occipital (visual) cortex of the

5. cerebral hemisphere(s)

18. How is the right optic tract anatomically different from the right optic nerve? The right optic nerve contains fibers from the right eye only. The right optic tract contains fibers from the lateral aspect of the right eye and the medial aspect of the left eye.

Visual Tests and Experiments
19. Match the terms in column B with the descriptions in column A. Column A g; refraction

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. accommodation astigmatism convergence emmetropia hyperopia myopia refraction

1.

light bending ability to focus for close (less than 20 feet) vision normal vision inability to focus well on close objects (farsightedness) nearsightedness blurred vision due to unequal curvatures of the lens or cornea medial movement of the eyes during focusing on close objects

a; accommodation 2. d; emmetropia e; hyperopia f; myopia b; astigmatism c; convergence

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

164

Review Sheet 24

20. Complete the following statements: In farsightedness, the light is focused 1 the retina. The lens required to treat myopia is a 2 lens. The “near point” increases with age because the 3 of the lens decreases as we get older. A convex lens, like that of the eye, produces an image that is upside down and reversed from left to right. Such an image is called a 4 image. 1. behind 2. concave 3. elasticity 4. real 21. Use terms from the key to complete the statements concerning near and distance vision. Key: a. contracted b. decreased c. increased d. relaxed e. taut

During distance vision, the ciliary muscle is d is b d , the suspensory ligament is e

, the convexity of the lens , the suspensory ligament is

, and light refraction is b , lens convexity is c

. During close vision, the ciliary muscle is a , and light refraction is c .

22. Explain why vision is lost when light hits the blind spot. This area lacks photoreceptors. 23. Using your Snellen eye test results, answer the following questions. Is your visual acuity normal, less than normal, or better than normal? Explain your answer.

Explain why each eye is tested separately when using the Snellen eye chart. There is usually a slight difference in the visual acuity of the two eyes.

Explain 20/40 vision. Poorer than normal vision. Able to read #40 letters at 20 feet. The normal eye reads these letters at 40 feet.

Explain 20/10 vision. Better than normal vision. Can read #10 letters at 20 feet. The normal eye would have to be 10 feet away to read these letters.

24. Define astigmatism. Blurred vision due to unequal curvatures of the lens or cornea.

How can it be corrected? With specially ground (circularly ground) lenses. 25. Define presbyopia. “Old vision.” A hyperopia resulting from decreasing lens elasticity with advancing age.

What causes it? Decreased function of an increasingly inelastic lens.

Review Sheet 24

165

26. To which wavelengths of light do the three cone types of the retina respond maximally? red , blue

, and green

27. How can you explain the fact that we see a great range of colors even though only three cone types exist?
When more than one cone type is stimulated simultaneously, intermediate colors (of the visible spectrum) are seen.

28. Explain the difference between binocular and panoramic vision. Binocular—visual fields overlap considerably but not completely; therefore, slightly different views are received by each eye. Panoramic—little or no overlap of visual fields; therefore, each eye “sees” a different view.

What is the advantage of binocular vision? Allows for depth perception. What factor(s) are responsible for binocular vision? The slight difference between the visual fields of the two eyes and the partial crossover at the optic chiasma.

29. In the experiment on the convergence reflex, what happened to the position of the eyeballs as the object was moved closer to the subject’s eyes? Eyeballs turned medially. What extrinsic eye muscles control the movement of the eyes during this reflex? Medial recti What is the value of this reflex? Allows the image to be precisely focused on the fovea of each eye.

30. In the experiment on the photopupillary reflex, what happened to the pupil of the eye exposed to light?
It constricted.

What happened to the pupil of the nonilluminated eye? It constricted.

Explanation? Regulation of pupil constriction by the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is coordinate (i.e. consensual) and prevents overillumination of the delicate retinal cells.

31. Why is the ophthalmoscopic examination an important diagnostic tool? Allows noninvasive examination of the retinal condition and vasulature.

32. Many college students struggling through mountainous reading assignments are told that they need glasses for “eyestrain.” Why is it more of a strain on the extrinsic and intrinsic eye muscles to look at close objects than at far objects?
No accommodation or convergence is required for distant vision.

166

Review Sheet 24

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

25

Special Senses: Hearing and Equilibrium
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. The Ear: Hearing and Balance (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) Eyes and Ears (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, LV) Hearing (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS) Mystery of the Senses (IM, VHS) (5-part series) Hearing (30 minutes) Now Hear This (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) The Senses (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Advance Preparation
1. Set out dissectible ear models and ear anatomy charts. 2. Set out slides of the cochlea (biology supply company), lens paper, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. Set up a demonstration slide of the crista ampullaris receptor of the semicircular canal. 3. For each group, set out tuning forks (biology supply company), rubber mallet, absorbent cotton, a ticking pocket watch or small clock, a piece of white chalk, coins of three sizes, and a metric ruler. 4. If an audiometer is available it can be used instead of the tuning forks to test frequency range of hearing. If necessary, prepare instructions for the use of the audiometer. Set out red and blue pencils. 5. Set out otoscopes, disposable otoscope tips, alcohol swabs, and an autoclave bag. 6. Have a sturdy rotating chair or stool available for the Barany test.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. It is often difficult to find an area quiet enough to get good results with the acuity and sound localization tests. An empty lab or a quiet corner of the hallway might be used.

167

2. Students should be reminded to simulate conductive deafness while performing the Weber test. Although it is not a specific assignment, they’ll be asked for results in the Review Sheets. 3. Remind the students to strike the tuning forks with the rubber mallet and not against the lab bench. 4. Be sure the students understand how to evaluate the direction of nystagmus before the subject spins. Also remind the subject to keep his or her eyes open! Instruct students who are standing around the stool to place their foot firmly against the stool leg to prevent the stool from tipping over.

Answers to Questions
Activity 4: Conducting Laboratory Tests of Hearing (pp. 386–388)
Acuity Test

The threshold is indefinite.
Sound Localization

No, the sound is less easily located if the source is equidistant from both ears. Sound arriving from spots equidistant from both ears arrives at each ear at the same time and with equal loudness. This does not provide enough information to adequately locate the position of the source.
Frequency Range of Hearing

Generally, high-frequency sounds are heard less clearly, but results depend on the loudness of each of the tuning forks. Activity 7: Conducting Laboratory Tests on Equilibrium (pp. 391–392)
Balance Test

1. Nystagmus should not be present. 2. The cerebellum integrates input from receptors in the vestibule and semicircular canals, the eyes and somatic receptors, and coordinates skeletal muscle activity and regulates muscle tone.
Barany Test

4. When rotation stops, the direction of nystagmus reverses. If the chair is rotated clockwise, the nystagmus will be counterclockwise. After the chair is stopped, the feeling of movement in the same direction and the same speed in which the chair was spun continues for a few seconds.
Romberg Test

2. Gross swaying movements are not usually observed when the eyes are open. 3. Side-to-side movement increases. 4. Front-to-back swaying occurs. The equilibrium apparatus and proprioceptors are probably functioning normally. Visual information is lacking and the result is increased swaying. Equilibrium and balance require input from a number of receptors including proprioceptors, the vestibular apparatus, and the eyes.

168

Exercise 25

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

25

Special Senses: Hearing and Equilibrium
Anatomy of the Ear
1. Select the terms from column B that apply to the column A descriptions. Some terms are used more than once. Column A d b e a

Column B 1. structure composing the external ear 2. structures composing the internal ear b. 3. collectively called the ossicles c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. endolymph external auditory canal incus (anvil) malleus (hammer) oval window perilymph pinna (auricle) round window semicircular canals stapes (stirrup) cochlea a. pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

, i , k , f

, m , n , l

4. involved in equalizing the pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure 5. vibrates at the same frequency as sound waves hitting it; transmits the vibrations to the ossicles , n 6. contain receptors for the sense of balance

m

k g

7. transmits the vibratory motion of the stirrup to the fluid in the scala vestibuli of the inner ear 8. acts as a pressure relief valve for the increased fluid pressure in the scala tympani; bulges into the tympanic cavity 9. passage between the throat and the tympanic cavity 10. fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth 11. fluid contained within the osseous labyrinth and bathing the membranous labyrinth

j

a

c

m. tympanic membrane n. vestibule

h

169

2. Identify all indicated structures and ear regions in the following diagram.
Pinna (or auricle) Middle ear Tympanic membrane Semicircular canals Vestibule

Internal ear

Vestibulocochlear nerve Oval window Cochlea Round window Pharyngotympanic or auditory tube External auditory canal Lobule Stapes (stirrup) Incus (anvil) External ear Malleus (hammer) Ossicles

3. Match the membranous labyrinth structures listed in column B with the descriptive statements in column A. Column A g c g h b i a f a d e f

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. ampulla basilar membrane cochlear duct cochlear nerve cupula otoliths saccule semicircular ducts tectorial membrane utricle vestibular nerve

, j

1. sacs found within the vestibule

2. contains the spiral organ of Corti , j 3. sites of the maculae

4. positioned in all spatial planes 5. hair cells of spiral organ of Corti rest on this membrane 6. gelatinous membrane overlying the hair cells of the spiral organ of Corti 7. contains the crista ampullaris , g , e , j , h , k , k 8. function in static equilibrium 9. function in dynamic equilibrium

10. carries auditory information to the brain 11. gelatinous cap overlying hair cells of the crista ampullaris 12. grains of calcium carbonate in the maculae

170

Review Sheet 25

4. Sound waves hitting the tympanic membrane (eardrum) initiate its vibratory motion. Trace the pathway through which vibrations and fluid currents are transmitted to finally stimulate the hair cells in the spiral organ of Corti. (Name the appropriate ear structures in their correct sequence.) Tympanic membrane ➝ malleus → incus → stapes → oval window → perilymph → cochlear duct → endolymph → basilar membrane with hair cells

5. Describe how sounds of different frequency (pitch) are differentiated in the cochlea. It is believed that high-frequency (highpitched) sounds peak close to the oval window while low-frequency (low-pitched) sounds peak near the cochlear apex, disturbing hair cells there (the “Place Principle”).

6. Explain the role of the endolymph of the semicircular canals in activating the receptors during angular motion.
When angular motion occurs in one direction, the endolymph in a semicircular canal lags behind, pushing the cupula in a direction opposite to that of the angular motion. Depending on the ear, this depolarizes or hyperpolarizes the hair cells, resulting in enhanced or reduced impulses to the brain.

7. Explain the role of the otoliths in perception of static equilibrium (head position). When the head position changes, the otoliths
“roll” in gelatinous material (responding to gravitational pull). This triggers hyperpolarization or depolarization of the hair cells and modifies the rate of impulse transmission along the vestibular nerve.

Laboratory Tests
8. Was the auditory acuity measurement made during the experiment on page 386 the same or different for both ears?
(student response)

What factors might account for a difference in the acuity of the two ears?

Ear wax, middle/outer ear infection, cochlear nerve damage, etc. Anything that affects sound conduction or nervous system structures associated with hearing.

9. During the sound localization experiment on page 386, note the position(s) in which the sound was least easily located. How can this phenomenon be explained? The usual cues which allow sound to be localized (slight differences in loudness in the two ears and in the time the sound reaches each ear) are missing.

10. In the frequency experiment on page 387, note which tuning fork was the most difficult to hear. What conclusion can you draw? High-frequency sounds are heard less well at low intensity.

Review Sheet 25

171

11. When the tuning fork handle was pressed to your forehead during the Weber test, where did the sound seem to originate?
From the ears.

Where did it seem to originate when one ear was plugged with cotton? From the plugged ear. How do sound waves reach the cochlea when conduction deafness is present? By vibration through bones of the skull.

12. Indicate whether the following conditions relate to conduction deafness (C) or sensorineural deafness (S). c s s c, s c s

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

can result from the fusion of the ossicles can result from a lesion on the cochlear nerve sound heard in one ear but not in the other during bone and air conduction can result from otitis media can result from impacted cerumen or a perforated eardrum can result from a blood clot in the auditory cortex

13. The Rinne test evaluates an individual’s ability to hear sounds conducted by air or bone. Which is more indicative of normal hearing? Air-conducted sound 14. Define nystagmus. Involuntary rolling or trailing of the eyes in one direction and then rapid movement in the opposite direction.

Define vertigo. Sensation of dizziness and rotational movement when such movement is not occurring.

15. The Barany test investigated the effect that rotatory acceleration had on the semicircular canals. Explain why the subject still had the sensation of rotation immediately after being stopped. The fluids of the inner ear had not yet stopped moving.

16. What is the usual reason for conducting the Romberg test? To determine if proprioceptive impulses are being transmitted up the spinal cord to the brain properly.

Was the degree of sway greater with the eyes open or closed? Why? Closed. Visual cues (input) were lacking.

17. Normal balance, or equilibrium, depends on input from a number of sensory receptors. Name them.
Proprioceptors of the muscles and tendons, vestibular apparatus of the ears, retina of the eye (photoreceptors).

18. What effect does alcohol consumption have on balance and equilibrium? Explain. Alcohol depresses the nervous system and enhances inhibition of reflex and coordination centers, causing a loss of balance and equilibrium.

172

Review Sheet 25

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

26

Special Senses: Olfaction and Taste
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Mystery of the Senses (IM, VHS) (5-part series) Smell (30 minutes) Taste (30 minutes) The Senses of Smell and Taste (NIMCO, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Senses: Skin Deep (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Smell and Taste (FHS, 30 minutes, VHS, DVD) Taste (FHS, 23 minutes, VHS, DVD) Taste and Smell (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. Set out slides of the tongue and the nasal epithelium, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. (Or set up demonstration slides of the tongue and nasal epithelium.) Slides of papillae types can be obtained from biology supply companies. 2. Set out for each group paper towels, a small mirror, a packet of granulated sugar, absorbent cotton, dropper bottles of oil of cloves and oil of wintergreen and oil of peppermint (or corresponding flavors from the condiment section of the supermarket), a flask of distilled water, a paper plate and chipped ice. 3. Set out a disposable autoclave bag, toothpicks, and disposable gloves. 4. Prepare a plate of cubed food items such as cheese, apple, raw potato, dried prunes, banana, raw carrot, and hard-cooked egg white. These foods should be in an opaque container; a foil-lined egg carton works well. Keep covered and refrigerated until used. 5. Set out nose plugs and five numbered vials containing common substances with strong odors (e.g. cinnamon, garlic, ginger, rosemary, lemon peel, etc.). 6. Prepare an answer key for the five vials and have it available.

173

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Some students dislike putting cotton in their noses. Substitute good nose clips. 2. Some students may have difficulty getting their noses to adapt to the aromatic oil. Be sure they are following directions carefully and are patient. 3. Subjects for the food tests should not be allowed to see the food. 4. Remind students to use toothpicks to select food cubes. Caution students to alert the instructor and group members about food allergies.

Answers to Questions
Location and Anatomy of Taste Buds (p. 399) It is easiest to identify fungiform and circumvallate papillae. Activity 3: Stimulating Taste Buds (p. 400) Substances must be in aqueous solution to stimulate the taste buds. Activity 4: Examining the Combined Effects of Smell, Texture, and Temperature on Taste (pp. 400–402)
Effects of Smell and Texture

3. No, some foods can be identified fairly easily by texture. The sense of smell is most important when foods do not have an easily recognizable and unique texture. For example, it is hard to differentiate between raw apple and raw potato.
Effect of Olfactory Stimulation

2. It is hard to distinguish the flavor with the nostrils closed. 3. With the nostrils open it is easy to identify the oil. 6. The subject usually identifies the oil held at the nostrils. 7. Smell seems to be more important for identification in this experiment.
Effect of Temperature

Identification is more difficult by a chilled tongue. Activity 5: Assessing the Importance of Taste and Olfaction in Odor Identification (p. 402) 4. It is much easier to identify odors without the nose clips. There are only five basic tastes. Other taste sensations depend on olfaction. Activity 6: Demonstrating Olfactory Adaptation (p. 402) The adapted nostril should be able to detect the new oil. Adaptation is to the particular scent and not to aromatic oils in general.

174

Exercise 26

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

26

Special Senses: Olfaction and Taste
Location and Anatomy of the Olfactory Receptors
1. Describe the cellular composition and the location of the olfactory epithelium. Receptor cells (bipolar neurons) surrounded by supporting cells. 1″ square area on roof of nasal cavity on each side of nasal septum.

2. How and why does sniffing improve your sense of smell? Draws air superiorly into contact with the olfactory mucosa. (Most air entering the nasal passages passes inferior to the receptors.)

Location and Anatomy of Taste Buds
3. Name five sites where receptors for taste are found, and circle the predominant site. tongue papillae soft palate

, epiglottis , and cheek mucosa

, pharynx

,

4. Describe the cellular makeup and arrangement of a taste bud. (Use a diagram, if helpful.) A structure consisting of centrally located gustatory (receptor) cells surrounded by supporting cells.

Laboratory Experiments
5. Taste and smell receptors are both classified as chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution. 6. Why is it impossible to taste substances with a dry tongue? Substances must be in aqueous solution. , because they both

7. The basic taste sensations are mediated by specific chemical substances or groups. Name them for the following taste modalities. salt: influx of Na G protein gustducin causing increased intracellular Ca 2 bitter:
H (hydrogen ions) and blockage sour: of K (or Na ) channels G protein gustducin causing K channels to close sweet:

umami: the amino acid glutamate

175

8. Name three factors that influence our appreciation of foods. Substantiate each choice with an example from the laboratory experience. 1. smell Substantiation:

2. texture

Substantiation:

3. temperature

Substantiation:

Which of the factors chosen is most important? Smell everyday life.

Substantiate your choice with an example from

Expand on your explanation and choices by explaining why a cold, greasy hamburger is unappetizing to most people.
When hot, a hamburger is “juicy” and has an enticing aroma. When cold, the fat congeals, giving the hamburger a greasy taste and texture.

9. How palatable is food when you have a cold? It’s not.
When you have clogged nasal passages, you lack this added sensory input.

Explain your answer. Smell is half of taste.

10. In your opinion, is olfactory adaptation desirable? Yes.
Continuous unimportant (unchanging) olfactory stimuli would be distracting and (probably) irritating.

Explain your answer.

176

Review Sheet 26

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

27

Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands
Time Allotment: 1 hour+ (depending on detail required for microscopic study); additional work may be completed outside of lab. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. The Endocrine System (IM, 17 minutes, VHS) Endocrine System (WNS, 16 minutes, VHS) Glands and Hormones (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Hormonally Yours (FHS, 50 minutes, VHS) Hormone Heaven? (FHS, 50 minutes, VHS) Hormone Hell (FHS, 50 minutes, VHS) Hormones: Messengers (FHS, 27 minutes, VHS, LV) The Neuroendocrine System (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) The Pancreas (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) Selected Actions of Hormones and Other Chemical Messengers Videotape (BC, 15 minutes, VHS) Interactive Physiology: Endocrine System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Orientation Endocrine System Review Biochemistry, Secretion, and Transport of Hormones The Actions of Hormones on Target Cells The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Response to Stress Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

177

Advance Preparation
1. Set out human torso models and anatomical charts. 2. Set out colored pencils for each student. 3. Set out slides of the anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland, pancreas tissue, ovaries, and testes. The anterior and posterior pituitary gland slides should be differentially stained, if possible. Set out lens paper and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Examing Microscopic Structure of Endocrine Glands (pp. 409–410)
Thyroid Gland

2. Actively secreting hormones
Adrenal Gland

2. The two hormones produced by the adrenal medulla are epinephrine and norepinephrine.

178

Exercise 27

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

27

Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands
Gross Anatomy and Basic Function of the Endocrine Glands
1. Both the endocrine and nervous systems are major regulating systems of the body; however, the nervous system has been compared to an airmail delivery system and the endocrine system to the pony express. Briefly explain this comparison.
The nervous system uses rapidly propagated electrical “messages,” whereas endocrine system “messages” (hormones) are liberated into the blood to travel much more slowly to the target organs.

2. Define hormone. A chemical substance liberated into the blood, which alters “target cell” metabolism in a specific manner. 3. Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the steroids and the amino acid-based molecules .

4. What do all hormones have in common? They are all chemical molecules that have specific target organs, which they reach via the blood. Like enzymes, they are effective in minute quantities.

5. Define target organ. Organ responding to a particular hormone in a specific way.

6. If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don’t all tissues respond to all hormones? The proper “hormone” receptors must be present on the plasma membrane or within the cells for the tissue cells to respond.

7. Identify the endocrine organ described by each of the following statements. thyroid gland adrenal gland pancreas testes parathyroids ovaries thymus pineal body

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus found close to the kidney a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine paired glands suspended in the scrotum ride “horseback” on the thyroid gland found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth found in the roof of the third ventricle
179

8. For each statement describing hormonal effects, identify the hormone(s) involved by choosing a number from key A, and note the hormone’s site of production with a letter from key B. More than one hormone may be involved in some cases. For example: Key A: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ACTH ADH aldosterone calcitonin cortisone epinephrine estrogens FSH glucagon insulin 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. LH oxytocin progesterone prolactin PTH T4 /T3 testosterone 16 , l basal metabolism hormone Key B: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. adrenal cortex adrenal medulla anterior pituitary hypothalamus ovaries pancreas parathyroid glands pineal gland posterior pituitary testes thymus thyroid gland

18. thymosin

19. TSH

18 4 5 7 1 19 6 9 7 2 12

, k , l , a , e , c , c , b , f , e , d , d

1. programming of T lymphocytes and 15 and 6 and 17 ; 8 , c , g , b , j ; 11 2. regulate blood calcium levels 3. released in response to stressors 4. drive development of secondary sexual characteristics , c ; and

5. regulate the function of another endocrine gland 6. mimics the sympathetic nervous system and 10 and 13 and 3 and 14 , , , , f e a c

7. regulate blood glucose levels; produced by the same “mixed” gland 8. directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle 9. maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid 10. directly involved in milk production and ejection

9. Although the pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland of the body, the hypothalamus exerts some control over the pituitary gland. How does the hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituitary functioning?
Produces “releasing and inhibiting hormones,” which control the production and release of anterior pituitary hormones; forms hormones ADH and oxytocin, which are transported to the posterior pituitary and later released on nervous stimulation from the hypothalamus.

180

Review Sheet 27

10. Indicate whether the release of the hormones listed below is stimulated by (A) another hormone; (B) the nervous system (neurotransmitters, or neurosecretions); or (C) humoral factors (the concentration of specific nonhormonal substances in the blood or extracellular fluid).
B C A

1. ADH 2. aldosterone 3. estrogens

C B C

4. insulin 5. norepinephrine 6. parathyroid hormone

A A A

7. T4 /T3 8. testosterone 9. TSH, FSH

11. Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts that directly result in the following conditions. (Use your textbook as necessary.)
PTH ADH insulin growth hormone (GH) thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) (thyroid hormone)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

tetany excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels loss of glucose in the urine abnormally small stature, normal proportions low BMR, mental and physical sluggishness

12. Name the hormone(s) produced in excessive amounts that directly result in the following conditions. (Use your textbook as necessary.) growth hormone (GH) T4 /T3 (thyroid hormone) PTH

1. 2. 3.

large hands and feet in the adult, large facial bones nervousness, irregular pulse rate, sweating demineralization of bones, spontaneous fractures

Microscopic Anatomy of Selected Endocrine Glands
13. Choose a response from the key below to name the hormone(s) produced by the cell types listed. Key: a. b. c. a h e

calcitonin GH, prolactin glucagon 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

d. e. f.

glucocorticoids insulin mineralocorticoids d f g b

g. h. i.

PTH T4 /T3 TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

parafollicular cells of the thyroid follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) alpha cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) basophil cells of the anterior pituitary

6. zona fasciculata cells 7. zona glomerulosa cells 8. chief cells 9. acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary

c

i

Review Sheet 27

181

14. Six diagrams of the microscopic structures of the endocrine glands are presented here. Identify each and name all structures indicated by a leader line or bracket.

Basophils

Chromophobes

Acidophils Colloid-filled follicules
(d)

(a) Anterior pituitary

Follicle cells

Blood vessel

Thyroid gland

Capsule Zona glomerulosa

Zona fasciculata

Zona reticularis Adrenal medulla
(b) Adrenal gland

Fenestrated capillaries
(e)

Pituicytes

Posterior pituitary

Pituicytes Beta cells Exocrine (acinar) tissue of the pancreas
(c) Pancreatic islet

Alpha cells
(f)

Chief cells Parathyroid gland

Oxyphil cells

182

Review Sheet 27

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

28 A

Role of Thyroid Hormone, Pituitary Hormone, Insulin, and Epinephrine: Wet Lab
This exercise contains four experiments illustrating hormone function. Each experiment is discussed separately below.

Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Selected Actions of Hormones and Other Chemical Messengers (BC, 15 minutes, VHS)

EFFECT OF THYROID HORMONE ON METABOLIC RATE
Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Solutions: Propylthiouracil, 0.02% Weigh out 0.2 gram of 6-n-propylthiouracil (Aldrich). Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Filter and store in light-resistant containers. Caution! 6-n-propylthiouracil is a suspected carcinogen. (Note: If it is difficult to dissolve the PTU, add concentrated NaOH to adjust the pH to 8.0.) Rat Chow with Thyroid Extract Grind up sufficient regular laboratory rat chow to feed the required number of animals for 2 weeks (approximately 40 grams chow/rat/day). Add 20 grams of desiccated thyroid powder (Carolina) for each 1000 grams of rat chow. Mix thoroughly.

Advance Preparation
1. At least 14 days prior to the date of the lab, obtain young rats (about five weeks old) of the same sex. Six rats per lab session should be sufficient. Keep them in clean, wellventilated surroundings at room temperature. Divide the rats into three groups. Label one group “Group 1—control,” and feed with normal rat chow and water. Label another group “Group 2—experimental group A,” and feed with normal rat chow and drinking water containing 0.02% 6-n-propylthiouracil. Label a third group “Group 3—experimental group B,” and feed with rat chow containing 2% desiccated thyroid (by weight) and normal drinking water.
183

2. For each student group, set out a glass desiccator, manometer, 20-milliliter glass syringe, two-hole cork, clamp, T-valve, soda lime, hardware cloth or porcelain platform, 36 inches of rubber tubing, scissors, two 3-inch pieces of glass tubing, and petrolatum. Be sure that the rubber tubing will form a tight seal with the glass tubing and the nib of the syringe. Set out animal balances (Carolina) and heavy animal-handling gloves.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Leaks in the respirometer will probably be the biggest problem. 2. Be sure that students use the animal-handling gloves when handling the rats to avoid accidental bites. Be sure the animals are handled gently, and avoid squeezing them. Remove rats from their cages by pulling them by their tails. Then hold them firmly by the skin at the back of the neck. 3. When measuring basal rate, discard readings obtained during periods of rat activity.

EFFECT OF PITUITARY HORMONES ON THE OVARY
Time Allotment: 2 hours (11/2 hours of waiting time) Solution: Physiologic Saline (Amphibian, 0.75%) Weigh out 7.5 grams of NaCl. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Make fresh immediately prior to experiment. (Note: 0.7% saline may also be used.)

Advance Preparation
1. Order female frogs (two per group) to be delivered close to the date of the exercise (see preparation for the frog experiment in Exercise 16A). Designate a frog disposal area. Set out disposable gloves. 2. For each group set out two syringes with 20- to 25-gauge needles, two battery jars, wax marking pencils, a small bottle of amphibian physiologic saline (Ward’s), pond or spring water, and a vial of frog pituitary extract (Carolina).

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Distilled water should be used as a control if the pituitary extract is suspended in water. 2. Injected frogs should be kept in a quiet area. 3. When introducing this exercise, caution students to hold the frog’s body firmly and above its hind legs. Demonstrate the holding and carrying procedure.

184

Exercise 28A

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Determining the Effect of Pituitary Hormones on the Ovary (p. 419) 6. Ovulation is induced in the frog that received the pituitary extract injection. LH is the primary hormone stimulus for ovulation.

EFFECTS OF HYPERINSULINISM
Time Allotment: 1/2 hour. Solutions: Glucose, 20% Weigh out 200 grams of glucose. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter.

Advance Preparation
1. Prepare a solution of 20% glucose and store it in the refrigerator. Purchase or order enough small fish to supply one per group. Set up an aquarium or large beaker with an air stone to maintain the fish. 2. For each group set out a 250-milliliter bottle of 20% glucose, a dropper bottle of insulin, a glass marking pencil, and two finger bowls.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. The fish may become very agitated and jump out of the bowl or beaker. 2. This exercise may be upsetting to some students, even though the fish recover.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Observing the Effects of Hyperinsulinism (pp. 419–420) 2. The fish often becomes very agitated, then loses its sense of balance just before becoming unconscious. 3. The fish will regain consciousness and right itself. The recovery time varies.

Exercise 28A

185

EFFECT OF EPINEPHRINE ON THE HEART
Time Allotment: 1/2 hour. Solutions: Ringer’s Solution, Frog • 6.50 grams sodium chloride • 0.14 gram potassium chloride • 0.12 gram calcium chloride • 0.20 gram sodium bicarbonate Combine salts in flask and add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Epinephrine (Adrenalin), 1:1000 Weigh out 0.1 gram of epinephrine (Carolina). Dissolve in 0.5 milliliter of 1 N HCl. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Caution! Epinephrine is toxic. Label TOXIC.

Advance Preparation*
1. Order frogs (one per group) to be delivered 2–3 days prior to the date of the experiment (see Exercise 16A). Designate a frog disposal area. To save time, frogs may be pithed just before the lab. 2. For each group set out a dissecting pan, disposable gloves, instruments, a dropper bottle of frog Ringer’s solution, and a dropper bottle of 1:1000 epinephrine. Caution! Epinephrine is toxic. Label the bottle TOXIC. * If desired, these observations may be deferred and made in conjunction with those in Exercise 34A. This approach also conserves animals.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Be sure students keep the heart moistened throughout the experiment.

Answers to Questions
Activity 4: Testing the Effect of Epinephrine on the Heart (p. 420) 6. Epinephrine increases the heart rate. Yes, the epinephrine causes the frog to be very active for 10–30 seconds and then there is decreasing activity for one to several minutes.

186

Exercise 28A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

28 A

Role of Thyroid Hormone, Pituitary Hormone, Insulin, and Epinephrine: Wet Lab
Determining the Effect of Thyroid Hormone on Metabolic Rate
1. In the measurement of oxygen consumption in rats, which group had the highest metabolic rate?
Experimental group B

Which group had the lowest metabolic rate?

Experimental group A

Correlate these observations with the pretreatment these animals received. Group B received chow containing 2% dessicated thyroid containing thyroid hormone, which increased the metabolic rate. Group A received normal chow and drinking water containing 0.02% PTU. PTU inhibits T4 and T3 production.

Which group of rats was hyperthyroid? Group B Which euthyroid? Control 2. Since oxygen used Which hypothyroid?
Group A

carbon dioxide evolved, how do you know that what you measured was oxygen consumption?

CO2 evolved was absorbed by the soda lime; therefore, pressure changes indicated O2 consumption.

3. What did changes in the fluid levels in the manometer arms indicate? Changes in the fluid levels reflected pressure changes, which in turn reflected O2 consumption during the testing period.

4. The techniques used in this set of laboratory experiments probably permitted several inaccuracies. One was the inability to control the activity of the rats. How would changes in their activity levels affect the results observed?
Increased activity would lead to increased O2 consumption/metabolic rate; whereas decreased activity would result in lower observed O2 consumption.

Another possible source of error was the lack of control over the amount of food consumed by the rats in the 14-day period preceding the laboratory session. If each of the rats had been force-fed equivalent amounts of food in that 14-day period, which group (do you think) would have gained the most weight?
Group A

Which the least? Group B

Increasing the metabolic rate increases the rate at which food calories are oxidized by the tissue cells. The Explain your answers. ____________________________________________________________

____________________ faster the rate, the less chance that food calories will be converted to fat, or result in weight gain.

187

5. TSH, produced by the anterior pituitary, prods the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormone to the blood. Which group of rats can be assumed to have the highest blood levels of TSH? Group A Which the lowest? Group B

Explain your reasoning. Group A was producing no thyroid hormone because of PTU inhibition. Group B was receiving exogenous
(excess) thyroxine, which would inhibit TSH release.

6. Use an appropriate reference to determine how each of the following factors modifies metabolic rate. Indicate increase by ↑ and decrease by ↓. increased exercise ↑ small/slight stature ↑ aging ↓ obesity ↓ infection/fever ↑ sex ( or ) ↑ in (

Determining the Effect of Pituitary Hormones on the Ovary
7. In the experiment on the effects of pituitary hormones, two anterior pituitary hormones caused ovulation to occur in the experimental animal. Which of these actually triggered ovulation or egg expulsion?
LH

The normal function of the second hormone involved, FSH

,

is to stimulate follicle (and oocyte) maturation. 8. Why was a second frog injected with saline? To provide a control.

Observing the Effects of Hyperinsulinism
9. Briefly explain what was happening within the fish’s system when the fish was immersed in the insulin solution.
Glucose was being swept out of the blood into the cells. This led to a hypoglycemic reaction, which affects nervous system functioning adversely. Glucose was added. Increased glucose levels in the blood reversed 10. What is the mechanism of the recovery process observed? ____________________________________________________ the effects noted above. Give him/her a glass of orange 11. What would you do to help a friend who had inadvertently taken an overdose of insulin? ____________________________ juice or soda. explained in #2.

Why? A sugar source will increase blood glucose levels as

Testing the Effect of Epinephrine on the Heart
12. Based on your observations, what is the effect of epinephrine on the force and rate of the heartbeat?
It increases both the force and rate of heartbeat.

13. What is the role of this effect in the “fight-or-flight” response?
Promotes faster delivery of blood throughout the body due to the increase in blood pressure.

188

Review Sheet 28A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

29 A
Blood

Note: For safety reasons, many instructors make the blood tests optional or try to provide alternative experiments. Substituting dog blood, as suggested below, is one option; using prepared slides or artificial blood are others.

Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Bleeding and Coagulation (FHS, 31 minutes, VHS, DVD) Blood (UL, 22 minutes, VHS) Blood (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Blood is Life (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Blood and Immunity (CE, CD-ROM) Solutions: Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out safety glasses, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, and immersion oil. Have compound microscopes available. Set out any available models and charts of blood cells. 2. Set out prepared slides of macrocytic hypochromic anemia, microcytic hypochromic anemia, sickle-cell anemia, lymphocytic leukemia (chronic), and eosinophilia. 3. Set up the following supply areas (if all tests are to be done). Ideally there should be at least one set of solutions for each lab bench and enough of the other supplies for each student to do each test. If equipment must be shared, it should be washed in hot soapy water and rinsed in 10% bleach solution after each use.

189

General supply area: a. For instructors using student blood samples, set out sterile blood lancets, designated lancet (Sharps) disposal containers, alcohol wipes, and absorbent cotton balls. Set up a disposable autoclave bag for all disposable items, and a laboratory bucket or battery jar of 10% bleach solution for glassware. For each lab group, set out a 250milliliter beaker of 10% bleach solution (for used slides), spray bottles of 10% bleach solution, clean microscope slides (two per member of the group), a dropper bottle of Wright stain (Carolina), a dropper bottle of distilled water, wide-range pH paper, test tube and test tube rack, nonhemolyzed plasma obtained fresh from an animal hospital or prepared by centrifuging animal (e.g., cattle or sheep) blood obtained from a biological supply house, timers, and disposable gloves. b. For instructors using heparinized dog blood, set out heparinized dog blood, glass rods, and all the materials listed in paragraph a, except the sterile lancets and alcohol wipes. c. EDTA-treated red cells (reference cells) with blood type labels obscured (available from Immunocor, Inc.) could also be used. d. For instructors using stained smears of human blood, set out prepared slides of human blood stained with Wright stain. e. Set out slides of WBC pathologies with the labels covered and marked “Unknown sample # ___.” Suggestions include eosinophilia, neutrophilia, and various leukemias. Hematocrit supply area: Set out heparinized capillary tubes, microhematocrit centrifuge and reading gauge or millimeter ruler, and Seal-ease or capillary tube sealer (Carolina) or modeling clay. Hemoglobin-determination supply area: Set out hemoglobinometer and hemolysis applicator or Tallquist scales. Coagulation time supply area: Set out nonheparinized capillary tubes, fine triangular files, and paper towels. Blood-typing supply area: Set out blood-typing sera, Rh-typing boxes (if used), wax markers, toothpicks, and blood test cards or slides (Carolina). If you are using Ward’s artificial blood, set out simulated blood and antibodies provided with the kit. Cholesterol-measurement supply area: Set out cholesterol test cards and color plates (Carolina).

190

Exercise 29A

Comments and Pitfalls
1. If human blood samples are provided, disposable gloves and safety glasses should be worn at all times. If student samples are used, be sure students use only their own blood. Emphasize instructions for proper care or disposal of items used in the blood tests (see Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory Safety Procedures in the preface of this Instructor Guide and pp. 423–424 of the laboratory manual). Be sure that sharp objects such as lancets are discarded only in a designated lancet or Sharps disposal container. 2. If student blood samples are used, have the students plan their work so that a minimum number of pricks are necessary. Obtaining enough blood is the usual problem. Be sure that students’ hands are warm before trying to obtain blood, and that they follow the advice in the laboratory manual. Emphasize that the capillary tube should be held in a horizontal position with the tip in the drop of blood. 3. It is nearly impossible to prick your own finger to draw blood unless an automatic device such as the Medi-Let Kit (Carolina) is used. Students are often careless with the lancets since they are concentrating on obtaining blood for several different tests. Emphasize the importance of proper disposal. This is particularly important when using the Medi-Let, as it is difficult to distinguish a used lancet with a replaced cap from a new, unused one. 4. Obviously, heparinized blood samples may not be used for the coagulation time experiment. 5. Several problems may arise with the slides. Student-prepared blood smears tend to be too thick; be sure they understand the technique before starting. Warn against allowing the slide to dry with the stain on it. Avoid using old Wright stain, which may develop sediment that interferes with reading the slides. 6. A good color plate of the blood cells will help with identification. It may help to have some prepared slides available for demonstration. Also, point out the typical percentages of each cell type. Many students initially identify large numbers of cells as basophils. 7. Emphasize that the coagulation-time test must be started as soon as blood is drawn up into the capillary tube. Have students hold the tubes with paper towels when breaking them to avoid cuts. 8. Blood typing may be done here, but it may be easier to explain if it is done after the immune system has been discussed.

Exercise 29A

191

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

29 A
Blood

Composition of Blood
5–6 4–5 1. What is the blood volume of an average-size adult male? ____________ liters An average adult female? _____________ liters Its degree of oxygenation. The more oxygen it carries, the 2. What determines whether blood is bright red or a dull brick-red? _______________________________________________ brighter red it is. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

3. Use the key to identify the cell type(s) or blood elements that fit the following descriptive statements. Key: a. b. c. red blood cell megakaryocyte eosinophil d. e. f. basophil monocyte neutrophil g. h. i. lymphocyte formed elements plasma

f; neutrophil c; eosinophil a; red blood cell e; monocyte e; monocyte b; megakaryocyte h; formed elements c; eosinophil d; basophil g; lymphocyte a; red blood cell i; plasma e; monocyte c; eosinophil f; neutrophil

1. most numerous leukocyte , d; basophil , and f; neutrophil 2. granulocytes (3)

3. also called an erythrocyte; anucleate formed element , f; neutrophil

4. 5.

actively phagocytic leukocytes agranulocytes

, g; lymphocyte

6. ancestral cell of platelets 7. (a) through (g) are all examples of these 8. number rises during parasite infections 9. releases histamine; promotes inflammation 10. many formed in lymphoid tissue 11. transports oxygen 12. primarily water, noncellular; the fluid matrix of blood 13. increases in number during prolonged infections , d; basophil , and g; lymphocyte , e; monocyte ,

14. the five types of white blood cells

193

4. List four classes of nutrients normally found in plasma. sugar (e.g. glucose) amino acids

, , and vitamins

, lipids (fatty acids)

Name two gases. oxygen Name three ions. Na , Cl

and carbon dioxide (nitrogen)
2 , and Mg (HCO3 )

5. Describe the consistency and color of the plasma you observed in the laboratory. Viscous and sticky; straw-colored

6. What is the average life span of a red blood cell? How does its anucleate condition affect this life span?
100–120 days. When the RBC’s ATP reserves have been exhausted, the membrane begins to fragment. Without DNA to direct mRNA (therefore protein) synthesis, needed enzymes cannot be made.

7. From memory, describe the structural characteristics of each of the following blood cell types as accurately as possible, and note the percentage of each in the total white blood cell population. eosinophils: Large, red-staining cytoplasmic granules; figure 8 or bilobed nucleus; 1–4% of WBC.

neutrophils: Pale pink cytoplasm with fine granules; nucleus is multilobed and stains deep purple; 40–70% of WBC.

lymphocytes: Small cell with sparse pale blue cytoplasm and dark purple-staining spherical nucleus; 20–45% of WBC.

basophils: Sparse dark blue cytoplasmic granules that may obscure the large U-shaped nucleus which stains dark blue;
0.5% or less of WBC.

monocytes: Abundant gray-blue cytoplasm, dark blue-purple nucleus (often kidney-shaped); 4–8% of WBC.

8. Correctly identify the blood pathologies described in column A by matching them with selections from column B: Column A b; leukocytosis d; polycythemia a; anemia

Column B a. b. c. d. anemia leukocytosis leukopenia polycythemia

1. abnormal increase in the number of WBCs 2. abnormal increase in the number of RBCs 3. condition of too few RBCs or of RBCs with hemoglobin deficiencies 4. abnormal decrease in the number of WBCs

c; leukopenia

194

Review Sheet 29A

Hematologic Tests
9. Broadly speaking, why are hematologic studies of blood so important in the diagnosis of disease?
Specific changes from the normal numbers/types of formed elements and/or plasma constituents are characteristic of certain disease states.

10. In the chart below, record information from the blood tests you read about or conducted. Complete the chart by recording values for healthy male adults and indicating the significance of high or low values for each test.

Test Total WBC count

Student test results No data

Normal values (healthy male adults) 4000–11,000/mm3

Significance High values infection, metabolic disease, hemorrhage, or poisoning polycythemia due to high altitude or pulmonary disease polycythemia, dehydration, congestive heart failure, shock, or surgery polycythemia or dehydration Low values decreased body protection or chemical toxicity, or disease states anemia or bone marrow cancer

Total RBC count

No data

4–6 million/mm3

Hematocrit

42–52 volume %

anemia

Hemoglobin determination

13–18g/100 ml blood

anemia (particularly iron deficiency anemia)

Bleeding time

No data

2–7 min (Ivy) 0–5 min (Duke)

deficient or abnormal platelets

high platelet count

Coagulation time

2–6 min

hemophilia, leukemia, increased clotting time

thromboembolytic disorders

11. Why is a differential WBC count more valuable than a total WBC count when trying to pin down the specific source of pathology? A differential count determines the relative percent of each type of WBC. Increases or decreases in specific WBC populations are often indicative (diagnostic) of specific pathologies.

Review Sheet 29A

195

12. What name is given to the process of RBC production? Erythropoiesis What hormone acts as a stimulus for this process? Erythropoietin Why might patients with kidney disease suffer from anemia? When kidneys fail, they also do not produce enough erythropoietin to sustain erythropoiesis.

How can such patients be treated? They can be given genetically engineered erythropoietin (EPO). 13. Discuss the effect of each of the following factors on RBC count. Consult an appropriate reference as necessary, and explain your reasoning. long-term effect of athletic training (for example, running 4 to 5 miles per day over a period of six to nine months):
Increases the RBC count. An athlete has relatively large muscle mass and needs an efficient oxygen delivery to the muscles when they are working.

a permanent move from sea level to a high-altitude area: Increased RBC count. The air is thinner at high altitudes and contains less O2. The body compensates by producing more RBCs so that the same relative amount of O2 can be picked up and transported by the blood.

14. Define hematocrit. Packed cell volume; percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC. 15. If you had a high hematocrit, would you expect your hemoglobin determination to be high or low? High Why? Assuming the RBCs have a normal hemoglobin content, the higher the RBC volume, the higher the hemoglobin determination.

16. What is an anticoagulant? A substance that inhibits blood clotting. Name two anticoagulants used in conducting the hematologic tests. Heparin (in capillary tubes) and EDTA What is the body’s natural anticoagulant? Heparin 17. If your blood clumped with both anti-A and anti-B sera, your ABO blood type would be AB To what ABO blood groups could you give blood? AB From which ABO donor types could you receive blood? A, B, AB, O Which ABO blood type is most common? O 18. What blood type is theoretically considered the universal donor? O or Rh antigens on the cell membrane, reducing the chance of a transfusion reaction.

Least common? AB Why? These RBCs have no A, B

196

Review Sheet 29A

19. Assume the blood of two patients has been typed for ABO blood type. Typing results Mr. Adams:

Blood drop and anti-A serum

Blood drop and anti-B serum

Typing results Mr. Calhoon:

Blood drop and anti-A serum

Blood drop and anti-B serum

On the basis of these results, Mr. Adams has type O

blood, and Mr. Calhoon has type A

blood.

20. Explain why an Rh-negative person does not have a transfusion reaction on the first exposure to Rh-positive blood but does have a reaction on the second exposure. There are no preformed anti-Rh antibodies in his/her blood. After the first exposure to
Rh blood, the immune system reacts and then starts making antibodies.

What happens when an ABO blood type is mismatched for the first time? A transfusion reaction occurs the first and every time. 21. Record your observations of the five demonstration slides viewed. a. b. Macrocytic hypochromic anemia: RBCs are large and pale. Microcytic hypochromic anemia: RBCs are small and pale.

c. d.

Sickle cell anemia: RBCs are crescent shaped. Lymphocytic leukemia (chronic): Large number of small abnormal lymphocytes.

e.

Eosinophilia: Increased number of eosinophils.

Which of the slides above (a through e) corresponds with the following conditions? b d c

1. iron-deficient diet 2. a type of bone marrow cancer 3. genetic defect that causes hemoglobin to become sharp/spiky

a e b

4. lack of vitamin B12 5. a tapeworm infestation in the body 6. a bleeding ulcer

Review Sheet 29A

197

22. Provide the normal, or at least “desirable,” range for plasma cholesterol concentration.
130–200 ____________________ mg/100 ml

23. Describe the relationship between high blood cholesterol levels and cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart attacks, and strokes.
High LDL levels favor cholesterol uptake and deposit in arteriosclerotic plaques, which, in turn: (1) narrow the vessel, reducing blood flow to more distal tissues, and (2) increase the risk of thrombus formation. Narrowing of blood vessels is one cause of hypertension. Attached thrombi or detached thrombi (emboli) are common causes of heart attack and stroke.

198

Review Sheet 29A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

30

Anatomy of the Heart

Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. The Circulatory System: Two Hearts that Beat as One (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Cardiovascular System: The Heart Videotape (BC, 25 minutes, VHS) Life Under Pressure (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Mammalian Heart (AIMS, 15 minutes, VHS, DVD) Sheep Heart (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) Interactive Physiology: Cardiovascular System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: The Heart Intrinsic Conduction System Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage, disposal, and cleanup of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts, for state regulations. 2. Set out disposable gloves and safety glasses. 3. Set out dissecting kits, dissecting pans, glass or Mall probes, plastic metric rulers, and preserved sheep hearts (one for each group). 4. Set out dissectible heart and cardiac muscle models, red and blue pencils, and heart anatomy charts.

199

5. Set out prepared slides of cardiac muscle (longitudinal section), lens tissue, immersion oil, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. 6. Set out an X ray of the human thorax and an X ray viewing box. 7. Set out dissectable heart models.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Some sheep hearts are sold with the pericardial sac removed. If possible, order sheep hearts with intact pericardial sacs (biology supply companies). 2. Students often confuse the base and apex of the heart. 3. Be sure students have correctly identified the left ventricle of the heart as a landmark before they begin the dissection. As with all dissections, urge students to be cautious with the scalpel. 4. Many preserved hearts have the venae cavae and pulmonary veins completely removed, leaving large holes in the walls of the atria. This will make it difficult for students to answer some of the questions in the lab text. Purchase a dissected pig heart that has all the major vessels intact (biology supply companies), or refer students to models if necessary. 5. Provide students with extra mall probes to mark vessels as they are identified.

Answers to Questions
Dissection: The Sheep Heart (pp. 449–452) 2. The pericardium is attached to the base of the heart. 3. The visceral pericardium is much thinner than the tough two-layered sero-fibrous parietal pericardium. The visceral pericardium adheres tightly to the heart, while the parietal pericardium forms the outer sac surrounding the pericardial cavity. 6. The aorta is easier to stretch. The aorta must stretch to accommodate the increased volume of blood that enters with each left ventricular contraction. 8. The lumen of the vena cava is larger. The aorta has thicker walls. The aorta is capable of stretching and elastic recoiling, which helps to maintain pressure in the vessels. This requires strength and resilience. The vena cava is a low-pressure vessel for blood return to the heart, and is not subjected to large pressure fluctuations. 9. The right atrioventricular valve has three flaps. 10. The pulmonary semilunar valve closes when fluid fills the collapsed cuplike valves, causing them to bulge out into the lumen. The atrioventricular valves are flaps that swing closed as pressure in the ventricle increases. They are prevented from opening backwards into the atria by the chordae tendineae attached to the papillary muscles. 14. The left ventricular cavity is much narrower than the right ventricular cavity. Papillary muscles and chordae tendineae are present in both cavities. The left atrioventricular valve has two cusps; the right atrioventricular valve has three cusps. The sheep valves are very similar to their human counterparts.

200

Exercise 30

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

30 l m n

Anatomy of the Heart
Gross Anatomy of the Human Heart
1. An anterior view of the heart is shown here. Match each structure listed on the left with the correct letter in the figure. g j r u b k d n a

1. right atrium 2. right ventricle 3. left atrium

a b

c

o

4. left ventricle 5. superior vena cava 6. inferior vena cava 7. ascending aorta 8. aortic arch 9. brachiocephalic artery 10. left common carotid artery 11. left subclavian artery 12. pulmonary trunk 13. right pulmonary artery 14. left pulmonary artery 15. ligamentum arteriosum 16. right pulmonary veins 17. left pulmonary veins 18. right coronary artery 19. anterior cardiac vein t s w x v d e f g h s t p q r

i u j v w k

l

m

e c

x

p o f q h i

20. left coronary artery 21. circumflex artery 22. anterior interventricular artery 23. apex of heart 24. great cardiac vein

201

2. What is the function of the fluid that fills the pericardial sac? To reduce friction during heart activity.

3. Match the terms in the key to the descriptions provided below. f a h e a g b d h c

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. atria coronary arteries coronary sinus endocardium epicardium mediastinum myocardium ventricles

1. location of the heart in the thorax 2. superior heart chambers 3. inferior heart chambers 4. visceral pericardium 5. “anterooms” of the heart 6. equals cardiac muscle 7. provide nutrient blood to the heart muscle 8. lining of the heart chambers 9. actual “pumps” of the heart 10. drains blood into the right atrium

4. What is the function of the valves found in the heart? They enforce a one-way flow of blood through the heart.

5. What is the role of the chordae tendineae? They anchor the AV valve flaps during ventricular systole, thus preventing backflow of blood into the atria.

Pulmonary, Systemic, and Cardiac Circulations
6. A simple schematic of a so-called general circulation is shown below. What part of the circulation is missing from this diagram?
Pulmonary circulation is not distinct from systemic circulation. Add to the diagram as best you can to make it depict a complete

systemic/pulmonary circulation. Label the systemic and pulmonary circulations.
Pulmonary arteries Pulmonary capillaries Pulmonary veins Pulmonary circulation
Heart

Systemic arteries Systemic capillaries

Systemic
Systemic veins

Systemic circulation

202

Review Sheet 30

7. Differentiate clearly between the roles of the pulmonary and systemic circulations. The pulmonary circuit provides for gas exchange only; the systemic circuit provides the functional supply of the body tissues.

8. Complete the following scheme of circulation of a red blood cell in the human body. Right atrium through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle semilunar , through the pulmonary , to the capillary of the heart, through , through the aortic semilunar of the , and

valve to the pulmonary trunk, to the right and left pulmonary arteries , to the left atrium

beds of the lungs, to the pulmonary veins the mitral/bicuspid valve to the aorta

valve to the left ventricle

, to the systemic arteries, to the capillary beds , superior vena cava

tissues, to the systemic veins, to the inferior vena cava coronary sinus

entering the right atrium of the heart.

9. If the mitral valve does not close properly, which circulation is affected? Systemic 10. Why might a thrombus (blood clot) in the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery cause sudden death?
This artery supplies blood to the interventricular septum and the anterior walls of both ventricles. Ventricular damage, particularly to the left ventricle, is very serious.

Microscopic Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle
11. How would you distinguish the structure of cardiac muscle from that of skeletal muscle? Both tissue types are striated; thus, this is not a distinguishing feature. Skeletal muscle cells are long cylindrical cells with many peripherally located nuclei per cell. Cardiac cells have one (or two) centrally located nuclei per cell; their branched ends fit together at tight junctions called intercalated discs, which are not seen in skeletal muscle.

12. Add the following terms to the photograph of cardiac muscle below. a. intercalated disc b. nucleus of cardiac fiber c. striations d. cardiac muscle fiber

a

Describe the unique anatomical features of cardiac muscle. What role does the unique structure of cardiac muscle play in its function?
Cardiac muscle cells form a functional syncytium by virtue

c b

of their intercalated discs. This structural feature plus the special arrangement of cardiac muscle in the heart allows the pumping action of the heart to be carefully coordinated

d

for maximal efficiency.

Review Sheet 30

203

Dissection of the Sheep Heart
13. During the sheep heart dissection, you were asked initially to identify the right and left ventricles without cutting into the heart. During this procedure, what differences did you observe between the two chambers?
The left ventricle was firmer, thicker, and less compressible; the right ventricle felt “flabby.”

When you measured thickness of ventricular walls, was the right or left ventricle thicker? The left ventricle Knowing that structure and function are related, how would you say this structural difference reflects the relative functions of these two heart chambers? The left ventricle pumps blood through the high-resistance systemic circulation; therefore, it has to be stronger than the right ventricle, which pumps blood through the short low-resistance pulmonary circuit.

14. Semilunar valves prevent backflow into the ventricles atria ; AV valves prevent backflow into the

. Using your own observations, explain how the operation of the semilunar valves

differs from that of the AV valves. When the ventricle was compressed (as in systole), the AV valve flaps moved superiorly into the closed position. When water was poured (as when blood backflows) into the semilunar valves, the cusps filled and closed the valve.

15. Compare and contrast the structure of the right and left atrioventricular valves. Both have thin flaps secured to papillary muscles by chordae tendinea. The right valve has three cusps, the left valve has two.

16. Two remnants of fetal structures are observable in the heart—the ligamentum arteriosum and the fossa ovalis. What were they called in the fetal heart, where was each located, and what common purpose did they serve as functioning fetal structures?
Ligamentum arteriosum—ductus arteriosus between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta. Fossa ovalis—foramen ovale, in the atrial septum. When they were open (and functional), they allowed blood to bypass the non-functional fetal lungs.

204

Review Sheet 30

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

31

Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography
Time Allotment: about 15 minutes of lab time for each group making ECG recordings. Interactive Physiology: Cardiovascular System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: The Heart Intrinsic Conduction System Cardiac Action Potential Cardiac Cycle Cardiac Output

Advance Preparation
1. Set out ECG recording apparatus, electrode paste, alcohol swabs, and a cot (or clear a section of the lab bench). Attach the leads to the recorder. 2. If you are using an ECG recording apparatus, turn it on, and allow it to warm up. Set the paper speed at 25 millimeters per second. Test the equipment as instructed by the manufacturer. Most equipment uses heat-sensitive paper. Be sure that the stylus produces a readable tracing. Adjust temperature setting accordingly. Test to see that a 1-millivolt signal causes a 10-millimeter vertical displacement of the stylus, and make any necessary adjustments. If the equipment uses a pen and ink, make sure the ink is flowing smoothly. Be sure the base line of the pen or stylus is on a horizontal line on the paper. If there is electrical interference, use the ground wire. Water or gas pipes are handy points for attachment. 3. Be sure the electrode plates are clean. 4. Set out equipment and materials for the conduction of the BIOPAC activity. Introduce your students to the basic features of the equipment prior to beginning the lab activity.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. If leg leads are required, select student subjects with bare legs. Nylon stockings interfere with conduction. 2. Since electrode paste can be messy, try using electrode pads.

205

3. Have someone in the group double-check the arrangements of the electrodes before recording begins. 4. If the ECG is not clear, check to be sure electrodes are secure, remind the subject to remain still, and check the ground wire. 5. It is difficult to obtain good results when the student is running in place and attached to the electrodes. An alternate approach is to have the student run in place for 3 minutes and then connect the electrode leads to record the ECG immediately, and 2 and 4 minutes after exercise. 6. It is helpful to use a caliper and millimeter ruler when measuring the waves, intervals, and segments. These can be measured on screen with BIOPAC. 7. If no ECG recording equipment is available, you can give the students a selection of ECG tracings and ask them to measure the waves, intervals, and segments.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1A: Recording ECGs Using a Standard ECG Apparatus (pp. 460–461)
Recording the ECG after Running in Place

5. The Q-T interval is shortened and the interval between adjacent QRS complexes is shortened (the strength of contraction increases and the length of diastole decreases).
Recording the ECG for Breath Holding

4. The heart rate increases during breath holding. As the CO2 level in the blood increases, the blood pH decreases, causing cerebral vasodilation. This may increase sympathetic tone, thereby increasing heart rate. There may be some connection between the medullary respiratory and cardiac centers. (Depending on the text you are using, this might be difficult for the students to track down.) Activity 1B: Electrocardiography Using BIOPAC (pp. 461–466) There is not likely to be a significant difference in deltaT between Segment 1 and Segment 3, although if there is a difference, some of the ECG components are likely to be of shorter duration in Segment 3. Post-exercise heart rate should increase, so the bpm of Segment 3 should be greater than Segment 1. There is an inverse relationship between time between R-waves and heart rate. A shorter interval between R-waves translates into a higher heart rate. There is likely to be an increase in heart rate as the subject makes the transition from a lying to a sitting state.

206

Exercise 31

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

31


Conduction System of the Heart and Electrocardiography
The Intrinsic Conduction System
1. List the elements of the intrinsic conduction system in order, starting from the SA node. SA node → AV node left and right bundle branches

→ AV bundle (bundle of His) → Purkinje fibers

At what structure in the transmission sequence is the impulse temporarily delayed? AV node Why? Allows completion of atrial contraction before initiation of ventricular systole.

2. Even though cardiac muscle has an inherent ability to beat, the nodal system plays a critical role in heart physiology. What is that role? Ensures that depolarization proceeds in an orderly manner from atria to ventricles; accelerates and coordinates heart activity to effectively pump blood.

Electrocardiography
3. Define ECG. Recording of electrical changes occurring during heart activity.

4. Draw an ECG wave form representing one heartbeat. Label the P, QRS, and T waves; the P–R interval; the S–T segment, and the Q–T interval.
R

S-T segment P T

Q P-R interval S Q-T interval

5. Why does heart rate increase during running? Exercise raises heart rate by acting through the sympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic nerve fibers release norepinephrine on the heart and the pacemaker fires more rapidly.

207

6. Describe what happens in the cardiac cycle in the following situations. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. immediately before the P wave: the heart is in relaxation (diastole) during the P wave: depolarization of the atria immediately after the P wave (P–R segment): contraction of the atria during the QRS wave: depolarization of the ventricles immediately after the QRS wave (S–T interval): contraction of the ventricles during the T wave: repolarization of the ventricles

7. Define the following terms. 1. 2. 3. tachycardia: Heart rate over 100 beats/min. bradycardia: Heart rate below 60 beats/min. fibrillation: Very rapid uncoordinated myocardial activity.

8. Which would be more serious, atrial or ventricular fibrillation? Ventricular fibrillation Why? The ventricles bear major responsibility for ejecting blood from the heart.

9. Abnormalities of heart valves can be detected more accurately by auscultation than by electrocardiography. Why is this so?
Most often serious valve problems can be detected (heard) with a stethoscope. However, since valves are not part of the depolarization pathway of the heart, their inefficiency would not be recorded on an ECG.

208

Review Sheet 31

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

32

Anatomy of Blood Vessels

Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Circulation (IM, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Circulatory System (IM, 23 minutes, VHS) Circulatory System: The Plasma Pipeline (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels Videotape (BC, 25 minutes, VHS) Life Under Pressure (FHS, 26 minutes) Pumping Life—The Heart and Circulatory System (WNS, 20 minutes) Interactive Physiology: Cardiovascular System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure and Function Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out anatomical charts and/or models of human arteries and veins and the human circulatory system. 2. Set out anatomical charts of special circulations. 3. Set out prepared slides of cross sections of arteries and veins, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available.

209

Answers to Questions
Activity 4: Identifying Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation (p. 480) Labels for Figure 32.12 (clockwise, starting from the superior vena cava): Right pulmonary artery, pulmonary trunk, left pulmonary artery, left pulmonary veins, lobar arteries (left lung), left ventricle, left atrium, right ventricle, right atrium, right pulmonary veins, lobar arteries (right lung)

210

Exercise 32

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

32

Anatomy of Blood Vessels
Microscopic Structure of the Blood Vessels
1. Cross-sectional views of an artery and of a vein are shown here. Identify each; and on the lines to the sides, note the structural details that enabled you to make these identifications:

artery
(vessel type)

vein
(vessel type)

open, circular lumen
(a)

somewhat collapsed lumen
(a)

thick media
(b)

thinner media
(b)

Now describe each tunic more fully by selecting its characteristics from the key below and placing the appropriate key letters on the answer lines. Tunica intima a, c, f Key: a. b. c. d. innermost tunic most superficial tunic thin tunic of capillaries especially thick in elastic arteries e. f. contains smooth muscle and elastin has a smooth surface to decrease resistance to blood flow Tunica media d, e Tunica externa b

2. Why are valves present in veins but not in arteries? The high blood pressure in arteries propels the blood through them. The blood pressure in veins is low and often the blood is flowing against gravity. Valves prevent backflow.

3. Name two events occurring within the body that aid in venous return.
Skeletal muscle “milking action”

and changes in thoracic cavity pressure during breathing.

4. Why are the walls of arteries proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins? Arteries must withstand high pressure and pressure fluctuations. Veins are low-pressure vessels.

211

Major Systemic Arteries and Veins of the Body
5. Use the key on the right to identify the arteries or veins described on the left. d i r o k j t c b w p q s m c y h e

Key: a. b. c. d.

anterior tibial basilic brachial brachiocephalic celiac trunk cephalic common carotid common iliac coronary deep artery of the thigh dorsalis pedis external carotid

1. the arterial system has one of these; the venous system has two 2. these arteries supply the myocardium , z 3. two paired arteries serving the brain 4. longest vein in the lower limb 5. artery on the dorsum of the foot checked after leg surgery 6. serves the posterior thigh 7. supplies the diaphragm 8. formed by the union of the radial and ulnar veins

e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

, f

9. two superficial veins of the arm

10. artery serving the kidney 11. veins draining the liver 12. artery that supplies the distal half of the large intestine 13. drains the pelvic organs 14. what the external iliac artery becomes on entry into the thigh 15. major artery serving the arm 16. supplies most of the small intestine 17. join to form the inferior vena cava 18. an arterial trunk that has three major branches, which run to the liver, spleen, and stomach 19. major artery serving the tissues external to the skull , n , u m. femoral n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. fibular great saphenous hepatic inferior mesenteric internal carotid internal iliac phrenic posterior tibial radial

l a v

w. renal x. y. z. subclavian superior mesenteric vertebral

20. three veins serving the leg

21. artery generally used to take the pulse at the wrist

6. Trace the blood flow for each of the following situations. a. from the capillary beds of the left thumb to the capillary beds of the right thumb: Digital vein, L radial vein, L brachial vein, L axillary vein, L subclavian vein, L brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, R atrium, R ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, lobar artery, pulmonary capillaries of the lung, lobar veins, pulmonary veins, L atrium, L ventricle, aortic arch, brachiocephalic artery, R subclavian artery, R axillary artery, R brachial artery, R radial artery, digital artery.

b.

from the mitral valve to the tricuspid valve by way of the great toe: Through bicuspid (mitral) valve into left ventricle, aorta, common iliac artery, external iliac artery, femoral artery, posterior tibial artery, lateral plantar artery, digital artery, capillary beds, digital vein, plantar arch, plantar vein, posterior tibial vein, femoral vein, external iliac vein, common iliac vein, inferior vena cava, right atrium, then through tricuspid valve.

212

Review Sheet 32

7. The human arterial and venous systems are diagrammed on this page and the next. Identify all indicated blood vessels.

Superficial temporal artery Occipital artery Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Vertebral artery Brachiocephalic trunk Axillary artery Anterior humeral circumflex artery Ascending aorta Brachial artery Common hepatic artery Superior mesenteric artery Gonadal artery Inferior mesenteric artery Common iliac artery External iliac artery Aortic arch Descending thoracic aorta Coronary artery

Facial artery Common carotid arteries Left subclavian artery

Celiac trunk Splenic artery Renal artery Descending abdominal aorta Radial artery Ulnar artery Internal iliac artery Deep palmar arch Superficial palmar arch

Digital arteries Deep femoral artery

Lateral femoral circumflex artery Femoral artery

Popliteal artery

Anterior tibial artery Posterior tibial artery Fibular artery

Dorsalis pedis artery Arcuate artery Metatarsal arteries
Arteries

Review Sheet 32

213

Dural sinuses

Superficial temporal vein Facial vein

External jugular vein Vertebral vein Internal jugular vein R. brachiocephalic vein Superior vena cava Axillary vein Great cardiac vein Hepatic veins Hepatic portal vein Superior mesenteric vein Inferior vena cava Ulnar vein Radial vein Common iliac vein External iliac vein Internal iliac vein Digital veins

Left subclavian vein Left brachiocephalic veins Cephalic vein Brachial vein

Basilic vein Splenic vein Median cubital vein Renal vein Ulnar vein Inferior mesenteric vein Median antebrachial vein

Superficial palmar venous arch

Femoral vein Great saphenous vein

Popliteal vein Posterior tibial vein Anterior tibial vein Fibular vein

Dorsal venous arch Metatarsal veins
Veins

214

Review Sheet 32

Pulmonary Circulation
8. Trace the pathway of a carbon dioxide gas molecule in the blood from the inferior vena cava until it leaves the bloodstream. Name all structures (vessels, heart chambers, and others) passed through en route.
Inferior vena cava → right atrium → tricuspid valve → right ventricle → pulmonary semilunar valve → pulmonary trunk → right or left pulmonary artery → lobar artery → pulmonary capillary beds in lungs → air sacs (alveoli) of lungs.

9. Trace the pathway of oxygen gas molecules from an alveolus of the lung to the right atrium of the heart. Name all structures through which it passes. Circle the areas of gas exchange. Alveolus → alveolar/capillary walls → pulmonary vein → left atrium → bicuspid (mitral) valve → left ventricle → aortic semilunar valve → aorta → systemic arteries → capillary beds of tissues → systemic veins → superior or inferior vena cava → right atrium.

10. Most arteries of the adult body carry oxygen-rich blood, and the veins carry oxygen-depleted, carbon dioxide–rich blood. How does this differ in the pulmonary arteries and veins? The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen-poor blood to the lungs, whereas the pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left heart.

11. How do the arteries of the pulmonary circulation differ structurally from the systemic arteries? What condition is indicated by this anatomical difference? The pulmonary arteries are more like veins anatomically. They have relatively thin walls, reflecting the fact that the pulmonary circulation is a low pressure bed.

Hepatic Portal Circulation
12. What is the source of blood in the hepatic portal system? Blood drained from the digestive viscera.

13. Why is this blood carried to the liver before it enters the systemic circulation? This blood is rich in nutrients. The liver is the key body organ responsible for maintaining proper blood concentrations of glucose, proteins, etc. Its phagocytes also cleanse the blood of debris.

14. The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of (a) splenic vein spleen , which drains the , greater curvature of the stomach, and ascending vein, which drains the lesser curvature of the ,

, pancreas , which drains the small intestine . The gastric

and (b) superior mesenteric colon stomach, empties directly into the hepatic portal vein. 15. Trace the flow of a drop of blood from the small intestine to the right atrium of the heart, noting all structures encountered or passed through on the way. Capillaries of small intestine → superior mesenteric vein → hepatic portal vein → liver sinusoids
→ hepatic vein → inferior vena cava → right atrium of heart.

Review Sheet 32

215

Arterial Supply of the Brain and the Cerebral Arterial Circle
16. Branches of the vertebral and internal carotid arteries cooperate to form a ring of blood vessels encircling the pituitary gland, at the base of the brain. This network is called the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis). What is its function? Provides an alternate set of pathways for blood to reach brain tissue in case of impaired blood flow anywhere in the system.

17. What portion of the brain is served by the anterior and middle cerebral arteries? The bulk of the cerebral hemispheres.

Both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries arise from the internal carotid

arteries.

18. Trace the pathway of a drop of blood from the aorta to the left occipital lobe of the brain, noting all structures through which it flows. Aorta → subclavian artery → vertebral artery → basilar artery → posterior cerebral artery → occipital brain tissue.

Fetal Circulation
19. For each of the following structures, first indicate its function in the fetus; and then note its fate (what happens to it or what it is converted to after birth). Circle the blood vessel that carries the most oxygen-rich blood.

Structure Umbilical artery Umbilical vein Ductus venosus Ductus arteriosus Foramen ovale

Function in fetus Carries O2-poor blood from the fetus to the placenta. Carries O2-rich blood from the placenta to the fetus. Shunts blood through the fetal liver, bypassing the bulk of its tissue. Bypasses the fetal lungs by shunting blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta. Bypasses the lungs by shunting blood from the right atrium to the left atrium.

Fate Obliterated. Becomes the medial umbilical ligament. Obliterated. Becomes the round ligament of the liver (ligamentum teres). Becomes the fibrous ligamentum venosum. Occludes. Becomes the ligamentum arteriosum. Closes. Becomes the fossa ovalis.

20. What organ serves as a respiratory/digestive/excretory organ for the fetus? Placenta

216

Review Sheet 32

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

33 A

Human Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations
Time Allotment: 2 hours (with some shared small-group data). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. A record, audiotape, or CD-ROM of Interpreting Heart Sounds (available on free loan from the local chapters of the American Heart Association). Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes VHS, DVD) Life Under Pressure (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Physiology of Exercise (FHS, 15 minutes, DVD) Interactive Physiology: Cardiovascular System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure and Function Measuring Blood Pressure Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Regulation Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out stethoscopes (both bell and diaphragm) and sphygmomanometers (two per group). Check the valves on the bulbs of the cuffs to be sure that air is released from the cuff when the valves are opened (replacement valves can be ordered). If electronic monitoring equipment is to be used, prepare instructions and distribute. 2. Set out or ask students to bring watches with second hands. Provide each group with a millimeter ruler, alcohol swabs, a felt-tipped pen, a small basin or large finger bowl, and a laboratory thermometer. Have ice available.

217

3. Set out one 0.4 m (16-inch) high bench (for women) and one 0.5 m (20-inch) high bench (for men). You may have to compromise with a .45 m (18-inch) bench. Set up a cot, if available. 4. If the record or tape is used, set up a phonograph or tape deck. 5. Divide the class into small groups to collect data for Effect of Various Factors on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate. It may be hard to define well-conditioned and poorly conditioned subjects. A runner or a member of an athletic team might be compared to a more sedentary person (see Comments and Pitfalls, item 4). 6. Set out equipment and materials for the conduction of the BIOPAC activity. Introduce your students to the basic features of the equipment prior to beginning the lab activity.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Most students in the health sciences will have no trouble with this lab, and in fact enjoy bringing their own stethoscopes and sphygmomanometers to lab if they are given advance notice. 2. If students have trouble hearing the heart sounds with the bell stethoscope, have them try the diaphragm model. This will be particularly helpful when trying to hear the split sounds. The sounds are louder with the bell stethoscopes, but placement must be more precise. 3. Caution students against overtightening the valve on the sphygmomanometer. If the air in the cuff can’t be released, it is very painful to the subject. If the valve does stick, most cuffs can be undone even when filled with air. To avoid problems once the cuff is inflated, have students practice first with the bulb valve. 4. Students performing the Harvard step test should be carefully monitored to be sure that they step completely up and completely down at the prescribed rate. This can be very fatiguing. If the student population is fairly uniform it may be difficult to detect major differences between the well-conditioned and poorly conditioned individuals. Note: Another well-known test for fitness is the Schneider test (described in G. D. Tharp, Experiments in Physiology, 4th edition, Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing Co., 1980). Try to compare people of the same general age and sex, and do not compare a smoker to a nonsmoker. Students who are aware that they have heart problems should be discouraged from acting as subjects. 5. Many fitness tests are designed for people in their early twenties. Several tests that take into account age and gender may be found in the article, “How Fit Are You?” by Tracy Boyd, The Detroit News, Tuesday, November 16, 1999. 6. If a person with Raynaud’s disease is used as the subject for the cold pressor test, he or she may experience temporary loss of feeling in the hand. 7. Students who are testing the effects of venous congestion should be reminded to keep both arms quietly on the lab bench for the full 5 minutes. Check to be sure pressure is maintained at 40 mm Hg.

218

Exercise 33A

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Auscultating Heart Sounds (pp. 493–494) 3. The interval is about 0.5 second. It is about twice as long as the interval between the first and second heart sounds. Activity 2: Palpating Superficial Pulse Points (pp. 494–495) The carotid pulse point has the greatest amplitude, and the dorsalis pedis artery has the least. This is related to distance from the left ventricle of the heart. Activity 7: Observing the Effect of Various Factors on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate (pp. 500–502)
Exercise

6. Greater elevation of blood pressure is generally noted just after completion of exercise. Increased cardiac output during exercise results in increased systolic pressure. A poorly conditioned individual usually has a higher systolic pressure at the end of exercise, and it usually takes a longer time for the pressure to return to normal. A well-conditioned individual usually has a larger stroke volume and thus can pump more blood with fewer beats per minute than a poorly conditioned individual. Diastolic pressure usually does not increase significantly, as it is the resting pressure of the vessels.
A Noxious Sensory Stimulus (Cold)

Blood pressure changes will be variable. The pulse rate will probably increase. Activity 8: Examining the Effect of Local Chemical and Physical Factors on Skin Color (pp. 502–504)
Vasodilation and Flushing of the Skin Due to Local Metabolites

7. Stopping blood flow causes the hand to turn very pale. Weakness and a tingling sensation may be felt (variable). The skin flushes bright red immediately upon release of pressure and normal color is restored after several minutes or longer. There may be some lingering pain in the forearm region.
Effects of Venous Congestion

2. Slight pressure may be felt in the hand at the end of 5 minutes (variable). The veins are bulging and the hand has a mottled appearance, much darker in color than the control. Upon release of pressure, the veins deflate, and color and feeling return to normal. 3. Intensity of skin color (pink or blue) is related to the volume of blood in the area. The color is determined by the degree of oxygenation of the blood. In this experiment, venous blood gives a blue tint and arterial blood gives a pink tint.
Collateral Blood Flow

5. Results are variable. The hand usually turns intensely red and a warm tingling sensation may be felt. Redness may last for several minutes. 6. The hand does not become totally ischemic. The second test result is much less dramatic, with much less intense reactive hyperthermia.

Exercise 33A

219

7. With only the ulnar artery compressed, the results are intermediate between questions 5 and 6. The ulnar artery has a larger diameter than the radial artery, but they anastomose in the hand to serve the same areas.
Effect of Mechanical Stimulation of Blood Vessels of the Skin

Results will vary. A red streak develops with moderate pressure. With heavy pressure, a wider, darker, longer-lasting streak develops and may swell.

220

Exercise 33A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

33 A

Human Cardiovascular Physiology: Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations
Cardiac Cycle
1. Using the grouped sets of terms to the right of the diagram, correctly identify each trace, valve closings and openings, and each time period of the cardiac cycle. i a 1 2 b c g 3 4 d 120 f h Pressure (mm Hg) 80 i 5 e

1. aortic pressure 2. atrial pressure 3. ECG 4. first heart sound 5. second heart sound 6. ventricular pressure 7. ventricular volume 8. aortic semilunar valve closes 9. aortic semilunar valve opens 10. AV and semilunar valves closed 11. AV valve closes 12. AV valve opens 13. ventricular diastole 14. ventricular systole

k n o p g m

40

j

l

h

f
0 k

b, d

120 Volume (ml)

j l m 60

a, e c

R (mv) 0.5 0 Q S o p P T n

0.2

0.4 Time (sec)

0.6

0.8

221

2. Define the following terms. systole: Contraction of the ventricles (general usage) diastole: Ventricular relaxation (general usage) cardiac cycle: One complete heartbeat including atrial and ventricular contraction 3. Answer the following questions concerning events of the cardiac cycle. When are the AV valves closed? During ventricular systole What event within the heart causes the AV valves to open? Ventricular pressure atrial pressure

When are the semilunar valves closed? During the period of relaxation of the heart as a whole and during atrial contraction. What event causes the semilunar valves to open? Ventricular pressure Are both sets of valves closed during any part of the cycle? Yes If so, when? Momentarily after atrial contraction and ventricular systole. Are both sets of valves open during any part of the cycle? No At what point in the cardiac cycle is the pressure in the heart highest? Ventricular systole Lowest? Ventricular diastole pressure in great arteries

What event results in the pressure deflection called the dicrotic notch? The momentary increase in aortic pressure that occurs when its semilunar valves snap shut.

4. Using the key below, indicate the time interval occupied by the following events of the cardiac cycle. Key: a. a d

0.8 sec 1. 2.

b.

0.4 sec

c.

0.3 sec b c

d.

0.1 sec

the length of the normal cardiac cycle the time interval of atrial systole

3. the quiescent period, or pause 4. the ventricular contraction period What portion of

5. If an individual’s heart rate is 80 beats/min, what is the length of the cardiac cycle? 0.75 sec the cardiac cycle is shortened by this more rapid heart rate? Quiescent period (ventricular relaxation period).

6. What two factors promote the movement of blood through the heart? Alternate contraction and relaxation of the myocardium and opening and closing of the heart valves (which is responsive to pressure gradients).

222

Review Sheet 33A

Heart Sounds
7. Complete the following statements. The monosyllables describing the heart sounds are 1 . The first heart sound is a result of closure of the 2 valves, whereas the second is a result of closure of the 3 valves. The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are the 4 , and the chambers that have just emptied are the 5 . Immediately after the second heart sound, both the 6 and 7 are filling with blood. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. lub-dup atrioventricular semilunar ventricles atria atria ventricles

8. As you listened to the heart sounds during the laboratory session, what differences in pitch, length, and amplitude (loudness) of the two sounds did you observe? First heart sound is longer, louder, and lower in pitch than the second heart sound, which is short, sharp, and high-pitched.

9. In order to auscultate most accurately, indicate where you would place your stethoscope for the following sounds: closure of the tricuspid valve: Left or right sternal border of the 5th intercostal space. closure of the aortic semilunar valve: Right sternal border of the 2nd intercostal space. apical heartbeat: 5th intercostal space in line with the middle of the left clavicle. Which valve is heard most clearly when the apical heartbeat is auscultated? Bicuspid 10. No one expects you to be a full-fledged physician on such short notice; but on the basis of what you have learned about heart sounds, how might abnormal sounds be used to diagnose heart problems?
Abnormal sounds such as swishing sounds after valvular closure or high-pitched sounds arising when blood is forced through constricted (valve) openings might indicate valvular problems.

The Pulse
11. Define pulse. Pressure surges in an artery occurring during each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle. 12. Describe the procedure used to take the pulse. Place the first 2-3 fingertips of one hand over an arterial pressure point. Compress firmly and then release the pressure slightly to palpate the pulse.

13. Identify the artery palpated at each of the pressure points listed. at the wrist: Radial in front of the ear: Temporal on the dorsum of the foot: at the side of the neck:
Dorsalis pedis Carotid

Review Sheet 33A

223

14. When you were palpating the various pulse or pressure points, which appeared to have the greatest amplitude or tension?
Carotid artery

Why do you think this was so?

The carotid artery(ies) is the major artery

delivering blood to the brain (against gravity) and it is closest to the heart.

15. Assume someone has been injured in an auto accident and is hemorrhaging badly. What pressure point would you compress to help stop bleeding from each of the following areas? the thigh: Femoral artery the forearm: Brachial artery the calf: Popliteal artery the thumb: Radial artery

16. How could you tell by simple observation whether bleeding is arterial or venous? If it spurts, it is arterial. It will flow evenly if it is venous blood.

17. You may sometimes observe a slight difference between the value obtained from an apical pulse (beats/min) and that from an arterial pulse taken elsewhere on the body. What is this difference called?
Pulse deficit

Blood Pressure Determinations
18. Define blood pressure.
Pressure exerted by blood against the walls of the blood vessels.

19. Identify the phase of the cardiac cycle to which each of the following apply. systolic pressure: Systole (ventricular contraction) diastolic pressure: Diastole (relaxation)

20. What is the name of the instrument used to compress the artery and record pressures in the auscultatory method of determining blood pressure? Sphygmomanometer 21. What are the sounds of Korotkoff? Sounds that can be auscultated over a partially occluded artery.

What causes the systolic sound? Sound of turbulent blood flow as it first begins to move through the constricted artery.

What causes the disappearance of the sound? Blood is flowing freely; the artery is no longer constricted. 22. Interpret 145/85/82. 145 systolic pressure; 85 diastolic pressure reported as the point where the sound muffles; 82 diastolic pressure reported as the point at which sound disappears.

23. Assume the following BP measurement was recorded for an elderly patient with severe arteriosclerosis:170/110/–. Explain the inability to obtain the third reading.
The patient’s arteries are so narrowed by arteriosclerosis that blood flow is always partially occluded. Hence, the sound.

224

Review Sheet 33A

24. Define pulse pressure. Systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure. Why is this measurement important? It indicates the actual working pressure (actual amount of blood forced out of the heart during systole). 25. How do venous pressures compare to arterial pressures? Venous pressures are lower. Why? Veins are far removed (in the circuit) from the pumping action of the heart.
Valsalva

26. What maneuver to increase the thoracic pressure illustrates the effect of external factors on venous pressure? maneuver How is it performed? A person takes a deep breath, and mimics the motions of exhaling forcibly, but without actually exhaling. The glottis will close and the intrathoracic pressure will increase.

27. What might an abnormal increase in venous pressure indicate? (Think!) Heart failure. With the heart unable to adequately pump blood, it pools in the lower extremities and increases venous pressure.

Observing the Effect of Various Factors on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
28. What effect do the following have on blood pressure? (Indicate increase by I and decrease by D.)
D I I

1. 2. 3.

increased diameter of the arterioles increased blood viscosity increased cardiac output

D I I

4. hemorrhage 5. arteriosclerosis 6. increased pulse rate

29. In which position (sitting, reclining, or standing) is the blood pressure normally the highest?
Standing

The lowest?

Reclining

What immediate changes in blood pressure did you observe when the subject stood up after being in the sitting or reclining position? It decreased initially and then increased.

What changes in the blood vessels might account for the change? Upon standing, gravitational pull caused blood pooling in the lower part of the body, but then vasoconstriction initiated by the vasomotor center caused blood pressure to rise.

After the subject stood for 3 minutes, what changes in blood pressure were observed? It decreased once again.

How do you account for this change? Decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system.

Review Sheet 33A

225

30. What was the effect of exercise on blood pressure? It increased the blood pressure. On pulse rate? It increased the pulse rate. Do you think these effects reflect changes in cardiac output or in

peripheral resistance? Cardiac output ( vasoconstriction of specific vascular beds, e.g., GI tract). Why are there normally no significant increases in diastolic pressure after exercise? Since diastolic pressure reflects the heart in relaxation, it would not be expected to increase in healthy individuals.

31. What effects of the following did you observe on blood pressure in the laboratory? cold temperature: increased BP What do you think the effect of heat would be? Decreased BP Why? Vasodilation would occur. 32. Differentiate between a hypo- and a hyperreactor relative to the cold pressor test. Hyperreactors exhibit a rise of 23 mm Hg or more in BP during the test. Hyporeactors exhibit a smaller increase or a decrease in BP.

Skin Color as an Indicator of Local Circulatory Dynamics
33. Describe normal skin color and the appearance of the veins in the subject’s forearm before any testing was conducted.
Skin pink; veins flat and difficult to see.

34. What changes occurred when the subject emptied the forearm of blood (by raising the arm and making a fist) and the flow was occluded with the cuff? Skin becomes pale (cyanotic in some cases) and cool. What changes occurred during venous congestion? Skin becomes pink (red) and warm, and veins are congested and very visible.

35. What is the importance of collateral blood supplies? Can maintain the blood supply to an organ (body part) in case the major nutrient artery is occluded.

36. Explain the mechanism by which mechanical stimulation of the skin produced a flare. Local inflammatory response produced by the chemical mediators released by injured tissue cells.

226

Review Sheet 33A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

34 A

Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Wet Lab
Time Allotment: 3 hours. (Allow additional time if students must learn to use equipment.) Solutions: Ringer’s Solution, Frog • 6.50 grams sodium chloride • 0.14 gram potassium chloride • 0.12 gram calcium chloride • 0.20 gram sodium bicarbonate Combine salts in flask and add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Test Solutions: Atropine Sulfate in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 5% Weigh out 5 grams of atropine sulfate. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Caution! Atropine sulfate is toxic. Label TOXIC. Calcium Chloride in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 2% Weigh out 2 grams of calcium chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Digitalis in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 2% Weigh out 2 grams of digitoxin. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Epinephrine in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 1% Weigh out 1 gram of epinephrine (Carolina). Dissolve in 0.5 milliliter of 1 N HCl. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Caution! Epinephrine is toxic. Label TOXIC. Histamine in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 0.01% Weigh out 0.01 gram histamine. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 0.01 N Add 0.8 milliliter concentrated HCl to 900 milliliters frog Ringer’s solution. Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Pilocarpine in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 2.5% Weigh out 2.5 grams of pilocarpine chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters.

227

Potassium Chloride in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 5% Weigh out 5 grams of potassium chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 0.7% Weigh out 0.7 gram of sodium chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters.

Advance Preparation
1. Order frogs to be delivered close to the date of the lab (see the frog experiment in Exercise 16A). Each group will need one double-pithed frog. If time (or student aversion) is a problem, frogs can be pithed just before the lab begins (see Exercise 16A). Keep the frogs moist with frog Ringer’s solution. 2. Set out data acquisition equipment (one per group of four). If the equipment has not been used in an earlier experiment, acquaint students with its set-up and use (see Exercise 16A). a. BIOPAC. Set out equipment and materials for the conduction of the BIOPAC activity, including a computer with BIOPAC BSL Pro Software installed, tension adjuster, force transducer, and transducer (or ring) stand. b. Physiograph. For each physiograph, set out paper, ink, transducer stand, myograph transducer, transducer cables, stimulator output extension cable, and electrodes. c. Kymograph. For each kymograph, set out kymograph paper, ink (if necessary), ring stand, two right-angle clamps, heart lever, signal marker, electronic stimulator, and platinum electrodes. If smoked drums are used, set up a smoking area and a glazing area in fume hoods. 3. Put bottles of frog Ringer’s solution in a water bath set at 32°C and in a refrigerator set at 5°C. Have a supply bottle of room temperature frog Ringer’s solution available. 4. Each group should be provided with disposable gloves, a dissecting pan and instruments, a 250-milliliter bottle of frog Ringer’s solution, two petri dishes, a medicine dropper, a millimeter ruler, thread, sturdy rubber bands, several fine common pins, a frog board with a hole in one end (biology supply company), cotton balls, paper towels, and 25milliliter bottles of test solutions. Have supply bottles of the test solutions available. 5. Have microscopes, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution available. 6. Designate an appropriate disposal area for the frogs.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Remind students to keep the tissue moist with frog Ringer’s solution at all times. 2. Be sure the students have correctly located the vagus nerve and have not invented a nerve from connective tissue.

228

Exercise 34A

3. Do not overstretch the heart when attaching it to the recording equipment. 4. If a heart lever is used, be sure that the stylus is horizontal during diastole. If necessary, attach a small counterweight to the lever. Adjust the point of attachment of the thread to the lever to get the best recording height, and be sure the heart is perpendicular to the lever. 5. A Stannius ligature is a simple overhand knot in a loop of thread that can be tightened by pulling on both ends of the thread. 6. See Exercise 16A for additional comments on troubleshooting the recording equipment.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Investigating the Automaticity and Rhythmicity of Heart Muscle (p. 512) 4. The heart is contracting rhythmically while the gastrocnemius muscle is not contracting at all. 5. The sinus venosus will continue to beat. 6. Each atrium should continue to beat, as well as the ventricle. 7. The sinus venosus usually displays the most automaticity (contracts at the fastest rate) and the ventricle the least. Activity 2: Recording Baseline Frog Heart Activity (pp. 513–516)
Preparation of the Frog

4. Yes. The atrium contracts before the ventricle. Activity 3: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle (pp. 516–517) 3. Extrasystole can be induced during the first part of ventricular relaxation. 4. The heart does not go into tetanus. The heart would be of no value as a pump if it could go into tetanus as a result of rapid repeated stimulation. Activity 4: Assessing Physical and Chemical Modifiers of Heart Rate (pp. 517–518)
Temperature

5. Cold Ringer’s solution slows it down. Warm Ringer’s solution speeds up the heart rate.
Chemical Agents: Pilocarpine

Pilocarpine slows the heart. Pilocarpine is an agonist of acetylcholine.
Atropine Sulfate

The heart rate should increase. Atropine is antagonistic to acetylcholine.
Epinephrine

Epinephrine increases heart rate, imitating the sympathetic nervous system.

Exercise 34A

229

Digitalis

Digitalis slows and steadies heart contraction.
Various Ions

Ca2+ increases strength of contraction; probable induction of spasticity. Na+ decreases strength and rate of contraction. K+ weakens heart contractions. Yes. Students may observe arrhythmia with all three ions.
Vagus Nerve Stimulation

3. Vagal stimulation slows down and eventually stops the heart.
Intrinsic Conduction System Disturbance (Heart Block)

4. A normal A-V rhythm should reestablish after removing the block. Activity 5: Investigating the Effect of Various Factors on the Microcirculation (pp. 519–520) 5. RBCs move through capillaries in single file. They are flexible and they may appear “stacked” and slightly curved as they move through. White blood cells resembling monocytes may be seen. 6. Blood flow in the arterioles is rapid and pulsating, while it is slow and steady in the venules. Movement is very slow in the capillaries. The capillaries are much smaller in diameter than the arterioles.
Temperature

Arterioles respond most noticeably to the temperature change. Cold saline causes a reduction in diameter and warm saline an increase in diameter.
Inflammation

HCl causes vasodilation, increasing capillary blood flow. This is a local response to bring more inflammatory cells to the damaged area.
Histamine

1. Histamine also causes vasodilation and increased blood flow. The response to histamine is similar to the response to HCI. 2. Epinephrine causes vasoconstriction and reduced blood flow.

230

Exercise 34A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

34 A

Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Wet Lab
Special Electrical Properties of Cardiac Muscle: Automaticity and Rhythmicity
1. Define the following terms. automaticity: Ability to depolarize spontaneously in the absence of external stimulation. rhythmicity: Depolarization/repolarization events occur in a regular and continuous manner. 2. Discuss the anatomical differences between frog and human hearts.
The frog heart has a single ventricle and two atria.

Dorsally there is an expanded area called the sinus venosus. The human heart has two atria and two ventricles. No sinus venosus is present.

3. Which region of the dissected frog heart had the highest intrinsic rate of contraction? Sinus venosus The greatest automaticity? Sinus venosus The greatest regularity or rhythmicity? Sinus venosus How do these properties correlate with the

duties of a pacemaker? The human pacemaker (SA node) has automaticity, rhythmicity, and the highest depolarization rate in the heart. Is this region the pacemaker of the frog heart? Yes Which region had the lowest intrinsic rate of contraction? Ventricle

Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle
4. Define extrasystole. An extra beat occurring before the time a normal contraction would occur. 5. Respond to the following questions if you used a physiograph. What was the effect of stimulation of the heart during ventricular contraction? No effect. During ventricular relaxation (first portion)? Extrasystole. During the pause interval? No effect. What does this indicate about the refractory period of cardiac muscle? Much longer than that of skeletal muscle.

231

Assessing Physical and Chemical Modifiers of Heart Rate
6. Describe the effect of thermal factors on the frog heart. cold: Decreased heart rate heat: increased heart rate

7. Once again refer to your recordings. Did the administration of the following produce any changes in force of contraction (shown by peaks of increasing or decreasing height)? If so, explain the mechanism. epinephrine: ↑ rate and force of heartbeat. Acts on the SA and AV nodes and the myocardium to ↑ membrane permeability to Na and Ca 2 .

acetylcholine: ↓ rate and force of heartbeat. Acts on SA and AV nodes. Increases membrane permeability to K, which makes the tissue less excitable.
2 calcium ions: ↑ strength of myocardial contraction. Effects as in skeletal muscle, i.e., Ca is the “trigger” for sliding of myofilaments.

8. Excessive amounts of each of the following ions would most likely interfere with normal heart activity. Note the type of changes caused in each case. K+: heart block; cardiac arrest Ca2+: ↑ spasticity of cardiac activity Na+: ↓ strength of contraction 9. Respond to the following questions if you used a physiograph. What was the effect of vagal stimulation on heart rate?
Decreased heart rate

Which of the following factors cause the same (or very similar) heart rate–reducing effects: epinephrine, acetylcholine, atropine sulfate, pilocarpine, sympathetic nervous system activity, digitalis, potassium ions?
Acetylcholine, pilocarpine, digitalis, potassium ions.

Which of the factors listed above would reverse or antagonize vagal effects? Epinephrine, atropine sulfate, sympathetic nervous system activity.

10. What is vagal escape? Return to a normal heart rate after a period of rate depression by the vagus nerve.

Why is vagal escape valuable in maintaining homeostasis? Continued vagal depression can completely stop the heart and lead to death; vagal escape allows the heart to begin beating again even though the vagus nerve continues to be stimulated.

11. How does the Stannius ligature used in the laboratory produce heart block? It physically blocks transmission of impulses from the atria to the ventricle.

232

Review Sheet 34A

12. Define partial heart block, and describe how it was recognized in the laboratory. When the 1:1 ratio of atrial to ventricular contractions was replaced by different whole number ratios, e.g. 2:1, 3:1, the heart was in partial heart block.

13. Define total heart block, and describe how it was recognized in the laboratory. No synchrony between depolarization waves of atria and ventricle. Impulses not being transmitted from atria to the ventricle; no whole number relationship between atrial and ventricular contractions was demonstrated.

14. What do your heart block experiment results indicate about the spread of impulses from the atria to the ventricles?
In normal heart activity, the ventricles are depolarized by the depolarization wave spreading from the atria.

Observing the Microcirculation Under Various Conditions
15. In what way are the red blood cells of the frog different from those of the human? Frog RBCs are nucleated; human RBCs are anucleate. On the basis of this one factor, would you expect their life spans to be longer or shorter? Longer 16. The following statements refer to your observation of one or more of the vessel types observed in the microcirculation in the frog’s web. Characterize each statement by choosing one or more responses from the key. Key: a. c a c c b c a c b

arteriole 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

b.

venule

c.

capillary

smallest vessels observed vessel within which the blood flow is rapid, pulsating vessel in which blood flow is least rapid red blood cells pass through these vessels in single file blood flow smooth and steady most numerous vessels vessels that deliver blood to the capillary bed vessels that serve the needs of the tissues via exchanges vessels that drain the capillary beds

17. Which of the vessel diameters changed most? Arterioles What division of the nervous system controls the vessels? Autonomic nervous system, sympathetic division.

Review Sheet 34A

233

18. Discuss the effects of the following on blood vessel diameter (state specifically the blood vessels involved) and rate of blood flow. Then explain the importance of the reaction observed to the general well-being of the body. local application of cold: Vasoconstriction of arterioles. Bypasses the skin capillaries and withdraws blood to deeper body tissues to prevent heat loss to the external environment.

local application of heat: Vasodilation of arterioles and flushing of capillary bed with blood. Increases the local blood supply and allows heat radiation from the skin surface.

inflammation (or application of HCl): Vasodilation locally bringing in WBCs, and more nutrients to help fight the inflammatory stimulus. histamine: Same reaction as with inflammation.

234

Review Sheet 34A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

35 A

The Lymphatic System and Immune Response
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Defend and Repair (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Organ Systems Working Together (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) Internal Defenses (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Immune System: The Fighting Edge (FHS, 44 minutes, VHS, DVD) Biochemistry of the Immune System (ED, CD-ROM) Blood and Immunity (CE, CD-ROM) Solutions: Simple Saline Agar • 2 g agar (Difco Bacto) • 1 g sodium chloride (NaCl) • 100 ml distilled water • 0.1 g sodium azide (optional) Prepare a clear solution by boiling the mixture gently. Pour while hot to a depth of 3 mm into 100 mm plastic petri dishes, which have been divided into three compartments (7 ml per compartment). Leave open until the gel cools. To store, either steam sterilize the agar before pouring or add 0.1 g sodium azide per 100 ml. Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out anatomical charts of the lymphatic system; prepared slides of lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsil; lens paper; and lens cleaning solution. Have microscopes available. 2. Prepare saline agar petri dishes in advance.

235

3. Set out petri dishes with saline agar (one per group), dropper bottles of red and green food coloring, dropper bottles of goat antibody to bovine serum albumin, horse serum albumin and swine serum albumin, dropper bottles of horse serum albumin, dropper bottles of unknown serum albumin samples diluted to 20%, medicine droppers and wax marking pencils.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Using the Ouchterlony Technique to Identify Antigens (pp. 530–532) 4. A color change occurred where the two colors met. 5. No evidence of a precipitate. 6. Horse serum albumin functioned as the antigen. 7. Goat anti-horse serum (goat antibody) reacts with the antigen in section II. A white precipitin line formed between wells 1 and 2. 8. The swine albumin in well 1 would have reacted with the anti-swine antibody in well 4. 9. No reaction. The antibodies are specific to horse, bovine, and swine albumins.

236

Exercise 35A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

35 A a b c

The Lymphatic System and Immune Response
The Lymphatic System
1. Match the terms below with the correct letters on the diagram. k i b j g h f l e c d a

1. axillary lymph nodes 2. bone marrow 3. cervical lymph nodes 4. cisterna chyli 5. inguinal lymph nodes 6. lymphatic vessels f k d l

j e

7. Peyer’s patches (in intestine) 8. right lymphatic duct g 9. spleen 10. thoracic duct 11. thymus i 12. tonsils

h

2. Explain why the lymphatic system is a one-way system, whereas the blood vascular system is a two-way system.
Blood vessels form a complete circuit from and to the heart. The lymphatic system lacks arteries and begins with blind-ended lymph capillaries. Thus, it is a “return” system only.

3. How do lymphatic vessels resemble veins? They are thin walled and have valves. How do lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries? Lymph capillaries are more permeable and are blind ended; they have no “feeder” arterioles.

237

4. What is the function of the lymphatic vessels? To pick up and return excess tissue fluid (and leaked proteins) to the blood vascular system. 5. What is lymph? Leaked plasma (but contains fewer proteins). Tissue fluid that has entered lymphatic vessels. 6. What factors are involved in the flow of lymphatic fluid? “Milking” action of skeletal muscles; pressure changes in the thorax.

7. What name is given to the terminal duct draining most of the body? Thoracic duct. 8. What is the cisterna chyli? Enlarged terminus of the thoracic duct, which receives lymph from the digestive viscera.

How does the composition of lymph in the cisterna chyli differ from that in the general lymphatic stream?
Same, except that the lymph in the cisterna chyli is very fat-rich.

9. Which portion of the body is drained by the right lymphatic duct? Right half of upper torso and head; right arm. 10. Note three areas where lymph nodes are densely clustered: axillary region cervical region

,

, and inguinal region (groin)

11. What are the two major functions of the lymph nodes? To remove debris from the lymph and to provide a site for cloning and and multiplication of lymphocytes. 12. The radical mastectomy is an operation in which a cancerous breast, surrounding tissues, and the underlying muscles of the anterior thoracic wall, plus the axillary lymph nodes, are removed. After such an operation, the arm usually swells, or becomes edematous, and is very uncomfortable—sometimes for months. Why?
The lymphatic fluid is not being drained from the area due to a disruption of lymphatic vessels and nodes.

The Immune Response
13. What is the function of B cells in the immune response? Upon antigen challenge, they clone to produce daughter cells, most of which are plasma cells that release antibodies to the blood. (Humoral response.)

14. What is the role of T cells? Mount cell-mediated immunity. Attack virus-infected cells, tumor cells, bacteria, etc. Also activate B cells and enhance the migration of other WBCs into the area to help destroy antigens.

238

Review Sheet 35A

15. Define the following terms related to the operation of the immune system. immunological memory: Response that recognizes and mounts an attack on antigens previously encountered

specificity: Ability to distinguish between closely related antigens.

recognition of self from nonself: Ability to recognize proteins on own tissue cells as “self” and not attack them.

autoimmune disease: An inability of the immune system to recognize self, resulting in attack of self cells by the immune system.

Studying the Microscopic Anatomy of a Lymph Node, the Spleen, and a Tonsil
16. In the space below, make a rough drawing of the structure of a lymph node. Identify the cortex area, germinal centers, and medulla. For each identified area, note the cell type (T cell, B cell, or macrophage) most likely to be found there. Medulla (macrophages)

Cortex (other than germinal centers-T cells)

Germinal centers (B cells)

17. What structural characteristic ensures a slow flow of lymph through a lymph node? There are more afferent than efferent vessels. Why is this desirable? Allows time for the macrophages in the node to remove antigens and other debris, and for activation of immune cells.

18. What similarities in structure and function are found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and tonsils? All are lymphoid tissue containing macrophages and lymphocytes. They are all areas where exposure to antigen causes lymphocytes to proliferate and form clones.

Review Sheet 35A

239

Antibodies and Tests for Their Presence
19. Distinguish between antigen and antibody. An antigen is a molecule capable of provoking an immune response. An antibody is a protein produced by plasma cells that interacts with a particular antigen to form a complex. Four 20. Describe the structure of the immunoglobulin monomer, and label the diagram with the choices given in the key._________ polypeptide chains, two “heavy” and two “light,” held together by disulfide bonds to form a Y-shaped molecule. Each chain has constant (c) and variable (v) regions.

b a
H

Key: a.
V

antigen-binding site heavy chain hinge region light chain stem region macrophage binding site

C

H

V
H

b. c.
V
L

C

V
L

H

d

d.
C
L

Complement binding site

C
L

e. c CH CH

f.

Legend: = Disulfide bond CHO = Carbohydrate side chain

e f
CH CH

CHO

CHO

21. Are the genes coding for one antibody entirely different from those coding for a different antibody? No Explain your answer. Only a few genes exist for coding antibody-constant regions; therefore many antibodies have identical e regions. The variable (antigen-binding) regions differ for each antibody responding to a different antigen.

22. In the Ouchterlony test, what happened when the antibody to horse serum albumin mixed with horse serum albumin?
A white precipitate formed (between wells 1 and 2).

23. If the unknown antigen contained bovine and swine serum albumin, what would you expect to happen in the Ouchterlony test, and why? Antigen-antibody complexes would form a white precipitate between bovine serum albumin and the antibody to bovine serum albumin (between wells 1 and 3), and between swine serum albumin and antibody to swine serum albumin (between wells 1 and 4).

240

Review Sheet 35A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

36

Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Breath of Life (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Dissection of the Thorax Series, The (UL, VHS) Part I. The Thoracic Wall (23 minutes) Part II. Pleurae and Lungs (24 minutes) Human Respiratory System Videotape (BC, 25 minutes, VHS) Lungs (Revised) (AIMS, 10 minutes, VHS) Respiratory System: Intake and Exhaust (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Thorax (UL, 22 minutes, VHS) Interactive Physiology: Respiratory System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: Respiratory Structures Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out human torso models, respiratory organ system model, larynx model, and/or charts of the respiratory system. 2. Set out a sheep pluck (fresh if possible), or set up an inflatable swine lungs kit (Nasco), and disposable gloves.

241

3. Arrange for a source of compressed air, or provide cardboard mouthpieces and a 2-foot length of rubber tubing. Set out an autoclave bag for disposal of the mouthpieces, if used. 4. Set out prepared slides of the trachea, normal lung tissue, and pathological lung tissue exhibiting conditions such as bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, or lung cancer; lens paper; and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes and stereomicroscopes available.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Many prepared slides of the trachea also include the esophagus. Remind the students that the trachea is held open by cartilaginous rings, while the esophagus is not. Showing an appropriate image of the microscopic section might be useful. 2. When using a preserved sheep pluck with a compressed air supply, be careful to avoid overinflation (leading to an explosion of preserved tissue)! 3. The inflatable swine lungs kit includes an inflation rack and tray, inflatable swine lungs, and a section of dried swine lung. The inflatable lungs will last for several years and give a much more dramatic response than that usually seen with the preserved lungs of the sheep pluck. An inflatable diseased lung is also available from Nasco and is excellent for comparison to a healthy lung.

242

Exercise 36

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

36

Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Upper and Lower Respiratory System Structures
1. Complete the labeling of the diagram of the upper respiratory structures (sagittal section).
Frontal sinus Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoidal sinus

Superior concha Middle concha Inferior concha External nares (nostril)
Hard palate

Pharyngeal tonsil
Opening of auditory tube or eustachian tube or pharyngotympanic tube Nasopharynx

Posterior nasal apeture (internal nares) Uvula Palatine tonsil Oropharynx
Thyroid cartilage of larynx Cricoid cartilage

Soft palate
Tongue

Lingual tonsil Epiglottis
Hyoid bone

Laryngopharynx Vocal fold (true vocal cord) Esophagus

Thyroid gland

Trachea

2. Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords (superior or inferior)?
Inferior

3. Name the specific cartilages in the larynx that correspond to the following descriptions. forms the Adam’s apple: thyroid a “lid” for the larynx: epiglottis shaped like a signet ring: cricoid vocal cord attachment: arytenoid

243

4. What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings?
Prevents its collapse during pressure changes occurring during breathing.

Of the fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly? Allows a food bolus traveling down the posterior esophagus to bulge anteriorly. 5. What is the function of the pleural membranes? Produce a serous fluid that reduces friction during breathing movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall which keeps the lungs inflated.

6. Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa. Warms and moistens incoming air. 7. The following questions refer to the primary bronchi. Which is longer? Left Larger in diameter? Right More horizontal? Left

Which more commonly traps a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways? Right 8. Appropriately label all structures provided with leader lines on the diagrams below. trachea main (primary) bronchi

superior lobe of right lung

superior lobe of left lung

lobar (secondary) bronchus segmental (tertiary) bronchus

alveolar duct inferior lobe middle lobe inferior lobe respiratory bronchioles

alveoli

alveolar duct

terminal bronchiole alveolar sac

244

Review Sheet 36

9. Trace a molecule of oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs: External nares → nasal cavity → pharynx → larynx → trachea → primary bronchus → tertiary/secondary bronchi (etc.) → bronchiole → respiratory bronchiole → alveolar duct → alveolar sac → across alveolar/capillary walls → pulmonary blood

10. Match the terms in column B to the descriptions in column A. Column A n k e d g l j a h f c i

Column B a. b. c. alveolus bronchiole concha epiglottis esophagus glottis larynx opening of pharyngotympanic tube palate parietal pleura pharynx phrenic nerve

1. connects the larynx to the primary bronchi 2. site of tonsils 3. food passageway posterior to the trachea 4. covers the glottis during swallowing of food 5. contains the vocal cords 6. nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration 7. pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax 8. site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood 9. connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx 10. opening between the vocal folds 11. increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity 12. separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity

d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

m. primary bronchi n. o. p. trachea vagus nerve visceral pleura

11. What portions of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space? All but the respiratory zone structures
(respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and sacs, and alveoli).

Why? Because no gas exchange occurs except in the respiratory zone, particularly in the alveoli. 12. Define the following terms. external respiration: Exchange of gases across the respiratory membrane in the lungs.

internal respiration: Exchange of respiratory gases between the blood of the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells of the body.

cellular respiration: Oxygen-using cellular processes (that produce energy) with tissue cells.

Review Sheet 36

245

Demonstrating Lung Inflation in a Sheep Pluck
13. Does the lung inflate part by part or as a whole, like a balloon? Part by part. 14. What happened when the pressure was released? The lung deflated. 15. What type of tissue ensures this phenomenon? Elastic connective tissue.

Examining Prepared Slides of Trachea and Lung Tissue
16. What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases?
Thin walls, extremely large surface area.

Why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood? Because the partial pressure of oxygen is greater in the alveoli; therefore, it moves according to the laws of diffusion into the pulmonary blood.

17. If you observed pathological lung sections, record your observations. Also record how the tissue differed from normal lung tissue. Complete the table below using your answers.

Slide type Student data.

Observations Student data.

Comparison to normal lung tissue

246

Review Sheet 36

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

37A

Respiratory System Physiology
Time Allotment: 2 hours (allow an additional half hour if students are unfamiliar with the recording apparatus). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Breath of Life (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Breathing (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Physiology of Exercise (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS, DVD) Respiration (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS) Respiratory System: Intake and Exhaust (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Interactive Physiology: Respiratory System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review: Respiratory Structures Pulmonary Ventilation Gas Exchange Gas Transport Control of Respiration Solutions: Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 0.01 M Add 0.8 milliliter concentrated HCl to 900 milliliters distilled water. Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution; or dilute 10 milliliters of 1 N HCl to a final volume of 1 liter with distilled water. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), 0.05 M Weigh out 2 g. of NaOH and add to distilled water to make 1 liter of solution.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out the model lung (bell jar demonstrator). 2. For each group set out a tape measure, nose clips, spirometer, disposable mouthpieces (enough for each member of the group), alcohol swabs, a paper bag, a physiograph with

247

a pneumograph and recording attachments, respiratory belt transducer and cable, paper, and a stethoscope. See the frog experiment in Exercise 16A for further directions for the physiograph. If a wet spirometer is used, be sure it is filled with distilled water according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Set out a battery jar of 70% ethanol. 4. Set out equipment and materials for the conduction of the BIOPAC activity. Introduce your students to the basic features of the equipment prior to beginning the lab activity. 5. For each group set out a pH meter standardized with a buffer of pH 7, five 250-milliliter beakers, two 50-milliliter beakers, a 100-milliliter graduated cylinder, a dropper bottle of concentrated HCl, a dropper bottle of concentrated NaOH, 300 milliliters of standard buffer solution (pH 7), 500 milliliters of distilled water, a wash bottle of distilled water, a dropper bottle of 0.01 M HCl, a glass stirring rod, and animal plasma. 6. Set up a disposable autoclave bag. 7. Draw a class data chart on the chalkboard or whiteboard to record TV (Vt), IRV, ERV, and VC. 8. Set out bottles of 0.05 M NaOH, dropper bottles of phenol red, distilled water, 100-ml beakers, and straws for each group.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. If a dry spirometer is used, the tidal volume readings are not very accurate. Somewhat better readings are obtained if the student exhales three times into the spirometer and divides the result by three. 2. Students will have to adjust the pneumograph until a good recording can be made. Be sure that it fits comfortably around the chest. Check all connections for a good fit, and if a tambour is used, be sure the rubber is intact. (This can be easily replaced using rubber sheeting. Use a good adhesive to reattach the clip.) 3. When using the pneumograph, be sure that students can correctly interpret the tracings. On some equipment, inspiration results in a downward deflection of the pointer (opposite the direction noted on the spirometer tracing in Figure 37A.2). 4. Students may be confused about hyperventilation. The forced hyperventilation here results in a decreased breathing rate. Hyperventilation during psychological stress can produce a positive feedback situation, resulting in further hyperventilation. As hypocapnia increases, cerebral vessels constrict and increasingly acidotic conditions in the brain stimulate the medullary respiratory centers. Rebreathing breathed air in the latter case raises blood PCO2, reverses the cerebral vessel constriction, and stops the hyperventilation. 5. For the experiment in Role of the Respiratory System in Acid-Base Balance of Blood, if you wish to avoid using concentrated acid and base and conserve pH buffer, you can scale down the experiment by using 1 M NaOH, 1 M HCl, and 50 milliliters of pH 7 buffer.

248

Exercise 37A

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Operating the Model Lung (pp. 549–501) 3. They deflate. 4. The walls of the human thorax expand and collapse bringing about changes in thoracic volume. In the model, the bottle walls are rigid. All changes in thoracic volume are realized only by the diaphragm. In real lungs, the intrapleural cavity is a fluid-filled space with pleural fluid maintaining the lungs expanded against the rib cage. In the model, this cavity is air filled though sealed. Consequently, the simulation of a pneumothorax is not as significant as would occur in the biologic system. Activity 5: Measuring Respiratory Volumes Using BIOPAC (pp. 560–564)
Data Analysis

11. Generally, the taller and larger a subject is, the larger will be the vital capacity. This is because a larger person requires more oxygen for cellular respiration. Other factors that can affect vital capacity include: aerobic conditioning of the subject, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, smoking, etc. Activity 6: Visualizing Respiratory Variations Using the Physiograph-Pneumograph Apparatus (pp. 564–565)
Using the Physiograph-Pneumograph Apparatus

4. During breath holding, the subject has the desire to expire. After a deep and forceful exhalation, the urge is to inspire. This may be explained by the Hering-Breuer reflex. Stretch receptors in the lungs are sensitive to extreme inflation and extreme deflation of the lungs. Impulses to the medulla oblongata initiate expiration or inspiration respectively. 5. The hyperventilation tracing should be similar in height and depth to the vital capacity tracing, but with an increased rate. After hyperventilation, the breathing rate slows down. 6. Breath-holding time increases after hyperventilation. 7. After 3 minutes of rebreathing breathed air, the ventilation rate increases. It is much faster than the breathing rate after hyperventilating. 9. Forced expiration results in dilation of the neck and face veins. Increased intrathoracic pressure reduces blood flow back to the heart, decreasing cardiac output. This results in increased cardiac rate (seen here as increased pulse rate). Activity 7: Demonstrating the Reaction Between Carbon Dioxide (in Exhaled Air) and Water (p. 567) 3. Carbon dioxide in the exhaled air combines with water to form carbonic acid, lowering the pH of the solution. The phenol red in the water changes from red to yellow.

Exercise 37A

249

Activity 8: Observing the Operation of Standard Buffers (p. 567) 4. The buffer system should resist change in pH. The contrast between the pH change with water alone and the pH change with buffer should be clear. Activity 9: Exploring the Operation of the Carbonic Acid–Bicarbonate Buffer System (p. 567) 4. When testing the plasma carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system, it is the bicarbonate that counteracts the change in pH.

250

Exercise 37A

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

37A
Decreased

Respiratory System Physiology
Mechanics of Respiration
1. For each of the following cases, check the column appropriate to your observations on the operation of the model lung.

Diaphragm pushed up Change In internal volume of the bell jar (thoracic cage) In internal pressure ✓ ✓ Into lungs Out of lungs ✓ Increased Decreased ✓

Diaphragm pulled down Increased ✓

✓ ✓ Into lungs ✓ Out of lungs

In the size of the balloons (lungs)

In direction of air flow

2. Base your answers to the following on your observations in question 1. Under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs? ↑ thoracic volume, and ↓ pressure.

Under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs? Explain why this is so. ↓ thoracic volume, ↑ pressure.
Gases move in the direction that tends to equalize pressure inside and outside the “container.”

3. Activation of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins the inspiratory process. What effect does contraction of these muscles have on thoracic volume, and how is this accomplished? ↑ thoracic volume. The diaphragm moves inferiorly, increasing the superior-inferior dimension; the ribs swing up and out, increasing the lateral and anterior/posterior dimensions.

4. What was the approximate increase in diameter of chest circumference during a quiet inspiration? (student data) During forced inspiration? (student data) inches

inches

251

What temporary physiological advantage is created by the substantial increase in chest circumference during forced inspiration? Increases the thoracic volume more; therefore, creates a greater negative internal pressure, causing the gases to rush in quickly. Also, more “fresh” air reaches the alveoli.

5. The presence of a partial vacuum between the pleural membranes is integral to normal breathing movements. What would happen if an opening were made into the chest cavity, as with a puncture wound?
Destroys the partial vacuum in the pleural space and the lung on the affected side collapses.

How is this condition treated medically? Air is withdrawn (chest tube) and the chest is closed.

Respiratory Sounds
6. Which of the respiratory sounds is heard during both inspiration and expiration? Bronchial Which is heard primarily during inspiration? Vesicular 7. Where did you best hear the vesicular respiratory sounds? Heard over most of the lung area.

Respiratory Volumes and Capacities—Spirometry or BIOPAC
8. Write the respiratory volume term and the normal value that is described by the following statements. Volume of air present in the lungs after a forceful expiration: residual volume (~1100 ml) Volume of air that can be expired forcibly after a normal expiration: expiratory reserve (~1200 ml) Volume of air that is breathed in and out during a normal respiration: tidal volume (~500 ml) Volume of air that can be inspired forcibly after a normal inspiration: inspiratory reserve (~2700–2800 ml) Volume of air corresponding to TV IRV ERV: vital capacity (~4800 ml)

9. Record experimental respiratory volumes as determined in the laboratory. (Corrected values are for the recording spirometer only.) Average TV: (student data) Corrected value for TV: (student data) Average IRV: (student data) Corrected value for IRV: (student data) MRV: (student data) ml ml ml ml ml/min Average ERV: (student data) Corrected value for ERV: (student data) Average VC: (student data) Corrected value for VC: (student data) % predicted VC: (student data) FEV1: (student data) ml ml ml ml % % FVC

252

Review Sheet 37A

10. Would your vital capacity measurement differ if you performed the test while standing? Yes
Yes

While lying down?

Explain. When lying down or sitting, the abdominal organs press against the diaphragm, making it more difficult for the

diaphragm to move inferiorly.

11. Which respiratory ailments can respiratory volume tests be used to detect?
Chronic bronchitis and emphysema (often associated). Chronic bronchitis ↓ the volume of air that can be inhaled due to excessive mucus production; emphysema ↓ the amount of air that can be exhaled (check-valve effect).

12. Using an appropriate reference, complete the chart below.
O2 Inspired % of composition of air Expired ~16% ~4% ~74% ~21% CO2 ~0.04% N2 ~78%

Factors Influencing Rate and Depth of Respiration
13. Where are the neural control centers of respiratory rhythm? medulla oblongata and pons For questions 14–21, use your Activity 6 data (the pneumograph-physiograph recording or visual count). 14. In your data, what was the rate of quiet breathing? Initial testing (student data) breaths/min

Record observations of how the initial pneumograph recording was modified during the various testing procedures described below. Indicate the respiratory rate, and include comments on the relative depth of the respiratory peaks observed.
Test performed Talking Yawning Laughing Standing Concentrating Swallowing water Coughing Lying down Running in place Observations Respiratory rate becomes irregular during talking. Yawning is reflected by extremely deep prolonged inspiration. Respiratory rate becomes irregular. Respiratory depth may be ↑ or ↓ depending on the nature of the laugh. Regular rhythm and rate. Respiratory rate is regular unless punctuated by intervals of apnea in individuals who hold their breath when concentrating. Respiration ceases during the period of swallowing. Respiration rate becomes irregular and marked by ↑ depth of expirations during coughing. Regular rhythm and regular (or slightly depressed) rate. Depth decreases. Increased rate and depth of breathing.

Review Sheet 37A

253

15. Record student data below. Breath-holding interval after a deep inhalation: (s.d.) Breath-holding interval after a forceful expiration: (s.d.) sec sec length of recovery period: (s.d.) length of recovery period: (s.d.) sec sec

After breathing quietly and taking a deep breath (which you held), was your urge to inspire or expire? expire After exhaling and then holding one’s breath, was the desire for inspiration or expiration? inspiration Explain these results. (Hint: What reflex is involved here?) Hering-Breuer reflex. Both extreme deflation and inflation of the lungs excites receptors there. Impulses are transmitted to the medulla oblongata, which then initiates inspiration or expiration (respectively).

16. Observations after hyperventilation: (student data)

17. Length of breath holding after hyperventilation: (s.d.)

sec

Why does hyperventilation produce apnea or a reduced respiratory rate? Hyperventilation washes CO2 out of the blood. Since
CO2 is the major chemical stimulus for inspiration, the desire or drive to breathe is decreased.

18. Observations for rebreathing breathed air: (student data)

Why does rebreathing breathed air produce an increased respiratory rate? CO2 (exhaled) accumulates in the bag; this stimulates increased force/rate of respiration.

19. What was the effect of running in place (exercise) on the duration of breath holding? ↓ the duration. Explain this effect. The body’s need to get rid of CO2 and obtain oxygen is increased by exercise.

20. Record student data from the test illustrating the effect of respiration on circulation. Radial pulse before beginning test: Relative pulse force before beginning test: Condition of neck and facial veins after testing: Explain these data.
Forced expiration increases intrathoracic pressure, reducing blood flow back to the heart, resulting in dilation of

/min

Radial pulse after testing:

/min

Relative force of radial pulse after testing:

the neck and facial veins. Decreased cardiac output results in increased cardiac rate (seen here as increased pulse rate).

254

Review Sheet 37A

21. Do the following factors generally increase (indicate with I) or decrease (indicate with D) the respiratory rate and depth? increase in blood CO2: I decrease in blood O2: I increase in blood pH: D decrease in blood pH: I

Did it appear that CO2 or O2 had a more marked effect on modifying the respiratory rate? CO2 22. Where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in blood pressure located? Aortic arch and carotid sinus.

23. Where are sensory receptors sensitive to changes in O2 levels in the blood located? Aortic bodies in the aortic arch and carotid bodies at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery

24. What is the primary factor that initiates breathing in a newborn infant? ↑ levels of CO2 in the blood.

25. Blood CO2 levels and blood pH are related. When blood CO2 levels increase, does the pH increase or decrease?
Decrease

Explain why. CO2 combines with water (H2O) to produce carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissoci-

ates and liberates a hydrogen ion (H ).

26. Which, if any, of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely be exaggerated in a person who is cardiovascularly fit, such as a runner or a swimmer?
VC, IRV, ERV, FEV would all be increased.

Which, if any, of the measurable respiratory volumes would likely be exaggerated in a person who has smoked a lot for over twenty years?
VC, IRV, ERV, FEV would all be reduced.

Role of the Respiratory System in Acid-Base Balance of Blood
27. Define buffer. A molecule or molecular system that acts to resist changes in pH. 28. How successful was the laboratory buffer (pH 7) in resisting changes in pH when the acid was added?
(student data) (Anticipated response: very successful.)

When the base was added? (student data) (Anticipated response: very successful.) How successful was the buffer in resisting changes in pH when the additional aliquots (3 more drops) of the acid and base were added to the original samples? Successful; only slight pH changes are seen.

Review Sheet 37A

255

29. What buffer system operates in blood plasma? Carbonic acid–bicarbonate system. Which member of the buffer system resists a drop in pH? HCO3 Which resists a rise in pH? H2CO3

30. Explain how the carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system of the blood operates. H2CO3, a weak acid, remains undissociated at physiologic pH or acid pH. However, if the pH starts to rise, H2CO3 dissociates and liberates H , which acts to ↓ the pH. HCO3 (bicarbonate ion) is the “alkaline reserve”; it acts to tie up excess H into H2CO3 when the environment becomes too acidic. Since it is a weak base, it does not function under physiologic or alkaline conditions.

31. What happened when the carbon dioxide in exhaled air mixed with water? Phenol red turned yellow as CO2 mixed with water to form carbonic acid.

What role does exhalation of carbon dioxide play in maintaining relatively constant blood pH? CO2 leaves the blood during exhalation. This prevents an accumulation of carbonic acid.

256

Review Sheet 37A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

38

Anatomy of the Digestive System
Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Digestive System: The Power Plant (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Food Machine (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Digestive System (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS, DVD, CD-ROM) The Human Digestive System (AIMS, 18 minutes, VHS) Human Digestive System Videotape (BC, 33 minutes, VHS) Interactive Physiology: Digestive System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Orientation Anatomy Review Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out the dissectible torso model and anatomical charts of the human digestive system. 2. Set out models of a villus and the liver, if available; a jaw model; and/or a human skull. 3. Set out slides of liver, mixed salivary glands, pancreas; longitudinal sections of the gastroesophageal junction and a tooth; cross sections of the stomach, duodenum, and ileum; lens paper and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes and hand lenses available.

257

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Studying the Histological Structure of Selected Digestive System Organs (p. 581)
Stomach

The extra layer of smooth muscle produces the churning movement because of the additional planes in which contraction can take place.
Gastroesophageal Junction

The esophagus is lined with stratified squamous epithelium, while the stomach is lined with simple columnar epithelium. The esophagus is designed to handle abrasion. The stomach lining has secretory and some absorptive functions. The stomach is designed to resist acid and the esophagus is not. Activity 3: Observing the Histological Structure of the Small Intestine (pp. 584–585)
Duodenum

Simple columnar epithelium lines the duodenum.
Ileum

Peyer’s patches are lymphatic tissue.

258

Exercise 38

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

38

Anatomy of the Digestive System
General Histological Plan of the Alimentary Canal
1. The general anatomical features of the alimentary canal are listed below. Fill in the table to complete the information.
Subdivisions of the layer (if applicable) 1) epithelium; 2) lamina propria; 3) muscularis mucosa (not applicable) 1) circular layer 2) longitudinal layer (not applicable)

Wall layer mucosa submucosa muscularis externa serosa or adventitia

Major functions absorption secretion vascular supply for mucosa; protection churning; mixing; propulsion of food along the tract protection and anchoring for adventitia; reduction of friction for abdominal organs by serosa

Organs of the Alimentary Canal
2. The tubelike digestive system canal that extends from the mouth to the anus is known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

3. How is the muscularis externa of the stomach modified? It has a third (obliquely oriented) muscle layer. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ How does this modification relate to the function of the stomach? Vigorous churning activity occurs here. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________ 4. What transition in epithelial type exists at the gastroesophageal junction?
Changes from stratified squamous (esophagus) to

simple columnar (stomach) ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

How do the epithelia of these two organs relate to their specific functions? The esophagus is subjected to constant abrasion
(stratified squamous is well adapted for this). The stomach has secretory (and some absorptive) functions and is better protected from acid. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

5. Differentiate between the colon and the large intestine. The large intestine includes the colon, but also includes the cecum, vermiform appendix, rectum, and anal canal. ____________________________________________________________

_______________________________________

259

6. Match the items in column B with the descriptive statements in column A. Column A l y p c n w q f d s h m i t e j x b v k t r u t o j a g

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. anus appendix circular folds esophagus frenulum greater omentum hard palate haustra ileocecal valve large intestine lesser omentum mesentery

1. 2. 3. 4. , v 6. 7. , k 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area for absorption large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine deep folds of the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine 5. regions that break down foodstuffs mechanically

mobile organ that manipulates food in the mouth and initiates swallowing conduit for both air and food , l 8. three structures continuous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum the “gullet”; no digestive/absorptive function folds of the gastric mucosa sacculations of the large intestine projections of the plasma membrane of a mucosal epithelial cell valve at the junction of the small and large intestines primary region of food and water absorption membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth absorbs water and forms feces area between the teeth and lips/cheeks wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum initiates protein digestion structure attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach organ distal to the stomach valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall principal site for the synthesis of vitamin K by microorganisms region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body bone-supported anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity

m. microvilli n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. oral cavity parietal peritoneum Peyer’s patches pharynx pyloric valve rugae small intestine soft palate stomach

w. tongue x. y. z. vestibule villi visceral peritoneum

260

Review Sheet 38

7. Correctly identify all organs depicted in the diagram below.

Oral cavity proper

Parotid gland and duct

Vestibule

Sublingual gland and ducts Submandibular gland and duct

Pharynx

Esophagus

Gallbladder Cardiac region of the stomach Liver Hepatic duct Cystic duct Common bile duct Duodenum Pancreatic duct Hepatic flexure (right colic flexure) Jejunum Descending colon Ascending colon Sigmoid colon Ileum Ileocecal junction Cecum Appendix Rectum Anal sphincters (Anal canal) Anus Splenic flexure (left colic flexure) Pancreas with duct Pyloric portion of the stomach

Transverse colon

Review Sheet 38

261

8. You have studied the histological structure of a number of organs in this laboratory. Three of these are diagrammed below. Identify and correctly label each. gastric pit simple columnar epithelium lamina propria villi

villi

gastric gland Peyer’s patches stomach (a) ____________________ ileum (distal small intestine) (b) ________________________ duodenum (proximal (c) ____________________ small intestine)

intestinal gland duodenal gland

Accessory Digestive Organs
9. Correctly label all structures provided with leader lines in the diagram of a molar below. (Note: Some of the terms in the key for question 10 may be helpful in this task.)

Enamel Dentin Crown Pulp cavity

Gingiva
Neck

Peridontal ligament
Bone

Root

Cementum Root canal

Blood vessels and nerves in pulp

262

Review Sheet 38

10. Use the key to identify each tooth area described below. c b e h j d g i a

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

anatomical crown cementum clinical crown dentin enamel gingiva odontoblast periodontal ligament pulp root .

1. visible portion of the tooth in situ 2. material covering the tooth root 3. hardest substance in the body 4. attaches the tooth to bone and surrounding alveolar structures 5. portion of the tooth embedded in bone 6. forms the major portion of tooth structure; similar to bone 7. produces the dentin 8. site of blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics 9. entire portion of the tooth covered with enamel ; the number of permanent teeth is 32 2

11. In the human, the number of deciduous teeth is 20 12. The dental formula for permanent teeth is 2,1,2,3 2,1,2,3

Explain what this means. There are 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars in each jaw (upper and lower) from the median line posteriorly. 2, 1, 0, 2 2, 1, 0, 2

What is the dental formula for the deciduous teeth?

2

20

13. What teeth are the “wisdom teeth”? The number 3 (most posterior) molars. 14. Various types of glands form a part of the alimentary tube wall or duct their secretions into it. Match the glands listed in column B with the function/locations described in column A. Column A a f

Column B a. b. c. duodenal glands gastric glands intestinal crypts liver pancreas salivary glands

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

produce(s) mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine produce(s) a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth produce(s) a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted into the duodenum produce(s) bile that it secretes into the duodenum via the bile duct produce(s) HCl and pepsinogen found in the mucosa of the small intestine; produce(s) intestinal juice

e

d. e. f.

d b c

15. Which of the salivary glands produces a secretion that is mainly serous? Parotid.

Review Sheet 38

263

16. What is the role of the gallbladder? To store and concentrate bile made by the liver. 17. Name three structures always found in the portal triad regions of the liver. Branch of the bile duct branch of hepatic artery

,

and branch of hepatic portal vein

18. Where would you expect to find the Kupffer cells of the liver? Lining the sinusoids. What is their function? Phagocytosis of debris and worn-out blood cells. 19. Why is the liver so dark red in the living animal? Because it is a blood reservoir.

20. The pancreas has two major populations of secretory cells—those in the islets and the acinar cells. Which population serves the digestive process? Acinar cells.

264

Review Sheet 38

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

39 A

Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Wet Lab
Time Allotment: 3 hours. (Two parts of the exercise require 2-hour incubations.) Muiltimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Breakdown (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Digestion: Eating to Live (FHS, 27 minutes, VHS) The Food Machine (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Digestive System (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) The Human Digestive System (AIMS, 18 minutes, VHS, DVD, CD-ROM) The Human Digestive System Video (WNS, 18 minutes, VHS) Interactive Physiology: Digestive System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Control of the Digestive System Motility Secretion Digestion and Absorption Solutions: Alpha-Amylase, 1% Weigh out 1 gram of alpha-amylase. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. For best results, be sure that the enzyme is not standardized with maltose. BAPNA, .01% Weigh out .01 gram BAPNA. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Benedict’s Solution • 173.0 grams sodium citrate • 100.0 grams sodium carbonate, anhydrous • 17.3 grams cupric sulfate (pure crystalline) Add the citrate and carbonate salts to 700–800 milliliters distilled water. Heat to dissolve. Add the cupric sulfate to 100 milliliters distilled water and heat to dissolve. Cool the solutions and then combine. Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution.

265

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 0.1 N Add 8 milliliters concentrated HCl to 900 milliliters distilled water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter; or dilute 100 milliliters of 1 N HCl to a final volume of 1 liter with distilled water. Litmus Cream Add powdered litmus to fresh cream to achieve a blue color. Lugol’s Iodine (IKI) • 20 grams potassium iodide • 4 grams iodine crystals Dissolve potassium iodide in 1 liter distilled water. Add the iodine crystals and stir to dissolve. Store in dark bottles. Maltose, 1% Weigh out 1 gram maltose. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Pancreatin, 1% Weigh out 1 gram pancreatin. Dissolve in distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Starch Solution, Boiled, 1% Add 1 gram of starch to 100 milliliters distilled water. Boil just until it changes from cloudy to translucent. Cool and filter. Add a pinch of NaCl. Prepare fresh daily. For best results, use potato starch from a biological supply house. Trypsin, 1% Weigh out 1 gram trypsin. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters.

Advance Preparation
1. Put a chart on the board for recording class results. 2. Decide how to divide the class into groups to do the experiments. 3. Set up five supply areas. General supply area (for a class of 24, divided into six groups of four each): 144 test tubes, 6 test tube racks, 6 test tube holders, and 6 wax marking pencils, hot plates, 250-milliliter beakers, ice water bath, 37°C water bath, boiling chips (biological supply company), and dropper bottles of distilled water. Supply area 1 (for each group of four students): Dropper bottles of distilled water, 1% boiled starch solution, freshly prepared, 1% amylase solution, 1% maltose solution, Lugol’s solution (biological supply company), Benedict’s solution (biological supply company), and spot plates. Supply area 2 (for each group of four students): Dropper bottles of 1% trypsin (Sigma) and .01% BAPNA (Sigma).

266

Exercise 39A

Supply area 3 (for each group of four students): Bile salts, parafilm, and dropper bottles of 1% pancreatin solution, 0.1 N HCl, vegetable oil, and litmus cream (litmus powder—biological supply company). Supply area 4 (for each group of four students): Pitcher of water, four paper cups, a stethoscope, disposable autoclave bag, and alcohol swabs. 4. Set up a VHS viewing area with The Human Digestive System video (WARD’S) to allow independent viewing by students. This is an 18-minute film.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. This lab requires a great deal of organization and coordination on the part of the students. Emphasize the need for careful labeling and record keeping. 2. If a 37°C water bath is not available, incubate the tubes at room temperature and double the incubation time. 3. Enzyme activity can vary. Enzyme solutions should be prepared just before the lab and adjusted for appropriate activity. 4. An alternative to having each group perform each activity is to assign each activity to a different group. At the end of the lab period, have each group present their data along with an explanation of their activity to all of the students.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Demonstrating the Emulsification Action of Bile and Assessing Fat Digestion by Lipase (pp. 601–602) 2. Emulsification occurs in the tubes containing bile salts. Activity 5: Observing Movements and Sounds of Digestion (pp. 603–604) 2. Before swallowing, the tongue raises to touch the hard palate, remains raised during swallowing, then relaxes after swallowing. 3. Superior movement of the larynx ensures that its passageway is covered by the epiglottis.

Exercise 39A

267

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

39 A

Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Wet Lab
Chemical Digestion of Foodstuffs: Enzymatic Action
1. Match the following definitions with the proper choices from the key. Key: a. catalyst 1. 2. 3. 4. b. control c. enzyme d. substrate

a; catalyst b; control c; enzyme d; substrate

increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product provides a standard of comparison for test results biologic catalyst; protein in nature substance on which a catalyst works

2. List the three characteristics of enzymes. Specificity (act on one or a small number of substrates); temperature specific; pH specific.

3. The enzymes of the digestive system are classified as hydrolases. What does this mean?
Hydrolases break down organic food molecules by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers.

4. Fill in the following chart about the various digestive system enzymes encountered in this exercise.

Enzyme Salivary amylase Trypsin Lipase (pancreatic)

Organ producing it salivary glands pancreas pancreas

Site of action oral cavity small intestine small intestine

Substrate(s) starch proteins fats

Optimal pH 6.7-7.0 8.0 7.4-8.0

5. Name the end products of digestion for the following types of foods. proteins: amino acids fats: fatty acids carbohydrates: simple sugars and glycerol (monoglycerides)

269

6. You used several indicators or tests in the laboratory to determine the presence or absence of certain substances. Choose the correct test or indicator from the key to correspond to the condition described below. Key: a. d a c b

Lugol’s iodine (IKI)

b.

Benedict’s solution

c.

litmus

d.

BAPNA

1. used to test for protein hydrolysis, which was indicated by a yellow color 2. used to test for the presence of starch, which was indicated by a blue-black color 3. used to test for the presence of fatty acids, which was evidenced by a color change from blue to pink 4. used to test for the presence of reducing sugars (maltose, sucrose, glucose) as indicated by a blue to green or orange color change

7. What conclusions can you draw when an experimental sample gives both a positive starch test and a positive maltose test after incubation? Starch digestion is partial (incomplete). Why was 37°C the optimal incubation temperature? It is body temperature. Why did very little, if any, starch digestion occur in test tube 4A? The enzyme was destroyed by boiling.

If starch was incubated with amylase at 0°C, would you expect to see any starch digestion? No Why or why not? Amylase has an optimal temperature closer to that of the human body. At 0°C, the rate of enzyme activity and diffusion of enzymes and substrate has slowed to near zero.

Assume you have made the statement to a group of your peers that amylase is capable of starch hydrolysis to maltose. If you had not done control tube 2A, what objection to your statement could be raised? A positive maltose test could also result from maltose contamination of the starting amylase solution.

What if you had not done tube 1A? A negative Benedict’s test indicates starch was not contaminated with maltose. 8. In the exercise concerning trypsin function, why was an enzyme assay like Benedict’s or Lugol’s IKI (which test for the presence of a reaction product) not necessary? in a yellow color. Why was tube 1T necessary? Tube 1T was a control to prove that trypsin did not turn yellow by itself. Why was tube 2T necessary? Tube 2T proved that BAPNA did not turn yellow by itself. Trypsin is a protease similar to pepsin, the protein-digesting enzyme in the stomach. Would trypsin work well in the
No stomach? ____________ Why? The pH optimum for trypsin is slightly basic; the pH optimum for pepsin is acidic (stomach is acidic). The enzyme assay is “built in” to the substrate BAPNA. Peptide bond cleavage results

9. In the procedure concerning pancreatic lipase digestion of fats and the action of bile salts, how did the appearance of tubes 1E and 2E differ? 1E—2 layers; oil over water. 2E—fat droplets dispersed.

Explain the reason for the difference. Bile, present in tube 2E, acted to emulsify the fat.

270

Review Sheet 39A

Why did the litmus indicator change from blue to pink during fat hydrolysis? Fatty acids decreased the pH. Litmus in the cream is an indicator that changes from blue to red as the pH changes from alkaline to acidic conditions. Bile only physically separates the fat droplets. It does not break the molecular bonds as do Why is bile not considered an enzyme? the digestive enzymes. The tubes containing bile showed more hydrolysis How did the tubes containing bile compare with those not containing bile? than those not containing bile.

What role does bile play in fat digestion? Emulsification of fat by bile increases the surface area for lipase activity.

10. The three-dimensional structure of a functional protein is altered by intense heat or nonphysiological pH even though peptide bonds may not break. Such inactivation is called denaturation, and denatured enzymes are nonfunctional. Explain why.
Their three-dimensional structures and active sites are necessary for their activity. If their structures are changed, the active sites change, thus inactivating the enzyme.

What specific experimental conditions resulted in denatured enzymes? Boiling the enzyme solution in all experiments denatured the enzymes.

11. Pancreatic and intestinal enzymes operate optimally at a pH that is slightly alkaline, yet the chyme entering the duodenum from the stomach is very acid. How is the proper pH for the functioning of the pancreatic-intestinal enzymes ensured?
The pancreas delivers its enzymes to the small intestine in an alkaline-rich (HCO3 ) fluid.

12. Assume you have been chewing a piece of bread for 5 or 6 minutes. How would you expect its taste to change during this interval? The bread would begin to taste sweet. Why? Starch is broken down to maltose by amylase. 13. Note the mechanism of absorption (passive or active transport) of the following food breakdown products, and indicate by a check mark (✓) whether the absorption would result in their movement into the blood capillaries or the lymph capillaries (lacteals).
Substance Monosaccharides Fatty acids and glycerol Amino acids Water Na , Cl , Ca2 Mechanism of absorption Most by active transport Diffusion Active transport Osmosis (diffusion) Na , Ca2 active transport; Cl diffusion Blood ✓ Some ✓ ✓ ✓ Most Lymph

14. People on a strict diet to lose weight begin to metabolize stored fats at an accelerated rate. How does this condition affect blood pH? It would become acidic (decreased pH).
271

Review Sheet 39A

15. Using a flowchart, trace the pathway of a ham sandwich (ham = protein and fat; bread = starch) from the mouth to the site of absorption of its breakdown products, noting where digestion occurs and what specific enzymes are involved.
Site of digestion mouth stomach ham fat salivary lipase (small amount) monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol bread (starch) salivary amylase dextrins, maltose

pepsin proteoses peptones

small intestine

trypsin chymotrypsin etc. (from pancreas) small polypeptides, dipeptides amino- and dipeptidases of intestinal brush border amino acids

lipases (pancreatic)

pancreatic amylase

maltose intestinal enzyme (maltase)

monoglyderides, fatty acids and glycerol

glucose

16. Some of the digestive organs have groups of secretory cells that liberate hormones (parahormones) into the blood. These exert an effect on the digestive process by acting on other cells or structures and causing them to release digestive enzymes, expel bile, or increase the motility of the digestive tract. For each hormone below, note the organ producing the hormone and its effects on the digestive process. Include the target organs affected.
Hormone Secretin Gastrin Cholecystokinin Produced by intestinal mucosa stomach cells intestinal cells Target organ(s) and effects It stimulates (1) the pancreas and liver to release bicarbonate-rich fluid, and (2) the liver to secrete bile. Gastrin acts on the stomach glands to increase their secretory activity (particularly of HCl). It stimulates release of enzymes from the pancreas, causes gall bladder contraction, and inhibits gastric secretion.

Physical Processes: Mechanisms of Food Propulsion and Mixing
17. Complete the following statements. Swallowing, or 1 , occurs in two phases—the 2 and 3 . One of these phases, the 4 phase, is voluntary. During the voluntary phase, the 5 is used to push the food into the back of the throat. During swallowing, the 6 rises to ensure that its passageway is covered by the epiglottis so that the ingested substances don’t enter the respiratory passageways. It is possible to swallow water while standing on your head because the water is carried along the esophagus involuntarily by the process of 7 . The pressure exerted by the foodstuffs on the 8 sphincter causes it to open, allowing the foodstuffs to enter the stomach. The two major types of propulsive movements that occur in the small intestine are 9 and 10 . One of these movements, the 11 , acts to continually mix the foods and to increase the absorption rate by moving different parts of the chyme mass over the intestinal mucosa, but it has less of a role in moving foods along the digestive tract.
272 Review Sheet 39A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

deglutition buccal pharyngeal-esophageal buccal tongue larynx

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

peristalsis gastroesophageal peristaltic segmental segmental

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

40

Anatomy of the Urinary System
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Human Urinary System Videotape (BC, 23 minutes, VHS) The Kidney (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Urinary Tract: Water! (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Interactive Physiology: Urinary System (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy Review Glomerular Filtration Early Filtrate Processing Late Filtrate Processing Interactive Physiology: Fluids and Electrolytes (BC, CD-ROM, or www.interactivephysiology.com) Introduction to Body Fluids Water Homeostasis Electrolyte Homeostasis Acid/base Homeostasis Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage, disposal, and cleanup of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health, the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts for state regulations. 2. Set out disposable gloves and safety glasses. 3. Set out dissecting kits, dissecting pans, and pig or sheep kidneys.

273

4. Set out slides of longitudinal sections of the kidney and cross sections of the bladder; lens paper; and lens cleaning solution. Have compound microscopes available. 5. Set out the dissectible human torso and/or any anatomical charts and models of the urinary system, kidney, and nephron.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Studying Bladder Structure (p. 616) 5. Both organs have an internal mucosa, a layer of smooth muscle, and an external adventitia. The ureter has only two layers of smooth muscle.

274

Exercise 40

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

40

Anatomy of the Urinary System
Gross Anatomy of the Human Urinary System
1. Complete the following statements. The kidney is referred to as an excretory organ because it excretes 1 wastes. It is also a major homeostatic organ because it maintains the electrolyte, 2 , and 3 balance of the blood. Urine is continuously formed by the 4 and is routed down the 5 by the mechanism of 6 to a storage organ called the 7 . Eventually, the urine is conducted to the body 8 by the urethra. In the male, the urethra is 9 centimeters long and transports both urine and 10 . The female urethra is 11 centimeters long and transports only urine. Voiding or emptying the bladder is called 12 . Voiding has both voluntary and involuntary components. The voluntary sphincter is the 13 sphincter. An inability to control this sphincter is referred to as 14 . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. nitrogenous water acid-base kidneys ureters peristalsis urinary bladder exterior 20 (8 inches) semen 4 (1.5 inches) micturition external urethral incontinence

2. What is the function of the fat cushion that surrounds the kidneys in life? Helps to anchor the kidneys to the dorsal body wall and cushions it against blows.

3. Define ptosis. Dropping of the kidney(s) to a more inferior position in the abdominal cavity.

4. Why is incontinence a normal phenomenon in the child under 11⁄2 to 2 years old? Muscular control over the voluntary sphincter has not yet been achieved.

What events may lead to its occurrence in the adult? Emotional problems; bladder irritability (as in infection); increased pressure on the bladder (as in pregnancy); nerve or spinal cord injury; and others.

275

5. Complete the labeling of the diagram to correctly identify the urinary system organs.

Hepatic veins (cut)

Inferior vena cava Renal vein Renal hilus Kidney
Aorta Adrenal gland

Renal artery Renal vein

Ureter

Iliac crest

Rectum

Bladder Urethra

Gross Internal Anatomy of the Pig or Sheep Kidney
6. Match the appropriate structure in column B to its description in column A. Column A d b a a f c e

Column B a. b. c. d. e. f. cortex medulla minor calyx fibrous capsule renal column renal pelvis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

smooth membrane, tightly adherent to the kidney surface portion of the kidney containing mostly collecting ducts portion of the kidney containing the bulk of the nephron structures superficial region of kidney tissue basinlike area of the kidney, continuous with the ureter a cup-shaped extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid area of cortical tissue running between the medullary pyramids

276

Review Sheet 40

Functional Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney and Bladder
7. Match each lettered structure in the diagram of the nephron (and associated renal blood supply) with the correct name in the numbered list. o a n m l

1. afferent arteriole 2. arcuate artery 3. arcuate vein 4. collecting duct 5. cortical radiate artery 6. cortical radiate vein 7. distal convoluted tubule 8. efferent arteriole 9. glomerular capsule 10. glomerulus 11. interlobar artery 12. interlobar vein 13. loop of Henle 14. peritubular capillaries 15. proximal convoluted tubule

e f i c k a

b c d e j

d l b o

f

n g h i

g h j k m

8. Use the terms provided in question 7 to identify the following descriptions. glomerulus (n) proximal convoluted tubule (m) distal convoluted tubule (l) collecting duct (i) peritubular capillaries (k) glomerular capsule (o)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

site of filtrate formation primary site of tubular reabsorption secondarily important site of tubular reabsorption structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane

9. Explain why the glomerulus is such a high-pressure capillary bed. It is both fed and drained by arterioles (which are highpressure vessels compared to venules), and the afferent arteriole has a larger diameter than the efferent arteriole.

How does its high-pressure condition aid its function of filtrate formation? The higher the capillary pressure, the more filtrate will be formed.

Review Sheet 40

277

10. What structural modification of certain tubule cells enhances their ability to reabsorb substances from the filtrate?
Their possession of dense microvilli (especially the PCT cells).

11. Explain the mechanism of tubular secretion, and explain its importance in the urine formation process. Tubular secretion is the process of moving substances from the tubule cells or from the peritubular capillary blood into the tubule filtrate. It is important for adjusting pH and eliminating substances not already in the filtrate.

12. Compare and contrast the composition of blood plasma and glomerular filtrate. Glomerular filtrate most of the blood proteins.

blood plasma without

13. Trace a drop of blood from the time it enters the kidney via the renal artery until it leaves the kidney through the renal vein. Renal artery → segmental A. → lobar A. → arcuate A. → cortical radiate A. → afferent arteriole → glomerulus → efferent arteriole
→ peritubular capillary bed → cortical radiate V. → arcuate V. → interlobar V.

→ renal vein 14. Define juxtaglomerular apparatus. Macula densa cells of the ascending limb of Loop of Henle and granular juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole that play a role in regulating the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure.

15. Label the figure using the key letters of the correct terms. Key: a. b. c. d. e. juxtaglomerular cells cuboidal epithelium macula densa glomerular capsule (parietal layer) distal convoluted tubule d b a c e

16. Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsule to the urethra. Note each microscopic and/or gross structure it passes through in its travels. Name the subdivisions of the renal tubule. Glomerular capsule → proximal convoluted tubule → loop of Henle → distal convoluted tubule → collecting duct → minor calyx → major calyx → renal pelvis → ureter → bladder

→ urethra 17. What is important functionally about the specialized epithelium (transitional epithelium) in the bladder?
The cells have the ability to move over one another as the bladder fills, thus decreasing the bladder wall thickness and increasing the internal bladder volume.

278

Review Sheet 40

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

41A
Urinalysis

Time Allotment: 1 hour. Solutions: Barium Chloride (BaCl), 10% Weigh out 10 grams of barium chloride. Add water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), Dilute, 3 N Add 258 milliliters of 36% HCl to 700 milliliters distilled water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter. Nitric Acid (HNO3), Dilute, 3 N Add 183 milliliters of 69% HNO3 to 700 milliliters distilled water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter. Silver Nitrate (AgNO3), 3% Weigh out 3 grams of silver nitrate. Use caution: This is an oxidizing substance. Add distilled water to make 100 milliliters of solution. Store in light-resistant bottles. Make fresh for each use. Urine, Artificial Normal Human* • 36.4 grams urea • 15 grams sodium chloride • 9.0 grams potassium chloride • 9.6 grams sodium phosphate • 4.0 grams creatinine • 100 milligrams albumin Add urea to 1.5 liters of distilled water. Mix until crystals dissolve. Add sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium phosphate. Mix until solution is clear. The pH should be within the 5 to 7 pH range for normal human urine. Adjust pH, if necessary, with 1 N HCl or 1 N NaOH. Place a urine hydrometer in the solution and dilute with water to a specific gravity within the range of 1.015 to 1.025. This stock solution may be refrigerated for several weeks or frozen for months. Before use, warm to room temperature and add 4.0 grams creatinine and 100 milligrams of albumin for each 2 liters of solution.

279

Urine, Glycosuria* For a minimally detectable level of glucose, add a minimum of 600 milligrams of glucose to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. For moderate to high glycosuria, add 2.5 to 5.0 grams of glucose to each liter of solution. Urine, Hematuria* Add 1 milliliter of heparinized or defibrinated sheep blood to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. Urine, Hemoglobinuria* Add 2 milligrams of bovine hemoglobin to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. Urine, Hyposthenuria* Add distilled water to a sample of “normal” urine until the specific gravity approaches 1.005. Urine, Ketonuria* Add a minimum of 100 milligrams of acetoacetic acid or at least 1 milliliter of acetone to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. Urine, Leukocyte Presence* Add 100 to 200 units of pork or rabbit liver esterase to 100 milliliters of the “normal” urine solution. This test must be performed immediately after adding the enzyme. Urine, pH Imbalance* Adjust “normal” urine to a pH of 4.0 to 4.5 with 1 N HCl for acid urine. Adjust “normal” urine to a pH of 8 to 9 with 1 N NaOH for alkaline urine. Urine, Proteinuria* Add 300 milligrams or more of albumin per liter of “normal” urine solution. For severe renal damage, add 1 gram of albumin to each liter of solution. Urine, Whole Spectrum Pathological Artificial Human* Mix appropriate amounts of abnormal condition reagents to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. Diabetes mellitus: glycosuria and ketonuria Glomerular damage: proteinuria, hemoglobinuria, and hematuria * From B. R. Shmaefsky, “Artificial Urine for Laboratory Testing,” American Biology Teacher 52 (3), March 1990, pp. 170–172 (Reston, VA: National Association of Biology Teachers). Reprinted with permission.

Advance Preparation
1. Prepare “normal” artificial urine (about 1 liter for a class of 30 students) and “pathological” artificial urine samples and number them.

280

Exercise 41A

2. Set out two laboratory buckets containing 10% bleach solution, and a disposable autoclave bag. Put a flask of 10% bleach solution and a sponge at each lab bench. 3. For each student in the class set out disposable gloves, five test tubes, a glass stirring rod, a test tube rack, a medicine dropper, a urinometer cylinder and float, microscope slides, coverslips, individual reagent strips (Clinistix, Ketostix, Hemastix, Bilistix—all available from Fisher), or combination strips (Chemstrip—Carolina or Multistix— Fisher), Clinitest tablets (Fisher), a 10-milliliter graduated cylinder, a wax marking pencil, Ictotest reagent tablet and mat (Fisher). Have compound microscopes, lens paper, and lens cleaning solution available. 4. For each group set out wide-range pH paper, a bottle containing 100 milliliters of 10% barium chloride, a bottle containing 100 milliliters of dilute ammonium molybdate (LabChem), a hot plate, a 500-milliliter beaker, and dropper bottles of dilute HCl, dilute HNO3, freshly prepared 3.0% silver nitrate, and concentrated HNO3. 5. Set up a demonstration slide of urine sediment stained with Sedi-stain (Fisher). To prepare the slide, centrifuge a 5-milliliter sample of urine at 2000 to 2500 rpm for 5 to 6 minutes. Decant the supernatant and add one or two drops of Sedi-stain to the pellet. Put stained material onto a slide and cover with a coverslip.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. When preparing pathological samples, do not substitute sucrose for glucose. Vitamin C contamination will give false positive glucose tests. The artificial urine is suitable for test strips, but not for use with clinical analyzers (Shmaefsky, 1990). 2. Urge students to use extreme caution when using the concentrated HCl and HNO3 solutions. 3. Because students are usually very interested in the crystals, cells, and casts in urine, have additional references available for them.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Analyzing Urine Samples (pp. 623–624)
Determination of Inorganic Constituents of Urine

Sulfates are usually present in urine in small amounts.

Exercise 41A

281

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

41A
Urinalysis
11. uric acid 12. creatinine 13. pus (WBCs) 14. nitrites

Characteristics of Urine
1. What is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period? 0.8–2.0 liters 2. Assuming normal conditions, note whether each of the following substances would be (a) in greater relative concentration in the urine than in the glomerular filtrate, (b) in lesser concentration in the urine than in the glomerular filtrate, or (c) absent from both the urine and the glomerular filtrate. b a a a b

1. water 2. phosphate ions 3. sulfate ions 4. potassium ions 5. sodium ions

b b c c a

6. amino acids 7. glucose 8. albumin 9. red blood cells 10. urea

a a c c

3. Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any good physical examination. Finding “abnormal” constituents in the urine may indicate pathology.

4. What substance is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine? Urochrome 5. Which has a greater specific gravity: 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water? 1 ml of urine Explain your answer. Urine contains dissolved solutes, which are not found in distilled water and add to the density of the sample.

6. Explain the relationship between the color, specific gravity, and volume of urine. Generally, the smaller the volume, the greater the specific gravity (more solutes/volume) and the deeper the color.

Abnormal Urinary Constituents
7. A microscopic examination of urine may reveal the presence of certain abnormal urinary constituents. Name three constituents that might be present if a urinary tract infection exists. WBCs (pus)
RBCs

,

, and casts

8. How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH? Becomes alkaline How does starvation influence urine pH? Becomes acidic 9. All urine specimens become alkaline and cloudy on standing at room temperature. Explain why. This is a result of bacterial metabolism of urinary components.

283

10. Several specific terms have been used to indicate the presence of abnormal urine constituents. Identify each of the abnormalities described below by inserting a term from the key at the right that names the condition. c; hematuria d; hemoglobinuria b; glycosuria a; albuminuria e; ketonuria

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

presence of erythrocytes in the urine presence of hemoglobin in the urine presence of glucose in the urine presence of albumin in the urine presence of ketone bodies (acetone and others) in the urine presence of pus (white blood cells) in the urine

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. albuminuria glycosuria hematuria hemoglobinuria ketonuria pyuria

f; pyuria

11. What are renal calculi, and what conditions favor their formation? Kidney stones; urinary retention, urinary tract infection, alkaline urine.

12. Glucose and albumin are both normally absent in the urine, but the reason for their exclusion differs. Explain the reason for the absence of glucose. It is completely reabsorbed (unless present in the blood in excessive levels). Explain the reason for the absence of albumin. It is too large to pass through the filtration membrane. 13. The presence of abnormal constituents or conditions in urine may be associated with diseases, disorders, or other causes listed in the key. Select and list all conditions associated with each numbered item. b c, f, k b, c, d e. j a, i g h a, c, l e. k a. f. k

1. low specific gravity 2. high specific gravity 3. glucose 4. albumin 5. blood cells 6. hemoglobin 7. bilirubin 8. ketone bodies 9. casts 10. pus

Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) diabetes insipidus diabetes mellitus eating a 5-lb box of sweets for lunch glomerulonephritis gonorrhea hemolytic anemias hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver kidney stones pregnancy, exertion pylonephritis starvation ,

14. Name the three major nitrogenous wastes found in the urine. Urea uric acid

, and creatinine

15. Explain the difference between organized and unorganized sediments. Organized sediments (such as certain salts and uric acid) crystallize or precipitate out of solution, whereas unorganized sediments contain cellular elements (WBCs, epithelial cells, etc.).

284

Review Sheet 41A

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

42

Anatomy of the Reproductive System
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Female Reproductive System (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) The Human Male Reproductive System (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) Human Reproductive Biology (FHS, 35 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Reproductive System Videotape (BC, 32 minutes, VHS) Reproduction: Shares in the Future (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Refer to the lab manual for links to A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy.

Advance Preparation
1. Set out slides of the penis, epididymis, uterine tube, and uterus showing endometrium (proliferative phase). Set out lens paper and lens cleaning solution, and have compound microscopes available. 2. Set out models and anatomical charts of the male and female reproductive systems.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. If you are not planning to do Exercise 44, you may wish to include the microscopic studies of the testis and ovary described there in this laboratory session.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Penis (p. 633) The epithelium is stratified columnar epithelium. Its basic function is protection of underlying tissues.

285

Activity 4: Epididymis (p. 633) The smooth muscle rhythmically contracts under sympathetic stimulation during emission and ejaculation. The peristaltic movements propel sperm/seminal fluid from the epididymis through the ductus (vas) deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra. Activity 6: Wall of the Uterus (p. 636) During the birth process the myometrium contracts, pushing the baby toward the cervical canal, and exerting pressure on the amniotic sac.

286

Exercise 42

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

42

Anatomy of the Reproductive System
Gross Anatomy of the Human Male Reproductive System
1. List the two principal functions of the testis. Sperm production and testosterone production 2. Identify all indicated structures or portions of structures on the diagrammatic view of the male reproductive system below.
Urinary bladder Seminal vesicle Ampulla of ductus (vas) deferens Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Epididymis Testis Ductus (vas) deferens

Penile urethra

Corpus cavernosum Penis

Corpus spongiosum Glans penis

3. A common part of any physical examination of the male is palpation of the prostate. How is this accomplished? (Think!) Through the anterior wall of the rectum. 4. How might enlargement of the prostate interfere with urination or the reproductive ability of the male?
Constriction of the urethra at that point may lead to nonpassage of urine or semen.

5. Why are the testes located in the scrotum rather than inside the ventral body cavity? Testes are located in the scrotum to provide a slightly cooler temperature necessary for sperm production.

287

6. Match the terms in column B to the descriptive statements in column A. Column A f; penis b; ductus (vas) deferens

Column B a. b. c. bulbourethral glands ductus (vas) deferens epididymis membranous urethra penis prepuce prostate prostatic urethra scrotum spongy urethra

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

copulatory organ/penetrating device muscular passageway conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord transports both sperm and urine

j; spongy urethra c; epididymis i; scrotum f; prepuce d; membranous urethra

d. sperm maturation site e. location of the testis in adult males f. loose fold of skin encircling the glans penis g. portion of the urethra between the prostate and the penis empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra empties a secretion into the membranous urethra h. i. j.

g; prostate a; bulbourethral glands

7. Describe the composition of semen, and name all structures contributing to its formation. Sperm and the alkaline secretions of the prostate, seminal vesicles (also containing fructose), and the bulbourethral glands.

8. Of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline? Buffers the sperm against the acid environment of the female reproductive tract.

9. What structures compose the spermatic cord? Connective tissue sheath (extension of abdominal fascia), ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels.

Where is it located? Passes from the scrotal sac through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity. 10. Using the following terms, trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the urethra: rete testis, epididymis, seminiferous tubule, ductus deferens. seminiferous tubule → rete testis → epididymis → ductus deferens

Gross Anatomy of the Human Female Reproductive System
11. Name the structures composing the external genitalia, or vulva, of the female. Mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vaginal and urethral openings, hymen, and greater vestibular glands.

288

Review Sheet 42

12. On the diagram below of a frontal section of a portion of the female reproductive system, identify all indicated structures.
Uterine (fallopian) tube Suspensory ligament Ovarian ligament

Fimbriae Fundus of uterus Mesovarium Serosa of uterus (perimetrium) Endometrium of uterus Myometrium of uterus Round ligament of uterus Cervix of uterus Mesometrium (broad ligament) Vagina

Ovary

13. Identify the female reproductive system structures described below. uterus vagina uterine tube clitoris uterine tube hymen ovary fimbriae

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

site of fetal development copulatory canal “fertilized egg” typically formed here becomes erect during sexual excitement duct extending superolaterally from the uterus partially closes the vaginal canal; a membrane produces oocytes, estrogens, and progesterone fingerlike ends of the uterine tube

14. Do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of the female? Why or why not? Yes. There is no anatomic continuity between the ovary and the first part of the duct system (i.e. uterine tube).

15. What is an ectopic pregnancy, and how can it happen? Implantation of the embryo in a site other than the uterus. May occur when the uterine tubes are blocked (prevents passage) or when the egg is “lost” in the peritoneal cavity and fertilization occurs there.

16. Put the following vestibular-perineal structures in their proper order from the anterior to the posterior aspect: vaginal orifice, anus, urethral opening, and clitoris. Anterior limit: clitoris
→ urethral opening → vaginal orifice → anus

Review Sheet 42

289

17. Assume a couple has just consummated the sex act and the male’s sperm have been deposited in the woman’s vagina. Trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract. vagina → cervix → uterus → uterine tube → peritoneal cavity

18. Define ovulation. Ejection of an egg (actually an oocyte) from the ovary.

Microscopic Anatomy of Selected Male and Female Reproductive Organs
19. The testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. Each of these lobes contains one to four seminiferous tubules rete testis

, which converge to empty sperm into another set of tubules called the .

20. What is the function of the cavernous bodies seen in the male penis? This tissue can become engorged with blood, thus making the penis stiff and more effective as a penetrating device.

21. Name the three layers of the uterine wall from the inside out. endometrium , myometrium

, serosa (perimetrium)

Which of these is sloughed during menses? Endometrium Which contracts during childbirth? Myometrium 22. What is the function of the stereocilia exhibited by the epithelial cells of the mucosa of the epididymis? Absorb excess fluid and provide nutrients to the maturing sperm.

23. On the diagram showing the sagittal section of the human testis, correctly identify all structures provided with leader lines.

Spermatic cord Nerves and blood vessels Ductus deferens Head of epididymis Seminiferous tubules

Body of epididymis Rete testis Tunica albuginea

Septa

290

Review Sheet 42

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

43

Physiology of Reproduction: Gametogenesis and the Female Cycles
Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. Coming Together (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes, VHS, DVD) Highlights of Reproduction and Prenatal Development (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) Human Reproductive Biology (FHS, 35 minutes, VHS) Meiosis: The Key to Genetic Diversity (WNS, 30 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. Set out models illustrating meiosis, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis. 2. Set out prepared slides of testis, ovary, human sperm, and uterine endometrium (showing menses, proliferative, and secretory stages). Set out lens paper and immersion oil. Have compound microscopes available. 3. Set up five microscopes in a demonstration area with the following slides of stages of oogenesis in Ascaris megalocephala (Carolina): (1) primary oocyte with fertilization membrane, sperm nucleus, and aligned tetrads apparent; (2) formation of first polar body; (3) secondary oocyte with dyads aligned; (4) formation of ovum and second polar body; and (5) fusion of the male and female pronuclei to form the fertilized egg. 4. Set out sets of colored “pop-it” beads (two colors) and magnetic centromeres (Ward’s).

Comments and Pitfalls
1. If students have trouble counting chromosomes, have them count centromeres.

291

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Examing Events of Spermatogenesis (pp. 643–644) 3. Tetrads may be visible. Evidence of crossing over may be difficult to see, but the tetrads may appear to have chromatids wrapped around each other. Tetrads are in primary spermatocytes, which are closer to the spermatogonia than to the lumen.

292

Exercise 43

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

43

Physiology of Reproduction: Gametogenesis and the Female Cycles
Meiosis
1. The following statements refer to events occurring during mitosis and/or meiosis. For each statement, decide if the event occurs in (a) mitosis only, (b) meiosis only, or (c) both mitosis and meiosis. c b a b c a b a b c b b

1. dyads are visible 2. tetrads are visible 3. product is two diploid daughter cells genetically identical to the mother cell 4. product is four haploid daughter cells quantitatively and qualitatively different from the mother cell 5. involves the phases prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase 6. occurs throughout the body 7. occurs only in the ovaries and testes 8. provides cells for growth and repair 9. homologues synapse; chiasmata are seen 10. chromosomes are replicated before the division process begins 11. provides cells for replication of the species 12. consists of two consecutive nuclear divisions, without chromosomal replication occurring before the second division

2. Describe the process of synapsis. The homologous chromosomes become closely aligned along their entire length.

3. How does crossover introduce variability in the daughter cells? Where crossovers occur, chromosome breakage occurs and parts are exchanged. This results in chromosomes with different parental contributions.

4. Define homologous chromosomes. Chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits. (One maternal chromosome.)

paternal chromosome, the other

293

Spermatogenesis
5. The cell types seen in the seminiferous tubules are listed in the key. Match the correct cell type(s) with the descriptions given below. Key: a. b. c b, e, f d

primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte 1. 2. 3. primitive stem cell haploid

c. d.

spermatogonium sustentacular cell e f b

e. f. 4. 5. 6.

spermatid sperm products of meiosis II product of spermiogenesis product of meiosis I

provides nutrients to developing sperm

6. Why are spermatids not considered functional gametes? Too much superfluous cytoplasm; nonmotile.

7. Differentiate between spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Formation of haploid gametes by the male.
Sloughing off excessive spermatid cytoplasm to form a motile functional sperm.

8. Draw a sperm below, and identify the acrosome, head, midpiece, and tail. Then beside each label, note the composition and function of each of these sperm structures. Acrosome (penetrating device Tail containing digestive Contractile filaments enzymes) (locomotor region)

Head (genetic region, nucleus)

Midpiece (contains mitochondria which provide ATP)

9. The life span of a sperm is very short. What anatomical characteristics might lead you to suspect this even if you didn’t know its life span? No cytoplasm (to speak of) in which to store nutrients.

Oogenesis, the Ovarian Cycle, and the Menstrual Cycle
10. The sequence of events leading to germ cell formation in the female begins during fetal development. By the time the child is born, all viable oogonia have been converted to primary oocytes In view of this fact, how does the total germ cell potential of the female compare to that of the male?
Much smaller, and the total number is predetermined.

.

11. The female gametes develop in structures called follicles. What is a follicle? A structure consisting of a capsule of follicle (or granulosa) cells that encloses a developing gamete (oocyte).

294

Review Sheet 43

How are primary and vesicular follicles anatomically different?

The primary follicle has one or a small number of layers of

follicle cells surrounding the oocyte; the vesicular follicle has a large antrum containing fluid produced by the granulosa cells, and the developing oocyte, surrounded by several layers of granulosa cells, is pushed to one side.

What is a corpus luteum? corpus luteum.

Glandular ovarian structure that produces progesterone. The ruptured vesicular follicle is converted to a

12. What is the major hormone produced by the vesicular follicle? Estrogen By the corpus luteum? Progesterone (and some estrogen) 13. Use the key to identify the cell type you would expect to find in the following structures. Key: a. b c

oogonium 1. 2.

b.

primary oocyte

c. c secondary oocyte 3. 4.

d. ovum

forming part of the primary follicle in the ovary in the uterine tube before fertilization

in the mature vesicular follicle of the ovary in the uterine tube shortly after sperm penetration ; the final product of oogenesis is one . What is the function of this unequal cytoplasmic

d

14. The cellular product of spermatogenesis is four spermatids ovum and three polar bodies

division seen during oogenesis in the female? that it can survive during its journey to the uterus.

To provide the ovum or functional gamete with adequate nutritional reserves so

What is the fate of the three tiny cells produced during oogenesis? They deteriorate. Why? They lack sustaining cytoplasm with nutrient reserves. 15. The following statements deal with anterior pituitary and ovarian hormones and with hormonal interrelationships. Name the hormone(s) described in each statement. estrogen LH (luteinizing hormone) estrogen

1. 2.

produced by primary follicles in the ovary ovulation occurs after its burstlike release and progesterone 3. exert negative feedback on the anterior pituitary relative to FSH secretion

estrogen LH LH

4. 5. 6.

stimulates LH release by the anterior pituitary stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone and estrogen maintains the hormonal production of the corpus luteum in a nonpregnant woman
Because blood levels of the anterior pituitary

16. Why does the corpus luteum deteriorate toward the end of the ovarian cycle? hormone LH are extremely low.

Review Sheet 43

295

17. For each statement below dealing with hormonal blood levels during the female ovarian and menstrual cycles, decide whether the condition in column A is usually (a) greater than, (b) less than, or (c) essentially equal to the condition in column B. Column A b Column B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

amount of estrogen in the blood . . . . . . amount of estrogen in the blood at ovulation during menses amount of progesterone in the . . . . . . . amount of progesterone in the blood on blood on day 14 day 23 amount of LH in the blood . . . . . . . . . amount of LH in the blood at ovulation during menses amount of FSH in the blood on . . . . . . amount of FSH in the blood on day 20 of day 6 of the cycle the cycle amount of estrogen in the blood . . . . . . amount of progesterone in the blood on on day 10 day 10

b

b

a

a

18. What uterine tissue undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle? Endometrium 19. When during the female menstrual cycle would fertilization be unlikely? Explain why. Any time but the three-day interval
(days 14-16) around ovulation. (Twenty-eight day cycle is assumed.)

20. Assume that a woman could be an “on demand” ovulator like the rabbit, in which copulation stimulates the hypothalamic– anterior pituitary axis and causes LH release, and an oocyte was ovulated and fertilized on day 26 of her 28-day cycle. Why would a successful pregnancy be unlikely at this time?
The hormonal production of the ovary has ceased; the endometrium is beyond the receptive stage and is ready to slough off in menses.

21. The menstrual cycle depends on events within the female ovary. The stages of the menstrual cycle are listed below. For each, note its approximate time span and the related events in the uterus; and then to the right, record the ovarian events occurring simultaneously. Pay particular attention to hormonal events.

Menstrual cycle stage Menstruation

Uterine events Days 1-5. Endometrium is sloughing off.

Ovarian events Primary follicle begins to grow.

Proliferative

Days 6-14. Endometrium repaired, glands and blood vessels proliferate. Endometrium thickens.

Follicular growth continues and vesicular follicle(s) produced. Estrogen secreted and peaks at day 14. Ovulation occurs on the 14th day. Ruptured follicle is converted to a corpus luteum, which begins to produce progesterone (and some estrogen). Peaks at day 23 and then begins to decline.

Secretory

Days 15-28. Vascular supply increases and glands begin secretory activity.

296

Review Sheet 43

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

44

Survey of Embryonic Development
Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. See Exercise 6A for histology listings. A Human Life Emerges (FHS, 33 minutes, VHS, DVD) A New Life (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Dozen Eggs, A: Time-Lapse Microscopy of Normal Development (IM, 46 minutes, VHS) Human Embryology Series (UL, VHS) Highlights of Reproduction and Prenatal Development (16 minutes) Fertilization, Cleavage and Implantation (17 minutes) Human Reproductive Biology (FHS, 35 minutes, VHS) In the Womb (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Into the World (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Introduction to Development (IM, 22 minutes, VHS, DVD) Life’s Greatest Miracle (CBS, 60 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Advance Preparation
1. Order Life Before Birth: Normal Fetal Development, Second Edition (by Marjorie A. England, 1996, Mosby-Wolfe). 2. Set out lens paper, lens cleaning solution, and slides of sea urchin development (zygote to larval stages) and of a placenta tissue. Have compound microscopes available. 3. Set out models of human development and pregnant human torso. 4. Obtain a fresh or formalin-preserved placenta from a clinical agency. 5. Set out a pregnant cat, rat, or pig uterus, disposable gloves, safety glasses, and dissecting equipment.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students may have difficulty with the questions in the text. Additional reference material (developmental biology or embryology books) might be helpful.

297

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Examining the Stages of Human Development (pp. 653–657) 2. Yes, but different in the early cleavage planes. The cleavage process results in large numbers of smaller cells. 5. The chorionic villi look like feathery projections. Areas of the brain and the heart appear very early in development. Development is rostral to caudal and proximal to distal. Yes, spontaneous movement occurs in utero. The mother can feel the fetal movements, often described as a fluttering in the abdomen. Yes, the astronaut analogy is appropriate. The fetus, attached to the placenta by the umbilical cord, may resemble an astronaut on a “space walk” connected to life support systems on a space ship. The vernix caseosa covers the fetus and consists mainly of sebaceous secretions and dead epidermal cells. It may act as a lubricant and protect the growing fetus from chafing injuries. Lanugo is a downy coat of fetal hairs that appears at about the fifth month of development and is usually lost at birth or shortly thereafter. Activity 3: Identifying Fetal Structures (p. 657) 1. The placenta of the pig is diffuse with villi distributed over the surface of the chorion. In the cat, the villi form a belt around the fetus (zonary placenta). The rat has a discoidal placenta similar to the human placenta. The umbilical cord connects the placenta to the fetus. Amniotic fluid is usually clear and watery. Fetal skin is relatively thin. If it is a very young fetus, the skin may be almost transparent. 2. The human placenta is discoidal in shape. Implantation usually occurs in the upper part of the uterus. One problem that may occur with lower implantation is placenta previa. The placenta may irritate the cervix, resulting in contractions and spontaneous abortion. A feet-first position is not as desirable as head-first. The head is the largest structure and if it is delivered first, the rest of the baby is delivered easily. It is also possible to suction and deliver oxygen to a baby in a head-first position if difficulties are encountered. Activity 4: Studying Placental Structure (p. 658) 1. The fetal side is the smooth side. The ragged side was united with maternal tissue. The umbilical vein delivers relatively oxygen-rich blood to the fetus from the placenta. The umbilical arteries carry blood from the fetus to the placenta. If any fetal membranes are still attached, one may be the amnion.

298

Exercise 44

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

44

Survey of Embryonic Development
Developmental Stages of Sea Urchins and Humans
1. Define zygote. Fertilized egg. 2. Describe how you were able to tell by observation when a sea urchin egg was fertilized. A fertilization membrane is present beneath the outer jelly coat.

3. Use the key choices to identify the embryonic stage or process described below. Key: a. b. c e b f d a

blastula cleavage 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

c. d.

fertilization gastrulation

e. f.

morula zygote

fusion of male and female pronuclei solid ball of embryonic cells process of rapid mitotic cell division without intervening growth periods combination of egg and sperm process involving cell rearrangements to form the three primary germ layers embryonic stage in which the embryo consists of a hollow ball of cells

4. What is the importance of cleavage in embryonic development? It provides a large number of smaller cells for morphogenesis.

How is cleavage different from mitotic cell division, which occurs later in life? During cleavage there are no intervening growth periods between the successive divisions. Therefore the cells get smaller and smaller, but the embryonic mass remains essentially the same size.

5. The cells of the human blastula (blastocyst) have various fates. Which blastocyst structures have the following fates? inner cell mass trophoblast inner cell mass yolk sac allantois

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

produces the embryonic body becomes the chorion and cooperates with uterine tissues to form the placenta produces the amnion, yolk sac, and allantois produces the primordial germ cells (an embryonic membrane) an embryonic membrane that provides the structural basis for the body stalk or umbilical cord

299

6. Using the letters on the diagram, correctly identify each of the following maternal or embryonic structures. j i

amnion body stalk

g h

chorion chorionic villi

b a d

decidua basalis decidua capsularis ectoderm j f e c

endoderm mesoderm uterine cavity

i b h c

a

d Embryo e f g

7. Explain the process and importance of gastrulation. It involves the migration, movement, and rearrangement of embryonic cells, so that a three-layer embryo (three primary germ layers) is formed.

8. What is the function of the amnion and the amniotic fluid? The amnion is a protective, fluid-filled sac that surrounds the embryo.
The fluid “buffer” protects the embryo from physical trauma and prevents adhesion formation during rapid growth.

9. Describe the process of implantation, noting the role of the trophoblast cells. The trophoblast cells overlying the inner cell mass adhere to the endometrium. The trophoblast cells then secrete enzymes that erode the endometrial lining to reach the vascular supply beneath it.

10. How many days after fertilization is implantation generally completed? 12–14

What event in the female menstrual cycle

ordinarily occurs just about this time if implantation does not occur? Menses, because this is usually the 14th day after ovulation. 300

Review Sheet 44

11. What name is given to the part of the uterine wall directly under the implanting embryo? Decidua basalis That surrounding the rest of the embryonic structure? Decidua capsularis 12. Using an appropriate reference, find out what decidua means and state the definition. That which “falls off” or is subject to periodic shedding.

How is this terminology applicable to the deciduas of pregnancy? After birth they slough off and are flushed out of the uterus.

13. Referring to the illustrations and text of Life Before Birth: Normal Fetal Development, answer the following: Which two organ systems are extensively developed in the very young embryo? nervous system

and circulatory system

Describe the direction of development by circling the correct descriptions below: proximal-distal distal-proximal caudal-rostral rostral-caudal

Does bodily control during infancy develop in the same directions? Think! Can an infant pick up a common pin (pincer grasp) or wave his arms earlier? Is arm-hand or leg-foot control achieved earlier?
Yes. Arm-hand control occurs before leg-foot control is achieved.

14. Note whether each of the following organs or organ systems develops from the (a) ectoderm, (b) endoderm, or (c) mesoderm. Use an appropriate reference as necessary. c c b

1. 2. 3.

skeletal muscle skeleton lining of gut

b c a

4. 5. 6.

respiratory mucosa circulatory system epidermis of skin

a c b

7. 8. 9.

nervous system serosa membrane liver, pancreas

In Utero Development
15. Make the following comparisons between a human and the pregnant dissected animal structures.
Comparison object Shape of the placenta Shape of the uterus Human Disc-shaped Pear-shaped Dissected animal (depends on animal) Y-shaped

16. Where in the human uterus do implantation and placentation ordinarily occur? High in the uterus.

17. Describe the function(s) of the placenta. Provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, removes fetal wastes, and produces the hormones of pregnancy.

Review Sheet 44

301

What embryonic membranes has the placenta more or less “put out of business”? Yolk sac and allantois.

18. When does the human embryo come to be called a fetus? Ninth week of development. 19. What is the usual and most desirable fetal position in utero? Head down. Why is this the most desirable position? The largest fetal dimension is the skull. Therefore, if the skull is used as a wedge, the rest of the body is delivered easily. Also, if difficulties are encountered, the baby can be suctioned and given oxygen even before delivery is completed.

Gross and Microscopic Anatomy of the Placenta
20. Describe fully the gross structure of the human placenta as observed in the laboratory. Smooth on the side from which the umbilical cord issues. Torn, rough, and bloody on the side that was united with maternal tissues. Blood-rich.

21. What is the tissue origin of the placenta: fetal, maternal, or both? Both 22. What are the placental barriers that must be crossed to exchange materials? The membranes of the villi and capillary walls of the fetal vascular supply.

302

Review Sheet 44

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

45

Principles of Heredity

Time Allotment: 2 hours+ with gel electrophoresis and if Punnett squares are done outside of lab. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. Genetics: A Popular Guide to the Principles of Human Heredity (FHS, VHS, DVD) Understanding the Basic Concepts of Genetics (30 minutes) Genetic Discoveries, Disorders, and Mutations (26 minutes) Practical Applications and the Risks of Genetic Science (24 minutes) Reproduction: Shares in the Future (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Genetics (FHS, CD-ROM) Solutions: Agarose gel, 1.2% Weigh out 0.9 gram of agarose and add 1XTris-Borate-EDTA buffer (ICN) to a volume of 75 ml. Boil on a hot plate or in a microwave oven until the agarose melts, stirring periodically. Bleach Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter.

Advance Preparation
1. For each student set out PTC taste strips (Carolina), sodium benzoate taste strips (Carolina), pennies, wax markers, lancets, cotton, alcohol preps, and toothpicks and clean microscope slides, or blood mixing sticks and test cards (Carolina). 2. Set out anti-A and anti-B blood typing sera, beakers of 10% bleach solution, and a disposable autoclave bag. 3. Prepare a chart on the blackboard for tabulation of class data. 4. Preparations for agarose gel electrophoresis: a. Prepare the casting tray. Place a clean glass slide into the gel casting tray and seal both ends of the tray with duct tape. Be sure the tray is tightly sealed.

303

b. Prepare four gels. Pour 15 ml of the melted 1.2% agarose solution onto the glass slide in the casting tray. Insert the well comb into the slots on the casting tray, and press down. Cool the gel for about 15 minutes and then carefully remove the tape and lift the comb straight up out of the gel. To store for later use, leave the comb in place, wrap the gel with comb in plastic wrap or a baggie and refrigerate. c. Prepare the sample buffer. The hemoglobin samples should be prepared as 10%–20% solutions in TBE solubilization buffer with bromophenol blue (ICN). HbA and HbS can be purchased from Sigma. Solutions can be mixed to make a heterozygous sample. Label the samples AA, AS, SS, and unknown sample. 5. Set out gel electrophoresis equipment, power supplies, micropipets, or variable automatic micropipets (2–20 μl) with tips, and 1.2% agarose gels. 6. Set out Coomassie blue stain (Carolina), staining tray, destaining solution (Carolina), and plastic baggies. 7. Set out hemoglobin samples, TBE buffer pH 8.4, 100-ml graduated cylinders, millimeter rulers, goggles, and disposable gloves.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Some students will have difficulty with the Punnett squares. It might be best to have these as an out-of-class assignment, and go over the solutions with the class. 2. Using Phenotype to Determine Genotype is usually fun for the students and provides material for them to construct a genetic family tree. 3. Practice using micropipets to fill wells in the agarose gel.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Working Out Crosses Involving Dominant and Recessive Genes (p. 664) 1. 50% Tt, 50% tt; 50% tall, 50% dwarf 2. 25% TT, 50% Tt, 25% tt; 75% tall, 25% dwarf 3. 50% TT, 50% Tt; 100% tall, 0% dwarf Activity 2: Working Out Crosses Involving Incomplete Dominance (pp. 664–665) 1. a. 100% Rr; 100% pink b. 50% Rr, 50% rr; 50% pink, 50% white c. 25% RR, 50% Rr, 25% rr; 25% red, 50% pink, 25% white 2. a. 100% Ss; 100% sickle-cell trait b. 25% SS, 50% Ss, 25% ss; 25% normal hemoglobin, 50% sickle-cell trait, 25% sickle-cell anemia c. 50% Ss, 50% ss; 50% sickle-cell trait, 50% sickle-cell anemia

304

Exercise 45

Activity 3: Working Out Crosses Involving Sex-Linked Inheritance (pp. 665–666) 1. 50% will be color blind. 50% of the females and 50% of the males will be color blind. 25% will be carriers. The carriers are females. 2. 50% of the males, 0% of the females. 50% neither exhibit nor carry the allele for hemophilia. 25% of the individuals (50% of the females) will be carriers. The carriers are female. Activity 4: Exploring Probability (pp. 666–667) 1. b. The tosses are independent and do not influence each other. c. The probability of two heads is 25%; one head and one tail, 50%; and two tails, 25%. 2. The probability of a male is 50%; the probability of a female is 50%. 3. Dad’s chances are 1/512 or 0.19%.

Exercise 45

305

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

45

Principles of Heredity
Introduction to the Language of Genetics
1. Match the key choices with the definitions given below. Key: a. b. c. alleles autosomes dominant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. d. e. f. genotype heterozygous homozygous g. h. i. phenotype recessive sex chromosomes

d; genotype i; sex chromosomes f; homozygous h; recessive g; phenotype e; heterozygous a; alleles b; autosomes c; dominant

actual genetic makeup chromosomes determining maleness/femaleness situation in which an individual has identical alleles for a particular trait genes not expressed unless they are present in homozygous condition expression of a genetic trait

6. situation in which an individual has different alleles making up his genotype for a particular trait 7. 8. 9. genes for the same trait that may have different expressions chromosomes regulating most body characteristics the more potent gene allele; masks the expression of the less potent allele

Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
2. In humans, farsightedness is inherited by possession of a dominant allele (A). If a man who is homozygous for normal vision (aa) marries a woman who is heterozygous for farsightedness (Aa), what proportion of their children would be expected to be farsighted? 50 %

3. A metabolic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to an abnormal recessive gene (p). Only homozygous recessive individuals exhibit this disorder. What percentage of the offspring will be anticipated to have PKU if the parents are Pp and pp? 50 %

4. A man obtained 32 spotted and 10 solid-color rabbits from a mating of two spotted rabbits. Which trait is dominant? spotted What is the probable genotype of the rabbit parents? Ss Recessive? solid-color
Ss

307

5. Assume that the allele controlling brown eyes (B) is dominant over that controlling blue eyes (b) in human beings. (In actuality, eye color in humans is an example of multigene inheritance, which is much more complex than this.) A blue-eyed man marries a brown-eyed woman, and they have six children, all brown-eyed. What is the most likely genotype of the father? bb Of the mother? BB

If the seventh child had blue eyes, what could you conclude about the parents’ genotypes?

Female is Bb; male is bb.

Incomplete Dominance
6. Tail length on a bobcat is controlled by incomplete dominance. The alleles are T for normal tail length and t for tail-less. What name could/would you give to the tails of heterozygous (Tt) cats? Bobtail How would their tail length compare with that of TT or tt bobcats?
Intermediate in length

7. If curly-haired individuals are genotypically CC, straight-haired individuals are cc, and wavy-haired individuals are heterozygotes (Cc), what percentage of the various phenotypes would be anticipated from a cross between a CC woman and a cc man?
0

% curly

100

% wavy

0

% straight

Sex-Linked Inheritance
8. What does it mean when someone says a particular characteristic is sex-linked? It is carried on the female X (sex) chromosome.

9. You are a male, and you have been told that hemophilia “runs in your genes.” Whose ancestors, your mother’s or your father’s, should you investigate? Mother’s the father’s contribution is always Y.

Why? Males can receive only the X chromosome from their mothers;

10. An XCXc female marries an XCY man. Do a Punnett square for this match. What is the probability of producing a color-blind son? 25% A color-blind daughter? 0% A daughter who is a carrier for the color-blind allele? 25% 11. Why are consanguineous marriages (marriages between blood relatives) prohibited in most cultures?
Blood relatives have similar gene pools. Thus, the likelihood of receiving a double dose of recessive genes (many of which are detrimental) is dramatically increased. XC Y XC X CX C X CY Xc X CXc XcY

308

Review Sheet 45

Probability
1 12. What is the probability of having three daughters in a row? ( ⁄2 1

⁄2

1

⁄2 )

1

⁄8 or 12.5%

13. A man and a woman, each of seemingly normal intellect, marry. Although neither is aware of the fact, each is a heterozygote for the allele for mental retardation. Is the allele for mental retardation dominant or recessive? Recessive
1 What are the chances of their having one mentally retarded child? 25% ( ⁄4) 1 What are the chances that all of their children (they plan a family of four) will be mentally retarded? ( ⁄4 1 1

⁄4

1

⁄4

1

⁄4)

⁄256 or 0.39%

Genetic Determination of Selected Human Characteristics
14. Look back at your data to complete this section. For each of the situations described here, determine if an offspring with the characteristics noted is possible with the parental genotypes listed. Check (✓) the appropriate column.

Possibility Parental genotypes Jj LL EE HH IAi IAIB jj Ll ee Hh IBi ii Phenotype of child Double-jointed thumbs Straight little finger Detached ear lobes Proximal finger hair Type O blood Type B blood ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Yes ✓ ✓ No

15. You have dimples, and you would like to know if you are homozygous or heterozygous for this trait. You have six brothers and sisters. By observing your siblings, how could you tell, with some degree of certainty, that you are a heterozygote?
Absence of dimples indicates the homozygous recessive condition. If one or more of your siblings does not have dimples, there was a 50% chance at your conception that you would be heterozygous for this trait.

Review Sheet 45

309

Using Agarose Gel Electrophoresis to Identify Hemoglobin Phenotypes
16. Draw the banding patterns you obtained on the figure below. Indicate the genotype of each band. Sample genotype 1. AA 2. AS 3. SS 4. unknown 5. AA 6. AS 7. SS 8. unknown Well 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
(student data) (student data)

Banding pattern

17. What is the genotype of sickle cell anemia? SS

Sickle cell trait? AS

18. Why does sickle cell hemoglobin behave differently from normal hemoglobin during agarose gel electrophoresis?
HbS has fewer negative charges than HbA, due to the base substitution of valine for glutamic acid in HbS.

310

Review Sheet 45

E

X

E

R

C

I

S

E

46

Surface Anatomy Roundup

Time Allotment: 2 hours for a thorough review.

Advance Preparation
1. Have articulated skeletons and skeletal muscle charts and models available. 2. Set out washable markers, hand mirrors, stethoscopes, and alcohol swabs.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Muscles and other landmarks on the posterior aspect of the body trunk are difficult for students to palpate on themselves. If necessary, ask for volunteers (you may wish to select males) to act as subjects.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Palpating Landmarks of the Head (pp. 676–677)
Cranium

3. Scalp wounds bleed profusely. However, because the scalp is so well vascularized, these wounds heal quickly. Activity 2: Palpating Landmarks of the Neck (pp. 677–679)
Triangles of the Neck

2. They result from damage to the cervical plexus and accessory nerve, which supply these skin regions and muscles. Activity 3: Palpating Landmarks of the Trunk (pp. 679–681)
The Back: Muscles

3. This action draws the scapula anteriorly and enlarges the triangle of auscultation as much as possible.

311

Activity 5: Palpating the Landmarks of the Upper Limb (pp. 683–686)
Forearm and Hand

2. In this fracture, the physician can feel that the styloid process of the radius has moved proximally from its normal position.

312

Exercise 46

R E V I E W
NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

S H E E T
EXERCISE

46

Surface Anatomy Roundup c 1. 2. 3. 4.

A blow to the cheek is most likely to break what superficial bone or bone part? (a) superciliary arches, (b) the philtrum, (c) zygomatic arch, (d) the tragus Rebound tenderness (a) occurs in appendicitis, (b) is whiplash of the neck, (c) is a sore foot from playing basketball, (d) occurs when the larynx falls back into place after swallowing. The anatomical snuff box (a) is in the nose, (b) contains the styloid process of the radius, (c) is defined by tendons of the flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus, (d) cannot really hold snuff. Some landmarks on the body surface can be seen or felt, but others are abstractions that you must construct by drawing imaginary lines. Which of the following pairs of structures is abstract and invisible? (a) umbilicus and costal margin, (b) anterior superior iliac spine and natal cleft, (c) linea alba and linea semilunaris, (d) McBurney’s point and midaxillary line, (e) philtrum and sternocleidomastoid Many pelvic organs can be palpated by placing a finger in the rectum or the vagina, but only one pelvic organ is readily palpated through the skin. This is the (a) nonpregnant uterus, (b) prostate gland, (c) full bladder, (d) ovaries, (e) rectum. A muscle that contributes to the posterior axillary fold is the (a) pectoralis major, (b) latissimus dorsi, (c) trapezius, (d) infraspinatus, (e) pectoralis minor, (f) a and e. Which of the following is not a pulse point? (a) anatomical snuff box, (b) inferior margin of mandible anterior to masseter muscle, (c) center of distal forearm at palmaris longus tendon, (d) medial bicipital furrow on arm, (e) dorsum of foot between the first two metatarsals Which pair of ribs inserts on the sternum at the sternal angle? (a) first, (b) second, (c) third, (d) fourth, (e) fifth The inferior angle of the scapula is at the same level as the spinous process of which vertebra? (a) C5, (b) C7, (c) T3, (d) T7, (e) L4 An important bony landmark that can be recognized by a distinct dimple in the skin is the (a) posterior superior iliac spine, (b) styloid process of the ulna, (c) shaft of the radius, (d) acromion. A nurse missed a patient’s median cubital vein while trying to withdraw blood and then inserted the needle far too deeply into the cubital fossa. This error could cause any of the following problems, except this one: (a) paralysis of the ulnar nerve, (b) paralysis of the median nerve, (c) bruising the insertion tendon of the biceps brachii muscle, (d) blood spurting from the brachial artery. Which of these organs is almost impossible to study with surface anatomy techniques? (a) heart, (b) lungs, (c) brain, (d) nose A preferred site for inserting an intravenous medication line into a blood vessel is the (a) medial bicipital furrow on arm, (b) external carotid artery, (c) dorsal venous arch of hand, (d) popliteal fossa. One listens for bowel sounds with a stethoscope placed (a) on the four quadrants of the abdominal wall; (b) in the triangle of auscultation; (c) in the right and left midaxillary line, just superior to the iliac crests; (d) inside the patient’s bowels (intestines), on the tip of an endoscope.

a

b

d

c

5.

b

6. 7.

c

b d

8. 9. 10.

a

a

11.

c

12. 13. 14.

c

a

313

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

1

Dissection and Identification of Cat Muscles
Time Allotment: Skin removal; 1 hour. Muscle dissection; 4–6 hours+ (depending on detail required). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Solution: Carboglycerine solution 30 grams fungicide (Benomyl, Sigma) 250 milliliters glycerine 1 liter water Mix together and store in a closed container.

Advance Preparation
1. Order cats well in advance, as they may be in short supply. 2. Make arrangements for appropriate storage, disposal, and cleanup of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts, for state regulations. Designate a disposal container for organic debris, set up a dishwashing area with hot soapy water and sponges, and provide lab disinfectant such as Wavicide-01 (Carolina) or 10% bleach solution for washing down the lab benches. 3. Set out disposable gloves, safety glasses, dissecting kits, dissection tray, plastic storage bags, paper towels, and name tags. 4. Set out dissection animals (one per group of two to four students). 5. Set out carboglycerine solution or small plastic bags to hold embalming fluid.

315

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Be sure that students understand that the skin is to be removed in one piece. 2. Emphasize the use of the blunt probe as a dissecting instrument, rather than the scalpel. Cut only when everyone in the group agrees that a cut should be made! 3. Cat fur tends to clog the sink drains. Emphasize correct disposal of organic debris. 4. Students often “invent” muscles by tearing tissue apart. Emphasize that they should be separating muscles by breaking through the surrounding connective tissue. 5. Sometimes the dissection animal is in very poor condition, in which case the student should exchange it for a different specimen. 6. To prevent damage to muscles during skinning, separate skin from underlying tissues by inserting a blunt probe into the skin incision in the neck. Continue to use the probe to separate skin from underlying tissues before cutting the skin.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Dissecting Neck and Trunk Muscles
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall (p. 707)

2. The external oblique muscles run medially and downward, while the internal oblique muscle fibers run upward and medially. They are not quite perpendicular to each other.
Superficial Muscles of the Shoulder and Dorsal Trunk and Neck (pp. 707–708)

1. The clavotrapezius appears to originate on the occipital bone. This is similar to a part of the origin of the trapezius muscle in humans. The three cat muscles seem to have the same functions as the human trapezius muscle. 2. In humans the levator scapulae elevates the scapula and bends the neck laterally if the scapula is fixed. 3. The clavodeltoid inserts on the proximal end of the ulna. This muscle is used to flex the lower limb in walking. Activity 3: Dissecting Forelimb Muscles
Muscles of the Lateral Surface (pp. 711–712)

1. The triceps muscle has a similar function in cats and humans.
Muscles of the Medial Surface (pp. 712–713)

1. The biceps brachii has only one head in the cat. Activity 4: Dissecting Hindlimb Muscles
Posterolateral Hindlimb Muscles (pp. 713–715)

5. In humans the semimembranosus is also medial to and partially obscured by the semitendinosus. The human semimembranosus inserts on the tibia, but not on the femur.

316

Dissection Exercise 1

Anteromedial Hindlimb Muscles (pp. 715–718)

2. The origin of the rectus femoris in humans is the anterior inferior iliac spine and just above the acetabulum. 3. The human gracilis muscle has a very similar origin and insertion.

Dissection Review
Many human muscles are modified from those of the cat (or any quadruped) as a result of the requirements of an upright posture. The following questions refer to these differences. 1. How does the human trapezius muscle differ from the cat’s?
Cat’s trapezius is triparite (clavo-, acromio-, and spino- portions); the human trapezius is a single muscle. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. How does the deltoid differ?
Cat has three deltoid muscles, the clavodeltoid, acromiodeltoid, and spinodeltoid. The human has a single deltoid ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ muscle. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

3. How do the extent and orientation of the human gluteus muscle differ from its relative position in the cat?
The human gluteus maximus muscle originates on the dorsal ilium, sacrum, and coccyx and inserts on the proximal ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ femur and iliotibial tract as it runs inferiorlaterally; it forms the bulk of buttock mass. The cat gluteum maximus muscle originates on the sacrum and inserts on the proximal femur; it is a smaller triangular muscle that runs laterally. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

4. Explain the differences in terms of differences in function.
The large human gluteus maximus muscle is the major extensor of the thigh, most powerful when the thigh is flexed. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ It is generally inactive during standing and walking. It also laterally rotates and abducts the thigh. The cat gluteus maximus muscle is much smaller in relation to the size of the cat. Its function is to abduct the thigh. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

5. The human rectus abdominis is definitely divided by four transverse tendons (tendinous intersections). These tendons are absent or difficult to identify in the cat. How do these tendons affect the human upright posture?
These tendons support the abdominal muscular wall so that the viscera are not allowed to become pendulous in the ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ upright posture of humans. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

6. Match the terms in Column B to the descriptions in Column A. Column A a ______ 1. to separate muscles c ______ 2. to fold back a muscle d ______ 3. to cut through a muscle b ______ 4. to preserve tissue

Column B a. dissect b. embalm c. reflect d. transect
Dissection Exercise 1 317

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

2

Dissection of Cat Spinal Nerves
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. If cats were not skinned previously, see instructions in Dissection Exercise 1. Allow extra time for skinning: 1/2 hour to skin 1 forelimb and 1 hindlimb.

Dissection Review
1. From anterior to posterior, put the nerves issuing from the brachial plexus in their proper order (i.e., the median, musculocutaneous, radial, and ulnar nerves). musculocutaneous, radial, median, ulnar ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. Which of the nerves named above serves the cat’s forearm extensor muscles? the radial nerve the median nerve _____________________ Which serves the forearm flexors? ____________________ 3. Just superior to the gastrocnemius muscle the sciatic nerve divides into its two main common fibular tibial branches, the ____________________ and ______________ nerves. 4. What name is given to the cutaneous nerve of the cat’s thigh? the saphenous nerve ____________________

319

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

3

Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Cat
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. If cats were not skinned previously, see instructions in Dissection Exercise 1. Allow extra time for skinning. (Note: It is not absolutely necessary to skin the cats to do dissection of internal structures.) 3. The thymus gland varies in size from very large, sometimes extending from the superior trachea onto the heart, to almost absent.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. It is possible to leave identification of glands in the dissection animal until later dissections.

Dissection Review
1. How do the location of the endocrine organs in the cat compare with those in the human?
They are similar, but in the cat the pancreas is more diffuse and the adrenal glands are medial and separate rather than ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ superior and attached to the kidneys. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ thyroid gland 2. Name the two endocrine organs located in the neck region: _______________________ thymus gland and ____________________

321

3. Name three endocrine organs located in the abdominal cavity. pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries in female ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

4. Given the assumption (not necessarily true) that human beings have more stress than cats, which endocrine organs would you expect to be relatively larger in humans? the adrenal glands ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

5. Cats are smaller animals than humans. Which would you expect to have a (relatively cats speaking) more active thyroid gland—cats or humans? ____________________ Why? (We know we are asking a lot with this one, but give it a whirl.)
It is a general rule of thumb that basal metabolic rate increases as body size decreases. The effect of an increased ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ surface to volume relationship in maintaining internal temperature may be one of several factors explaining this ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ phenomenon. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

322

Dissection Exercise 3

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

4

Dissection of the Blood Vessels of the Cat
Time Allotment: 11/2–2 hours (depending on detail required in dissection). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. If cats were not skinned previously, see instructions in Dissection Exercise 1. Allow extra time for skinning. (Note: It is not absolutely necessary to skin the cats to do dissection of internal structures.) Allow 1/2 hour to skin 1 forelimb and 1 hindlimb.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. As students dissect out the arteries and veins, caution them to avoid damaging other organs that will be studied in later exercises. Especially caution them against cutting away the greater omentum. 2. Students may want to forge ahead and do the entire dissection once the ventral body cavity has been opened. Remind them that the individual systems will be studied in detail at a later date. 3. If time is limited, the circulatory system may be studied in conjunction with the study of individual systems rather than as a separate exercise. 4. If desired by the instructor, a previously dissected animal may be put on demonstration. 5. If the specimen has been injected, frequently the right common carotid artery is damaged; therefore, tracing the common carotid artery to find the external and internal carotid arteries is more easily done by following the left common carotid artery.

323

Dissection Review
1. What differences did you observe between the origins of the left common carotid arteries in the cat and in the human?
In the cat, both the R and L carotid arteries branch off the R brachiocephalic artery. In humans, the L common ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ carotid branches directly off the aortic arch; only the R common carotid branches off the brachiocephalic artery. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Between the origin of the internal and external iliac arteries?
In the cat, the aorta ends by dividing into the two external iliac arteries and a single median internal iliac artery ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ (which then divides into the R and L internal iliac arteries). In humans, the external and internal iliac arteries arise ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ by branching off the common iliac arteries (which do not exist in the cat). ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. How do the relative sizes of the external and internal jugular veins differ in the human and the cat?
In the cat, the external jugular vein is larger. In humans, the internal jugular vein is larger. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________ postcava 3. In the cat the inferior vena cava is called the ____________________, and the superior precava vena cava is referred to as the ____________________.

4. Define: Ascending aorta:
The aorta as it emerges from the heart and travels to the head. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Aortic arch:
The aorta as it bends to head caudally. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Descending thoracic aorta:
The aorta as it passes through the thoracic cavity. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Descending abdominal aorta:
The aorta as it passes through the abdominal cavity. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

324

Dissection Exercise 4

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

5

The Main Lymphatic Ducts of the Cat
Time Allotment: 1/2 hour (may be easily included with Dissection Exercise 4). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. If cats were not skinned previously, see instructions in Dissection Exercise 1. Allow extra time for skinning. (Note: It is not absolutely necessary to skin the cats to do dissection of internal structures.)

Comments and Pitfalls
1. If the student cats are double injected, it might be of value to order one triple-injected cat for demonstration of the lymphatic system. Before ordering, make sure that triple injected means that the lymphatic system has been injected. Often, triple injection means that the hepatic portal venous system has been injected separately from the vascular system injections.

Dissection Review
1. How does the cat’s lymphatic drainage pattern compare to that of humans? basically the same ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

325

2. What is the role of the following? It returns lymph from the lower body and upper left quadrant to the left subclavian vein. a. thoracic duct ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

________
It returns lymph to the right subclavian vein from the upper right quadrant. b. right lymphatic duct ___________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

________

326

Dissection Exercise 5

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

6

Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Cat
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. If cats were not skinned previously, see instructions in Dissection Exercise 1. Allow extra time for skinning. (Note: It is not absolutely necessary to skin the cats to do dissection of internal structures.) 3. Set out dissecting microscopes.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Identifying Organs of the Respiratory System (pp. 743–745) 5. The cat has four lobes in the right lung and three lobes in the left lung.

Dissection Review incomplete 1. Are the cartilaginous rings in the cat trachea complete or incomplete? ______________

2. Describe the appearance of the bronchial tree in the cat lung.
The bronchial tree is a series of branching tubing. The primary bronchi are large, subsequent branches are ____________________________________________________________

___________ smaller and smaller in diameter. ____________________________________________________________

___________

3. Describe the appearance of lung tissue under the dissection microscope.
Spongy-looking with small, irregular openings ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

327

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

7

Dissection of the Digestive System of the Cat
Time Allotment: 1–11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. Set out bone cutters, water bottles for flushing the intestines, and hand lenses.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Warn students that they will probably encounter roundworms in the cat’s stomach and intestines.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Identifying Alimentary Canal Organs (pp. 749–751) 2. The cat liver has five lobes, the human liver has four lobes. 4. The stomach is a curved sac. 6. Blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves are present in the mesenteries. The mesenteries provide a route for blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves to travel to and from the small intestine. There are no major differences in external anatomy along the length of the small intestine. The inner surface of the ileum feels like velvet. The villi in the duodenum are more elongated than those in the ileum. 7. The cat does not have an appendix.

329

Activity 2: Exposing and Viewing the Salivary Glands and Oral Cavity Structures (pp. 751–752) 2. Rugae are not as well developed in humans. Cats do not have a uvula. The numerous filiform papillae are used by the cat for grooming and for removing flesh from bones.

Dissection Review
1. Compare the appearance of tongue papillae in cats and humans.
The cat has numerous sharp, bristly filiform papillae. Human filiform papillae are less numerous, blunted, and ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ softer. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. Compare the number of lobes of the liver in cats and humans.
The cat liver has five lobes; the human liver has four. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ no no 3. Does the cat have a uvula? _____ An appendix? _____

4. Give an explanation for the different adult dental formulas in cats and humans.
Cats are carnivores and need extra incisors for biting. They have a reduced need for grinding and thus have ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ fewer molars. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

5. How do the villi differ in the duodenum and the ileum? Explain.
The villi in the duodenum are more elongated than those in the ileum. There is more absorption of nutrients from the ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ duodenum; the elongated villi provide greater area for protection. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

330

Dissection Exercise 7

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

8

Dissection of the Urinary System of the Cat
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation:
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Emphasize the importance of clearing away the peritoneum and fat tissue. Once the kidneys have been isolated there should be no difficulty identifying the ureters. 2. Remind the students that they are responsible for both the male and the female urinary systems. 3. This dissection fits nicely with the dissection of the reproductive system.

Answers to Questions
Activity: Identifying Organs of the Urinary System (pp. 753–756) 4. The ureters enter the bladder on the right and left lateral surfaces toward the posterior (caudal) end.

Dissection Review
1. a. How does the position of the kidneys in the cat differ from their position in humans?
In humans, the left kidney is more superior. In the cat, the kidneys are located at the same level or the ____________________________________________________________

______________________ right kidney is more anterior. ____________________________________________________________

______________________

331

Both are retroperitoneal. b. In what way is the position similar? _______________________________________

2. Distinguish between a ureter and the urethra.
The ureter carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. The urethra carries urine from the urinary ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ bladder to the exterior. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

3. How does the site of urethral emptying in the female cat differ from its termination point in the human female?
Human: empties to the body exterior. Cat: empties into the urogenital sinus along with the vagina. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

4. What is a urogenital sinus?
It is a common chamber into which the urethra and vagina enter. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ prostate 5. What gland encircles the neck of the bladder in the male? ___________________ Is this no part of the urinary system? ___________________ What is its function? Part of the male reproductive system. Produces a secretion, which contributes to seminal fluid. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

6. Compare the location of the adrenal glands in the cat to the location in humans.
In humans the adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys. In the cat they are superior, separate, and medial to the kidneys, ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ close to the inferior vena cava. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

332

Dissection Exercise 8

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

9

Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Cat
Time Allotment: 11/2–2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection (WNS, 39 minutes, VHS)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. Set out metric rulers and bone clippers.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Students usually encounter some difficulty dissecting out the penis. It takes time as the overlying skin is tightly attached in some places. 2. Caution students with male dissection animals to be careful when dissecting out the spermatic cord to avoid breaking it. 3. Remind students that they are responsible for both male and female dissections. 4. It is interesting to have at least one pregnant cat for dissection. 5. Students must use bone clippers to cut through the pubic region of the pelvis to complete the dissection. It is easiest if the cut is through the pubic symphysis.

333

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Identifying Organs of the Female Reproductive System (pp. 759–760) 4. The human female has separate openings for the vagina and the urethra. 6. The vagina is two to three centimeters long (will vary).

Dissection Review bipartite 1. The female cat has a ____________________ uterus; that of the human female is simplex ____________________. Explain the difference in structure of these two uterine types. Cat: Y-shaped central inferior chamber (body) from which two horns (cornua) extend. Human: undivided single ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ pear-shaped chamber. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. What reproductive advantage is conferred by the feline uterine type?
Can produce multiple offspring (litters). ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

3. Cite the differences between the cat and the human relative to the following structures:
Cat’s are much reduced in size and length Uterine tubes or oviducts __________________________________________________ More distal to the bladder in the cat Site of entry of ductus deferens into the urethra ________________________________ Smaller and more distal to the bladder in the cat Location of the prostate gland ______________________________________________ Not present in cat Seminal vesicles ________________________________________________________ Open into a common chamber (urogenital sinus) in the Urethral and vaginal openings in the female ___________________________________ cat. In humans, each organ opens independently to the body exterior. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

334

Dissection Exercise 9

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

1

Dissection and Identification of Fetal Pig Muscles
Time Allotment: Muscle dissection; 4 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM) Solution: Carboglycerine solution 30 grams fungicide (Benomyl, Sigma) 250 milliliters glycerine 1 liter water Mix together and store in a closed container.

Advance Preparation
1. Make arrangements for appropriate storage, disposal, and cleanup of dissection materials. Check with the Department of Health or the Department of Environmental Protection, or their counterparts, for state regulations. Designate a disposal container for organic debris, set up a dishwashing area with hot soapy water and sponges, and provide lab disinfectant such as Wavicide-01 (Carolina) or 10% bleach solution for washing down the lab benches. 2. Set out disposable gloves, safety glasses, dissecting kits, dissection tray, plastic storage bags, twine, metric rulers, paper towels, and name tags. 3. Set out dissection animals (one per group of two to four students). 4. Set out carboglycerine solution or small plastic bags to hold embalming fluid.

335

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Emphasize the use of the blunt probe as a dissecting instrument, rather than the scalpel. Cut only when everyone in the group agrees that a cut should be made! 2. Muscle development may be poor in some fetal pig specimens if they are very young. 3. Students often “invent” muscles by tearing tissue apart. Emphasize that they should be separating muscles by breaking through the surrounding connective tissue. 4. Sometimes the dissection animal is in very poor condition, in which case the student should exchange it for a different specimen. 5. To prevent damage to muscles during skinning, separate skin from underlying tissues by inserting a blunt probe into the skin incision in the neck. Continue to use the probe to separate skin from underlying tissues before cutting the skin.

Answers to Questions
Activity 3: Dissecting Trunk and Neck Muscles
Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Trunk and Neck (pp. 711–712)

2. The acromiotrapezius and spinotrapezius muscles appear to have the same functions in the pig as in humans. Activity 4: Dissecting Forelimb Muscles
Upper Forelimb Muscles (p. 713)

1. The triceps brachii has a similar function in pigs and humans. 3. The biceps brachii has only one head in the pig. Activity 5: Dissecting Hindlimb Muscles
Muscles of the Posterolateral Hindlimb (pp. 713–716)

3. In humans the semimembranosus is also medial to and partially obscured by the semitendinosus. The human semimembranosus inserts on the tibia, but not on the femur.
Muscles of the Anteromedial Hindlimb (pp. 716–717)

2. The origin of the rectus femoris in humans is the anterior inferior iliac spine and just above the acetabulum. 3. The human gracilis muscle has a very similar origin and insertion.

Dissection Review
Many human muscles are modified from those of the pig (or any quadruped) as a result of the requirements of an upright posture. The following questions refer to these differences. 1. How does the human trapezius muscle differ from the pig’s?
The pig’s trapezius is triparite (clavo-, acromio-, and spino- portions); the human trapezius is a single muscle. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

336

Dissection Exercise 1

2. How does the deltoid differ?
The pig’s deltoid is a tripartite muscle; the human deltoid is a single muscle. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

3. How does the extent and orientation of the human sartorious muscle differ from its relative position in the pig?
In humans, the satorius is a thin straplike muscle running obliquely across the anterior thigh. In the pig it is broad ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ and flat and covers most of the anterolateral thigh. Its course is oblique, but appears less so because it is much larger. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

4. Explain the differences in terms of differences in function.
In humans the sartorius adducts and rotates the thigh. In addition to these functions, it also extends the knee in the ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ pig. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

5. The human rectus abdominis is definitely divided by four transverse tendons (tendinous intersections). These tendons are absent or difficult to identify in the pig. How do these tendons affect the human upright posture?
These tendons support the muscular abdominal wall so that the viscera are not allowed to become pendulous in the ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ upright posture of humans. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Dissection Exercise 1

337

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

2

Dissection of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. Set out bone cutters.

Dissection Review
1. In what region (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or sacral) of the spinal cord would you find the following special features? cervical and lumbar Enlargements: ___________________________________________________________ sacral Cauda equina: ___________________________________________________________ rami 2. As you trace a spinal nerve laterally, it divides into dorsal and ventral _______________ (rami/roots).

3. Describe the appearance of the sympathetic trunk as seen in your dissection animal. a white cord with periodic enlargements ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

4. From anterior to posterior, put the nerves issuing from the brachial plexus of the pig in radial, median, ulnar proper order (i.e., the median, radial, and ulnar nerves). _________________________ 5. Just superior to the fetal pig’s gastrocnemius muscle, the sciatic nerve divides into two internal popliteal external popliteal main branches, the ____________________ and the ____________________ nerves.

339

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

3

Identification of Selected Endocrine Organs of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 1/2–1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. It is also possible to leave identification of glands in the dissection animal until later dissections.

Dissection Review
1. How do the location of the endocrine organs in the fetal pig compare with those in the human?
They are similar but in the pig the pancreas is more diffuse, the adrenal glands are medial rather than superior to the ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ kidneys, and the thymus is much larger. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ thyroid gland 2. Name the two endocrine organs located in the throat region: _______________________ thymus gland and ____________________

3. Name three endocrine organs located in the abdominal cavity. pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries in female ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

341

4. Given the assumption (not necessarily true) that human beings have more stress than adult pigs, which endocrine organs would you expect to be relatively larger in humans? the adrenal glands ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

5. Explain why the thymus in the fetal pig is so large, relatively speaking.
During fetal development, T cells are rapidly dividing and maturing in the thymus gland. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

342

Dissection Exercise 3

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

4

Dissection of the Blood Vessels and Main Lymphatic Ducts of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 11/2–3 hours (depending on detail required in dissection). Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. As students dissect out the arteries and veins, caution them to avoid damaging other organs that will be studied in later exercises. Especially caution them against cutting away the greater omentum. 2. Students may want to forge ahead and do the entire dissection once the ventral body cavity has been opened. Remind them that the individual systems will be studied in detail at a later date. 3. If time is limited, the circulatory system may be studied in conjunction with the study of individual systems rather than as a separate exercise. 4. If desired by the instructor, a previously dissected animal may be put on demonstration. 5. If the specimen has been injected, frequently the right common carotid artery is damaged; therefore, tracing the common carotid artery to find the external and internal carotid arteries is more easily done by following the left common carotid artery.

343

Dissection Review
1. Is the fetal pig’s lymphatic drainage pattern basically similar or dissimilar to that of Similar humans? ____________________________________________________________

_____ 2. What is the role of the following?
The thoracic duct drains lymph from the left side of the head, neck, trunk, and left upper a. the thoracic duct: _______________________________________________________ extremity, as well as all of the abdomen and both lower extremities into the left subclavian vein. ____________________________________________________________

__________ The right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the right side of the head, neck, b. the right lymphatic duct: _________________________________________________ trunk, and right upper extremity into the right subclavian vein. ____________________________________________________________

________________________

3. What differences did you observe between the origin of the common carotid arteries in the pig and in the human?
In the pig, the common carotid arteries may arise from the bicarotid trunk (a branch off the brachiocephalic trunk) ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ or directly from the brachiocephalic artery. In humans, the right common carotid artery arises from the brachio_____________________________________________________

_________________________________ cephalic artery; the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

4. How do the relative sizes of the external and internal jugular veins differ in the human and the pig?
In the pig, the external jugular vein is larger. In humans, the internal jugular vein is larger. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

5. How do the brachial veins of the pig differ from those of humans?
In the pig, often there are two brachial veins in each forelimb, which anastomose frequently along their course. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ In humans, the brachial vein is singular. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

6. What difference was noted between the origin of the hepatic portal vein in the pig and in humans?
Pig: from the union of the gastrosplenic and mesenteric veins. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ Humans: from the union of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Between the origin of the internal and external iliac arteries?
Pig: external iliac arteries issue directly from the aorta. The internal iliac arteries are branches of the umbilical ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ arteries at the aorta terminus. Humans: the external and internal iliac arteries arise from the division of the common ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ iliac arteries, which are the final aorta branches. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

344

Dissection Exercise 4

7. Define the following terms. ascending aorta:
The aorta as it emerges from the heart and travels toward the head. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

aortic arch:
The aorta as it bends to travel caudally. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

descending thoracic aorta:
The aorta as it passes through the thoracic cavity. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

descending abdominal aorta:
The aorta as it passes through the abdominal cavity. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

Dissection Exercise 4

345

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

5

Dissection of the Respiratory System of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 11/2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. Set out dissecting microscopes and small beakers.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Identifying Respiratory Organs of the Fetal Pig (pp. 737–740) 3. The mucosa helps to warm and moisten the air entering the nasal cavity. 8. The segment of fetal lung tissue will sink to the bottom of the beaker of water. Fetal lungs have not yet inflated and the tissue is still dense.

Dissection Review incomplete 1. Are the cartilagenous rings in the pig trachea complete or incomplete? ______________

2. How does the number of lung lobes in the pig compare with the number in humans?
5 in humans; 7 in the pig. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

3. Describe the appearance of lung tissue under the dissection microscope.
Dense but spongy-looking. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

347

4. Why did the segment of lung tissue, cut from the fetal pig’s lung, sink when placed in water?
The lungs have never been inflated; therefore the tissue contains essentially no air and is dense. Lungs that have ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ been inflated contain trapped air and will float. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

348

Dissection Exercise 5

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

6

Dissection of the Digestive System of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. Set out bone cutters, water bottles, and hand lenses.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. In the pig the large intestine will have a very different arrangement from that of the human.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Identifying Digestive Organs in the Abdominal Cavity (pp. 742–744) 3. The stomach is a curved sac. 5. Blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves are present in the mesenteries. The mesenteries provide a route for vessels and nerves to travel to and from the small intestine. The inner surface of the ileum feels like velvet. The villi in the duodenum are more elongated than those in the ileum. 6. The ileocecal valve prevents regurgitation of material from the cecum into the ileum. The pig does not have an appendix.

349

Dissection Review
Several differences between pig and human digestive anatomy should have become apparent during the dissection. State the pertinent differences between the human and the pig relative to the following structures.
Structure Number of liver lobes Appendix Appearance and distribution of colon Presence of round ligament Pig Five Absent cecum present Ascends and then forms a tight coil before descending Absent. Umbilical vein is still present. It later becomes the round ligament. Human Four Present Basically an inverted U with ascending, transverse, and descending portions Present

350

Dissection Exercise 6

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

7

Dissection of the Urinary System of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 1 hour. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation:
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Emphasize the importance of clearing away the peritoneum and fat tissue. Once the kidneys have been isolated there should be no difficulty identifying the ureters. 2. Remind the students that they are responsible for both the male and the female urinary systems. 3. This dissection fits nicely with the dissection of the reproductive system.

Dissection Review
1. How does the structure and distribution of the allantoic bladder of the fetal pig differ from the urinary bladder of the human (or that of the adult pig, for that matter)?
The allantoic bladder is very elongated and continues into the umbilical cord as the allantoic stalk. After birth, it is ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ transformed into the bladder, which empties into the urethra. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. What differences in fetal elimination of nitrogenous wastes account for the structural differences described above?
Fetal elimination of nitrogenous waste occurs through the placenta. (The extraembryonic portion of the allantois ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ forms a part of the placenta.) ____________________________________________________________

________________________

351

3. How does the site of urethral emptying in the female pig differ from its termination point in the human female?
The pig’s urethra and vagina empty into a common chamber, the urogenital sinus. The human female’s urethra and ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ vagina terminate independently at the body surface. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

352

Dissection Exercise 7

D I S S E C T I O N
EXERCISE

8

Dissection of the Reproductive System of the Fetal Pig
Time Allotment: 11/2–2 hours. Multimedia Resources: See Appendix D for a list of multimedia offerings. The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Advance Preparation
1. See Dissection Exercise 1 for setup instructions. 2. Set out metric rulers, water bottles, and bone cutters.

Comments and Pitfalls
1. Caution students with male dissection animals to be careful when dissecting out the spermatic cord to avoid breaking it. 2. Remind students that they are responsible for both male and female dissections. 3. Students must use bone clippers to cut through the pubic region of the pelvis to complete the dissection. It is easiest if the cut is through the pubic symphysis.

Answers to Questions
Activity 2: Identifying Organs of the Female Reproductive System (p. 754) 4. The human female has separate openings for the vagina and the urethra. 6. The vagina is twenty to thirty millimeters long (will vary).

353

Dissection Review bipartite 1. The female pig has a ____________________ uterus; that of the human female is simplex ____________________. Explain the difference in structure of these two uterine types. Pig: Y-shaped central chamber (body) from which two horns (cornua) extend. Human: undivided pear-shaped ____________________________________________________________

__________________________ chamber. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

2. What reproductive advantage is conferred by the pig’s uterine type?
Can produce litters. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

3. Cite the differences between the pig and the human relative to the following structures:
They are very tiny and relatively much shorter in the pig. uterine tubes or oviducts _____________________________________________________ In the pig, both open into a common chamber, the urethral and vaginal openings in the female ____________________________________ urogenital sinus. In humans, both structures empty independently to the body exterior. ____________________________________________________________

__________________________

____________________________________________________________

__________________________

354

Dissection Exercise 8

version 8

E X E R C I S E

5B

Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours minimum, 3 hours preferred.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows® XP, Vista™ Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe® Flash® Player Latest version of Adobe Reader® Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost.

355

5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program. 6. Occasionally, data in the Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability module will appear with “#” symbols next to numbers. In the Simple Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, and Osmosis experiments, the “#” symbol after “rate” data indicates that equilibrium was not reached for that solute. In the Active Transport experiment, the symbol after “rate” data indicates 1) for glucose data, that equilibrium was not reached for glucose; 2) for NaCl and KCl, that transport was interrupted for that solute. In the Osmosis experiment, the symbol after “pressure” data means that osmotic equilibrium was not reached.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion) (pp. PEx-6–8) 9. All solutes except albumin are able to diffuse into the right beaker. Using distilled water in the right beaker and either the 100 MWCO or 200 MWCO membrane will remove urea from the left beaker and leave albumin If the left beaker contains NaCl, urea, and albumin, you can selectively remove urea by dispensing a concentration of NaCl into the right beaker equivalent to that in the left beaker and by using the 100 or 200 MWCO membrane. Albumin is too large to diffuse and there will be no net diffusion of NaCl. However, urea will move down its concentration gradient into the right beaker. Activity 2: Simulating Facilitated Diffusion (pp. PEx-8–9) 11. Carrier proteins facilitate the movement of solute molecules across semipermeable membranes, so increasing their number will increase the rate of diffusion. Because facilitated diffusion requires a concentration gradient, making the concentration on both sides of the membrane equal stops net diffusion. NaCl does not have an effect on glucose diffusion. Activity 3: Simulating Osmotic Pressure (pp. PEx-10–11) 6. Using the 20 MWCO membrane results in an osmotic pressure increase using any of the solutes. The 50 and 100 MWCO membranes caused osmotic pressure increase with albumin and glucose. Only albumin caused osmotic pressure increase using the 200 MWCO membrane. NaCl appeared in the right beaker with all membranes except the 20 MWCO membrane. 8. Increasing the number of non-diffusible particles increases osmotic pressure. If solutes are able to diffuse, then equilibrium will be established and osmotic pressure will not be generated. Osmotic pressure would be zero if albumin concentration was the same on both sides of the membrane.

356

PhysioEx™ Exercise 5B

If you increased (or doubled) the concentration of albumin, osmotic pressure will increase (or double). Glucose is freely diffusible using the 200 MWCO membrane and therefore has no effect on osmotic pressure. The 100 MWCO membrane does not allow glucose to pass and therefore glucose will generate an osmotic influence. Because albumin concentration in the left beaker is 9.00 mM and glucose concentration in the right beaker is 10.00 mM (1.00 mM higher than the left), the small gradient dictates that an osmotic pressure increase will appear in the right beaker. Activity 4: Simulating Filtration (pp. PEx-11–13) 9. Smaller MWCO numbers translate to smaller pore sizes, which correlate with lower filtration rate. Powdered charcoal did not appear in the filtrate using any membrane. Increasing the force driving filtration increases filtration rate. Increasing the pressure gradient effectively increases the filtration rate. By examining the filtration results, we can predict that the molecular weight of glucose must be greater than NaCl but less than powdered charcoal. Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport (pp. PEx-14–15) 7. Solute transport stops before the completion of transport because of a lack of ATP. Sodium and potassium transport will not occur if ATP is not available. 8. Yes, transport has changed because more ATP is available. This fact supports the earlier supposition that ATP is required for active transport. The rate of active transport will decrease if fewer solute pumps are available, but will still go to completion given enough ATP and time. You can show that this is an active process by making the sodium concentration in the right beaker greater than the sodium concentration in the left beaker. Transport will occur against the concentration gradient in active transport but not in diffusion. 9. Sodium transport is not affected by putting NaCl into the right beaker. Increasing the number of pump proteins will increase solute transport. Glucose presence does not affect active transport.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 5B

357

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

5B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Computer Simulation

Simple Diffusion
1. The following refer to Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion). Which solute(s) were able to pass through the 20 MWCO membrane?
None Albumin According to your results, which solute had the highest molecular weight? ______________________________________ NaCl Which solute displayed the highest rate of diffusion through the 200 MWCO membrane? __________________________

Using the data from Chart 1, explain the relationship between the rate of diffusion and the size of the solute.
The smaller the solute particle the greater the rate of diffusion.

Facilitated Diffusion
2. The following refer to Activity 2: Simulating Facilitated Diffusion. Did any of the substances travel against their concentration gradient? Explain why or why not.
No; in facilitated diffusion, a passive process, substances can move only down their concentration gradient.

0.0038 Using your results from Chart 2, what was the fastest rate of facilitated diffusion recorded? _______________. Describe 8mM glucose with 900 glucose carriers in the membrane the conditions that were used to achieve this rate. ___________________________________________________________

Increase amount of glucose in solution; increase number of glucose Name two ways to increase the rate of glucose transport. _____________________________________________________ carriers in the membrane No Did NaCl affect glucose transport? ____________________________________________________________

__________ No; because of its small size, NaCl is able to diffuse down Did NaCl require a transport protein for diffusion? Why or why not? ____________________________________________ its concentration gradient without the aid of carriers.

359

Osmotic Pressure
3. The following refer to Activity 3: Simulating Osmotic Pressure. For NaCl, which MWCO membrane(s) provided for the net movement of water without movement of NaCl?
20 MWCO Buildup of osmotic pressure due to the Explain how you determined this. (Hint: Correlate your results to the data in Chart 3.) ______________________________ presence of non-diffusable NaCl in the solution causes water to diffuse down its concentration gradient.

For glucose, which MWCO membrane(s) provided for the net movement of glucose without net movement of water?
200 MWCO There was no buildup of osmotic pressure, which indicates that glucose is able to diffuse down Explain how you determined this. ____________________________________________________________

___________ its concentration gradient. No Is osmotic pressure generated if solutes diffuse freely? _______________________________________________________ The higher the solute concentration, the higher the osmotic Explain how the solute concentration affects osmotic pressure. ________________________________________________ pressure.

Filtration
4. The following refer to Activity 4: Simulating Filtration.
200 MWCO Using your results in Chart 4, which MWCO membrane had the greatest filtration rate? ____________________________ The larger the pore size, the greater the filtration rate. Explain the relationship between pore size and filtration rate. _________________________________________________

Powdered charcoal Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes? _________________________________________ The filtration rate What is your prediction of the molecular weight of glucose compared to the other solutes in the solution? _______________ of glucose is less than that of NaCl and urea, so its molecular weight would be greater. The filtration rate increases. What happened when you increased the driving pressure? ____________________________________________________

Explain why fluid flows from the capillaries of the kidneys into the kidney tubules.
Pressure is higher in capillaries than in kidney tubules so particles that are small enough are filtered from capillaries into kidney tubules. The rate of filtration would decrease. How do you think a decrease in blood pressure would affect filtration in the kidneys? ______________________________

360

Review Sheet 5B

5. The following refer to Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport. With 1 mM ATP added to the cell interior (left beaker) and the extracellular space (right beaker), was all of the Na moved
No; ATP was depleted at 3 minutes. into the extracellular space? Why or why not? ____________________________________________________________

_

The rate of active transport decreases. Describe the effect of decreasing the number of sodium-potassium pumps. _______________________________________ Sodium moved from the left Describe how you were able to show that the movement of sodium was due to active transport. ______________________ beaker into the right beaker against its concentration gradient; there was no movement of sodium when there were no Na /K pumps added to the membrane.

Review Sheet 5B

361

version 8

E X E R C I S E

16 B

Skeletal Muscle Physiology

Time Allotment: 2–2.5 hours minimum if students are well-prepared, 3 hours preferred.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

363

6. Prior to the lab, suggest to the students that they become familiar with the exercise before coming to class. If students have a home computer, or access to a computer on campus, they can become familiar with the general operation of the simulations before coming to class. 7. You might do a short introductory presentation with the following elements: a. Describe the basics of muscle contraction at the cellular level, focusing on the sarcomere. This explanation is especially important for the isometric part of the simulation. b. Students often have problems distinguishing between in vivo stimulation via the nervous system versus the electrical stimulation we apply to whole skeletal muscle in an experiment. Mention that increasing the intensity of an electrical stimulus to the surface of whole muscle is not the same as stimulation via the nervous system, but that the outcome of increased force production is similar in both methods. c. Encourage students to try to apply the concepts from the simulation to human skeletal muscles as they work through the program. d. If a demonstration computer screen is available, briefly show students the basic equipment parts. 8. Keep in mind that many students in an introductory science course are deficient in their graphing skills. Reviewing the principles of plotting before the class begins may prove helpful. 9. Be prepared to help the students answer the more difficult “What if...” questions.

Answers to Questions
Electrical Stimulation Activity 2: Determining the Latent Period (p. PEx-26) 4. The latent period should be approximately 2.78 msec. The muscle cell is biochemically preparing for contraction, including events such as the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the movement of the chemicals of contraction within the cell; includes all biochemical events beginning with acetylcholine binding to the sarcolemma through the beginning of cross-bridge binding. Activity 3: Investigating Graded Muscle Response to Increased Stimulus Intensity (p. PEx-26) 7. The minimal stimulus is about 0.8 volts. The maximal stimulus can be estimated at approximately 8.0 volts. However, if you look carefully at the force measurements recorded in the data grid, you will see that force increases until 8.2 volts is achieved. As more voltage is delivered to the whole muscle, more muscle fibers are activated and total force produced by muscle is increased.

364

PhysioEx™ Exercise 16B

Multiple Stimulus Activity 4: Investigating Treppe (pp. PEx-26–27) 4. As long as stimuli are delivered relatively close together, the active force produced by subsequent stimuli slightly increases for the first few stimuli. Activity 5: Investigating Wave Summation (pp. PEx-27–28) 4. The peak force produced in the second contraction is greater than that produced by the first stimulus. 5. The total force production is even greater when stimuli are delivered more rapidly. 6. Decrease voltage 1.7–2.5 volts (depends on the rapidity of clicking) 7. The greater frequency of stimulation results in a greater force generated. Activity 6: Investigating Fusion Frequency/Tetanus (pp. PEx-28–29) 4. The force rises and falls at 30 stimuli/sec. 5. As the stimulation rate is increased, the active force produced by the muscle also increases. Additionally, the force tracing becomes smoother (smaller peaks). 7. The stimulus rate above which there appears to be no significant increase in force is at approximately 120 stimuli/sec. 10. Smooth, sustained force at 2 gms can be produced at approximately 1.2 volts and 120 stimuli/sec. Smooth, sustained force at 3 gms can be produced at approximately 1.6 volts and 120 stimuli/sec. Increasing the stimulation rate causes smoother force production. Lowering the voltage (intensity) decreases the total force produced. Manipulating both allows the muscle to produce smooth force at any desired level. For example, increasing the stimulus rate while decreasing the voltage allowed the muscle to produce smooth force at a level of 2 gms. Activity 7: Investigating Muscle Fatigue (p. PEx-29) 4. The muscle force decreases because the muscle is consuming ATP faster than it is being produced. 6. When the stimulator is turned off the muscle is able to “catch up” a little with ATP production. 7. The second tracing shows faster fatigue than the tracing in which the stimulator was turned on and off.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 16B

365

Isometric Contraction Activity 8: Investigating Isometric Contraction (pp. PEx-30–31) 7. As the muscle length is increased from 50 mm to 100 mm, the passive force is initially zero and then, at approximately 84 mm, begins to sharply rise. As the muscle length is increased from 50 mm to 100 mm, the active force increases steadily until a muscle length of 75 mm and then begins to fall with increasing muscle length. As the muscle length is increased from 50 mm to 100 mm, the total force initially rises, then, at a muscle length of 76 mm, begins to fall, and finally, at a muscle length of 94 mm, rises again producing a dip in the curve. Because the total force curve is the result of the numerical sum of the active and passive force data points, we see a rise on the left side of the total force due to the rise in the active force. Note that the passive force has no influence in the rise on the left side. The total force curve begins to fall because the active force falls. However, the total force does not fall as fast as the active force because the passive force is simultaneously rising. Finally, the sharp increase at the right side of the total force curve is almost entirely due to the passive force. Isotonic Contraction Activity 9: Investigating the Effect of Load on Skeletal Muscle (pp. PEx-31–32) 5. During the flat part of the tracing, the muscle rises from the surface of the platform and then descends again. The force production does not change during the flat part of the tracing (the tracing is flat!); it stays the same. 6. 1.5g 0.45 mm/sec 7. 1.0g 1.34 mm/sec 2.0g 0.00 mm/sec 9. The greater the resistance (weight), the shorter the initial velocity of shortening. 15. As the starting length of the muscle is increased from 60 mm to 90 mm, the initial velocity of shortening first increases (to a muscle length of 75 mm) and then decreases.

366

PhysioEx™ Exercise 16B

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

16 B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Skeletal Muscle Physiology

Electrical Stimulation
1. Name each phase of a typical muscle twitch, and, on the following line, describe what is happening in each phase. a. latent period The muscle cells are biochemically preparing to contract, includes all biochemical events from acetylcholine binding to sarcolemma through cross-bridge formation.

b.

contraction phase Sarcomeres are shortening, causing the muscle cells to contract in turn, which causes a force increase.

c.

relaxation phase Sarcomeres are lengthening due to relaxation (cross-bridge broken); force is falling.

2.78 2. In Activity 2, how long was the latent period? _______________ msec Acetylcholine binds to sarcolemma; sarcolemma then Describe the chemical changes that are occurring during this period. ____________________________________________ T-tubules depolarize; Ca++ released from terminal cisternae travels along SR, is released into sarcoplasm, then binds to troponin to unblock tropomyosin binding sites allowing cross-bridge formation (i.e., myosin heads bind to actin).

The Graded Muscle Response to Increased Stimulus Intensity
3. From Activity 3, describe the effect of increasing the voltage. What happened to the force generated and why did this change occur?
Force generated increased because the total number of cells contracting is increased.

4. How does this change occur in vivo? In vivo increasing force is achieved by neural activation of an increasingly large number of motor units serving the muscle.

367

5. In Activity 4, you looked at the effect of stimulating the muscle multiple times in a short period with complete relaxation between the stimuli.
The force generated increases slightly with each subsequent Describe the force of contraction with each subsequent stimulus. _______________________________________________ stimulus.

6. Describe the chemical changes that are thought to correlate to this change in vivo.
Increasing availability of Ca++ in the sarcoplasm (more Ca++ expose more active binding sites on the thin filaments for cross-bridge attachment).

7. In Activity 5, what was the effect of increasing the frequency of stimulation?
The force generated increases and the force wave becomes smoother as frequency of stimulation increases.

8. Compare and contrast wave summation with recruitment (multiple motor unit summation). How are they similar? How was each achieved in the simulation?
Both cause an increase in force generated. Summation is achieved by ↑ frequency of stimulation. Recruitment is achieved by ↑ force of stimulation.

9. Explain how wave summation and recruitment are achieved in vivo.
Summation is achieved by the nervous system ↑ firing rate of motor neurons. Recruitment is caused by neural activation of increasingly large numbers of motor units serving the muscle. Smooth contractions at a 10. For Activity 6, explain how you were able to achieve smooth contraction at a given force level. ______________________ given force level are obtained by increasing the force of stimulation for a high force level or decreasing the force of stimulation for a low force level.

11. In Activity 7, explain why the force of the muscle decreased over time during uninterrupted stimulation. Describe the
ATP consumption is greater than multiple causes of this phenomenon, which occurs in vivo with prolonged use of a muscle. __________________________ its production; lactic acid buildup causes pH to decrease, therefore inhibiting enzyme activity.

Isometric Contraction
12. In Activity 8, at what length of the muscle does the passive force start to increase?
75 mm

13. Explain what happens to the active force with an increase in the muscle length.
Active force increases until the optimal length is obtained, then decreases as muscle length continues to increase beyond optimal length.

368

Review Sheet 16B

14. Explain what happens to the active force with a decrease in the muscle length.
Active force decreases as muscle length decreases. As muscle 15. Explain what is happening in the sarcomere that results in the changes in total force when the muscle length changes. ________ length shortens or lengthens, fewer cross bridges will be able to form, thus the active force produced by the muscle is decreased.

Isotonic Contraction
16. In Activity 9, which weight resulted in the highest initial velocity of shortening?
0.5g

17. Explain the relationship between the amount of resistance and the initial velocity of shortening.
The lighter the weight, the greater the initial velocity of shortening; inverse relationship.

18. Explain why it will take you longer to perform 10 repetitions lifting a 20-pound weight than it would to perform the same
The velocity possible in lifting a 20-pound weight is much less than that of lifting a number of repetitions with a 5-pound weight. ____________________________________________________________

__ 5-pound weight.

Review Sheet 16B

369

version 8

E X E R C I S E

18 B

Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

371

Eliciting (Generating) a Nerve Impulse Activity 1: Electrical Stimulation (pp. PEx-39–40) 2. At 1.0 V, there is no response—the screen displays a flat line. The threshold voltage is at 3.0 V. 4. The slight increase in voltage results in a slight increase in the height of the action potential peak. At threshold voltage, the smaller fibers in a nerve are stimulated and an action potential is seen. Increasing the voltage will cause most, if not all of the neural fibers to undergo depolarization. A given nerve is made up of literally thousands of neuron processes (axons) so this slight increase is noted when all fibers in the nerve fire. 5. The maximal voltage is 4.0 V. Activity 2: Mechanical Stimulation (pp. PEx-40–41) 2. An action potential is generated when you touch the rod to the nerve. The tracing is identical to the tracing generated at the threshold voltage. Activity 3: Thermal Stimulation (p. PEx-41) An action potential is generated when you touch the heated rod to the nerve. The tracing shows the action potential peaking slightly higher than the peak generated by the unheated rod. Thermal stimulation can also elicit a nerve response. Heat generates action potentials in more of the neurons in a nerve than are generated by touch. Activity 4: Chemical Stimulation (p. PEx-41) 1. Yes, dropping sodium chloride on the nerve generates an action potential. 2. No, the tracing does not differ from the original threshold stimulus tracing. 4. Yes, dropping hydrochloric acid on the nerve generates an action potential. No, the tracing does not differ from the original threshold stimulus tracing. 6. Electrical, mechnical, thermal, and chemical stimulation are all capable of generating an action potential in a nerve. Inhibiting a Nerve Response Activity 5: Testing the Effects of Ether (p. PEx-42) 2. The screen displays a flat line, indicating no nerve response. The nerve has been anesthesized by the ether. 4. The nerve begins to respond to electrical stimuli again after about 6 minutes.

372

PhysioEx™ Exercise 18B

Activity 6: Testing the Effects of Curare (p. PEx-43) 2. There is no change to the action potential tracing. Nerve propagation is unaffected because curare works on the synaptic ends of the nerve. Curare would ultimately kill the organism by blocking nerve transmission. Activity 7: Testing the Effects of Lidocaine (p. PEx-43) 1. No. 2. At threshold voltage, the screen still displays a flat line. Lidocaine is a sodium ion channel antagonist which will block sodium channels from opening, thus inhibiting any action potential from being generated. Nerve Conduction Velocity Activity 8: Measuring Nerve Conduction Velocity (pp. PEx-44–46) 5. 5 volts The chart should look like this:
Nerve Threshold voltage Earthworm Frog Rat Nerve 1 Rat Nerve 2

5.0 V

3.0 V

2.5 V

3.0 V about 0.92 msec

about 4.86 msec Elapsed time from stimulation to action potential
Conduction velocity

about 1.56 msec about 2.5 msec

about 8.85 m/sec

about 27.56 m/sec

about 17.2 m/sec

about 46.74 m/sec

11. The earthworm has the slowest conduction velocity. The speed of the earthworm nerve was about 8.85 m/sec. Rat nerve 2 had the fastest conduction velocity. The speed of rat nerve 2 was about 46.74 m/sec. The larger the nerve, the faster the conduction velocity. Conduction velocity is faster if the nerve is myelinated than if it is not. In myelinated nerves, conduction velocity is faster as the action potential jumps from node of Ranvier (internode) to node of Ranvier and does not travel along the cell membrane.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 18B

373

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

18 B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses: Computer Simulation

Eliciting (Generating) a Nerve Impulse
1. Why don’t the terms depolarization and action potential mean the same thing?
Depolarization (reduction of the negative membrane potential) may only be a short-lived event if the change in the membrane is subthreshold. When an action potential occurs, there is a large reversal of the membrane polarity that occurs when the membrane depolarizes to threshold. 3 volts 2. What was the threshold voltage in Activity 1? ____________________________________________________________

__ Increasing voltage 3. What was the effect of increasing the voltage? How does this change correlate to changes in the nerve?________________ results in depolarization of increasing numbers of neurons in a nerve.

The action potential generated 4. How did the action potential generated with the unheated rod compare to the heated rod? ___________________________ with the unheated rod was less than the action potential generated by the heated rod. Electrical, mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli are all 5. Describe the types of stimuli that generated an action potential.________________________________________________ capable of generating an action potential.

6. If you were to spend a lot of time studying nerve physiology in the laboratory, what type of stimulus would you use and why?
Although many different stimuli work, electrical stimulators are convenient because the voltage duration and frequency of the shock can be very precisely set for use.

7. Why does the addition of sodium chloride elicit an action potential? Hint: Think about the sodium permeability of the neuron
While the sodium-potassium pump is pumping sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell, these ions are (Figure 18B.2e).____________________________________________________________

_________________________ leaking back where they came from by diffusion. By adding sodium chloride, a more-than-normal amount of sodium will diffuse into the nerve, causing the resting membrane potential to reach the threshold value, bringing about a membrane depolarization.

375

Inhibiting a Nerve Impulse
The ether narcotizes the nerve fiber in between the stimulating 8. What was the effect of ether on eliciting an action potential? __________________________________________________ and recording electrodes, thus blocking any action potential from being generated. No, the ether has no lasting effect. 9. Does the addition of ether to the nerve cause any permanent alteration in neural response? ___________________________ Curare had no effect—an action potential was still generated 10. What was the effect of curare on eliciting an action potential? _________________________________________________ when the nerve was stimulated at threshold voltage. Curare works by blocking synaptic transmissions so that neural impulses 11. Explain the reason for your answer to question 10 above. _____________________________________________________ do not travel from neuron to neuron. The detached nerve which we are experimenting with does not have any synapses to be blocked. In a living animal, however, curare will kill, as neural impulses cannot jump synapses to allow the heart to work or the animal to breathe. Lidocaine is a sodium channel antagonist and will block sodium 12. What was the effect of lidocaine on eliciting an action potential? _______________________________________________ ion channels from working, preventing the generation of an action potential.

Nerve Conduction Velocity
The larger the size of the nerve, the faster the 13. What is the relationship between size of the nerve and conduction velocity? ______________________________________ conduction velocity.

14. Keeping your answer to question 13 in mind, how might you draw an analogy between the nerves in the human body and electrical wires?
The larger the size of the elecrical wire, the faster the speed of electrons within it. Smaller wires have a high resistance to electron flow. Myelination will speed the 15. How does myelination affect nerve conduction velocity? Explain, using your data from Chart 1. ______________________ nerve conduction velocity considerably. Myelin is found in Schwann cells which encircle a given axon. It acts mainly as an insulator so that depolarization in one cell does not set off depolarizations in adjoining cells. When a neural membrane is depolarized, local currents are set up between positive and negative ions causing membrane conduction. In myelinated fibers, the local currents go from one internode (or Node of Ranvier) in between two Schwann cells to the next internode. Thus we have “salutatory conduction” where a neural impulse actually jumps from one internode to the next without being conducted down the entire cell membrane.

16. If any of the nerves used were reversed in their placement on the stimulating and recording electrodes, would any differences be seen in conduction velocity? Explain.
No. Once a neural membrane is depolarized and the impulse is being conducted along the neural membrane, which direction is which does not matter. We state that a neural impulse is set up in the neuron’s trigger zone (mainly due to the large number of sodium channels there) but once the depolarization is set up, it not only travels down the axon but also around the soma of the cell.

376

Review Sheet 18B

version 8

E X E R C I S E

28 B

Endocrine System Physiology: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 3.0 hours.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

377

Metabolism
Upon completion of all activities, the chart should look like this:
Normal Rat Baseline Thyroidectomized Rat Hypophysectomized Rat

Weight ml O2 used in 1 minute ml O2 used per hour Metabolic rate
With Thyroxine

249–251 grams 7.0–7.2 ml 420–432 ml 1687–1721 ml O2/Kg/Hr 249–251 grams 7.8–8.0 ml 468–480 ml 1879–1912 ml O2/Kg/Hr 249–251 grams 7.8–8.0 ml 468–480 ml 1879–1912 ml O2/Kg/Hr 249–251 grams 6.0–6.2 ml 360–372 ml 1446–1482 ml O2/Kg/Hr

244–246 grams 6.0–6.2 ml 360–372 ml 1475–1512 ml O2/Kg/Hr 244–246 grams 7.4–7.6 ml 444–456 ml 1820–1854 ml O2/Kg/Hr 244–246 grams 6.0–6.2 ml 360–372 ml 1475–1512 ml O2/Kg/Hr 244–246 grams 6.0–6.2 ml 360–372 ml 1475–1512 ml O2/Kg/Hr

244–246 grams 6.0–6.2 ml 360–372 ml 1475–1512 ml O2/Kg/Hr 244–246 grams 7.4–7.6 ml 444–456 ml 1820–1854 ml O2/Kg/Hr 244–246 grams 7.4–7.6 ml 444–456 ml 1820–1854 ml O2/Kg/Hr 244–246 grams 6.0–6.2 ml 360–372 ml 1475–1512 ml O2/Kg/Hr

Weight ml O2 used in 1 minute ml O2 used per hour Metabolic rate
With TSH

Weight ml O2 used in 1 minute ml O2 used per hour Metabolic rate
With Propylthiouracil

Weight ml O2 used in 1 minute ml O2 used per hour Metabolic rate

Activity 1: Determining Baseline Metabolic Rates (pp. PEx-51–53) 16. The normal rat’s metabolic rate is faster than the metabolic rates of the thyroidectomized and hypophysectomized rats. The thyroidectomized rat lacks a thyroid, thus produced no thyroxine. The hypophysectomized rat lacks a pituitary gland, thus produced no thyroid stimulating hormone to

378

PhysioEx™ Exercise 28B

stimulate thyroxine production. Because the normal rat produced thyroxine normally, its metabolic rate was faster than the other rats. Activity 2: Determining the Effect of Thyroxine on Metabolic Rate (p. PEx-53) 7. On the normal rat, the metabolic rate after thyroxine injection is faster than the baseline metabolic rate. The action of thyroxine is to increase the metabolic rate of all cells. On the thyroidectomized rat, the metabolic rate after thyroxine injection is faster than the baseline metabolic rate. The injected thyroxine compensated for the thyroxine lost when the thyroid was removed. On the hypophysectomized rat, the metabolic rate after thyroxine injection is faster than the baseline metabolic rate. The injected thyroxine compensated for the thyroxine lost when the pituitary gland was removed. The pituitary gland did not produce TSH, therefore the thyroid gland did not produce thyroxine. Activity 3: Determining the Effect of TSH on Metabolic Rate (pp. PEx-53–54) 7. On the normal rat, the metabolic rate after TSH injection is faster than the baseline metabolic rate. The TSH increased production of thyroxine. On the thyroidectomized rat, the metabolic rate after TSH injection is the same as the baseline metabolic rate. Since there is no thyroid gland in the thyroidectomized rat, the injected TSH had nothing to act upon. There was no organ to receive the pituitary TSH and produce thyroxine, On the hypophysectomized rat, the metabolic rate after TSH injection is faster than the baseline metabolic rate. The injected TSH compensated for the TSH lost when the pituitary gland was removed, and spurs production of thyroxine. Activity 4: Determining the Effect of Propylthiouracil on Metabolic Rate (p. PEx-54) 7. On the normal rat, the metabolic rate after propylthiouracil injection is slower than the baseline metabolic rate. Propylthiouracil is antagonistic to thyroxine and will tend to decrease the effects of thyroxine. On the thyroidectomized rat, the metabolic rate after propylthiouracil injection is the same as the baseline metabolic rate. Since the thyroidectomized rat cannot make any thyroxine, the propylthiouracil has nothing to be antagonistic to and therefore has no effect. On the hypophysectomized rat, the metabolic rate after propylthiouracil injection is the same as the baseline metabolic rate.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 28B

379

Since the hypophysectomized rat does not have a functional thyroid gland, no thyroxine is being made and there is nothing for the propylthiouracil to be antagonistic to. Hormone Replacement Therapy Activity 5: Hormone Replacement Therapy (pp. PEx-55–56) 9. Student answers will vary. 12. T score (control): –2.7 ± 0.15 15. T score (estrogen): –2.0 ± 0.15 16. T score (calcitonin): –2.6 ± 0.15 17. Estrogen injections changed the rat’s T score from the osteoporosis range to the osteopenia range. The calcitonin injections had little to no effect on the rat. Insulin and Diabetes Activity 7: Measuring Fasting Plasma Glucose (pp. PEx-58–61) 20. Sample 1: glucose concentration of 95–105 mg/deciliter 23. Sample 2: glucose concentration of 110–120 mg/deciliter Sample 3: glucose concentration of 126–136 mg/deciliter Sample 4: glucose concentration of 115–125 mg/deciliter Sample 5: glucose concentration of 135–145 mg/deciliter Patient 1’s glucose reading was in the normal range. Patient 3’s and Patient 5’s glucose readings were in the diabetic range. Patient 2’s and 4’s glucose readings were in the impaired fasting glucose range. A special diet would be recommended where simple sugars are restricted. The diagnosis would be gestational diabetes. A special diet would be recommended where simple sugars are restricted. Activity 8: Measuring Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (pp. PEx-61–63) 17. Patient 1: cortisol 3 ± 1 mcg/dL Low ACTH 18 ± 2 pg/ml Low Low High Low Patient 2: cortisol 35 ± 5 mcg/dL High ACTH 13 ± 2 pg/ml Patient 3: cortisol 45 ± 5 mcg/dL High ACTH 86 ± 5 pg/ml Patient 4: cortisol 3 ± 1 mcg/dL Low Patient 5: cortisol 50 ± 5 mcg/dL High ACTH 18 ± 2 pg/ml

ACTH 100 ± 5 pg/ml High

380

PhysioEx™ Exercise 28B

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

28 B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Endocrine System Physiology: Computer Simulation

Metabolism
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Determining Baseline Metabolic Rates.
The normal rat 1. Which rat had the fastest baseline metabolic rate? __________________________________________________________

The thyroidec2. Compare the baseline metabolic rates for the thyroidectomized rat and the normal rat and explain your results. ______________ tomized rat had a lower baseline metabolic rate beause the removal of its thyroid gland prevented it from producing any thyroxine. The hypophy3. Compare the baseline metabolic rates for the hypophysectomized rat and the normal rat and explain your results. _____________ sectomized rat had a lower baseline metabolic rate because removal of the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, prevented TSH production.

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Determining the Effect of Thyroxine on Metabolic Rate.
The baseline metabolic rate increased in each rat. 4. What effect did administering thyroxine have on each of the rats? _____________________________________________

The effect of thyroxine is to increase baseline metabolic rate. 5. Explain why thyroxine had these effects. ____________________________________________________________

_____

The following questions refer to Activity 3: Determining the Effect of TSH on Metabolic Rate. 6. Was there a change in the metabolic rate of the thyroidectomized rat with the administration of TSH? Explain your results. _____
No; there was no thyroid gland to be stimulated.

Hypothyroidism 7. Did the results for the thyroidectomized rat indicate hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism? ___________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 4: Determining the Effect of Propylthiouracil on Metabolic Rate.

381

It decreased 8. Describe the effect of administering propylthiouracil on each of the rats, and explain why it had this effect. ______________ BMR in normal and hypophysectomized rats because propylthiouracil blocks the attachment of iodine to tyrosine residues and interferes with the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine.

Hyperthyroid9. Do you think the drug propylthiouracil is used to treat hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism? Explain your answer. ____________ ism; propylthiouracil is antagonistic to thyroxine and will tend to decrease the effects of thyroxine.

Hormone Replacement Therapy
The following questions refer to Activity 5: Hormone Replacement Therapy.
Ovariectomized 10. Explain why ovariectomized rats were used in this experiment and correlate this to their baseline T score. ______________ rats were used because they do not produce estrogen. Their baseline T score shows that they have already developed osteoporosis.

11. Recap your predictions regarding the effects of calcitonin and estrogen on bone density and why you made those predictions.
Student answers will vary.

The saline rats are negative controls. Saline should have no effect 12. Why was one of the ovariectomized rats injected with saline? _________________________________________________ on bone density. The rats therefore should not show a change in vertebral bone density with saline injection. The estrogen-treated rats showed 13. What effect did the administration of estrogen injections have on the estrogen-treated rat? ___________________________ an increase in vertebral bone density. Calcitonin injections had no 14. What effect did the administration of calcitonin injections have on the calcitonin-treated rat? ________________________ effect on vertebral bone density. Student answers will vary. In general, their prediction for calcitonin probably 15. How did your results compare to your predictions? __________________________________________________________ won’t match because they will expect a change with the calcitonin injections.

Insulin and Diabetes
The following question refers to Activity 6: Obtaining a Glucose Standard Curve.
A glucose standard 16. What is a glucose standard curve, and how can you use this tool to determine a concentration of glucose? ___________________ curve is a point of reference for converting optical density into glucose readings by comparing optical density readings for known amounts of glucose to unkown amounts.

382

Review Sheet 28B

The following questions refer to Activity 7: Measuring Fasting Plasma Glucose.
Patient 1 had a normal fasting plasma glucose value. 17. Which patient(s) glucose reading(s) was/were in the normal range? ____________________________________________

Patients 3 and 5 had a fasting plasma glucose value that 18. Which patient(s) glucose reading(s) was/were in the diabetic range? ____________________________________________ was in the diabetic range. Patients 2 and 4 had a fasting plasma glucose value that was 19. Which patient(s) had glucose reading(s) in the impaired range? __________________________________________________ borderline and therefore in the impaired fasting glucose range. Since Patient 3 is also pregnant, the diagnosis would be gestational diabetes. 20. Describe the diagnosis for Patient 3. ____________________________________________________________

__________

The following questions refer to Activity 8: Measuring Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone. 21. Which patient would most likely be diagnosed with Cushing’s disease? Why?
Patient 3 would be diagnosed with Cushing’s disease because the levels of cortisol and ACTH were both high.

22. Which two patients have hormone levels characteristic of Cushing’s syndrome?
Patients 2 and 5 both have high levels of cortisol but the ACTH is low, which is characteristic of Cushing’s syndrome.

23. Patient 2 is being treated for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisone. How does this change the diagnosis? _______________
The diagnosis would change to iatrogenic or physician-induced Cushing’s syndrome.

24. Which patient would most likely be diagnosed with Addison’s disease? Why?
Patient 4 would be diagnosed with Addison’s disease because the level of ACTH is high but the level of cortisol is low.

Review Sheet 28B

383

version 8

E X E R C I S E

29 B

Blood Analysis: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

385

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Hematocrit Determination (pp. PEx-71–72) 10. The hematocrit value of the healthy male living at sea level in Boston is 48. The hematocrit level of the healthy male living at one mile elevation in Denver is 55. No, the air in Denver is “thinner” (contains a lower percentage of oxygen) than it is in Boston. When the blood flowing through the kidneys is hypoxic (low oxygen level), the kidneys respond by producing a hormone, erythropoietin, which stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. If your bone marrow is producing an elevated number of red blood cells, your hematocrit is elevated. The hematocrit value of the male with aplastic anemia is 19. The red blood cell count for an individual with aplastic anemia would be lower than the red blood cell count of a healthy individual. The hematocrit value of the healthy female living in Boston is 44. The female with iron-deficiency anemia does not have as many normal-sized red blood cells as the healthy female living in Boston, so her hematocrit (packed cell volume) is lower. She is not able to make adequate hemoglobin molecules to fill her red blood cells. Activity 2: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (pp. PEx-72–74) 13. The blood has settled 5 millimeters. The beige-colored portion of the tube is blood plasma. 17. No, the person with sickle-cell anemia did not show an elevated ESR. The ESR for the person with iron-deficiency anemia was higher than the ESR for the healthy individual. The menstruating female is suffering from iron-deficiency anemia, causing her red blood cells to settle. The ESR is elevated in the patient suffering from myocardial infarction (heart attack), but is normal in angina pectoris. Activity 3: Hemoglobin (Hb) Determination (pp. PEx-76–77) 11. The hematocrit value for the healthy male is 48. The hematocrit value for the healthy female is 44. The ratio of PCV to Hb for the female with iron-deficiency anemia tells you that she may have a normal number of red blood cells, but they do not contain adequate levels of hemoglobin molecules. Yes, the male with polycythemia has a normal ratio of PCV to Hb (a ratio of 3:1). Yes, the red blood cells of the male with polycythemia contain adequate levels of hemoglobin molecules.

386

PhysioEx™ Exercise 29B

Yes, the female Olympic athlete has a normal ratio of PCV to Hb (a ratio of 3:1). Yes, the red blood cells of the female Olympic athlete contain adequate levels of hemoglobin molecules. Activity 4: Blood Typing (pp. PEx-78–81) 19. If the anti-A antibody causes the blood to agglutinate, antigen (agglutinogen) A would be present on the blood cells. If a person has type AB blood, antigen (agglutinogens) A & B are present on their red blood cells. In a person with type AB blood, neither A nor B antibodies (agglutinins) are present. A person with type O blood has neither A nor B antigens (agglutinogens). Activity 5: Total Cholesterol Determination (p. PEx-81) 10. Patient #2 has elevated cholesterol, which has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Patient #4 has borderline elevated cholesterol. He should be advised to decrease his dietary intake of meats and saturated fats. He should also be encouraged to exercise more.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 29B

387

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

29 B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Blood Analysis: Computer Simulation

Hematocrit Determination
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Hematocrit Determination. 1. List the following values from Chart 1: Hematocrit value for healthy male living at sea level in Boston Hematocrit value for healthy female living at sea level in Boston
48 _______________________________________________ 44 _____________________________________________

Yes 2. Were the values listed in question 1 within normal range? ____________________________________________________ Since males typically 3. Describe the difference between the male and the female hematocrit for an individual living in Boston. ________________ have a greater number of RBC than females, they have a higher hematocrit.

4. List the following values from Chart 1: Hematocrit value for healthy male living in Denver Hematocrit value for healthy female living in Denver
55 ________________________________________________________ 53 ______________________________________________________

Both male and female had a higher hematocrit than the male and female 5. How did these values differ from the values for Boston? ______________________________________________________ in Boston. Air at the higher elevation contains a lower percentage 6. Describe the effect of living at high elevations on a person’s hematocrit. _________________________________________ of oxygen, so a person living there needs more RBC to carry sufficient O2. The kidneys of a person 7. Describe how the kidneys respond to a decrease in oxygen and what effect this has on hematocrit. _____________________ living at high elevation are stimulated to produce erythropoietin, which stimulates bone marrow to produce more RBC.

8. List the following values from Chart 1: Hematocrit value for male with aplastic anemia % WBC for male with aplastic anemia
32 ___________________________________________________________

1% ____________________________________________________________

______

9. Were the values listed in question 8 within the normal range? Why or why not?
Values 1–4 were normal; all were from healthy individuals. Value 5 was very low because it’s from a person with aplastic anemia (failure of bone marrow to make enough RBC). Value 6 was below normal because it’s from a person with iron deficiency anemia (body can’t produce enough hemoglobin).

389

10. List the following value from Chart 1: Hematocrit for female with iron-deficiency anemia
32 ___________________________________________________________

A hematocrit of 32 is below normal. Iron deficiency causes lower 11. Was the value in question 10 normal or not? Explain. ________________________________________________________ production of hemoglobin and a lower hematocrit.

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
The following questions refer to Activity 2: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
There was a lower than normal sedimentation rate. 12. Describe the effect that sickle cell anemia has on the sedimentation rate. _________________________________________

The sickle shape of the 13. Why do you think that it has this effect? Hint: Sickle cell anemia alters the shape of red blood cells. ____________________ RBC does not allow them to settle. 15 14. Record the sedimentation rate for a menstruating female. _____________________________________________________ This is an elevated sedimentation rate indicating that she has anemia. 15. How did this value compare to the healthy individual? Why? __________________________________________________

40 16. What was the sedimentation rate for the iron-deficient individual? ______________________________________________ Iron deficiency causes an elevated sedimentation rate. 17. What effect does iron deficiency have on ESR? ____________________________________________________________

18. Record the following values from Chart 2: ESR for person suffering from a myocardial infarction ESR for person suffering from angina pectoris
40 _________________________________________________________

5 ____________________________________________________________

___

Elevated ESR can 19. Compare the values in question 18 and explain how they might be used to monitor heart conditions. ___________________ indicate myocardial infarction. Normal ESR indicates angina pectoris. ESR can help distinguish between causes of chest pain. Certain cancers, inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, 20. List some other conditions that ESR is used to monitor. ______________________________________________________ iron deficiency anemia, and sickle cell anemia

Hemoglobin
The following questions refer to Activity 3: Hemoglobin (Hb) Determination.
A normal ratio 21. Describe the ratio of packed cell volume to Hb (hemoglobin) obtained for the healthy male and female subjects. _____________ of packed cell volume to grams of hemoglobin is approximately 3:1.

390

Review Sheet 29B

5:1 22. Describe the ratio of packed cell volume to Hb (hemoglobin) for the female with iron-deficiency anemia. ___________________ Yes 23. Is the female with iron-deficiency anemia deficient in hemoglobin? ____________________________________________ No 24. Is the male with polycythemia deficient in hemoglobin? _____________________________________________________ No 25. Is the female Olympic athlete deficient in hemoglobin? ______________________________________________________ Hemoglobin values decrease in patients with anemia, hyperthyroidism, cirrhosis of 26. List conditions in which Hb would decrease. ____________________________________________________________

__ the liver, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and severe hemorrhaging. Hemoglobin values increase in patients with polycythemia, congestive heart failure, 27. List conditions in which Hb would increase. ____________________________________________________________

___ chronic obstructuve pulmonory disease (COPD), and those living at high altitude.

Blood Typing
The following questions refer to Activity 4: Blood Typing.
Sample 3 28. Which blood sample contained the rarest blood type? ________________________________________________________ Sample 4 29. Which blood sample contained the universal donor? ________________________________________________________ Sample 5 30. Which blood sample contained the universal recipient? ______________________________________________________ Sample 4 31. Which blood sample did not coagulate with any of the antibodies tested? ________________________________________ Type O blood does not have any antigens on the RBC with which antibodies can agglutinate. Why? ____________________________________________________________

____________________________________ Anti-B 32. What antibodies would be found in the plasma of blood sample 1? ______________________________________________


33. When transfusing an individual with blood that is compatible but not the same type, it is important to separate packed cells
When only packed cells are transfused, from the plasma and administer only the packed cells. Why do you think this is done?_______________________________ very few antibodies are included in the transfusion so the chance of the transfused antibodies agglutinating the recipient’s RBC is very slight. B+, O , O+ 34. List which blood samples in this experiment represent people who could donate blood to a person with type B . __________


Blood Cholesterol
The following questions refer to Activity 5: Total Cholesterol Determination.
Patients 1 and 3 35. Which patient(s) had desirable cholesterol levels? __________________________________________________________ Patients 2 and 4 36. Which patient(s) had an elevated cholesterol level? _________________________________________________________

Review Sheet 29B

391

Patient 2 is at risk of cardiovascular disease; patient 4 is at slight 37. Describe the risks for the patient identified in question 36. ____________________________________________________ risk of cardiovascular disease. Patient 4 should lower dietary intake of cholesterol (red and organ meats, eggs, 38. Which advice would you give patient 4? Why? ____________________________________________________________

_ cheese) and increase aerobic exercise.

39. Describe some reasons why a patient might have abnormally low blood cholesterol.
Low blood cholesterol can be caused by hyperthyroidism, liver disease, inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestine, and malnutrition.

392

Review Sheet 29B

version 8

E X E R C I S E

33 B

Cardiovascular Dynamics: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours minimum if students are well-prepared, 3 hours preferred.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

393

6. Consider doing a short introductory presentation with the following elements: a. Describe the basics of peripheral resistance. b. Encourage students to try to apply the concepts from the simulation to the human as they work through the program. c. If a demonstration computer screen is available, show students both main screens of the simulation and describe the basic equipment parts. d. Explain how the simulated pump is similar to the left ventricle (or the right ventricle) of the heart. e. Point out the fact that the pump operates much like a syringe, with adjustable starting and ending volumes. f. It is often helpful to explain the basics of end diastolic and end systolic volumes and their relationship to the simulated pump. g. Indicate the analogies between the parts of the simulation and the parts of the human cardiovascular system.

Answers to Questions
Vessel Resistance Activity 1: Studying the Effect of Flow Tube Radius on Fluid Flow (pp. PEx-88–90) 5. Fluid flow increases as the radius of the flow tube is increased. Because fluid flow is proportional to the fourth power of the radius, increases/decreases in tube radius cause increases/decreases in fluid flow. The relationship between fluid flow and flow tube radius is exponential. We alter blood flow in the human body by increasing or decreasing the diameter of blood vessels by the contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle tissue in vessel walls. After a heavy meal when we are relatively inactive, we might expect blood vessels in the skeletal muscles to be somewhat constricted while blood vessels in the digestive organs are probably dilated. Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Viscosity on Fluid Flow (p. PEx-90) 6. Fluid flow decreases as viscosity is increased. Fluid flow versus viscosity is an inverse relationship. The effect of viscosity does not effect fluid flow as much as vessel radius. Anemia would result in fewer red cells than normal, which would decrease the viscosity of the blood. Consequently, blood flow rate would be increased. If you increased the numbers of red blood cells, blood flow rate would decrease. Blood viscosity would increase in conditions of dehydration, resulting in decreased blood flow.

394

PhysioEx™ Exercise 33B

Activity 3: Studying the Effect of Flow Tube Length on Fluid Flow (p. PEx-91) 6. Increasing flow tube length will decrease fluid flow rate. Obesity would result in decreased blood flow because vessels must increase in length in order to serve the increased amount of adipose tissue in the body. Activity 4: Studying the Effect of Pressure on Fluid Flow (pp. PEx-91–92) 6. Increasing the pressure increases fluid flow. The length versus flow rate plot is linear, whereas the plots for radius, viscosity, and length are all exponential. Changing pressure would not be a reasonable method of flow control because a large change in pressure is needed to significantly change flow rate. Pump Mechanics Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Radius on Pump Activity (pp. PEx-93–94) 2. a. When the piston is at the bottom of its travel, the volume remaining in the pump is analogous to the (EDV, ESV) of the heart. b. the amount of fluid ejected into the right beaker by a single pump cycle is analagous to (stroke volume, cardiac output) of the heart. c. The volume of blood in the heart just before systole is called (EDV, ESV) and is analogous to the volume of fluid present in the simulated pump when it is at the (top, bottom) of the stroke. 5. The radius plot in this experiment appears different from the radius plot in the vessel resistance experiment because only the outflow of the pump was changed. Since the inflow remained constant during the course of the experiment, an entirely different flow pattern is established. a. As the right flow tube radius is increased, fluid flow rate (increases, decreases). This is analogous to (dilation, constriction) of blood vessels in the human body. b. Even though the pump pressure remains constant, the pump rate (increases, decreases) as the radius of the right flow tube is increased. This happens because the resistance to fluid flow is (increased, decreased). c. The heart must contract (more, less) forcefully to maintain cardiac output if the resistance to blood flow in the vessels exiting the heart is increased. d. Increasing the resistance (e.g., a constriction) of the blood vessels entering the heart would (increase, decrease) the time needed to fill the heart chambers. If the left flow tube radius is increased, flow rate into the pump is increased, which increases the pump rate. A decrease in the left flow tube radius causes flow rate and pump rate to decrease.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 33B

395

Activity 6: Studying the Effect of Stroke Volume on Pump Activity (pp. PEx-94–95) 5. As the stroke volume is increased, it takes longer to fill the pump and the pump rate slows. To maintain adequate blood flow to tissues, the stroke volume must be greater in an athlete if his heart rate is lower. If we keep the rate constant, increasing the stroke volume, causes cardiac output to increase. Activity 7: Studying Combined Effects (pp. PEx-95–96) When the right flow tube radius is kept constant and the left flow tube radius is changed, there is an indirect change in pump filling time which in turn directly changes the pump rate. (An increase in the left tube radius causes a decrease in filling time and an increase in pump rate.) Although decreasing the radius of the left flow tube increases the time required to fill the pump, it does not affect the ability of the pump to empty. A decrease in stroke volume causes an increase in pump rate because the pump is ejecting a lower volume with each pump stroke and thus is able to empty the chamber more rapidly. Increasing the pressure in the left beaker increases fluid delivery to the pump from the left beaker. Decreasing the pressure in the left beaker to 10 mm Hg greatly increases the time required to fill the pump. The pump’s rate increases if the filling time is decreased. If the pressure in the right beaker equals the pump pressure, fluid can not flow. Activity 8: Studying Compensation (p. PEx-96) If the right flow tube radius is decreased to 2.5 mm, the flow rate decreases. The increased peripheral resistance can be overcome by: (1) increasing the pump’s pressure, (2) decreasing the pressure in the right beaker, and (3) increasing the radius of the left flow tube to decrease the pump’s filling time. Decreasing the right flow tube radius is similar to a partial (leakage, blockage) of the aortic valve or (increased, decreased) resistance in the arterial system. The human heart could compensate for this condition by increasing its force of contraction to overcome the increased resistance. To control blood flow to specific organs, it is necessary to adjust the radius of the blood vessels feeding them. It would not be reasonable to adjust the heart rate because that would affect all organs equally. a. If we decreased overall peripheral resistance in the human body (as in an athlete), the heart would need to generate (more, less) pressure to deliver an adequate amount of blood flow and arterial pressure would be (higher, lower). b. If the diameter of the arteries of the body were partly filled with fatty deposits, the heart would need to generate (more, less) force to maintain blood flow, and pressure in the arterial system would be (higher, lower) than normal.

396

PhysioEx™ Exercise 33B

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

33 B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Cardiovascular Dynamics: Computer Simulation

Vessel Resistance
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Studying the Effect of Flow Tube Radius on Fluid Flow.
6.0 mm 1. At which radius was the fluid flow rate the highest? _________________________________________________________ 1017.4 2. What was the flow rate at this radius? ____________________________________________________________

________ The larger the tube radius, the greater the flow. This is a direct 3. Describe the relationship between flow rate and radius size. ___________________________________________________ relationship.

4. What happens to blood vessels in the body if increased blood flow is needed?
Blood vessels dilate to increase blood flow.

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Viscosity on Fluid Flow.
1.0 5. At what viscosity level was the fluid flow rate the highest? ____________________________________________________ The greater the viscosity, the less the flow. This is an inverse 6. Describe the relationship between flow rate and viscosity. ____________________________________________________ relationship. Viscosity has less effect than radius on 7. Was the effect of viscosity greater or less than the effect of radius on fluid flow? Why? ______________________________ fluid flow because flow is directly proportional to the fourth power of vessel radius (r 4). Anemia would increase blood flow because it decreases blood viscosity. 8. What effect would anemia have on blood flow? Why? _______________________________________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 3: Studying the Effect of Flow Tube Length on Fluid Flow.
10 mm 9. At what flow tube length was the flow rate the highest? ______________________________________________________ The longer the tube, the lower the flow rate. This is an 10. Describe the relationship between flow tube length and fluid flow rate. __________________________________________ inverse relationship. Obesity would result in decreased blood flow because 11. What effect do you think obesity would have on blood flow? Why? _____________________________________________ vessels must increase in length in order to serve the increased amount of adipose tissue in the body.

397

The following questions refer to Activity 4: Studying the Effect of Pressure on Fluid Flow.
As pressure increased, flow increased. This is a direct 12. What effect did increased pressure have on the fluid flow rate? ________________________________________________ relationship. Ventricular contractions provide the driving pressure 13. In the body, where does the driving pressure for fluid flow come from? __________________________________________ for blood flow.

Pump Mechanics
The following questions refer to Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Radius on Pump Activity.
Flow rate increased as the right vessel radius increased. 14. What happened to the flow rate as the right vessel radius was increased? _________________________________________

15. What happened to the rate (strokes/min) as the right vessel radius was increased?
Stroke rate increased as the right vessel radius increased because beaker emptying time decreased. Why did this occur? ____________________________________________________________

______________________

The following questions refer to Activity 6: Studying the Effect of Stroke Volume on Pump Activity.
120 16. At what stroke volume tested was the pump rate the lowest? __________________________________________________ As stroke volume increases, pump rate decreases. This is an 17. Describe the relationship between stroke volume and pump rate. _______________________________________________ inverse relationship.

18. Use the relationship in question 17 to explain why an athlete’s resting heart rate would be lower than that of a sedentary
An athlete has a higher stroke volume than a sedentary individual, therefore the athlete needs fewer heart beats (stroke individual. ____________________________________________________________

_____________________________ volume) to achieve the same cardiac output.

The following questions refer to Activity 7: Studying Combined Effects. 19. How did decreasing the left flow tube radius affect pump chamber filling time? Hint: Look at the change in flow rate and
Decreasing the left flow tube caused an increase in pump chamber filling time. relate this to filling time. ____________________________________________________________

__________________

Filling time increased in 20. When the left beaker pressure was decreased to 10 mm Hg, what happened to the filling time? ________________________ response to decreased pressure in the left beaker.

398

Review Sheet 33B

The following questions refer to Activity 8: Studying Compensation. 21. With the right flow tube radius decreased to 2.5 mm, what conditions did you change to bring the flow rate back to
Increase left flow tube radius, increase pump pressure, increase left beaker pressure, and decrease right beaker pressure. normal? ____________________________________________________________

________________________________

22. A decreased tube radius is analogous to atherosclerosis (plaque formation in vessels). Describe the effect this would have on
Atherosclerosis causes an resistance in the arterial system and how the human heart might compensate for this change. _________________________ increased arterial resistance; the heart compensates by increasing pumping pressure.

Review Sheet 33B

399

version 8

E X E R C I S E

34B

Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 1.5–2 hours.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

401

6. If students will be using an older computer and are having difficulty with the tracings, have them adjust the tracing to suit them. To make the tracings faster, click the Tools menu, choose Modify Tracing, and then click Increase Speed. On the other hand, if they want to see a higher-quality tracing, choose Improve Tracing. 7. Suggest to the students that they become familiar with the exercise before coming to lab. If students have a home computer, or access to a computer on campus, they can become familiar with the general operation of the simulations. 8. A short introductory presentation with the following elements is often helpful: a. Review the basics of heart anatomy and physiology, particularly the sequence of atrial to ventricular contraction. b. Reinforce the concept of the electrical system of the heart, including the basics of electrical function at the cellular level. c. Mention the sympathetic and parasympathetic connections to the heart, including the neurotransmitters and their functions. d. Compare how this procedure is accomplished in a traditional wet lab to what they expect to see in the simulation.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Recording Baseline Frog Heart Activity (p. PEx-103) 2. 62 bpm Activity 2: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle (pp. PEx-103–104) 3. It is possible to induce an extrasystole in the relaxation part of the cardiac cycle. 4. The heart can not be tetanized by multiple stimuli. Tetanization would make the heart ineffective as a pump. Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (p. PEx-104) 5. Vagal stimulation initially decreased heart rate and force of contraction, and then caused the heart beat to stop for a brief period before returning to a relatively normal contraction state after vagal escape initiates. Activity 4: Assessing the Effect of Temperature (pp. PEx-104–105) 2. Cold Ringer’s solution decreased heart rate. (Various answers depending on students’ predictions.) 5. Warm Ringer’s solution increased heart rate. 51 bpm at 5° C; 70 bpm at 32° C Increasing the temperature causes an increase in heart rate.

402

PhysioEx™ Exercise 34B

Activity 5: Assessing the Effect of Pilocarpine (pp. PEx-105–106) 5. 46 bpm Pilocarpine mimics vagal stimulation and slows the heart. Activity 6: Assessing the Effect of Atropine (p. PEx-106) 4. 71 bpm The heart rate should increase. When atropine blocks the effect of acetylcholine, the effect is to allow the sympathetic neurotransmitter to bind to cardiac muscle tissue, thus increasing heart rate. Atropine and pilocarpine are antagonistic in their action. Activity 7: Assessing the Effect of Epinephrine (p. PEx-106) 4. 80 bpm Epinephrine increases the heart rate and force of contraction. Epinephrine mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. Activity 8: Assessing the Effect of Digitalis (p. PEx-106) 4. 42 bpm Digitalis slows and steadies the heart. Activity 9: Assessing the Effect of Various Ions (p. PEx-107) 6. Calcium increases the strength of contraction; probably induces spasticity. • • • • • • The heart rate does not stabilize until 23°C Ringers solution is applied. The heartbeat is irregular, speeding up at times, slowing down at others. The heart rate does not stabilize until 23°C Ringers solution is applied. The heartbeat is irregular, speeding up at times, slowing down at others. The heart rate does not stabilize until 23°C Ringers solution is applied. The heartbeat decreases considerably at first, then becomes erratic—alternately speeding up and slowing down.

Sodium decreases the strength and rate of contraction.

Potassium weakens cardiac contractions.

Yes, all three ions may induce arrhythmias.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 34B

403

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

34B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Computer Simulation

Baseline Frog Heart Activity
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Recording Baseline Frog Heart Activity.
62 bpm 1. What was the baseline heart rate for the frog? ____________________________________________________________

__ Ventricular 2. Which wave is larger, the one for atrial contraction or the one for ventricular contraction?____________________________ Ventricular contraction produces a larger wave because the ventricle contracts more forcefully than do the atria. Why? ____________________________________________________________

_________________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Investigating the Refractory Period of Cardiac Muscle. 3. At what time during the contraction cycle was it possible to induce an extrasystole?
It is possible to induce an extrasystole in the relaxation part of the cardiac cycle.

4. By clicking the Multiple Stimulus button and delivering 20 stimuli/sec, were you able to achieve tetanus? Why or why
The heart did not achieve tetanus because of the long absolute refractory period of cardiac muscle tissue. not? ____________________________________________________________

__________________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulation.
Heart rate slows and eventually stops during vagal stimulation. 5. What happens to the heart rate with vagal stimulation? _______________________________________________________

Heart rate gradually increases. 6. What happens during vagal escape? ____________________________________________________________

_________

405

Assessing Physical and Chemical Modifiers of Heart Rate
The following questions refer to Activity 4: Assessing the Effect of Temperature. 7. List the frog heart rate for the following conditions:
51 _______ bpm with 5°C Ringer’s solution 70 _______ bpm with 32°C Ringer’s solution Decreasing temperature causes a decrease in heart rate; increasing temperature 8. Describe the effect of temperature on heart rate. ____________________________________________________________

causes an increase in heart rate. There is a direct relationship between temperature and heart rate. Various answers based on students’ predictions. 9. Did this effect match your prediction? Explain. ____________________________________________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 5: Assessing the Effect of Pilocarpine. 10. What was the heart rate after treatment with pilocarpine?
46 ______ bpm with pilocarpine Various answers based on students’ predictions. 11. Did this effect match your prediction? Explain. ____________________________________________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 6: Assessing the Effect of Atropine. 12. What was the heart rate after treatment with atropine?
71 ______ bpm with atropine

13. Are the effects of pilocarpine and atropine the same or opposite?
The effects of pilocarpine and atropine are opposite.

The following questions refer to Activity 7: Assessing the Effect of Epinephrine. 14. What was the heart rate after treatment with epinephrine? ______ bpm with epinephrine
Various answers based on students’ predictions. 15. Did this effect match your prediction? Explain. ____________________________________________________________

81

Epinephrine imitates the 16. What division of the autonomic nervous system does the addition of epinephrine imitate? ___________________________ sympathetic nervous system.

406

Review Sheet 34B

The following questions refer to Activity 8: Assessing the Effect of Digitalis. 17. What was the heart rate after treatment with digitalis?
42 ______ bpm with digitalis Digitalis slows the heart rate. 18. Describe the effect that digitalis had on the heart. ___________________________________________________________

The following questions refer to Activity 9: Assessing the Effect of Various Ions.
Calcium ions, sodium ions, and potassium ions all caused arrhythmia of the 19. Which ions resulted in arrhythmia of the frog heart? _________________________________________________________ frog heart. Potassium ions had the greatest effect because increased potassium 20. Which ion had the greatest effect on the frog heart? Explain. __________________________________________________ (hyperkalemia) decreases the resting potential of cardiac muscle plasma membranes, thus decreasing the force of heart contraction.

Review Sheet 34B

407

version 8

E X E R C I S E

37B

Respiratory System Mechanics: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 1.5–2.0 hours.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash Player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

409

6. Demonstrate the mechanics of the lungs during respiration if a bell jar and balloon lungs are available. 7. Prior to the lab, suggest to the students that they become familiar with the exercise before coming to class. If students have a home computer, or access to a computer on campus, they can become familiar with the general operation of the simulations before coming to class. In particular, they should understand the lung volumes. 8. A short introductory presentation with the following elements is often helpful: a. Review the basics of respiratory anatomy, particularly the inspiratory and expiratory sequence. b. Reinforce the fact that there are no fibrous or muscular connections between the lungs and the thoracic wall when doing the bell jar demonstration. Students often remember this demonstration more than most others. c. Mention that inspiration requires muscle action but that expiration is passive. d. If a demonstration computer and bell jar lungs are available, compare the operation of the on-screen lungs with the balloon lungs in the bell jar. e. A pair of microscope slides with a thin film of water between makes an excellent demonstration of the concept of water tension. f. Briefly explain the idea of carbon dioxide retention in the blood during hypoventilation and its removal from the blood by hyperventilation. g. Review Boyle’s Law. h. Remind students that the respiratory center in the brain is more sensitive to PCO2 than to PO2.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes (pp. PEx-114–116) 7. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) does not include tidal volume Expiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that can be expelled after a normal tidal exhalation. This means that tidal volume is not included in the ERV measurement. Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory Volumes (p. PEx-116) 7. FEV1 (%) will decrease as the airway radius is decreased. FEV1 (%) is the amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs in one second during forced expiration. If the airway becomes smaller, then the resistance to airflow will increase and FEV1 (%) will become lower. Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant (pp. PEx-117–118) 8. FEV1 (%) decreases as the radius of the airway is decreased. Airflow increases when surfactant is applied because the resistance to lung inflation has been reduced.

410

PhysioEx™ Exercise 37B

Surfactant is not produced in premature infants. Because surfactant is necessary for the lungs to inflate, it is not normally needed until birth. Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure (pp. PEx-118–119) 8. The lung in the left side of the bell jar deflated. The pressure in the left lung was zero and the pressure in the right lung changed constantly. Because there was an opening to the atmosphere in the left side of the bell jar, air moved into the intrapleural space through the opening, which is the path of least resistance, causing intrapleural pressure to increase and equal atmospheric pressure. The total airflow was reduced by one half. Both lungs would collapse when the thoracic wall was punctured if the two lungs were in a single cavity instead of individual cavities. 9. The lungs did not reinflate when the valve was closed. In additon to closing off the opening to the atmosphere, the excess air in the intrapleural space must be removed to decrease intrapleural pressure below atmospheric pressure before the lungs will reinflate. 14. After clicking Reset and running the experiment again, the function of the simulated lungs returned to normal. This happened because the air was removed from the intrapleural space, allowing the lungs to reinflate. Intrapleural pressure was decreased below atmospheric pressure by clicking Reset. Activity 5: Exploring Various Breathing Patterns (p. PEx-120) 5. PCO2 decreased during rapid breathing because more CO2 was removed from the blood than normal. Each breath expels a certain amount of CO2. If the breathing rate increases, then more CO2 is expelled.
Rebreathing

2. PCO2 increases during rebreathing because the CO2 gradient is being increased by breathing air with a high CO2 content. The depth and rate of respirations increased during rebreathing. This is due in part to the increased CO2 in the blood causing stimulating of the respiratory centers in the brain stem.
Breath Holding

3. PCO2 increased dramatically during breath holding. The rate and depth of breathing increased slightly for a brief period when normal breathing resumed to allow PCO2 rates to decrease to the normal range. Activity 6: Comparative Spirometry (p. PEx-120)
Normal Breathing

8. FVC measures the amount of gases expelled when a subject takes a deep breath and then forcefully exhales maximally and as rapidly as possible; FEV1 determines the amount of air expelled during the first second.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 37B

411

The ratio of these two values is clinically important in determining whether the subject has healthy lungs, obstructive pulmonary disease, or restrictive disease.
Emphysema Breathing

6. FVC is reduced FEV1 is reduced FEV1 shows the greatest reduction from normal. A person with emphysema has a loss of intrinsic elastic recoil in the lung tissue as well as increased airway resistance; therefore, while the lungs can expand and fill easily, they can no longer passively recoil and deflate, so that person exhales slowly.
Acute Asthma Attack Breathing

6. FVC is reduced FEV1 is reduced FEV1 shows the greatest reduction from normal. During an asthma attack, bronchiole smooth muscle will spasm and constrict, and bronchioles clogged with mucous secretions cause increased airway reistance. The effect of an asthma attack is similar to emphysema in that both result in reductions in FVC and FEV1. The cause of asthma is different from emphysema; asthma is caused by an increased airway resistance due to airway constriction, while emphysema is caused by lungs that no longer have the ability to passively recoil and deflate. A spirogram of a person with restrictive lung disease would have waves with lower amplitude than that of a person with normal lungs. A spirogram of a person with restrictive lung disease would show reduced VC, TLC, FRC, and RV. FEV1/FVC percentage is less than normal.
Acute Asthma Attack Breathing with Inhaler Medication Applied

6. FVC is increased with medication but is still below normal. FEV1 is increased with medication but is still below normal. The FEV1 changed more than the FVC. Asthma medication causes smooth muscle spasms to relax, thus increasing the airway; therefore, it is much easier for a greater percentage of gases to be expelled in one second. Various answers (opinion question)
Breathing During Exercise

a., b., c., d., e. are student predictions 5. TV increased over normal breathing with both moderate and heavy exercise. The respiratory rate is much higher during heavy exercise.

412

PhysioEx™ Exercise 37B

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

37B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Respiratory System Mechanics: Computer Simulation

Pulmonary Function Tests
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes.
Maximal exhale following normal TV exhale 1. What activity are you simulating when you click the ERV button? ______________________________________________ Internal intercostals and abdominal muscles What additional muscles are used in this activity? ___________________________________________________________ 7543–7485 2. What was the MRV calculated in Activity 1? ____________________________________________________________

__ Respiratory rate 3. What does the pump rate simulate? ____________________________________________________________

__________

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory Volumes.
Decreasing radius caused a decrease in FEV1 (%) 4. How did changing the radius effect FEV1 (%)? ____________________________________________________________

_

3541 5. What was the FEV1 at a radius of 5.00 mm? ____________________________________________________________

___

6. Do the results suggest that there is an obstructive or restrictive problem? Explain.
There is no problem because the airway is of normal radius.

Simulating Factors Affecting Respirations
The following questions refer to Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant.
The addition of surfactant causes increased airflow. 7. What effect does the addition of surfactant have on the airflow? _______________________________________________

Surfactant causes reduced surface tension in the alveoli, therefore the alveoli are able to 8. Why does surfactant affect airflow? ____________________________________________________________

_________ expand to a greater degree. Premature infants lack a sufficient amount of surfactant. 9. Why do premature infants have difficulty breathing? ________________________________________________________

413

The following questions refer to Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure. 10. What effect does opening the valve have on the left lung? Why does this happen?
The left lung collapses because intrapleural and atmospheric pressure are equal.

Pneumothorax 11. What condition does opening the valve simulate? ___________________________________________________________

0.00 12. What is the value of the pressure in the left lung when the valve is opened? ______________________________________

Total flow was half the amount of flow recorded when both lungs 13. What happened to the total flow when the valve was opened? _________________________________________________ were functioning. Insertion of 14. In the last part of this activity, when the reset button was clicked, what procedure would be used with real lungs? _____________ a chest tube to remove air from the pleural cavity.

Simulating Variations in Breathing
The following questions refer to Activity 5: Exploring Various Breathing Patterns.
~39.74 15. What was the value of the PCO2 with rapid breathing? _______________________________________________________

How does this compare to the value with normal breathing? Explain any differences.
PCO2 is lower in rapid breathing than normal breathing because more CO2 is expelled than is made during cellular respiration. ~53.96 16. What was the value of the PCO2 with rebreathing? __________________________________________________________ Air high in CO2 is being inhaled. Explain any difference. ____________________________________________________________

___________________ Slightly faster than normal breathing 17. What happened to the rate of respirations with rebreathing? ___________________________________________________

↑ CO2 stimulates breathing Why do you think this happened? (Hint: Think about the effects of chemoreceptors in the body). ______________________ center to ↑ breathing rate.

18. What was the value of the PCO2 with breath holding? Explain any difference.
PCO2 = ~49.11; PCO2 increased during breath holding, then decreased during resumption of normal breathing.

19. Was there a change in the rate of respirations when the breathing was resumed?
The rate of respirations increased when breathing resumed.

414

Review Sheet 37B

The following questions refer to Activity 6: Comparative Spirometry. 20. What was the value obtained for the (FEV1/FVC)
80%

100% with “normal breathing”?

21. What effect did “emphysema breathing” have on FVC and FEV1?
Both FVC and FEV1 were reduced. FEV1 changed the most. 22. In “emphysema breathing” which of the two values, FVC and FEV1 changed the most? _____________________________

23. What effect did “acute asthma attack breathing” have on FVC and FEV1?
Both FVC and FEV1 were reduced. FEV1 changed the most. 24. In “acute asthma attack breathing” which of the two values, FVC and FEV1 changed the most? ______________________

25. Describe the effect that the inhaler medication had on the FVC and FEV1.
Inhaler medication caused an increase of FVC and FEV1 to near normal values. Neither value returned to normal because the smooth muscles in the bronchioles did 26. Did the values return to “normal”? Explain. ____________________________________________________________

___ not relax to normal and/or there was a residue of mucus blocking the airway.

27. During “moderate exercise breathing,” which volumes changed the most?
Tidal volume changed the most.

28. During “heavy exercise breathing,” which volumes changed the most?
Tidal volume increased greatly; ERV and IRV both were greatly reduced.

Review Sheet 37B

415

version 8

E X E R C I S E

39 B

Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours minimum if students are well-prepared. 3 hours preferred for the full exercise. 2 hours minimum if only the simulation is used.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

417

6. Suggest to the students that they become familiar with the exercise before coming to class. If students have a home computer or access to a computer on campus they can become familiar with the general operation of the simulations before coming to class. 7. A short introductory presentation with the following elements is often helpful: a. Describe the basics of enzymatic hydrolysis, mentioning how the enzyme-substrate interaction puts stress on the chemical bonds within the substrate to aid in the hydrolytic action. b. Students need to clearly understand why the different control tubes are necessary. Explain this concept with plenty of examples. c. Because enzymes work as well in vitro as they do in vivo, encourage students to apply what they see in the simulation to what must occur in the lumen of the digestive system. d. If a demonstration computer screen is available, briefly show students the basic equipment parts. 8. As the lab progresses, ask students questions directing them to think about the logic of the experiment. For example, if a group of students makes the statement: “Amylase digests starch to maltose,” try asking some of the following questions as the opportunity arises: • • • • How do you know that the amylase preparation was not contaminated with maltose? How do you know that the buffer was not contaminated with maltose? How do you know that the water was not contaminated with maltose? How do you know that you even started with starch, and that the starch was not contaminated with maltose?

10. Be prepared to help the students answer the more difficult “What if …” questions.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Assessing Starch Digestion by Salivary Amylase (pp. PEx-132–133) 10. Tubes 2, 6, and 7 showed the effect of pH on amylase activity. The results of this experiment indicate that the activity maximum of amylase is at pH 7.0, whereas pH 2.0 and pH 9.0 demonstrated very little activity. In this experiment, pH 7.0 showed the highest level of amylase activity. Tube 3 showed that amylase did not contain maltose contamination. Tubes 3, 4, and 5 showed that water had no starch or maltose contamination. Tube 3 directly showed that water did not have maltose or starch contamination. Tube 4 was a starch control (with the same water) that showed no maltose, and tube 5 was a maltose control (also with water) that showed no starch. If control tubes 3, 4, or 5 were not done, then what is perceived as digestion might really be starch or maltose contamination. Saliva would not be active in the stomach because the stomach pH is too low. Boiling inactivates, or denatures, enzymes.

418

PhysioEx™ Exercise 39B

Activity 2: Assessing Cellulose Digestion (pp. PEx-133–135) 10. Tubes #4, 5, and 6 showed that starch or cellulose was still present. Tubes #1, 2, 3, and 7 showed positive tests for the Benedict’s reagent, indicating the presence of reducing sugar. Freezing had no effect. Freezing does not restrict enzyme activity, unlike boiling. Amylase had no effect on the cellulose in tube #4. Cellulose is digestible by bacteria. Peptidase had no effect on animal starch. Peptidase does not work on carbohydrate substrates so has no effect on digestion of these molecules. Activity 3: Assessing Protein Digestion by Pepsin (pp. PEx-136–137) 8. pH 2.0 allowed the highest pepsin activity. Pepsin would not be active in the mouth. The pH optimum of pepsin is pH 2.0 and the pH in the mouth is relatively neutral. Boiling tube 1 inactivated pepsin. Pepsin digested BAPNA in tube 2. Because there was no activity in tube 1, its optical density was 0.0. In contrast, there was relatively high activity in tube 2. Tubes 3 and 4 proved that neither pepsin nor deionized water contain any contaminating digested BAPNA since the optical density in both of these tubes was 0.0. If the incubation time were decreased to 30 minutes, slightly less BAPNA would be digested, and the optical density reading would be slightly lower. Because digestive enzymes work best at body temperature, incubating at a cooler temperature would decrease the amount of BAPNA digested. Activity 4: Assessing Fat Digestion by Pancreatic Lipase and the Action of Bile (pp. PEx-137–139) 7. Tube 1 investigated the action of bile on enzyme activity, and tube 2 examined lipase activity without bile. Bile enhances fat digestion by lipase. Yes, you can determine if activity occurred in tube 6 because the pH would drop below pH 9.0. A small amount of fat digestion occurred because pH decreased from 9.0 to 8.97. The optimim pH for lipase activity was pH 7.0. Using a pH method to assay for activity at pH 2.0 does not work because the buffer is already quite acidic. There could have been activity at pH 2.0 that was not detectable by this method. In theory, lipase would be active in the mouth because its pH optimum is relatively neutral. However, it would not be active in the stomach because of the acidic pH condition. The substrate is vegetable oil (fat). The subunit formed is fatty acid (and monoglycerides).

PhysioEx™ Exercise 39B

419

Activity 5: Studying Mechanisms of Food Propulsion and Mixing: Deglutition (Swallowing) (pp. PEx-139–140) 1. The tongue is depressed while water enters the mouth; elevated during swallowing. 2. The larynx is elevated during swallowing. These movements close the nasopharynx and the laryngopharynx to prevent water from entering the airway.

420

PhysioEx™ Exercise 39B

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

39 B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion: Computer Simulation

Carbohydrate Digestion
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Assessing Starch Digestion by Salivary Amylase. 1. At what pH did you see the highest activity of salivary amylase? 7
Salivary amylase is active in the mouth, which has a pH of 7.

Why?

2. How do you know that the amylase did not have any contaminating maltose?
Tube 3 showed that amylase had no contaminating maltose.

3. What effect did boiling have on enzyme activity? Why? inactivating the enzyme.

Boiling caused the protein salivary amylase to be denatured, thus

4. Describe the substrate and the subunit product of amylase. The substrate is starch; the product is maltose.

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Assessing Cellulose Digestion. 5. Does amylase use cellulose as a substrate? Explain. No; amylase is an enzyme that does not digest cellulose, only starch.

6. Did freezing have an effect on the activity of amylase? Explain. No; the enzyme activity was the same at freezing as it was at 37°.

7. Do you think that the bacterial suspension contained the enzyme cellulase (an enzyme that digests cellulose)? Why or why not?
Yes; cellulose had been digested to maltose in tube 7.

8. What is the substrate of peptidase? Explain, based upon your results. In the carbohydrate digestion simulation, there was no substrate of peptidase because no maltose was produced in the tube containing cellulose and peptidase.

421

Protein Digestion by Pepsin
The following questions refer to Activity 3: Assessing Protein Digestion by Pepsin. 9. At which pH did you see the highest activity of pepsin? 2 body? Pepsin is found in the stomach where the pH is 2. How does this correlate to the location of pepsin in the

10. What effect did boiling have on pepsin? Pepsin did not digest BAPNA in tube 1 so it can be concluded that boiling denatures pepsin.

11. Was there any digested BAPNA contaminating the pepsin or deionized (DI) water? No How can you tell? Tubes 3 and 4 had an optical density reading of 0.0.

12. What is the substrate in this experiment? BAPNA What is the usual substrate for pepsin, and what subunits are formed with pepsin activity?
Substrate—proteins Subunits formed—proteoses, peptones, peptides (all small protein fragments), and free amino acids

13. What was the effect of decreasing the incubation time on the optical density results?
Decreasing incubation time resulted in a slightly lower optical density.

14. What effect would decreased incubation temperature have on pepsin activity? Why?
Decreased incubation temperature reduced pepsin activity because the optimal temperature for pepsin activity is body temperature.

15. What was the significance of using 37°C for the incubation? 37°C is body temperature.

Fat Digestion by Pancreatic Lipase and the Action of Bile
The following questions refer to Activity 4: Assessing Fat Digestion by Pancreatic Lipase and the Action of Bile. 16. Describe the activity of lipase with and without the addition of bile salts. Refer to Chart 4 for pH values. The activity of lipase is greater with the addition of bile salts.

17. Is the activity of bile a chemical or a physical process? Explain. Bile activity is a physical process; it breaks fat particles into smaller fat particles.

422

Review Sheet 39B

18. What pH resulted in the maximum pancreatic lipase activity? 7.0 How does this optimal pH correlate to the enzyme’s location in the body? The pH of the small intestines is neutral.

19. Explain whether or not we can determine fat hydrolysis in tube 5. Why or why not?
We cannot determine if fat hydrolysis occurred in tube 5, which had a buffer of 2.0, and the pH of the solution after incubation was still 2.0. There could have been activity at pH 2.0 that was not detectable by this assay method.

20. What is the substrate in this experiment? vegetable oil (fat) What subunits does lipase form? fatty acids and monoglyceride

Physical Process: Mechanisms of Food Propulsion and Mixing
The following questions refer to Activity 5: Studying Mechanisms of Food Propulsion and Mixing: Deglutition (Swallowing). 21. Explain the significance of the movement of the tongue during swallowing. The tongue initiates and controls the buccal phase of swallowing by pushing contents into the pharynx.

22. Describe three events that occur during the pharyngeal-esophageal phase of deglutition. Mouth, nasopharynx, and larynx are blocked; upper esophageal sphincter relaxes to open esophagus; food moves through esophagus by pressure gradients created by peristalsis.

23. What was the time interval that you recorded between the first and second sound?
1–2 seconds

Review Sheet 39B

423

version 8

E X E R C I S E

41B

Renal System Physiology: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Having students work in pairs results in the most successful lab experience. If students must work in larger groups, have them each get keyboard and mouse experience with the program.

425

6. Prior to the lab, suggest to the students that they become familiar with the exercise before coming to class. If students have a home computer, or access to a computer on campus, they can become familiar with the general operation of the simulations before coming to class. In particular, they should examine the structure of the nephron in the textbook. 7. A good working knowledge of diffusion, filtration, and osmosis is important in understanding renal function. Suggest to the students that they review those concepts before coming to class. 8. A short introductory presentation with the following elements is often helpful: a. Review the basics of nephron anatomy and basic renal physiology, focusing on the major concepts such as glomerular filtration and the movement of substances due to passive and active forces. b. Reinforce the idea of how changing the arteriole diameter influences the filtration pressure in the glomerulus. c. Use the analogy of a coffee filter when describing the filtration that takes place in the glomerulus. d. If the students have not been exposed to the concept of carrier transport, a short introduction using glucose as an example might be helpful. e. Encourage students to make the transition from what they see in the simulation to what they see under microscopic examination. f. Remind students that they are manipulating a single nephron that represents the function of the entire kidney, but that the living kidney contains many nephrons. 9. Be prepared to help the students answer the more difficult “What if …” questions.

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Investigating the Effect of Flow Tube Radius on Glomerular Filtration (p. PEx-147) 8. Glomerular filtration rate increases as afferent arteriole diameter increases due to the increased blood flow into the glomerulus. If the diameter of the efferent arteriole was increased, filtration pressure in the glomerulus would decrease, thereby decreasing glomerular filtration rate. If the radius of the efferent arteriole was decreased, upstream pressure would increase and glomerular filtration would also increase. Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration (pp. PEx-147–148) 8. Glomerular filtration rate increased. GFR increased because the net filtration pressure was increased. Net filtration pressure relies on glomerular hydrostatic pressure, which rises when the pressure in the beaker is increased.

426

PhysioEx™ Exercise 41B

Activity 3: Exploring Instrinsic Controls: Renal Autoregulation (p. PEx-148) 9. 129.61 mm Hg 13. 151.24 mm Hg 14. Increase/decrease in the afferent radius, increase/decrease in the efferent radius. 16. Afferent radius 52 mm Efferent radius 52 mm Activity 4: Exploring the Role of the Solute Gradient on Maximum Urine Concentration Achievable (pp. PEx-149–150) 9. When ADH is present, urine concentration increases as the interstitial gradient increases. When ADH is present, urine volume decreases as the interstitial gradient increases. The osmolarity of the interstitial gradient determines the maximum possible urine concentration. Yes, because osmotic forces draw water out of the collecting tubule. Therefore, increasing the concentration of solutes outside the tubule will increase the maximum possible urine concentration. The maximum possible urine concentration will therefore be equal to the interstitial solute concentration. Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Glucose Carrier Proteins on Glucose Reabsorption (pp. PEx-150–151) 9. The amount of glucose in the urine decreased as the number of glucose carriers was increased. If there was more glucose than could be transported by the number of available glucose carriers, then glucose would be present in the urine. We would expect to find glucose in the urine of a diabetic person because there is too much glucose in the filtrate to be reabsorbed. Activity 6: Testing the Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation (pp. PEx-151–152) 5. Baseline urine volume 201.00 6. Urine volume with aldosterone present 180.90 When aldosterone is present, urine volume is decreased. Aldosterone causes sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule at the expense of potassium, which will be transported to the lumen of the tubule and into the urine. 7. When ADH is present, urine volume is greatly reduced. There is no difference in the amount of potassium in the urine. Although the concentration is higher when ADH is present and the volume of urine has been reduced, the total amount of potassium has not changed. The effects of aldosterone and ADH are similar. The amount of aldosterone would need to be increased while the amount of ADH would need to decrease.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 41B

427

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

41B

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Renal System Physiology: Computer Simulation

Simulating Glomerular Filtration
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Investigating the Effect of Flow Tube Radius on Glomerular Filtration. 1. Describe the effect of increasing the afferent radius on glomerular filtration rate and glomerular pressure.
GFR and glomerular pressure both increase.

2. Describe the effect of decreasing the efferent radius on glomerular filtration rate and glomerular pressure.
GFR and glomerular pressure both increase.

3. Describe the effect of increasing the efferent radius on glomerular filtration rate and glomerular pressure.
GFR and glomerular pressure both decrease.

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Studying the Effect of Pressure on Glomerular Filtration. 4. Describe the effect of increasing the beaker pressure on glomerular filtration rate.
GFR increases.

5. Describe the effect of increasing the beaker pressure on glomerular pressure.
Glomerular pressure increases.

6. In the absence of any regulatory mechanisms, what effect do you think an increase in blood pressure would have on glomerular filtration rate? Increased blood pressure causes an increase in GFR.

429

The following questions refer to Activity 3: Exploring Intrinsic Controls: Renal Autoregulation. 7. What was the glomerular filtration rate at 80 mm Hg beaker pressure, 0.55 mm afferent radius, and 0.45 mm efferent radius?
129.61

8. With the beaker pressure increased to 85 mm Hg, at what afferent radius was the glomerular filtration rate in question 7 restored? Between 0.52 and 0.53 mm 9. With the beaker pressure increased to 85 mm Hg, at what efferent radius was the glomerular filtration rate in question 7 restored? Between 0.51 and 0.52 mm 10. In the body, what mechanisms play a role in maintaining glomerular filtration rate with fluctuating blood pressure?
The myogenic mechanism, tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, sympathetic nervous system controls, renin-angiotensin mechanism, and release of prostaglandin E2, intrarenal angiotensin II, and adenosine

Simulating Urine Formation
The following questions refer to Activity 4: Exploring the Role of the Solute Gradient on Maximum Urine Concentration Achievable. 11. As you increased the concentration gradient of the interstitial fluid, what happened to the concentration of the urine?
When ADH is present, urine concentration is increased.

12. What happened to the volume of the urine as you increased the concentration gradient of the interstitial fluid?
When ADH is present, urine volume is decreased.

13. What effect does the concentration gradient of the interstitial fluid have on the maximum urine concentration?
When ADH is present, urine concentration equals interstitial fluid concentration.

The following questions refer to Activity 5: Studying the Effect of Glucose Carrier Proteins on Glucose Reabsorption. 14. What happens to the concentration of glucose in the urine as the number of glucose carriers increases?
Concentration of glucose in urine decreases.

15. Glucose can be elevated in the blood of a diabetic person. Relate this information to glucose in the urine and glucose carriers.
Since a diabetic has insufficient insulin to transport glucose from the blood into cells, there is increased glucose in the blood, therefore increased glucose in filtrate and urine.

430

Review Sheet 41B

The following questions refer to Activity 6: Testing the Effects of Hormones on Urine Formation. 16. What was the volume of urine in the presence of aldosterone? 180.90 How did aldosterone affect the urine volume? Slight decrease 17. What happened to the concentration of potassium in the urine in the presence of aldosterone? Increased 18. What was the volume of the urine in the presence of ADH? 20.14 How did ADH affect the urine volume? Dramatic decrease 19. Why did the concentration of potassium change in the presence of ADH without a change in the excretion of potassium?
With ADH, urine volume is one-tenth of volume without ADH. With ADH, potassium concentration is 10 times that of the concentration without ADH. There is no increase in potassium secretion with ADH.

20. Does ADH favor the formation of dilute or concentrated urine? Explain. ADH favors formation of concentrated urine because
ADH causes an increase of water permeability in the DCT and collecting ducts. Water moves from these tubules into the interstitial fluid by osmosis.

Review Sheet 41B

431

version 8

E X E R C I S E

47

Acid-Base Balance: Computer Simulation
Time Allotment: 2 hours.

Your computer should meet the following minimum requirements for PhysioEx™ 8.0: WINDOWS OS: Windows XP, Vista Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Internet Explorer 6.0 (XP only); Internet Explorer 7.0; Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer MACINTOSH OS: 10.3.x, 10.4.x Resolution: 1024 × 768 Latest version of Adobe Flash Player Latest version of Adobe Reader Browsers: Safari 1.3 (10.3.x only); Safari 2.0 (10.4.x only); Firefox 2.0 Internet Connection: 56K modem minimum for website Printer

Advance Preparation, Comments, and Pitfalls
1. If you are using PhysioEx in a computer lab: Because PhysioEx requires a browser (such as Firefox or Internet Explorer) and the Flash player to run, it is recommended that you make sure these items are already installed on student computers before beginning this lab. 2. If you are using the web version of PhysioEx: Have your students go to http://www.myaandp.com and follow the registration instructions found in the very front of their lab manual. 3. It is helpful to instruct students in the proper operation of the mouse and menu system as part of the lab introduction. 4. When considering an upgrade for computer systems, memory (RAM) offers the largest performance increase for the least cost. 5. Spend time reviewing acid and base as well as the H2O + CO2 ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + CO3– equation.

433

Answers to Questions
Activity 1: Normal Breathing (p. PEx-160) 1. Answers will vary from run to run, but always remain constant within an individual run. The pH will always be between 7.38 and 7.42. 5. No, the pH level of the blood did not change during normal breathing. Yes, the pH level remained within the normal range for the human body. No, the PCO2 level did not change during the course of normal breathing. Activity 2a: Hyperventilation: Run 1 (p. PEx-160) 1. at 20 seconds, pH= about 7.45 at 40 seconds, pH= about 7.54 at 60 seconds, pH= about 7.67 maximum pH = 40 5. Yes, the pH level of the blood increased over time. No, the pH level was not always within the normal range. The pH value began to exceed the normal range between 10 and 20 seconds—as soon as it rose above 7.45. This indicated the condition of alkalosis. Yes, the PCO2 level decreased over time. You would expect the renal system to compensate for alkalosis by retaining [H+] and excreting bicarbonate in order to lower the blood pH levels back to within the normal range. The hyperventilation trace had higher peaks and valleys than the normal breathing trace. The tidal volumes were also larger in the hyperventilation trace. Causes of hyperventilation include fever or anxiety. Activity 2b: Hyperventilation: Run 2 (pp. PEx-160–161) 4. After the 20-second mark, when hyperventilation was stopped, the trace flat-lined, indicating that breathing was suspended. Breathing did not return to normal immediately. The body temporarily stopped breathing in order to restore PCO2 levels to normal values. Activity 3: Rebreathing (p. PEx-161) 1. at 20 seconds, pH = about 7.35 at 40 seconds, pH = about 7.3 at 60 seconds, pH = about 7.25 5. Yes, the pH level of the blood decreased over time. No, the pH level was not always within the normal range. The pH value began to dip below the normal range between 20 and 30 seconds—as soon as it was below 7.35. This indicated the condition of acidosis. Yes, the PCO2 level increased over time.

434

PhysioEx™ Exercise 47

You would expect the renal system to compensate for acidosis by excreting [H+] and retaining bicarbonate in order to raise the blood pH levels back to within normal range. The rebreathing trace had slightly higher peaks and valleys than the normal breathing trace. The tidal volumes were also larger in the rebreathing trace. Respiratory problems that would result in lowered pH values and higher PCO2 levels include lung disease and airway obstruction—anything that impairs breathing. Activity 4: Renal Response to Normal Acid-Base Balance (p. PEx-162) 3. At normal PCO2 and pH levels, a normal level of [H+] was present in the urine. A normal level of [HCO3–] was present in the urine. The blood pH value changes as PCO2 changes because PCO2 levels directly affect blood pH levels. As PCO2 increases, pH values decrease. As PCO2 levels decrease, pH values increase. Blood pH values increase as PCO2 decreases. There is an inverse relationship between blood pH values and PCO2. Activity 5: Renal Response to Respiratory Alkalosis (p. PEx-163) 5. At PCO2 = 35, a normal level of [H+] was present in the urine. At PCO2 = 30 and 20, a decreased level of [H+] was present in the urine. At PCO2 = 35, a normal level of [HCO3–] was present in the urine. At PCO2 = 30 and 20, an elevated level of [HCO3–] was present in the urine You would expect PCO2 levels to eventually increase. You would expect pH levels to eventually decrease. Reduced PCO2 levels most closely resemble the PCO2 levels we observed during hyperventilation. Hyperventilation resulted in alkalosis because more carbon dioxide is being expelled by the body during this kind of breathing. The reduction of carbon dioxide inside the blood results in less [H+] being generated, which can cause pH levels to rise to the point of alkalosis. Activity 6: Renal Response to Respiratory Acidosis (p. PEx-163) 6. At PCO2 = 60, 75, and 90, an elevated level of [H+] was present in the urine. At PCO2 = 60, 75, and 90, decreased levels of [HCO3–] were present in the urine. You would expect PCO2 levels to eventually decrease. You would expect pH levels to eventually increase. Elevated PCO2 levels most closely resemble the PCO2 levels we observed during rebreathing. Rebreathing resulted in acidosis because carbon dioxide is being retained by the body during this kind of breathing. The increase in carbon dioxide inside the blood results in more [H+] being generated, which can cause pH levels to dip to point of acidosis.

PhysioEx™ Exercise 47

435

Activity 7: Respiratory Response to Normal Metabolism (p. PEx-164) 5. The respiratory rate is 15 breaths per minute. Blood pH was approximately 7.4. Yes, the blood pH and PCO2 values are within normal ranges. Activity 8: Respiratory Response to Increased Metabolism (pp. PEx-165–166) 6. As the body’s metabolic rate increased: respiration rate and tidal volume increased blood pH decreased PCO2 values increased [H+] increased [HCO3–] decreased As the body’s metabolic rate increased, more carbon dioxide was formed as a metabolic waste product. This caused an increase in [H+] generation, which lowered the plasma pH, causing respiration to increase in order to expel the elevated levels of carbon dioxide and restore pH to a normal value. Metabolic rates of 70 and 80 resulted in acidosis. At metabolic rate = 70, the pH value was about 7.27. At metabolic rate = 80, the pH value was about 7.25. Acidosis occurs at pH levels below 7.35. (The pH values will vary slightly from run to run.) By the time the respiratory system fully compensated for acidosis, you would expect pH levels to rise to normal values. Activity 9: Respiratory Response to Decreased Metabolism (p. PEx-166) 6. As the body’s metabolic rate decreased: respiration decreased blood pH increased PCO2 values decreased [H+] decreased [HCO3–] increased As the body’s metabolic rate decreased, less carbon dioxide was formed as a metabolic waste product. This caused a decrease in [H+] generation, which increased the plasma pH, causing respiration to decrease in order to retain more carbon dioxide in the blood and restore pH to a normal value. Metabolic rates of 30 and 20 resulted in alkalosis. At metabolic rate = 30, the pH value was about 7.47. At metabolic rate = 20, the pH value was about 7.51. Alkalosis occurs at pH values above 7.45. (The pH values will vary slightly from run to run.) By the time the respiratory system fully compensated for alkalosis, you would expect pH levels to decrease to normal values.

436

PhysioEx™ Exercise 47

R E V I E W version 8

S H E E T
EXERCISE

47

NAME ____________________________________ LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Acid-Base Balance: Computer Simulation
7.38–7.42 (Answers vary from run to run, but always remain constant within

Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Normal Breathing. 1. What was the pH level during normal breathing? an individual run.) 2. Was this pH within the normal pH range?
Yes

The following questions refer to Activity 2: Hyperventilation. 3. In run 1, what was the maximum pH recorded with hyperventilation? 7.68 4. What acid-base imbalance occurred with hyperventilation?
Respiratory alkalosis

5. What happened to the tidal volume during hyperventilation?
Tidal volume increased during hyperventilation.

6. Describe the trace when hyperventilation stopped in run 2. After hyperventilation stopped there was a pause in breathing during which PCO2 levels increased.

The following questions refer to Activity 3: Rebreathing. 7. What was the effect on pH over time with rebreathing? During rebreathing, pH levels decreased.

8. Did rebreathing result in acidosis or alkalosis? Why? Hint: Specifically relate this to the level of CO2.
Acidosis; because an increase in PCO2 results in increased H+ (H2O + CO2 ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3–).

9. List some potential causes that would mimic the patterns of pH and CO2 levels seen in this rebreathing simulation.
Lung disease and airway obstruction such as asthma.

Renal System Compensation
The following questions refer to Activity 4: Renal Response to Normal Acid-Base Balance. 10. Describe how the pH of the blood changes with an increase in the level of CO2.
Blood pH decreases with an increase in the level of CO2.

437

+ 11. Why does this change occur? The increase in PCO2 causes more [H ] to be generated.

The following questions refer to Activity 5: Renal Response to Respiratory Alkalosis. 12. What happened to the level of [H ] in the urine as the level of CO2 decreased?
As the level of CO2 decreased, the amount of [H+] in the urine decreased.
– + 13. Explain how the renal system compensates for respiratory alkalosis. The renal system retains [H ] and releases [HCO3 ] to

compensate for respiratory alkalosis.

14. Which type of breathing results in respiratory alkalosis? Hyperventilation The following questions refer to Activity 6: Renal Response to Respiratory Acidosis.
– + 15. Explain how the renal system compensates for respiratory acidosis. The renal system releases [H ] and retains [HCO3 ] to

compensate for respiratory acidosis.

16. Which type of breathing results in respiratory acidosis? Rebreathing and breath holding

Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis
The following questions refer to Activity 8: Respiratory Response to Increased Metabolism. 17. What waste product is increased with an increased rate of metabolism? CO2 18. Which metabolic rates results in metabolic acidosis? Metabolic rates of 70 and 80 19. List some other potential causes of metabolic acidosis. Ketoacidosis, salicylate poisoning, ingestion of too much alcohol, diarrhea, strenuous exercise

The following questions refer to Activity 9: Respiratory Response to Decreased Metabolism. 20. Which metabolic rates resulted in metabolic alkalosis? Metabolic rates of 30 and 20 21. List some other potential causes of metabolic alkalosis. Alkali ingestion (i.e., antacids or bicarbonate), vomiting, constipation

438

Review Sheet 47

version 8

E X E R C I S E

1

Frequently Asked Questions
CD Version
Q: Why do I need a browser and Flash Player to run a CD? A: PhysioEx was developed in browser format so that users could have the option to access PhysioEx online at www.myaandp.com or at www.physioex.com. The lab interfaces for the CD and the web are exactly the same. Flash Player is a browser plugin used to display highimpact animations on the web with minimal download time. Q: Does this mean I need a live Internet connection to use the CD? A: No—you do not need a live Internet connection to use the CD. Q: How can I access the web version of PhysioEx? A: At the front of the manual is a “tip-in” sheet containing access codes that you will need to access the web site at www.myaandp.com. Q: Are there any differences between the CD and web versions of PhysioEx? A: No. The lab interfaces are identical.

Web Version
Q: I am using the web version of PhysioEx. Is it possible to improve the download time of the labs? A: PhysioEx was developed using the best technology available for fast download times. If you have DSL or cable access to the Internet, the labs should load very quickly. On a 56k modem, it can take 20 seconds to 1 minute to load some labs. Once the lab is loaded, your computer will store it in its cache, and you should not experience any further delays as you work through it. (The one exception to this is the Histology Atlas and Review Supplement, which is recommended for use only with DSL or cable access to the Internet.) Q: What if I forget my user ID and password? A: Contact Pearson Customer Technical Support at http://247.aw.com.

439

General Troubleshooting
Q: Help! Within the labs, one or more of the following things are happening: • • • The screen is flashing very fast. Nothing happens when I click on the buttons. There are green numbers in all the display fields, as though someone has already entered data.

A: There are two possibilities here: 1) You do not have the Flash Player plugin properly installed. 2) You are using a computer that does not meet the minimum system requirements. See the liner notes for the minimum requirements. (Nothing happening when buttons are clicked is a known problem on Macintosh 8.1. The minimum Mac requirement to use PhysioEx is Macintosh OS 10.3.x.) Q: Why am I having trouble printing? A: Make sure your printer is set to print in either grayscale or color. Most printers already have one of these as the default setting. If you have a black and white printer, make sure it is set to print in grayscale. Also make sure that your computer meets the minimum system requirements. If your computer has less than the minimum requirement of 128 MB RAM, printing may be very slow. Q: My question isn’t answered here. How can I reach someone? A: Contact Pearson Customer Technical Support at http://247.aw.com.

440

PhysioEx™ Frequently Asked Questions

A P P E N D I X

A

List of Laboratory Materials
Ordering information is based on a lab size of 24 students, working in groups of 4. Additional information on supply sources may be found in the Advance Preparation section in each exercise chapter of this Instructor Guide. A list of supply house addresses appears in Appendix B. Multimedia resources are listed in Appendix D, and multimedia resource distributors are listed in Appendix E.

Exercise 1

1–2 human torso models 2 human skeletons, one male and one female 3–4 preserved kidneys (sheep) scalpels gelatin-spaghetti molds
Exercise 2

dissectible human torso model or cadaver 6–12 forceps 6–12 scissors 6–12 blunt probes disposable gloves, soap, and sponges 6–12 freshly killed or preserved rats twine or large dissecting pins 6–12 dissecting trays lab disinfectant or 10% bleach solution
Exercise 3

24 slides of crossed colored threads (threads should cross at a single junction) filter paper or paper towels 1 box of microscope slides 1 box of coverslips 1 box of flat-tipped toothpicks 8–12 dropper bottles of physiologic saline or iodine 8–12 dropper bottles of methylene blue stain 24 slides of cheek epithelial cells 10% bleach solution autoclave bag, disposable
Exercise 4

DVD, video, or computer simulation of mitosis
Exercise 5A

24 compound microscopes, lens cleaning solution, lens paper, immersion oil 24 stereomicroscopes 24 millimeter rulers 24 slides of the letter e 24 slides with millimeter grids coins

3-D model of composite cell chart of cell anatomy 24 slides of simple squamous epithelium (AgNO3 stain) 24 slides of teased smooth muscle 24 slides of human blood cell smear 24 slides of sperm 24 slides of whitefish blastulae 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil 3-D models of mitotic stages modeling clay

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil 1 box of slides 1 box of coverslips 6 hot plates 6 forceps 6 petri plates with 1.5% agar gel 6 dropper bottles of 3.5% methylene blue solution 6 dropper bottles of 1.6% potassium permanganate solution 1000-milliliter graduated cylinder 6 15-ml graduated cylinders large beaker thistle tube osmometer molasses 6 millimeter rulers 25 dialysis sacs (or small Hefty “alligator” sandwich bags) 12 small funnels 6 dropper bottles of silver nitrate 6 dropper bottles of Benedict’s solution
441

24 test tubes 6 test tube holders 6 test tube racks 18 wax markers 6 25-milliliter graduated cylinders 24 250-milliliter beakers 6 bottles of 40% glucose solution 6 bottles of 10% NaCl solution 6 rolls of fine twine or 48 dialysis tubing clamps 6 laboratory balances animal blood (if used) 6 dropper bottles of distilled water 6 dropper bottles of physiologic saline (mammalian, 0.9%) 6 dropper bottles of 5% NaCl container of 10% bleach solution 6 wash bottles of 10% bleach 12 medicine droppers autoclave bag, disposable disposable gloves 7 ring stands, rings, and clamps filter paper or paper towels 1 box of flat-tipped toothpicks millimeter-ruled graph paper Congo Red dye videotape of phagocytosis videotape viewing box solution of powdered starch, powdered charcoal, and copper sulfate (CuSO4) crystals potassium permanganate crystals 10-milliliter graduated cylinder 100-milliliter beaker 12 400 milliliter beakers 12 deshelled eggs 6 200-milliliter bottles 30% sucrose solution 6 dropper bottles Lugol iodine (IKI) solution
442 Appendix A

48 weigh boats distilled water
Exercise 5B

Exercise 7

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Cell Transport Mechanism and Permeability module)
Exercise 6A

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil 24 slides of simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamous (nonkeratinized), pseudostratified ciliated columnar, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar, and transitional epithelium 24 slides of mesenchyme; adipose, areolar, and dense connective tissue, regular (tendon) and irregular (dermis); elastic connective tissue (wall of large artery), hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage; bone (cross section); and blood smear 24 slides of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle (longitudinal sections) 24 slides of spinal cord smear
Exercise 6B

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 dissecting microscopes model of the skin 24 slides of human scalp 24 slides of skin of palm or sole 1 sheet of 20# bond paper ruler adhesive tape 24 scissors 24 Betadine swabs or 24 cotton swabs and 6 dropper bottles of Lugol’s iodine 24 slides and coverslips data collection sheets disposable gloves Parelon fingerprint pad or portable inking foils ink cleaning towlettes index cards (4 in. 6 in.) 24 magnifying glasses
Exercise 8

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of the trachea (x.s.), esophagus (x.s.), and small intestine (x.s.) 24 slides of serous membrane (mesentery) longitudinally cut fresh beef joint disposable gloves
Exercise 9

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Histology Atlas and Review Supplement)

articulated skeleton numbered disarticulated bones showing four types 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution long bone sawed longitudinally long bone soaked in 10% HCl or vinegar

long bone baked at 250°F 24 slides of ground bone (x.s.) disposable gloves 3-D models of microscopic structure of bones 24 slides of developing long bone undergoing endochondral ossification 24 slides of hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage
Exercise 10

disposable gloves anatomical charts of joints X rays of normal and arthritic joints water balloons and clamps X ray viewing box functional models of hip, shoulder, and knee joints X ray of child’s bone showing the cartilaginous growth plate
Exercise 14

Exercise 16A

articulated vertebral column Beauchene skull 6–12 intact skulls 2 articulated skeletons (one male, one female) X rays of individuals with kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis X ray viewing box removable vertebral discs isolated cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx 6–12 disarticulated skeletons
Exercise 11

6–12 disarticulated skeletons 2 articulated skeletons (one male, one female) 1 articulated male pelvis 1 articulated female pelvis X rays of bones of the appendicular skeleton
Exercise 12

fresh chicken breast or thigh 6–12 bottles of physiologic saline (mammalian, 0.9%) 3-D models of skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle cells (if available) 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution microscope slides and coverslips 24 forceps 48 dissecting needles 24 slides of skeletal muscle cross section and longitudinal section 24 slides of neuromuscular junctions 3-D model of skeletal muscle showing neuromuscular junction (if available)
Exercise 15

fetal skull fetal skeleton adult skeleton
Exercise 13

articulated skeleton skull fresh diarthrotic beef joint or preserved joints

prosected human cadaver (if available) human torso models and/or anatomical charts of muscles disposable gloves Human Musculature videotape 6–12 tubes of body (or face) paint 6–12 1-inch wide artists’ brushes

1 or 2 ATP muscle kits 6 petri dishes 1 box of microscope slides and coverslips 24 millimeter rulers 12–24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 6 watches or timers copies of textbooks or other heavy books 24–48 pointed glass probes (teasing needles) 6 glass marking pencils 6 100-milliliter beakers distilled water 12–24 stereomicroscopes 6 small beakers (50 ml) frog Ringer’s solution 6 metal needle probes 6 medicine droppers 6 scissors cotton thread 6 forceps 6 glass or porcelain plates 6 live frogs (pithed) disposable gloves 6 sets of recording equipment and accessories (A or B) A: physiograph (polygraph), paper and ink, myograph, pin electrodes, stimulator output extension cable, transducer stand and cable, straight pins, frog board, laboratory stand, clamp B: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM available, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable, electrode lead set, hand dynamometer, headphones, metric tape

Appendix A

443

measure, disposable vinyl electrodes, conduction gel
Exercise 16B

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Skeletal Muscle Physiology module)
Exercise 17

Bunsen burners absorbent cotton ether disposable pipettes 1-cc syringes with small-gauge needle serum bottle of 0.5% tubocurarine frog boards 24 safety glasses filter paper 6 forceps
Exercise 18B

probe (hot and cold), cotton, ammonia, tuning fork, tongue depressor, and solutions of 10% sugar, 10% salt, vinegar (1% acedic acid), and 0.1% quinine
Exercise 20

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, immersion oil, lens cleaning solution model of neuron 24 slides of spinal cord smear, teased myelinated fibers, Purkinje cells (cerebellum), pyramidal cells (cerebrum), dorsal root ganglion, and nerve cross section
Exercise 18A

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses module)
Exercise 19

12 live frogs (Rana pipiens) 6 dissecting trays and dissection kits disposable gloves 12 dropper bottles of frog Ringer’s solution 6 small ice baths 12 glass rods or probes cotton thread 6 laboratory stands and 12 clamps 12 glass slides or glass plates 6 platinum electrodes 6 stimulators 6 pieces of filter paper 6 dropper bottles of 0.01% HCl NaCl crystals 6 slide holders or heat-resistant mitts oscilloscope (optional) nerve chambers

human brain models (dissectible) 3-D model of ventricles preserved human brains coronally sectioned human brain slice 12 preserved sheep brains with meninges and cranial nerves intact 12 dissecting trays 12 dissecting kits disposable gloves 24 pairs safety glasses soap, sponges, and disinfectant disposable gloves The Human Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves videotape Materials as needed for cranial nerves testing: aromatic oils (e.g., vanilla and cloves), eye chart, ophthalmoscope, penlight, safety pin, mall

6 oscilloscopes and EEG lead-selector boxes or 6 polygraphs and high-gain amplifiers 6 containers of electrode gel 6 sets of EEG electrodes and leads 6 containers of collodion or long elastic EEG straps Cot (if available) or pillow BIOPAC Apparatus: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM available, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable, electrode lead set, disposable vinyl electrodes, Lycra® swim cap (such as Speedo® brand) or supportive wrap (such as 3M Coban™ Self-adhering Support Wrap), a cot or lab bench and pillow
Exercise 21

spinal cord model 3-D laboratory charts of spinal cord, spinal nerves, and sympathetic chain 24 red pencils 24 blue pencils 12–24 preserved spinal cord sections (cow, or maybe saved from sheep brains from Ex. 19) 12–24 dissecting trays and dissecting kits 12–24 stereomicroscopes

444

Appendix A

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of spinal cord cross section disposable gloves 24 pairs safety glasses soap, sponges, disinfectant The Human Nervous System: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves videotape BIOPAC Apparatus: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable, respiratory transducer belt, GSR finger leads, electrode lead set, disposable vinyl electrodes, conduction gel, and nine 8 1/2" 11" sheets of paper of different colors (white, black, red, blue, green, yellow, orange, brown, and purple)
Exercise 22

6 wash bottles of 10% bleach large bucket of 10% bleach Cot (if available) BIOPAC Apparatus: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable, hand switch, headphones
Exercise 23

ophthalmoscopes 6 metric rulers/meter sticks 6 test tubes 6 common straight pins 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of the eye showing retinal layers disposable gloves 24 pairs safety glasses soap, sponges, and disinfectant 6 pencils
Exercise 25

6 reflex hammers 6 sharp pencils 6 small pieces of sterile absorbent cotton 6 tongue depressors 6 metric rulers 6 reaction time or 12" rulers 6 flashlights 6 beakers (100- or 250-milliliter) 6 10- or 25-ml graduated cylinders 6 dropper bottles of lemon juice 6 packages of wide-range pH paper autoclave bag, disposable

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil 24 slides of Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner’s corpuscles, Golgi tendon organs, and muscle spindles 12 Mall probes large beaker with chipped ice hot water bath set at 45°C 6 sets of red, black, and blue fine-point, felt-tipped markers 6 Von Frey’s hairs 6 calipers or esthesiometers 6 millimeter rulers 18 large finger bowls or 1000milliliter beakers 24 coins (nickels or quarters) 6 towels
Exercise 24

dissectible eye model chart of eye anatomy 12–24 preserved cow or sheep eyes 12–24 dissecting pans and dissecting kits 6 laboratory lamps or penlights Snellen eye chart 6–12 Ishihara’s color-blindness plates

3-D dissectible ear models 25 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of the cochlea 1 slide of crista ampullaris receptor of a semicircular canal 6 sets of tuning forks 6 rubber mallets absorbent cotton otoscopes and alcohol swabs disposable otoscope tips 6 metric rulers 6 ticking pocket watches or clocks white chalk and blackboard or markers and whiteboard audiometer red and blue pencils 18 coins of different denominations rotating stool or chair autoclave bag, disposable
Exercise 26

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of the tongue showing taste buds

Appendix A

445

24 slides of the nasal epithelium paper towels 6 small mirrors 6 small packets of granulated sugar 18 cotton-tipped swabs 6 dropper bottles of oil of cloves, oil of wintergreen, and oil of peppermint (or corresponding condiment flavors) absorbent cotton toothpicks disposable gloves 6 sets of 5 numbered vials containing common household substances with strong odors (herbs, spices, etc.) 6 flasks of distilled water 6 paper plates chipped ice 6 opaque containers of likesized food cubes of cheese, apple, raw potato, dried prunes, banana, raw carrot, and hard-cooked egg white (at least 6 of each) 6 nose clips autoclave bag, disposable 6 paper clips
Exercise 27

Exercise 28A

human torso model anatomical chart of human endocrine system 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary (differential-staining), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland, pancreas tissue

spring or pond water 18 female frogs 12 20- to 25-gauge needles 12 2-milliliter syringes 12 battery jars 6 wax markers 6 small bottles of amphibian physiologic saline 6 vials of frog pituitary extract 6 bottles of 20% glucose (250-milliliter) dropper bottle of commercial insulin, 400 IU/100 milliliters H2O 6 small (1.5–2") freshwater fish (guppy, bluegill, or sunfish, listed in order of preference) 12 finger bowls 6 dissecting pans and dissecting kits 6 dropper bottles of 1:1000 epinephrine 6 dropper bottles of frog Ringer’s solution 6 glass desiccators 6 manometers 6 two-hole rubber stoppers 6 T-valves 6 glass syringes (20-milliliter) 18 feet of rubber tubing 6 tubing clamps soda lime (desiccant) 6 hardware cloth squares or porcelain platforms animal balances 6 young rats of the same sex 4 kilograms rat chow 80 grams desiccated thyroid 0.02% 6-n-propylthiouracil 6 jars of petrolatum animal handling gloves disposable gloves 12 3-inch pieces of glass tubing 6 scissors

chalkboard and chalk or whiteboard and markers 500- or 600-ml beakers
Exercise 28B

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Endocrine System Physiology module)
Exercise 29A

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution immersion oil 24 slides of macrocytic, hypochromic anemia; microcytic, hypochromic anemia; sickle-cell anemia; lymphocytic leukemia (chronic); and eosinophilia. assorted slides of WBC pathologies labeled “unknown sample number ——” 2 boxes of clean microscope slides 3-D models of blood cells autoclave bag laboratory bucket or 6 beakers of 10% bleach solution 6 spray bottles of 10% bleach solution 6–12 dropper bottles of Wright stain 6–12 dropper bottles of distilled water 6 packages of wide-range pH paper 24 test tubes and test tube racks 6 animal plasma samples 24 pairs of disposable gloves 24 heparinized capillary tubes

446

Appendix A

microhematocrit centrifuge and (optional) reading gauge 24 millimeter rulers 6 containers capillary sealer 6–12 hemoglobinometers and hemolysis applicators designated lancet (sharps) disposal container 6 boxes sterile lancets, alcohol swabs, absorbent cotton balls; or stained smears of human blood; or heparinized animal blood; or EDTA-treated red cells with blood type labels obscured glass stirring rods 6 timers Rh typing box medicine dropper 24 nonheparinized capillary tubes 6–12 fine triangular files 6 bottles of each blood typing sera (anti-A, anti-B, antiRh[anti-D]) paper towels 24 wax markers toothpicks and 24 clean glass slides or 24 test cards and blood mixing sticks 24 safety glasses 24 cholesterol test cards and color scale
Exercise 29B

24 red pencils 24 blue pencils 6–12 preserved sheep hearts (with pericardial sacs intact if possible) 6–12 pointed glass rods for probes or Mall probles 6–12 dissection trays 6–12 dissection kits 6–12 millimeter rulers disposable gloves 24 pairs safety glasses 3-D heart model 3-D model of cardiac muscle X ray viewing box X ray of human thorax 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil 24 slides of cardiac muscle (longitudinal section) 3-D model of skeletal muscle container for disposal of organic debris laboratory detergent spray bottle with 10% household bleach solution Human Cardiovascular System: The Heart videotape
Exercise 31

Exercise 32

anatomical charts of human arteries and veins (or a threedimensional model of the human circulatory system) anatomical charts of the following specialized circulations: pulmonary circulation, hepatic portal circulation, arterial supply and circle of Willis of the brain (or a brain model showing this circulation), fetal circulation 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 prepared microscope slides showing cross sections of an artery and vein Human Cardiovascular System: The Blood Vessels videotape
Exercise 33A

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Blood Analysis module)
Exercise 30

3-D torso model heart anatomy chart

millimeter ruler cot or lab table A: ECG recording apparatus, electrode paste, alcohol swabs, rubber straps B: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable, electrode lead set, disposable vinyl electrodes, pillow

12 stethoscopes (bell and diaphragm) 12 sphygmomanometers 6 watches with second hands alcohol swabs 6 felt-tipped pens 6 small basins or large finger bowls 6 laboratory thermometers ice record, audiotape, or compact disc of “Interpreting Heart Sounds” (available on free loan from local chapters of the American Heart Association) and appropriate player BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable,

Appendix A

447

electrode lead set, BIOPAC pulse plethysmograph cot (if available) 6 meter sticks step stools (0.4 m [16 in.] and 0.5 m [20 in.] in height)
Exercise 33B

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Cardiovascular Dynamics module)
Exercise 34A

6 frogs disposable gloves 6 sets of recording equipment and accessories (A or B) A: physiograph (polygraph), paper, ink, myograph transducer, transducer cables, stimulator output extension cable, electrodes B: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer with at least 4MB of RAM, wall transformer, serial cable, BIOPAC SS12LA force transducer, S-hook with thread, transducer (or ring) stand disposable container for organic debris dissecting pins 12 right-angle clamps 18 bottles of frog Ringer’s solution water bath at 32°C and 5°C 12 petri dishes 6 medicine droppers 6 dissecting pans and dissecting kits

6 millimeter rulers thread 6 large rubber bands box of common pins 6 frog boards cotton balls paper towels 6 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 6 dropper bottles of each of the following (in frog Ringer’s): 5% atropine sulfate 2% digitalis 1% epinephrine 2.5% pilocarpine 5% potassium chloride 2% calcium chloride 0.7% sodium chloride 0.01% histamine 0.01 N HCl
Exercise 34B

6 dropper bottles of green food color 6 dropper bottles of goat antibody to horse serum albumin 6 dropper bottles of goat antibody to bovine serum albumin 6 dropper bottles of goat antibody to swine serum albumin horse serum albumin diluted to 20% with physiological saline unknown samples of serum albumin labeled “unknown ——” prepared from horse, swine, and/or bovine albumin 24 prepared slides of spleens 24 prepared slides of tonsils colored pencils
Exercise 36

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Frog Cardiovascular Physiology module)
Exercise 35A

anatomical chart of human lymphatic system disposable gloves 24 pairs safety glasses 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 24 slides of the lymph nodes 24 wax markers 6 petri plates with saline agar 6 medicine droppers 6 dropper bottles of red food color

human torso models respiratory system model, larynx model, and/or chart of the respiratory system sheep pluck (preserved or fresh from the slaughterhouse); or inflatable swine lungs kit source of compressed air and 2-foot length of laboratory rubber tubing or 24 cardboard mouthpieces and autoclave bag 24 histological slides of each of the following (if available): trachea (cross section), normal lung tissue, pathological lung tissues (e.g., with bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, or lung cancer) 24 compound and stereomicroscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution resin cast of the respiratory tree (if available)

448

Appendix A

6 dissecting trays disposable gloves autoclave bags
Exercise 37A

model lung (bell jar demonstrator) 6 tape measures 6 pairs of noseclips 24 disposable mouthpieces 6 100-ml beakers 6 dropper bottles of phenol red 50 milliliters of 0.05 M NaOH autoclave bag, disposable 6 spirometers alcohol swabs battery jar of 70% ethanol 6 paper bags 6 stethoscopes 6 pH meters standardized with buffer of pH 7 30 250-milliliter beakers 12 50-milliliter beakers 6 100-milliliter graduated cylinders 6 dropper bottles of concentrated HCl 6 dropper bottles of concentrated NaOH 2 liters standard buffer solution (pH 7) animal plasma 6 wash bottles of distilled water 6 glass stirring rods 6 dropper bottles of 0.01 M HCl chart (on chalkboard) for recording class data straws A: Physiograph, pneumograph, and recording attachments for physiograph B: BIOPAC MP30 (or MP35) data acquisition unit, PC or Macintosh (Mac) computer

with at least 4MB of RAM, BIOPAC Student Lab Software v3.0 or greater, wall transformer, serial cable, BIOPAC airflow transducer, BIOPAC calibration syringe, disposable mouthpiece, nose clip, bacteriological filter Human Respiratory System videotape
Exercise 37B

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Respiratory System Mechanics module)
Exercise 38

24 prepared slides of each of the following: mixed salivary glands, liver, pancreas, longitudinal sections of the gastroesophageal junction and a tooth, and cross sections of the stomach, duodenum, and ileum 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution anatomical charts of the human digestive system jaw model and/or human skull dissectible torso model 3-D model of a villus (if available) 3-D model of liver lobules (if available) Human Digestive System videotape
Exercise 39A

General supply area: 144 test tubes

6 test tube racks 6 wax markers 6 test tube holders 6 250-milliliter beakers ice water bath water bath at 37°C boiling chips 6 hot plates chart (on chalkboard) for recording class results Supply area 1: 6 dropper bottles of 1% boiled starch solution 6 dropper bottles of distilled water 6 dropper bottles of 1% alphaamylase solution 6 dropper bottles of 1% maltose solution 6 dropper bottles of Benedict’s solution 6 dropper bottles of Lugol’s solution (IKI) 6 spot plates Supply area 2: 6 dropper bottles of 1% trypsin 6 dropper bottles of 0.01% BAPNA Supply area 3: 6 dropper bottles of 1% pancreatin 6 dropper bottles of 0.1 N HCl 6 dropper bottles of vegetable oil 6 dropper bottles of litmus cream bile salts parafilm Supply area 4: water pitcher 24 paper cups 12 stethoscopes alcohol swabs autoclave bag, disposable watch, clock, or timer

Appendix A

449

Supply area 5: VHS player VHS tape Passage of Food Through the Digestive Tract videotape
Exercise 39B

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion module)
Exercise 40

6–12 pig or sheep kidneys 24 prepared microscope slides of each of the following: longitudinal section of the kidney, cross section of the bladder 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution dissectible human torso model 3-D model or anatomical chart of the human urinary system 3-D models of kidney and nephron (if available) 6–12 dissection trays 6–12 dissection kits disposable gloves 24 pairs safety glasses soap, sponges, and disinfectant
Exercise 41A

prepared “pathological” urine samples (number samples) 2 laboratory buckets of 10% bleach autoclave bags, disposable 6 flasks of 10% bleach disposable gloves

120 test tubes and holders 24 glass stirring rods 24 test tube racks 24 medicine droppers 24 urinometer cylinders and floats 24 microscope slides and coverslips 24 of each of the following test strips: Clinistix, Ketostix, Albustix, Hemastix, Bilistix; or 24 combination test strips (Chemstrip or Multistix) 24 Clinitest tablets 24 10-CC graduated cylinders 24 Ictotest reagent tablets and mats 25 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 6 packages of wide-range pH paper 6 hot plates 6 bottles containing 100 milliliters of 10% barium chloride 6 bottles containing 100 milliliters of dilute ammonium molybdate 6 dropper bottles of each of the following: dilute HCl, dilute HNO3, 3.0% silver nitrate, concentrated HNO3 student urine samples collected at the beginning of laboratory or “normal” artificial urine 24 50-milliliter beakers 6 Clinitest color charts timer (watch or a clock with a second hand) specimen of urine sediment
Exercise 41B

Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Renal Physiology—The Function of the Nephron module)
Exercise 42

24 prepared microscope slides of each of the following: seminal vesicles, penis, epididymis, uterine tube, and uterus (proliferative endometrium) 24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 3-D models and/or large laboratory charts of the male and female reproductive tracts
Exercise 43

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0

3-D models of meiosis, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis 12 sets of CR “pop-it” bead chromosomes in two colors with magnetic centromeres 24 prepared slides of each of the following: testis, ovary, human sperm, uterine endometrium (showing menses, proliferative, and secretory stages) 29 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution, immersion oil demonstration slides of stages of oogenesis in Ascaris megalocephala set up on microscopes to show: a. primary oocyte with fertilization membrane, sperm nucleus, and aligned tetrads apparent b. formation of first polar body c. secondary oocyte with dyads aligned

450

Appendix A

d. formation of the ovum and second polar body ovum e. fusion of the male and female pronuclei to form the fertilized egg
Exercise 44

24 compound microscopes, lens paper, lens cleaning solution 3-D models of human development 3-D model of pregnant human torso dissected pregnant cat, pig, or rat uterus 1–2 dissection kits disposable gloves fresh or formalin-preserved placenta 24 microscope slides of placenta Life Before Birth: Normal Fetal Development, Second Edition (by Marjorie A. England, 1996, MosbyWolfe) 24 prepared slides of sea urchin development (zygote through larval stages)
Exercise 45

disposable gloves 6 plastic baggies samples of HbA, HbS, HbA HbS mixed solution 6 electrophoresis units and power supplies 6 metric rulers 6 1.2% agarose gels 1× TBE (Tris-Borate/EDTA) butter pH 8.4 TBE solubization buffer with bromophenol blue Coomassie protein stain solution Staining tray 6 100-ml graduated cylinders micropipettes distilled water Coomassie de-stain solution 6 marking pens
Exercise 46

6–12 dissection kits with metric rulers 6–12 name tags and large plastic storage bags paper towels disposable gloves or protective skin cream embalming fluid organic debris container Other Supplies: 6–12 stereomicroscopes (dissection exercise 6) bone cutters (dissection exercises 3, 4, 7, and 9) 6–12 hand lenses (dissection exercise 7) 6–12 hand magnifying lenses (dissection exercise 8) scissors
Pig Dissection

articulated skeletons 3-D charts and models of skeletal muscles washable markers hand mirrors stethoscopes alcohol swabs
Exercise 47

24 PTC taste strips 24 sodium benzoate taste strips 12 pennies 24 wax markers lancets cotton alcohol swabs toothpicks and 24 clean microscope slides; or 24 test cards and blood mixing sticks anti-A and anti-B blood typing sera 2 large beakers of 10% bleach disposable autoclave bag

a computer that meets the minimum system requirements for PhysioEx 8.0 Benjamin Cummings PhysioEx CD-ROM or website (Acid-Base Balance module)
Cat Dissection

General Supplies: 6–12 preserved double or triple injected cats 6–12 dissection trays 24 pairs safety glasses

General Supplies: 6–12 preserved double or triple injected fetal pigs 6–12 dissection trays 6–12 dissection kits with metric rulers 6–12 name tags and large plastic storage bags paper towels disposable gloves twine embalming fluid organic debris container Other Supplies: 6–12 stereomicroscopes (dissection exercise 6) 6–12 small beakers bone cutters (dissection exercises 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9) 6–12 hand lenses (dissection exercise 7)

Appendix A

451

A P P E N D I X

B

List of Supply Houses
This is a partial list of suppliers of equipment, animals, and chemicals, and should not be considered a recommendation for these companies. Many supply companies have regional addresses. Only one address is listed below. Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. * P.O. Box 2060 Milwaukee, WI 53201 800-558-9160 www.sigma-aldrich.com American Scientific LLC 6450 Fiesta Drive Columbus, OH 43235 888-490-9002/614-764-9002 www.american-scientific.com BIOPAC Systems, Inc. 42 Aero Camino Goleta, CA 93117 805-685-0066 www.biopac.com Carolina Biological Supply Company 2700 York Road Burlington, NC 27215 800-334-5551 www.carolina.com EDVOTEK, Inc. P.O. Box 341232 Bethesda, MD 20827-1232 800-338-6835 www.edvotek.com Fisher Scientific 3970 John’s Creek Court, Suite 500 Suwanee, GA 30024 800-766-7000/770-871-4726 www.fishersci.com Fotodyne, Inc. 950 Walnut Ridge Drive Hartland, WI 53029 800-362-3686/262-369-7000 www.fotodyne.com ICN Biochemicals 1263 South Chillicothe Road Aurora, OH 44202-8064 800-854-0530 www.icnbiomed.com Intelitool (Phipps & Bird) P.O. Box 7475 Richmond, VA 23221-0475 800-955-7621 www.intelitool.com LabChem, Inc. 200 William Pitt Way Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412-826-5230 www.labchem.net

* The Aldrich and Sigma brands are both sold through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.

453

Modern Biology, Inc. 111N 500W West Lafayette, IN 47906 800-733-6544 www.modernbio.com Nasco 901 Janesville Avenue P.O. Box 901 Fort Atkinson, WI 53538-0901 800-558-9595 www.enasco.com Sigma Chemical Company * P.O. Box 14508 St. Louis, MO 63178-9974 800-325-3010 www.sigma-aldrich.com

VWR International, Inc. 200 Center Square Road Bridgeport, NJ 08014 800-932-5000 www.vwrsp.com WARD’S Natural Science 5100 West Henrietta Road Rochester, NY 14692-9012 800-962-2660/585-359-2502 www.wardsci.com

* The Aldrich and Sigma brands are both sold through Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.

454

Appendix B

A P P E N D I X

C

Solution Preparation

This is a complete list of the solutions found in the laboratory manual. Most of the percent solutions are weight/volume (grams/100 milliliters). All solutions should be prepared with distilled water unless otherwise noted. Solutions containing glucose or sucrose should be refrigerated to inhibit bacterial growth.

Acetic Acid, 1% For 500 milliliters, measure out 50 milliliters of 10% acetic acid. Add to a small amount of distilled water. Add water to a final volume of 500 milliliters. Agar Gel, 1.5% Weigh out 15 grams of dried agar. Slowly add 1 liter of distilled water while heating. Bring slowly to a boil, stirring constantly until the agar dissolves. For immediate use, allow the agar to cool to about 45°C. Pour into petri plates to solidify. Refrigerate in an inverted position. If the plates are to be kept for a longer time (more than one day), autoclave the agar solution in the flask, pour into sterile petri plates, allow the agar to solidify, invert the plates, and store in a refrigerator. Agarose gel, 1.2% Weigh out 0.9 gram agarose. Mix with 75 milliliters of 1 × Tris-Borate-EDTA buffer (ICN) electrophoresis buffer in a 250–500 milliliter flask. Boil over heat source or in a mircowave oven until the agarose melts, stirring periodically. Alpha-Amylase, 1% Weigh out 1 gram alpha-amylase. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. For best results, be sure that the enzyme is not standardized with maltose. Atropine Sulfate in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 5% Weigh out 5 grams of atropine sulfate. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Caution! Atropine sulfate is toxic. Label “TOXIC.” BAPNA, 0.01% Weigh out 0.01 gram BAPNA. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Barium Chloride, 10% Weigh out 10 grams of barium chloride. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters.

455

Benedict’s Solution • 173.0 grams sodium citrate • 100.0 grams sodium carbonate, anhydrous • 17.3 grams cupric sulfate (pure crystalline) Add the citrate and carbonate salts to 700–800 milliliters distilled water. Heat to dissolve. Add the cupric sulfate to 100 milliliters distilled water. Heat to dissolve. Cool the solutions and then combine. Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Bleach (Sodium Hypochlorite) Solution, 10% Measure out 100 milliliters of household bleach. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Calcium Chloride in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 2% Weigh out 2 grams of calcium chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Carboglycerine Solution • 30 grams fungicide (Benomyl, Sigma) • 250 milliliters glycerine • 1 liter water Mix together and store in a closed container. Digitalis in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 2% Weigh out 2 grams of digitoxin. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Epinephrine (Adrenaline), 1:1000 Weigh out 0.1 gram of epinephrine (Carolina). Dissolve in 0.5 milliliter of 1 N HCl. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Caution! Epinephrine is toxic. Label “TOXIC.” Epinephrine in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 1% Weigh out 1 gram of epinephrine (Carolina). Dissolve in 0.5 milliliter of 1 N HCl. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Caution! Epinephrine is toxic. Label “TOXIC.” Glucose, 40% Weigh out 40 grams of glucose and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the glucose into solution. Refrigerate when not in use. Glucose, 20% Weigh out 200 grams of glucose. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter. Refrigerate when not in use.

456

Appendix C

Hemoglobin, HbA and HbS Weigh out 0.2g HbA or HbS. Add glycerol to a final volume of 1 milliter. Histamine in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 0.01% Weigh out 0.01 gram histamine. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), Dilute, 3 N Add 258 milliliters of 37% HCl to 700 milliliters distilled water. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 0.1 N Add 8 milliliters concentrated (37%) HCl to 900 milliliters distilled water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter; or dilute 100 milliliters of 1 N HCl to a final volume of 1 liter with distilled water. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 0.01 M or 0.01 N Add 0.8 milliliter concentrated (37%) HCl to 900 milliliters distilled water. Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution; or dilute 10 milliliters of 1 N HCl to a final volume of 1 liter with distilled water. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 0.01% Add 0.27 milliliter of 1 N HCl to 90 milliliters of distilled water. Add water to a final volume of 100 milliliters; or beginning with 37% HCl (d 1.2), prepare a 1 N solution by adding 8 milliliters of 37% HCl to 90 milliliters of water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), 10% Slowly add 100 milliliters of concentrated (37%) HCl to 250 milliters of distilled water. Add distilled water to a final volume of 370 milliliters. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 0.01 N Add 0.8 milliliter of concentrated (37%) HCl to 900 milliliters frog Ringer’s solution. Add distilled water to a final volume of 1 liter. Insulin, 400 IU/100 milliliters H2O Weigh out 16 milligrams of zinc-stabilized insulin (25 IU/milligram dry weight, ICN). Add water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Litmus Cream Add powdered litmus to fresh cream to achieve a blue color. Lugol’s Iodine (IKI) • 20 grams potassium iodide • 4 grams iodine crystals Dissolve potassium iodide in 1 liter distilled water. Add the iodine crystals and stir to dissolve. Store in dark bottles.

Appendix C

457

Maltose, 1% Weigh out 1 gram maltose. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Methylene Blue Solution (Loeffler’s) Weigh out 0.5 gram methylene blue, 1 milliliter 1% potassium hydroxide solution, and 30 milliliters ethanol, absolute. Add to 100 milliliters distilled water. Warm the water to about 50 degrees C, stir in methylene blue and add other ingredients; filter. Nitric Acid (HNO3), Dilute, 3N Add 183 milliliters of 69% HNO3 to 700 milliliters distilled water. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Pancreatin, 1% Weigh out 1 gram pancreatin. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Physiologic Saline (Amphibian, 0.75%) Weigh out 7.5 grams of NaCl. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Make fresh immediately prior to experiment. (Note: 0.7% saline may also be used.) Physiologic Saline (Mammalian, 0.9%) Weigh out 9 grams of NaCl. Add water to a final volume of 1 liter. Make fresh immediately prior to experiment. Pilocarpine in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 2.5% Weigh out 2.5 grams of pilocarpine chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Potassium Chloride (KCl) in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 5% Weigh out 5 grams of potassium chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Potassium Permanganate Solution (1%) Weigh out 1.0 gram potassium permanganate. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Propylthiouracil (PTU), 0.02% Weigh out 0.2 gram of 6-n-propylthiouracil (Aldrich). Add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Filter and store in light-resistant containers. Caution! PTU is a possible carcinogen. (If it is difficult to dissolve the PTU, add concentrated NaOH to adjust the pH to 8.0.) Quinine, 0.1% For 500 milliliters, weigh out 0.5 gram of quinine sulfate. Add water to a final volume of 500 milliliters.

458

Appendix C

Rat Chow with Thyroid Extract Grind up sufficient regular laboratory rat chow to feed the required number of animals for 2 weeks (approximately 40 grams chow/rat/day). Add 20 grams of desiccated thyroid powder (Carolina) for each 1000 grams of rat chow. Mix thoroughly. Ringer’s Solution, Frog 6.50 grams sodium chloride 0.14 gram potassium chloride 0.12 gram calcium chloride 0.20 gram sodium bicarbonate Combine salts in flask and add distilled water to make 1 liter of solution. Saline Agar Mix together 2 grams agar, 1 gram sodium chloride, and 100 milliters of distilled water. Bring to a gentle boil until the solution becomes clear. Use immediately or steam sterilize or add 0.1 gram sodium azide per 100 milliters to store. Saline Solution, 0.9% Weigh out 0.9 gram of sodium chloride. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Silver Nitrate (AgNO3), 2.9 or 3% Weigh out 2.9 grams (for 2.9%) or 3 grams (for 3%) of silver nitrate. Use caution; this is an oxidizing substance. Add distilled water to make 100 milliliters of solution. Store in light-resistant bottles. Make fresh for each use. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 5% Weigh out 5 grams sodium chloride. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Sodium Chloride (NaCl), 10% Weigh out 10 grams NaCl and bring to 100 milliliters with distilled water. It may be necessary to heat the mixture to get the NaCl into solution. Sodium Chloride (NaCl) in Frog Ringer’s Solution, 0.7% Weigh out 0.7 gram of sodium chloride. Add frog Ringer’s solution to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Sodium Citrate, 5% Weigh out 25 grams of sodium citrate. Add water to a final volume of 500 milliliters. Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), 0.05 M Weigh out 0.2 gram NaOH. Add distilled water to 100 milliters. Caution! Caustic. Starch Solution, Boiled, 1% Add 1 gram of starch to 100 milliliters distilled water. Boil just until it changes from cloudy to translucent. Cool and filter. Add a pinch of NaCl. Prepare fresh daily. Best results are obtained with potato starch from a biological supply house.

Appendix C

459

Starch Solution, Boiled, 0.1% Weigh out 0.1 gram of starch for each 100 milliliters of solution. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Heat the mixture, stirring constantly, until the starch goes into solution. Cool and filter. Refrigerate when not in use. Sucrose, 30% Weigh out 30 grams of sucrose. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Refrigerate when not in use. Trypsin, 1% Weigh out 1 gram of trypsin. Add distilled water to a final volume of 100 milliliters. Tubocurarine, 0.5% Weigh out 0.125 gram of D-tubocurarine chloride. Add distilled water to make 25 milliliters. Label “Poison. Use extreme care.” Note: Solution should be placed in a serum bottle (Aldrich) for use. Urine Solutions* Urine, Artificial Normal Human 36.4 grams urea 15 grams sodium chloride 9.0 grams potassium chloride 9.6 grams sodium phosphate 4.0 grams creatinine 100 milligrams albumin Add urea to 1.5 liters of distilled water. Mix until crystals dissolve. Add sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium phosphate. Mix until solution is clear. The pH should be within the 5 to 7 pH range for normal human urine. (Adjust pH, if necessary, with 1 N HCl or 1 N NaOH.) Place a urine hydrometer in the solution and dilute with water to a specific gravity within the range of 1.015 to 1.025. This stock solution may be refrigerated for several weeks or frozen for months. Before use, warm to room temperature and add 4.0 grams creatinine and 100 milligrams of albumin for each 2 liters of solution. Urine, Glycosuria For a minimally detectable level of glucose, add a minimum of 600 milligrams of glucose to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. For moderate to high glycosuria, add 2.5 to 5.0 grams of glucose to each liter of solution. Urine, Hematuria Add 1 milliliter of heparinized or defibrinated sheep blood to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. Urine, Hemoglobinuria Add 2 milligrams of bovine hemoglobin to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution.
* Reprinted by permission: B. R. Shmaefsky, “Artificial Urine for Laboratory Testing,” American Biology Teacher 52(3), March 1990, pp. 170–172 (Reston, VA: National Association of Biology Teachers).

460

Appendix C

Urine, Hyposthenuria Add distilled water to a sample of “normal” urine until the specific gravity approaches 1.005. Urine, Ketonuria Add a minimum of 100 milligrams of acetoacetic acid or at least 1 milliliter of acetone to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. Urine, Leukocyte Presence Add 100 to 200 units of pork or rabbit liver esterase to 100 milliliters of the “normal” urine solution. This test must be performed immediately after adding the enzyme. Urine, pH Imbalance Adjust “normal” urine to a pH of 4.0 to 4.5 with 1 N HCl for acid urine. Adjust “normal” urine to a pH of 8 to 9 with 1 N NaOH for alkaline urine. Urine, Proteinuria Add 300 milligrams or more of albumin per liter of “normal” urine solution. For severe renal damage, add 1 gram of albumin to each liter of solution. Whole Spectrum Pathological Artificial Human Urine Mix appropriate amounts of abnormal condition reagents to 1 liter of “normal” urine solution. For diabetes mellitus, use glycosuria and ketonuria solutions. For glomerular damage, use proteinuria, hemoglobinuria, and hematuria solutions. Yeast Suspension, 10% Add 5 grams of dried yeast to 50 milliliters of distilled water and gently stir to form a milky solution. After 15 minutes (no more than 30 minutes), stir again. Prepare suspension immediately before use.

Appendix C

461

A P P E N D I X

D

Multimedia Resources
Format Options
VHS CD-ROM DVD Slides

Materials for General Application Throughout the Course
Video
Body Atlas Series (NIMCO, 11-part series, 30 minutes each, VHS, DVD) In the Womb The Skin Breath of Life Defend and Repair Glands and Hormones Visual Reality Muscle and Bone Now Hear This Taste and Smell The Brain Sex The Human Pump The Food Machine Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Body: Systems at Work (FHS, 6-part series, 25 minutes each, VHS, DVD) Circulatory System: The Plasma Pipeline Digestive System: Your Personal Power Plant Skeletal System: The Infrastructure Brain and Nervous System: Your Information Superhighway Muscular System: The Inner Athlete Respiratory System: Intake and Exhaust The Human Body: The Ultimate Machine (CBS, 27 minutes) The Incredible Human Machine (CBS, 60 minutes, VHS) The Living Body (FHS, 26-part series, 26–28 minutes each, VHS, DVD) Introduction to the Body: Landscapes The Circulatory System: Two Hearts and Interiors That Beat as One The Senses: Skin Deep Breath of Life Eyes and Ears Life Under Pressure Sleep: Dream Voyage Hot and Cold The Urinary Tract: Water! Hormones: Messengers Digestion: Eating to Live Mechanisms of Defense: Accident Breakdown Internal Defenses

463

The Nervous System: Nerves at Work Reproduction: Shares in the Future Decision Coming Together Our Talented Brain A New Life Cell Duplication: Growth and Change Into the World Muscles and Joints: Muscle Power Aging Moving Parts Review of Biology: Design for Living The New Living Body (FHS, 10-part series, 20 minutes each, VHS, DVD) Bones and Joints Blood Muscles The Brain Skin The Senses Breathing Homeostasis Digestion Reproduction: Designer Babies Organ Systems Working Together (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) The World of Living Organisms Part 2 (FHS, 8-part series, 15 minutes each, VHS) Genetic Transmission Respiration Genetic Translation Circulation Bones and Muscles The Kidney Digestion Reproduction

Software
A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy 4.0 (AIA, CD-ROM) A.D.A.M. MediaPro (AIA, CD-ROM) A.D.A.M. Practice (AIA, CD-ROM) Body Works (WNS, CD-ROM) The Dynamic Human (CS, CD-ROM) Netter’s Interactive Atlas of Clinical Anatomy (LP, CD-ROM) The Ultimate Human Body (ED, CD-ROM) Visible Human Male (VP, CD-ROM)

Materials Specifically Related to Particular Systems The Cell
Video
A Journey Through the Cell (FHS, DVD) Part One: Cells: An Introduction (25 minutes) Part Two: Cell Functions: A Closer Look (25 minutes) An Introduction to the Living Cell (CBS, 30 minutes, VHS) Inside the Living Cell (WNS, set of 5, VHS) Mitosis and Meiosis (IM, UL, 23 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Outer Envelope (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS)

464

Appendix D

Software
Inside the Cell (CE, CD-ROM) Mitosis (CE, CD-ROM) The Plasma Membrane and Cellular Transport (CE, CD-ROM)

Homeostasis
Video
Homeostasis (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS) Homeostasis: The Body in Balance (IM, 26 minutes, VHS) Homeostasis: The Body in Balance (HRM, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Histology
Slides
Basic Human Histology (CBS, microslides, sets of eight related 35-mm slides). Histology Slides for Life Science (BC, 35-mm slides)

Video
Histology Videotape Series (UL, 26-part series, 30 minutes each, VHS)

Software
Eroschenko’s Interactive Histology (UL, VHS, CD-ROM) PhysioEx: Exercise 6B (BC, CD-ROM) Wards’ Histology Collection (WNS, CD-ROM)

Integumentary System
Video
How the Body Works: Skin, Bones, and Muscles (NIMCO, 19 minutes, VHS) Skin (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Skin (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) The Senses: Skin Deep (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Skeletal System
Video
Anatomy of a Runner (Structure and Function of the Lower Limb) (UL, 38 minutes, VHS) Anatomy of the Hand (FHS, 14 minutes, VHS, DVD) Anatomy of the Shoulder (FHS, 17 minutes, VHS, DVD) Bones and Joints (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Knee Joint (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) Muscle and Bone (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Our Flexible Frame (WNS, 20 minutes, VHS) Skeletal System: The Infrastructure (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Skeleton: An Introduction (UL, 46 minutes, VHS) Skeletal System (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS)

Appendix D

465

The Skeleton: Types of Articulations (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) The Skull Anatomy Series (UL, 9-part series, VHS) The Thoracic Skeleton (UL, 18 minutes, VHS)

Software
Interactive Foot and Ankle (LP, CD-ROM) Interactive Shoulder (LP, CD-ROM) Interactive Skeleton: Sports and Kinetic (LP, CD-ROM)

Muscle System
Video
Anatomy of a Runner (Structure and Function of the Lower Limb) (UL, 38 minutes, VHS) Abdomen and Pelvis (UL, 16 minutes, VHS) How the Body Works: Skin, Bones, and Muscles (NIMCO, 19 minutes, VHS) Human Musculature Videotape (BC, 23 minutes, VHS) Lower Extremity (UL, 28 minutes, VHS) Lower Extremity (WNS, 28 minutes, VHS) Major Skeletal Muscles and Their Actions (UL, 19 minutes, VHS) Movements at Joints of the Body (FHS, 40 minutes, VHS, DVD) Moving Parts (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Muscle and Bone (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Muscles and Joints: Muscle Power (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Muscles (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Muscular System: The Inner Athlete (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Upper Extremity (UL, 36 minutes, VHS) Upper Extremity (WNS, 36 minutes, VHS)

Software
Biochemistry of Muscle (ED, CD-ROM) Interactive Physiology: Muscular System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy review: skeletal muscle The neuromuscular junction Sliding filament theory Muscle metabolism Contraction of motor units Contraction of whole muscle

Nervous System and Special Senses
Video
Anatomy of the Human Brain (FHS, 35 minutes, VHS, DVD) Animated Neuroscience and the Action of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Marijuana in the Brain (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Brain (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD)

466

Appendix D

The Brain (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Brain Anatomy Series (UL, 6-part series, VHS) Brain and Nervous System: Your Information Superhighway (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Decision (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Ear: Hearing and Balance (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) The Eye: Structure, Function, and Control of Movement (FHS, 54 minutes, VHS, DVD) Eyes and Ears (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Brain in Situ (FHS, 19 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Nerves Videotape (BC, 28 minutes, VHS) The Human Nervous System: Human Brain and Cranial Nerves Videotape (BC, 28 minutes, VHS) Mystery of the Senses (CBS, 5-part series, VHS) Vision (30 minutes) Smell (30 minutes) Taste (30 minutes) Hearing (30 minutes) Touch (30 minutes) Nerve Impulse Conduction (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) Neuroanatomy (UL, 19 minutes, VHS) Now Hear This (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Optics of the Human Eye Series (UL, 4-part series, VHS) The Peripheral Nervous System (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) The Senses (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Senses of Smell and Taste (NIMCO, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Sheep Brain Dissection (WNS, 22 minutes, VHS) Sheep Eye Dissection (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS) The Senses: Skin Deep (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Smell (FHS, 23 minutes, VHS, DVD) Smell and Taste (FHS, 30 minutes, VHS, DVD) Taste (FHS, 23 minutes, VHS, DVD) Taste and Smell (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Visual Reality (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS)

Software
Interactive Physiology: Nervous System I and II (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Nervous I Nervous II Orientation Orientation Anatomy review Anatomy review Ion channels Ion channels The membrane potential Synaptic potentials and cellular integration The action potential Synaptic transmission

Appendix D

467

Endocrine System
Video
Endocrine Control: Systems in Balance (IM, 30 minutes, VHS) The Endocrine System (IM, 17 minutes, VHS) Endocrine System (WNS, 16 minutes, VHS) Glands and Hormones (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Hormonally Yours (FHS, 50 minutes, VHS, DVD) Hormone Heaven? (FHS, 50 minutes, VHS, DVD) Hormone Hell (FHS, 50 minutes, VHS, DVD) Hormones: Messengers (FHS, 27 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Neuroendocrine System (IM, 29 minutes, VHS) The Neuroendocrine System (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) The Pancreas (UL, 29 minutes, VHS)

Software
Interactive Physiology: Endocrine System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Orientation Endocrine system review Biochemistry, secretion, and transport of hormones The actions of hormones on target cells The hypothalamic-pituitary axis Response to stress

Cardiovascular System
Video
Bleeding and Coagulation (FHS, 31 minutes, VHS, DVD) Blood (UL, 22 minutes, VHS) Blood (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Blood is Life (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Circulatory System (WNS, 15 minutes, VHS) Circulatory System: The Plasma Pipeline (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels Videotape (BC, 25 minutes, VHS) Human Cardiovascular System: The Heart Videotape (BC, 25 minutes, VHS) Life Under Pressure (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Mammalian Heart (AIMS, 15 minutes, VHS) The Physiology of Exercise (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS, DVD) Sheep Heart Dissection Video (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) The Circulatory System: Two Hearts that Beat as One (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Software
Blood and Immunity (CE, CD-ROM) Blood and Immunity (LP, CD-ROM)

468

Appendix D

Interactive Physiology: Cardiovascular System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy review: the heart Anatomy review: blood vessel structure and function Intrinsic conduction system Measuring blood pressure Cardiac action potential Factors that affect blood pressure Cardiac cycle Blood pressure regulation Cardiac output Autoregulation and capillary dynamic

Lymphatic/Immune System
Video
Defend and Repair (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Organ Systems Working Together (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) Internal Defenses (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Immune System: The Fighting Edge (FHS, 44 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Software
Biochemistry of the Immune System (ED, CD-ROM) Blood and Immunity (CE, CD-ROM) Blood and Immunity (LP, CD-ROM) Interactive Physiology: Immune System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Immune system overview Anatomy review Innate host defenses Common characteristics of B and T lymphocytes Humoral immunity Cellular immunity

Respiratory System
Video
Breath of Life (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD) Breathing (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS) The Dissection of the Thorax Series (UL, VHS) Part I. The Thoracic Wall (23 minutes) Part II. Pleurae and Lungs (24 minutes) Human Respiratory System Videotape (BC, 25 minutes, VHS) Lungs (Revised) (AIMS, 10 minutes, VHS) The Physiology of Exercise (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS) Respiration (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS) Respiratory System: Intake and Exhaust (FHS, 25 minutes, VHS, DVD) Thorax (UL, 22 minutes, VHS)

Software
Interactive Physiology: Respiratory System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy review: respiratory structures

Appendix D

469

Pulmonary ventilation Gas exchange Gas transport Control of respiration

Digestive System
Video
Breakdown (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Digestion (FHS, 20 minutes, VHS, DVD) Digestion: Eating to Live (FHS, 27 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Food Machine (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Digestive System (WNS, 14 minutes, VHS) The Human Digestive System (AIMS, 18 minutes, VHS, DVD, CD-ROM) Human Digestive System Videotape (BC, 33 minutes, VHS) The Human Digestive System Video (WNS, 18 minutes, VHS) Passage of Food Through the Digestive Tract (WNS, 8 minutes, VHS)

Software
Interactive Physiology: Digestive System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Orientation Anatomy review Control of the digestive system Motility Secretion Digestion and absorption

Urinary System
Video
Human Urinary System Videotape (BC, 23 minutes, VHS) The Kidney (FHS, 15 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Urinary Tract: Water! (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Software
Interactive Physiology: Urinary System (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Anatomy review Glomerular filtration Early filtrate processing Late filtrate processing Interactive Physiology: Fluids and Electrolytes (BC, CD-ROM or www.interactivephysiology.com) Introduction to body fluids Water homeostasis Electrolyte homeostasis Acid/base homeostasis

470

Appendix D

Reproductive System
Video
A Dozen Eggs: Time-Lapse Microscopy of Normal Development (IM, 46 minutes, VHS) A Human Life Emerges (FHS, 33 minutes, VHS, DVD) A New Life (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Coming Together (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Genetics: A Popular Guide to the Principles of Human Heredity (FHS, 3-part series, VHS, DVD) Understanding the Basic Concepts of Genetics (30 minutes) Genetic Discoveries, Disorders, and Mutations (26 minutes) Practical Applications and the Risks of Genetic Science (24 minutes) Human Biology (FHS, 58 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Human Female Reproductive System (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) The Human Male Reproductive System (UL, 29 minutes, VHS) Human Embryology Series (UL, VHS) Highlights of Reproduction and Prenatal Development (16 minutes) Fertilization, Cleavage, and Implantation (17 minutes) Human Reproductive Biology (FHS, 35 minutes, VHS, DVD) Human Reproductive System Videotape (BC, 32 minutes, VHS) In the Womb (NIMCO, 30 minutes, VHS) Into the World (FHS, 28 minutes, VHS, DVD) Introduction to Development (IM, 22 minutes, VHS, DVD) Meiosis: The Key to Genetic Diversity (WNS, 30 minutes, VHS) Life’s Greatest Miracle (CBS, 60 minutes, VHS, DVD) Reproduction: Shares in the Future (FHS, 26 minutes, VHS, DVD)

Software
Genetics (FHS, CD-ROM)

Dissection of the Cat and Fetal Pig
Video
The Anatomy of the Cat (CBS, 85 minutes, VHS, DVD) The Anatomy of the Fetal Pig (CBS, 62 minutes, VHS, DVD) Cat Dissection Video (WNS, 46 minutes, VHS)

Software
Fetal Pig (DryLab Plus) (ED, CD-ROM) The Fetal Pig: A Technological Dissection (ED, CD-ROM)

Appendix D

471

A P P E N D I X

E

Guide to Multimedia Resource Distributors
Please Note: Distribution company names and web addresses change frequently.

AIA

A.D.A.M. Software, Inc. 1800 RiverEdge Parkway, Suite 100 Atlanta, GA 30328 770-980-0888 http://education.adam.com AIMS Media 9710 Desoto Avenue Chatsworth, CA 91311-4409 800-367-2467/818-773-4300 www.aimsmultimedia.com Benjamin Cummings 1301 Sansome Street San Francisco, CA 94111-2525 800-950-2665/415-402-2500 www.aw-bc.com Carolina Biological Supply Company 2700 York Road Burlington, NC 27215 800-334-5551 www.carolina.com Communication Skills, Inc. 49 Richmondville Avenue Westport, CT 06880 800-824-2398/203-226-8820 www.communicationskills.com CyberEd, Inc. P.O. Box 3480 Chico, CA 95927-3480 888-318-0700/530-899-1212 www.cybered.net

ED

Edumatch, Inc. 86 West Street Waltham, MA 02451 800-637-0047 www.edumatch.com Films for the Humanities and Sciences P.O. Box 2053 Princeton, NJ 08453 800-257-5126/609-419-8000 www.films.com HRM Video 41 Kensico Drive Mount Kisco, NY 10549 800-431-2050 www.hrmvideo.com Insight Media 2162 Broadway New York, NY 10024 800-233-9100/212-721-6316 www.insight-media.com Laser Professor 351 Lakeside Lane, Suite 308 Houston, TX 77058 800-550-0335/281-333-5550 www.laserprofessor.com

AIMS

FHS

BC

HRM

CBS

IM

CS

LP

CE

NIMCO NIMCO, Inc. P.O. Box 9 102 Highway 81 N Calhoun, KY 42327-0009 800-962-6662 www.nimcoinc.com

473

UL

United Learning 1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 100 Evanston, IL 60201 800-323-9084 www.unitedlearning.com Visible Productions 201 Linden Street, Suite 301 Fort Collins, CO 80524 800-685-4668 http://visiblep.com

WNS

WARD’S Natural Science 5100 West Henrietta Road Rochester, NY 14692-9012 800-962-2660/585-359-2502 www.wardsci.com

VP

474

Appendix E

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Kaspersky Lab

...Kaspersky Lab: from Russia with anti-virus I will analyze the study case by putting focus on three important questions and points. First I will perform the internal and external environment analysis that Kaspersky Lab faced in year 2011. The internal environment can further be categorized in strengths and weaknesses of the company. It is inevitably that such a successful, fast growing company relies on many strengths. KL had initiatives and tendency to attract and retain qualified employees. Their skills and competences helped to delivering high-quality services and products. The products and services offered are technologically superior. Beside quality, their abilities also contribute to early detection of various threats. It was the first company to identify major shift in hackers behavior. The company ability to motivate and reward its employees is just a one piece of the strength puzzle. Another key strength is innovation. The constant updates and their pace with the changes and trends in the market is a key advantage over the other competitors. Furthermore, KL was the first company to introduce hourly anti-virus updates, leaving the competitors lacking with only daily updates. An important strength which helped KL to be successful in foreign emerging markets were the localized solutions. KL has great ability to launch products which will satisfy the needs of a certain market. Another strength is their webpage, which offers free trials, information and guidance for the......

Words: 1437 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Lab Report Instructions

...Queen Mary University of London School of Engineering and Materials Science Laboratory report writing instructions DEN101 - Fluid Mechanics 1 Flow Rate Measurement Experiment A. Student Student Number: 1234567 Version 2.0, 27 November 2010 Template for Word 97-2003 Abstract This document explains what is expected in your Fluids 1 lab report. The sections that should be covered are outlined and a structure you could follow is proposed. Detailed advice on how to edit the report is given. The document concludes with the marking criteria for this lab report. Table of Contents Abstract 2 1. Introduction 3 1.1. Writing 3 1.2. Editing and formatting 3 1.3. Content of the introduction 4 2. Background and theory 4 3. Apparatus 4 4. Test 4 5. Experimental procedure 4 6. Results 5 7. Discussion 5 8. Conclusions 5 9. References 5 10. Appendix A: Marking criteria 6 Introduction Before starting to write a report, you should think about what is your audience. Am I writing for colleagues who want a lot of detail how it is done, or am I writing for my boss who just wants an executive summary as he has no time for details? In general, there is not a single type of audience and we have to make our writing suitable for the detailed read, as well as the fast perusal. To understand what is required from you in this report, please have a look at the marking criteria in the......

Words: 2017 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Test

...Major Milestones of the Telecommunications Industry 1837 Samuel Morse invents the telegraph - The information age began with the telegraph, which was invented by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1837. This was the first instrument to transform information into electrical form and transmit it reliably over long distances. The earliest form of electrical communication, the original Morse telegraph of 1837 did not use a key and sounder. Instead it was a device designed to print patterns at a distance. 1858 Transoceanic telegraph cable is laid – The transoceanic telegraph cable is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe from ten days, the time it took to deliver a message by ship, to a matter of minutes. 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone - The telegraph was followed by Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone in 1876. The magneto-telephone was one of the first telephones on which both transmission and reception were done with the same instrument. 1885 - Incorporation of the American Telephone and Telegraph company (AT&T). After its incorporation in 1885, the American Telephone and Telegraph company dominated the telecommunications market. 1888 - Heinrich Hertz discovers the electromagnetic wave 1895 - Marconi begins experimenting with wireless telegraph 1901 Guglielmo Marconi invented the......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hiro

...Fall 2015 Analytical Chemistry I Quantitative Analysis Chem 341WI 4 Credit Hrs | Instruction Mode: L (lab) and P (class) Professor Andrew Holder holdera@umkc.edu • SCB 113 • 816-235-2293 • 913-543-3709 (fax) Office Hours: T/Th 1:00-4:00, 5:00 – 7:30 Lecture: T/Th 4PM | Labs: T/Th 1PM (AFT), 5PM (EVE) Credit: Lab + Lecture = 4 credits | Format: Lab + Lecture (P) Lecture / Class Policies and Procedures Correspondence with UMKC Student Learning Outcomes Scientific Reasoning & Quantitative Analysis * Apply principles/methods of sciencea, mathb, statisticsc and logicd to solve problems and draw logical inferences. * Chpt 3: Experimental Error (c) * Chpt 4: Statistics (c) * Chpt 6: Chemical Equilibrium (a, b, d, e, f) * Chpt 7: Activity & Systematic Trtmnt, (a, d, e, h) * Chpt 8: Monoprotic Acid-Base Equil., * Chpt 9: Polyprotic Acid-Base Equil. (a, d, e, g, h) * Develop quantitative literacy enabling comprehensione and evaluationf of info in broad contexts. * Chpt 3: Experimental Error, Chpt 4: Statistics (f) * Chpt 5: Quality Assurance and Calibration Methods (c) * Understand methodsg/principlesh of scientific discovery and their application * Sxn 0-2: The Analytical Chemist’s Job (g, h) * Sxn 0-3: General Stages in a Chemical Analysis (g, h) * Chpt 2: Tools of the Trade (g) * Carrying out laboratory analyses (g,......

Words: 4091 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

It113 Project Scope

...the company obtains a high performance network for a reasonable price. Project description MK Institute of Higher Learning is purposing a project with the description to network a classroom based floor. This floor will consist of three wings. Each wing accommodates one distribution closet, which must be interconnected to one another. Each wing also has eight classrooms and one computer lab. Classrooms will need 2 drops and the computer labs will need 44 drops, resulting in 60 drops in all per wing. The ISP connection will be entering from the north wing’s distribution room. The institute will also be requiring that a wireless access coverage to the central lobby area, allowing 100 users simultaneously, to be made possible. Also noting that the central lobby area consists of three solid supports, holding a 25’ ceiling. Major Deliverables * The networking of the MK Institute of Higher Learning. * Placing needed hardware. * Wiring the hardware and network. * Interconnecting distribution rooms. * 3 wings, each consisting of 8 classrooms = 16 drops, one computer lab = 44, and one distribution room. * Wireless central lobby allowing 100+ users simultaneously. * Fully functional Networking...

Words: 607 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Birth and Evolution of Transistors and Impact on the Transport Industry

...Electronics rely heavily on electronic switching and amplification to generate and capture the various signals which allow them to operate. A controllable valve that allows a small signal to control a much larger signal does this, and could be related to a controllable valve used in the control of water flow. This was once done by a device known as vacuum tube but was later brought down to a much lower production scale for a variety of industrial, economical and business related reasons. Bell Laboratories, the research arm of telecommunications company American Telephone and Telegraph’s (AT&T) director Mervin Kelly put together the first team of researchers and scientists placed on the task of research and development of a solid state-semiconductor later called a transistor that would supersede vacuum tubes and provide numerous advantages. The success of this development would prove to change the computing, electronics and telecommunications systems altogether. Up until the invention of the transistor a vacuum tube was used in the control, amplification and generation of electrical signals. Vacuum tubes are tubes usually made from glass and designed in an airtight manner as to keep the flow of “cathode rays” from external disturbance as they pass from each terminal and laid the foundation for numerous technical innovations, such as the light bulb discovered by Thomas Edison (fig. 1). Joseph John Thomson further made a vacuum tube and placed a third terminal to attain a grasp...

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Math

...Richard and Juliette Massey. He is a graduate of the public schools of St. Louis, Missouri and attended high school in University City, a suburb of St. Louis. After receiving a Harvard Book Award and a National Achievement Scholarship at University City High School, he entered Princeton University in 1973. There, he encountered his first real introduction to research mathematics in an honor calculus course taught by the late Ralph Fox. He wrote his undergraduate senior thesis, titled "Galois Connections on Local Fields,'' in algebraic number theory, under the direction of the late Bernard Dwork, and graduated from Princeton in 1977 with an A.B. in Mathematics (Magna Cum Laude, Phi Beta Kappa, and Sigma Xi). That same year he was awarded a Bell Labs Cooperative Research Fellowship for minorities to attend graduate school in the department of mathematics at Stanford University. In 1981, he received his Ph.D. degree from Stanford and his thesis, titled "Non-Stationary Queues,'' was directed by Joseph Keller. Dr. William Massey's parents, Juliette and Richard Massey Sr. were both educators; she was from Chattanooga, Tennessee and he was from Charlotte, North Carolina. They met at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri which became his birthplace. Professor Massey's initial fascination with numbers started when his mother would let him play with plastic numbers and cut up old calendars. His family moved to Saint Louis, Missouri when he was four. There he came of age......

Words: 1118 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Information Centre

...Computer Lab Rules & Regulations Swinburne University computing facilities may only be used by current Swinburne students and staff. Swinburne identity card must be presented upon request. The computing facilities should only be used for educational and research purposes. The following rules and regulations apply to all lab computers on campus. Lab Rules & Regulations 1. The computer lab provided by the University is solely for educational and research activities. Students are prohibited from using the lab for any other reasons. 2. Students must have a valid student ID card to use the computer labs. 3. Students must abide by all rules and regulations, such as those shown on booking sheets, computer screens, and notices near the computers or on the wall. 4. Two-hour Usage Rule: When the lab is full and students are waiting for a vacant computer, the two-hour rule will apply. Students will be limited to 2 hours on the computer per session. 5. All users must abide by the license requirements of any software or resources being used on the computer. 6. The downloading of non-coursework related materials is strictly prohibited on the campus network as it uses much of the network bandwidth, thus slowing down all internet access. 7. All personal data must be saved on a floppy disk, handy drive or on your Home drive. Do not save personal data on the computer hard drive. 8. Please be reminded to scan your......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Rules

...Lab Rules & Regulations 1. The computer lab provided by the University is solely for educational and research activities. Students are prohibited from using the lab for any other reasons. 2. Students must have a valid student ID card to use the computer labs. 3. Students must abide by all rules and regulations, such as those shown on booking sheets, computer screens, and notices near the computers or on the wall. 4. Two-hour Usage Rule: When the lab is full and students are waiting for a vacant computer, the two-hour rule will apply. Students will be limited to 2 hours on the computer per session. 5. All users must abide by the license requirements of any software or resources being used on the computer. 6. The downloading of non-coursework related materials is strictly prohibited on the campus network as it uses much of the network bandwidth, thus slowing down all internet access. 7. All personal data must be saved on a floppy disk, handy drive or on your Home drive. Do not save personal data on the computer hard drive. 8. Please be reminded to scan your handy drive before use to reduce the risk of any virus outbreak. 9. The Management is not responsible for any loss of data or personal belongings regardless of the cause. 10. No moving or unplugging of any equipment in the labs. 11. No pornographic and offensive images & videos. 12. No games (both computer and physical). 13.......

Words: 413 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student

...Net-Worm.Win32.Kido.ih Detected | Feb 20 2009 07:04 GMT | Released | Apr 02 2009 16:24 GMT | Published | Feb 20 2009 07:04 GMT | Manual description Auto description This description was created by experts at Kaspersky Lab. It contains the most accurate information available about this program. Manual description Auto description This is a description which has been automatically generated following analysis of this program on a test machine. This description may contain incomplete or inaccurate information. Technical Details Payload Removal instructions Technical Details This network worm spreads via local networks and removable storage media. The program itself is a Windows PE DLL file. The worm components vary in size from 155KB to 165KB. It is packed using UPX. Installation The worm copies its executable file with random names as shown below: %System%\<rnd> %Program Files%\Internet Explorer\<rnd>.dll %Program Files%\Movie Maker\<rnd>.dll %All Users Application Data%\<rnd>.dll %Temp%\<rnd>.dll %Temp%\<rnd>.tmp <rnd> is a random string of symbols. In order to ensure that the worm is launched next time the system is started, it creates a system service which launches the worm’s executable file each time Windows is booted. The following registry key will be......

Words: 1158 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Aspodij

...fornia, start-up, Shockley Semiconduc tor Laboratory. Shockley had been part of the Bell Labs team that invented the transistor. He had quit his job and come west to start his own company, telling people his goal was to make a million dollars. Everyone thought he was crazy. Shockley knew he wasn't. Unlike a lot of the people at Bell Labs, he knew the transistor was going to be big. Shockley had an idea about how to make transistors c heaply. He wa s going to f abric a te them out of si li con. He had come to this valley, south of San Francisco, to start production. He felt like hewas on the cusp of history, in the right place at the right time. All that he needed was the right people. Shockleywas leaving nothingto c hance. Tod a y's in ter vi ew wa s J i m Gibb ons . Hewa s a young guy, earl y twenti es . He already had a Stanford Ph.D. He had s tudied a t Cambridgetoo - on a Fulbri ght sc holars hip he'dwon. Gibbons was si tting in front of hi m ri ght now, in Shockley's Quonset hut of fice. Shockley picked up his s topwa tch. In Augus t 1957 William Shockleywas recrui ting s taff for hisPalo Alto, Cali fornia, start-up, Shockley Semiconduc tor Laboratory. Shockley had been part of the Bell Labs team that invented the transistor. He had quit his job and come west to ......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Bell and Tech

...Alcatel-Lucent is a global telecommunications corporation located in Paris, France. It has, under its wing, Bell Laboratories aka Bell Labs. They were previously known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories is now the research and development subsidiary of the French-owned Alcatel-Lucent. Over the past eight decades, Bell Labs R&D gave birth to new technologies and seminal scientific discoveries. (Alcatel Lucent, para 1) Elisha Grey and Enos N. Barton formed Western Electric Company in 1869. Both of them started a small manufacturing firm based in Cleveland, Ohio which was to become the largest electrical manufacturing company in America. In 1881, Alexander Graham Bell, an extraordinary leader of American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T), purchased a controlling interest in Western Electric and made it the exclusive developer and manufacturer of all equipments for the Bell telephone companies. Now, the Bell system has provided much telephone services and support to America and Canada in the 1877 to 1984. It was then led by AT&T. In 1898, Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE) was born, founded by a French engineer named Pierre Azaria. It was involved in business with several industries in Germany. Mainly it dabbled in electricity, transportation, electronics and telecommunications. CGE then rose up the ranks and became a leader in digital communications and would be known as well to produce train à grande vitesse – high speed trains in......

Words: 2450 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Transmittal Letter

...college of business were our focal point. Surveys were given to students with questions regarding financial hardships caused by laptop requirement and their opinions of the policy among others. Faculty was interviewed on their thoughts and how the policy helped with the classroom. Administration helped with the reasoning behind implementing the policy and some hints to phase outs of the computer labs located in the college of business. We found that students believed that the policy is not effective, but should be enforced. For faculty, some believe that the policy is helpful for learning and welcome laptops in the classroom while others feel that laptops can be a distraction to everyone. The administration implemented the policy because they want students to have the ability to work anywhere at any time with the specialized tools/software needed for courses taken. They also feel laptops are necessary for non-traditional students who may be full time professionals and have the option to complete courses online. Rumors that the laptop requirement was put into place because of possible computer lab phase outs are false, null, and void. To improve the effectiveness of the laptop requirement in the college of business, we recommend the following: * Making sure students/faculty are aware of the laptop requirement * Enforcing consequences for those who don’t have a laptop Thank you for welcoming our concerns and suggestions through this project. We learned a great......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Enginermember of Technical Staff

...technologies. Alcatel-Lucent Technologies have unique research environment; Bell Labs. Employments benefits and multi-cultural environment are key merits at Alcatel-Lucent Technologies. Workforce reduction process and lack of strategic business decision are the main drawbacks of Alcatel-Lucent Technologies. With Nokia acquiring of Alcatel-Lucent Technologies, a new giant company is formed to better compete with infrastructure telecommunications as Cisco, and Ericson. Keywords: Alcatel-Lucent, Bell Labs, Business, Multi-cultural Assignment 1: Business Analysis Alcatel-Lucent is leading converged IP networking, ultra-broadband access, and could technologies company. On November 30, 2006, Alcatel-Lucent Technologies merge occurred by 25-billion-euro balance. It employed about 80,000 people worldwide and has annual revenue of about 16 billion euros. Alcatel-Lucent technologies combined two giant companies - Alcatel and Lucent Technologies. Lucent Technologies was spun off from AT&T while Alcatel parent company was CGE (la Compagnie Générale d’Electricité). Alcatel-Lucent Technologies Business Performance Three factors, either economic, social, or both, impacting the performance of the organization you selected Bell labs innovations have a unique research environment where scientists have the freedom to think and come up with emerging technologies that can be developed at Alcatel-Lucent. Bell labs gain its excellence reputation through its history of innovations......

Words: 825 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Man U

... | - First Come First Serve basis (PJ Campus- 300 students) - First Come First Serve basis (Gombak Campus- 100 students) (EXAMINATION WILL BE HELD IN THE MIDDLE OF THE YEAR 2012) DATE OF M.U.E.T REGISTRATION AS FOLLOWS: |DATE |DAY |TIME |VENUE | |22/03/2012 |Thursday |8:30 AM - 12:30 NOON 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM |MULTI PURPOSE LAB A | | | | |(PJ campus) | |23/03/2012 |Friday |8:30 AM - 12:00 PM | | | | |2:45 PM – 3:30 PM | | |DATE |DAY |TIME ...

Words: 577 - Pages: 3