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Management

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LU 3: JOB ANALYSIS & HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING The Basics of Job Analysis Job analysis – The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for the job by collecting the following types of information: work activities; human behaviors; machines, tools, equipment, and work aids; performance standards; job context; and human requirements. Job description – A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities – one product of a job analysis. Job specification – A list of a job’s “human requirements”: the requisite education, skills, knowledge, and so on – another product of a job analysis. A. Uses of Job Analysis Information 1. Recruitment and Selection – Job descriptions and job specifications are formed from the information gathered from a job analysis, and help management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. 2. EEO Compliance – The U.S. Federal Agencies’ Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection stipulate that job analysis is a crucial step in validating all major personnel activities. 3. Performance Appraisal – Managers use job analysis to determine a job’s specific activities and performance standards. 4. Compensation – The estimated value and the appropriate compensation for each job is determined from the information gathered from a job analysis. 5. Training – Based on the job analysis, the job description should show the job’s required activities and skills. B. Conducting a Job Analysis 1. Decide how the information will be used because that will determine what data will be collected and how it should be collected. 2. Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. 3. Select representative positions to analyze because there may be many similar jobs, and it may not be necessary to analyze all of them. 4. Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. 5. Verify the job analysis information with job incumbents and supervisors to confirm that it is factually correct and complete. 6. Develop a job description and job specification from the information. Increasingly, these steps are being streamlined through the use of collaboration software. C. Job Analysis Guidelines

1. Make the job analysis a joint effort by a human resources specialist, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor.

2. Make sure the questions and process are clear to the employees.

3. Use several different tools for job analysis.

Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information An HR specialist (an HR specialist, job analyst, or consultant), a worker, and the worker’s supervisor usually work together in conducting the job analysis. Job analysis data is usually collected from employees and supervisors familiar with the job (subject matter experts) using interviews and questionnaires. The data is then averaged, taking into account the departmental context of the employees, to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several specific tasks. It is important to make sure that surveys and questions are clear and understandable, and that respondents are observed and questioned early in the process to allow time for adjustments, if needed. A. The Interview - The three types of interviews managers use to collect job analysis data are: individual (to get the employee’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities, group (when large numbers of employees perform the same job), and supervisor (to get his/her perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities). 1. Typical Questions – “What is the job being performed?” “In what activities do you participate?” “What are the health and safety conditions?” Figure 4-3 gives an example of a job analysis questionnaire for developing job descriptions. 2. Structured Interviews – You can also use a structured or checklist format to guide the interview. Figure 4-3 presents an example of a job analysis information sheet. 4. Pros & Cons –Interviews are simple, quick, and more comprehensive because the interviewer can unearth activities that may never appear in written form. The main problem is distortion, which may arise from the jobholder’s need to impress the perceptions of others. 5. Interviewing Guidelines – Several techniques to keep in mind when conducting interviews are discussed. B. Questionnaires - Structured or unstructured questionnaires may be used to obtain job analysis information (see Figure 4-3). Questionnaires can be a quick, efficient way of gathering information from a large number of employees. But, developing and testing a questionnaire can be expensive and time consuming. C. Observation - Direct observations are useful when jobs consist of mainly observable physical activity as opposed to mental activity. A potential problem with direct observations is reactivity, which is where workers change what they normally do because they are being watched. Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together. D. Participant Diary/Logs - In a diary or log, the employee records every activity he/she engages in, along with the amount of time to perform each activity in order to produce a complete picture of the job. Pocket dictating machines can help remind the worker to enter data at specific times and eliminate the challenge of trying to remember at a later time what was done. E. Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques 1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs, (see Figure 4-4) on five basic activities: 1) having decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, 2) performing skilled activities, 3) being physically active, 4) operating vehicles/equipment, and 5) processing information. 2. Department of Labor Procedure (DOL) is a standardized method for rating, classifying, and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things. Table 4-1 shows a set of basic activities, and Figure 4-6 gives a sample summary. F. Internet-Based Job Analysis - Standardized questionnaires are frequently distributed, with instructions, via the Internet or intranet. The danger is that important points may be missed or misunderstood, clouding results. The Department of Labor’s O*NET method can help overcome these difficulties. Figure 4-6 shows selected general work activities.

I. Workforce Planning and Forecasting A. Strategy and Workforce Planning – Planning should be directly related to the company’s strategic goals. B. Forecasting Personnel Needs (Labor Demand) – Forecast revenues, and then estimate the size of the staff required to achieve this sales volume. 1. Trend analysis requires studying a firm’s employment levels over a period of years to predict future needs. 2. Ratio analysis involves making forecasts based on the ratio between (1) some causal factor, such as sales volume, and (2) the number of employees required, like the number of salespeople. 3. The scatter plot shows graphically how two variables (such as a measure of business activity and a firm’s staffing levels) are related. 4. Markov analysis involves creating a matrix that shows probabilities that employees in the chain of feeder positions for a key job. Using C. Improving Productivity through HRIS: Computers to Forecast Personnel Requirements – Software programs enable employers to translate projected productivity and sales levels into forecasts of personnel needs and estimate how personnel requirements will be affected by various productivity and sales levels. D. Forecasting the Supply of Inside Candidates 1. Manual Systems and Replacement Charts – Simple manual devices can be used to keep inventories and development records to compile qualifications information on each employee. Personnel replacement charts show the present performance and promotability for each position’s potential replacement. Position replacement cards can also be created for each position to show possible replacements as well as their present performance, promotion potential, and training. 2. Computerized skills inventories are used to track the qualifications of hundreds or thousands of employees. The system can provide managers who scan the database with a listing of candidates who have specified qualifications. 3. Keeping the Information Private – Employers must balance an individual’s right to privacy while making HR information available to those in the firm who need it. E. Forecasting the Supply of Outside Candidates – This may involve considering general economic conditions and the expected rate of unemployment. Helpful sources include: Business Week, Fortune, the Economist, the Wall Street Journal, and prepared reports from the U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, the regional Federal Reserve banks, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Public Health Service, the U.S. Employment Service, and the U.S. Office of Education. F. Talent Management and Predictive Workforce Monitoring – Having a talent management philosophy for workforce planning requires organizations to pay continuous attention to workforce planning, known as predictive workforce monitoring. G. Developing an Action Plan to Match Projected Labor Supply and Demand – Organizations must create a workforce action plan which lays out the projected workforce demand-supply gaps. Resources required will include information such as advertising costs and recruiter fees. H. The Recruiting Yield Pyramid is used by some employers to calculate the number of applicants they must generate to hire the required number of new employees. Figure 5-6 illustrates the pyramid. II. The Need for Effective Recruiting A. Why Recruiting is Important? Finding the best employees takes time, and being effective is crucial to organizational success. The better the employees, the better the company. Even with high unemployment rates, finding qualified employees can be difficult. B. What Makes Recruiting a Challenge? Recruiting is a more complex activity than most managers think it is. Recruitment efforts should make sense in terms of the company’s strategic plans. Some recruiting methods are superior to others, depending on who you are recruiting for and what your resources are. Recruiting success actually depends on non-recruitment HR issues and policies, including pay levels. Also, employment law plays a big part in what an organization can/cannot do when recruiting.

C. Organizing How You Recruit – Companies make a choice to centralize their recruiting efforts or to decentralize to various locations. Advantages of centralizing are that it is easier to apply the company’s strategy priorities company-wide. In addition, centralization reduces duplication, makes it easier to spread the cost of new technologies over more departments, builds a team of recruitment experts, and makes it easier to assess the effectiveness of the function. However, if divisions are autonomous or needs are varied, decentralization is a more sensible choice. 1. The Supervisor’s Role – Since the recruiting HR manager is seldom responsible for supervising the performance for the vacant position, he/she must communicate with the supervisor to find out exactly what the job entails.

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