Free Essay

My Dos


Submitted By bankolemoses
Words 6007
Pages 25
JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INNOVATION The Impact of Social Media use on Academic Performance among university students: A Pilot Study
Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi1

Mohd Shahizan Othman2



Author(s) Contact Details:
Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Abstract — There is no doubt that Social media has gained wider acceptability and usability and is also becoming probably the most important communication tools among students especially at the higher level of educational pursuit. As much as social media is viewed as having bridged the gap in communication that existed. Within the social media
Facebook, Twitter and others are now gaining more and more patronage. These websites and social forums are way of communicating directly with other people socially. Social media has the potentials of influencing decision-making in a very short time regardless of the distance. On the bases of its influence, benefits and demerits this study is carried out in order to highlight the potentials of social media in the academic setting by collaborative learning and improve the students' academic performance. The results show that collaborative learning positively and significantly with interactive with peers, interactive with teachers and engagement which impact the students’ academic performance.
Keywords –social media usage, collaborative learning, higher education and students’ academic performance. 1. INTRODUCTION
The social media has become one of the most important communication means in recent times. However, social networking exist so as to provide communication among people regardless of the distance, making it open to people easily share information, files and pictures and videos, create blogs and send messages, and conduct real-time conversations. These systems are referred to as social, simply because they allow communication with buddies and coworkers so easily and effectively. It also strengthens the ties between people of those systems. The favorite in the realm of internet sites are Facebook, Twitter and others. These websites and social forums are way of communication directly with other people socially and in media. They are playing a large and influential role decision-making in the occasions from the global world economically, politically, socially and educationally.
The driving factors for adoption of social media are the progressively ubiquitous access, convenience, functionality, and flexibility of social technologies [1&2]. It has been contended that, poor greater education, social technologies supports social constructivist techniques to learning they potentially have to improve students’ construction of understanding and promote student interaction [3, 2&4]. An additional benefit of social technologies provided on the internet is that they are frequently free or require marginal investment, eliminating a potential barrier to adoption [1].
There has been various overview and opinions which recognized four major advantages of social media use in higher education. These include, enhancing relationship, improving learning motivation, offering personalized course material, and developing collaborative abilities [5&6]. This means that social networking activities have the possibility of enhancing student contact and is used to improve their participation in class, particularly where introverted students are involved. Students can function in online group learning, with less or no anxiety of needing to raise questions before peers at school [5].
Earlier studies, such as [7] examined the general usability of social media among young students in higher level of education. Similarly, [8&9] examined the use of social media and maintain that, the appropriation of social technologies is not an easy and straightforward process. At higher level of education more complex academic tasks are handled and the new generation of students is perceived to understand that social media and social technologies are influential to learning. A number of earlier studies have shown evidence that efforts are required in order to start using social media in order to influence educational activities. However, the whole process of adopting a particular social
ISSN: 2289-1358
P a g e |1

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INNOVATION media has not received adequate attention from researchers [10].
Researchers have argued that in teaching and learning the integration of media to facilitate the process is widely encouraged especially in relation to improving final results of scholars [11&12]. According to [12] students ought to be given careful scrutiny to check their use of the tools they feel at ease and acquainted with which they feel are viable in accomplishing academic tasks. In connection with this, the social affordances of utilizing social networking may not be provided in a single particular social technology but instead within the mixture of several social technologies. Previous literature recognized the challenges that are connected with using social media in higher education. [13]
Carried out an empirical study of social networking usability among University students in the United Kingdom. The study involved 76 participants for the questionnaire and 14 granted interviews. The study discovered that, there are 5 major challenges of social networking and its relation to learning such as studying originality and copyright issues feeling of information constraint. Teachers sometimes are not up-to-date and could not understand how to integrate and take advantage of social software into their classes. The findings of the study confirmed the earlier issues outlined by [14] according to their next generation research in three Australian Universities.
According to [14] enumerated six issues surrounding pedagogy in terms of technology integration. These issues include: student learning diversity, equity and use of technology curriculum and assessment academic integrity staff development and capacity building, and finally, ICT infrastructure. Regardless of the benefits and challenges recognized, the study further revealed that teachers that do not belong to the new generation are skeptical to social network integration in class. Teachers are encouraged to be conscious in their appropriation and employ of social networking regarding focus on the different students’ learning preference.
Additionally, the scholars should choose we've got the technology that meets their career. The class experience can't be satisfied their understanding, but additionally they ought to also use the understanding in tangible existence of working. The idea of discussing understanding and cooperative learning through the social networking like Facebook,
Talking, E-mail and Website or any types of learning assets that let the students in understanding and experience discussing between your students, coach, experts, officials or even the business proprietor can help the scholars in hooking up the lesson learned towards the context in tangible existence of working. The significance of individuals all reasons pointed out, the investigator has inspiration to create a conceptual framework of Social networking to aid
Collaborative Learning (SSCL) for improving understanding construction [15].
2.1 Social Media for Academic Purpose
Using social media by University students is certainly a fascinating portion of research for educationists and social scientists. [16] Maintain that in the available literature there are beneficial designs and styles of employing it at school level. It describes the introduction of contents and focuses on how to share, interact, and collaborate and socialize by its use. There appear different top reasons to justify using social media in greater education. It usage was confirmed by preserve setup its familiar with enhance study encounters of students by provision of e-support services on their behalf [17]. It's familiar with facilitate communication among and between students in virtual cities. Amongst others, the Facebook appears being most likely probably the most favorite was suggested as a means of communication for reaching students [18].
Internet sites focus heavily on building online metropolitan areas certain to along with common interests or activities. Therefore give them tools that help them to make this happen. Within the portion of collaborative learning, the internet sites handled the large problem elevated by teachers within the recent period. For instance, insufficiencies in humanitarian aspect and recognized to it teaching lacks spirit. However, Websites have assisted to solve a few individuals’ problems, with the aid of interactive affiliate by getting a person, making the participation within the human consider the academic process something important. That introduced with an increase to attract people toward collaborative learning and many researchers within the aspects of social sciences undertaking studies to look at this phenomenon and to clarify the actual reason behind the attraction educated about internet sites for example [19&20].
Furthermore, instructors have reported that using online technologies can encourage online discussion among students outside the classes, beyond the traditional class setting [21] Inside the situation of internet sites or blogs, when students update their user profiles and personalize their unique pages, they could provide comprehensive particulars about themselves (e.g., full title, date of birth, address, educational background, and hobbies). The academics that are using such technologies inside their class will have a way to discover much more about the students they train simply by viewing the students’ profiles [22]. Consequently of the, instructors can personalize this program material using the students’ profiles [23]
Some social media such as Wikipedia and to some extent blogs encourage investigative-based and collaborative activities among students in higher education. This open access for active participation and can therefore create opportunities for effective learning. Linked with this principle of collaborative development among learners, social
ISSN: 2289-1358
P a g e |2

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INNOVATION media enable learners and teachers to share and publish information as a result of the learning activity (e.g., course materials such as course syllabus, course notes, assignments, test cases, etc) and invite feedback from peers. By publishing and presenting their work to a wide audience through blogs, wikis, or podcasts, learners benefit from the opportunity to appropriate new ideas, and transform their own understanding through reflection [24].
Students especially at higher level of learning can function collaboratively through exploring the opportunities given by online social atmosphere to resolve certain academic issues or issues with their peers [25&26] This is indicative that through collaborative or team learning through integration of social media, students can establish positive contact, using the goal of working towards particular final results, both in offline and online modes [27].
According to [28] created a social media site for college kids, striving at improving both collaborative study and social interaction. Their research uncovers that creating social networking tools as part of traditional learning will attract students and may motivate their participation within the learning process. In other similar studies, a social bookmark posting tool [29], a blogging service [30], or wiki software [31] are really acquainted with engaging students in collaborative projects and encourages creating, editing, and speaking about content. The study ensures that, it's promising to consider social networking learning because it encourages collective understanding generation and encourages active user participation. However, using social networking to boost learning solutions remains at the earlier phase and really should be further investigated.
Social Media to assist Collaborative Learning (SSCL) might be the pc network found in learning atmosphere for encouraging the students in learning process and cooperates in groups with the group process, communication involving the students, experts and workplace entrepreneurs. The understanding and experience is viewed since the tools for understanding construction that's precise and matches the particular context in solid existence [15].
2.2 Effects of social media on the Academic Performance of Students
The social media engages students and have to be examined as entrepreneurs of understanding. The medium of internet is marketing with increase in its programs. The interactive character of online conditions has extended with social networking. Hooking up through social networking began as being a niche activity, though time it's a phenomenon. The web sites are employed in many ways like developing metropolitan areas, speaking, blogging etc.
Additionally different institutions even nowadays are developing groups on several Websites [32].
The improved usage of Websites has become a worldwide phenomenon for quite some time. What began out as being a hobby for several computer literate people has converted to a social norm and existence-style for individuals from around the globe [33]. Teens and teenagers have especially recognized these internet sites to be able to contact their peers, share information, reinvent their personas, and showcase their social lives [33]. While using the increase of technology helpful for getting together with others along with the recognition on the internet, Internet sites are now being an activity that's done mainly on the web, with Websites [34].
According to [35] Facebook users often time experience poor performance academically. Similarly, [36] posit that social media is negatively associated with academic performance of student and is a lot more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction consequently gave rise in internet usage within the last couple of decades. [37] recommended that addicted users prefer using internet setting back their personal and professional responsibilities which ultimately leads to poor academic performance.
According to [38] pointed out that Facebook users devoted lesser time to their studies in comparison to nonusers did and subsequently had lower GPAs. [39] Also mentioned that among various unique distractions of every single generation, Facebook remains a major distraction of current generation. According to [40] impairment of educational performance and internet dependency are correlated by utilizing synchronous communication programs including internet sites and forums.
There are benefits and risks associated with using any social network. There have been reports regarding its effect on students’ academic performance. Some researchers investigated the end result of social networking usability among College students’ and with their academic performance. They found a poor effect and influence when the media is overuse in such a way that do not academically improve learning or its process [41, 42, 43, 39 and 44] Other researchers examined this same problem but found either no significant relationship between using social networking and student academic performance [45&46], or really a factor in students’ academic performance [47].

ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e |3

The data for this study was collected by way of a survey questionnaire administered on 80 Undergraduate and postgraduate students during the 2012/2013 academic session. The age-range of the respondents was between 18 to
36. The sample consisted of 31 males and 49 females. Students were instructed in the survey to offer information about their experiences and impact of using social media on academic performance through collaborative learning. A quantitative approach and give the students the questionnaire in UTM library was used to draw the data for the study.
3.1 Respondents
In this research 80 set of questionnaires was randomly distributed to Undergraduate and postgraduate students of the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. SPSS application (Version-20) was used to analyze the data. The instrument used for this study was designed based on the objectives of the study. It was piloted and the Cronbach’s alpha of the reliability and validity of the instrument was put at .857. This is acceptable and the instrument has met the reliability requirement for the study. The questions which are easy to understand and the answers were divided into five sections to make it clearer.
3.2 Data Collection Procedures
A five-point Likert scale (1 for strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree) was applied in this study. The questionnaire was fine-tuned with reference to a pilot study carried out with students, and tested before-hand, examines the students’ opinions about the use of social media on academic performance through collaborative learning in Malaysian higher education. A questionnaire consisting of 20 items was designed, following minor revisions to the layout, the survey was administered at the end of the semester (July, 2013). Each participant was provided with a questionnaire and a brief background to the study.
The table on appendix shows the 20 items used to measure the constructs included in our framework. Interactivity with peers and the teacher was measured using a subset of four items from [48&49] Engagement was measured using three items adapted from [50&51]. Collaborative learning was measured using four items adapted from, [52] and finally, students' academic performance was measured using six items from, [53].
3.3 Conceptual framework
This study purpose for a brief discussion on the contents in the suggested framework for The Impact of Social
Media use on Academic Performance among university students through collaborative learning in greater education at
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. However, this research finds that social media integration relates to the students' academic performance, the variables observed to be used of social media, in this study are: Interaction with peers,
Interaction with teacher and Engagement. Influence students' academic performance through collaborative learning
“mediator” because the dependent variable, are the students’ perception as the independent variable.
Similarly, a conceptual framework that identifies instruments by which using social media influences students’ academic performance through collaborative learning is supplied (see Fig. 1).We suggest that student awareness from the interaction with peers, interaction using the teacher, engagement, simplicity of use that derive from using of social media promote active collaborative learning and, which ultimately results in enhanced students' academic performance. Social media increases the quality of perceived interaction within the class both among students interaction with peers and between students and also the teacher interaction [54]. Interaction is created like a critical aspect in the training process. It encourages students to have fun playing the class active collaborative learning [53], and also to create a sustained behavior participation in mastering activities the engagement [55]. The existence of these components is instrumental in improving collaborative learning and students’ academic performance.

ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e |4


Interactive with teachers



Collaborative learning


Students’ academic performance 0.235
FIGURE 1: Conceptual framework

The relationship between the student academic performance (SAP) with interactivity with peers (INT_P), interactivity with the teacher (INT_T), engagement (ENG) and collaborative learning (CL) were analyzed. Table 1 shows the Pearson correlation coefficient at 99 % confidence level. The best correlation was found between the student academic performances (SAP) with engagement (ENG) with correlation coefficient of 0.679. The letters INTP stand for interactivity with peers, letters INT-T stand for interactivity with the teachers, letters ENG engagement, letters CL collaborative learning and letters SAP students' academic performance.
Result of Pearson correlation shows that there is statistically significant positive relationship between interactivity with the teachers and interactivity with peers (r= 0.573, P< 0.01). Results demonstrate that relationship between these two construct is moderate and interactivity with the teachers and interactivity with peer’s combination contributing moderately towards students’ academic performance. Engagement correlation results with interactivity with peers (r=
0.463, P<0.01) demonstrate moderate positive relationship, while engagement results with interactivity with the teachers (r= 0.625, P< 0.01) demonstrate positive relationship showing that these two construct are contributing moderately towards students’ academic performance. Similarly, construct of collaborative learning correlation results with interactivity with peers (r= .496, P< 0.10), interactivity with the teachers (r= .543, P<0.10) and engagement (r=
0.528, P< 0.10) demonstrate positive and significant relationship. These results highlight that collaborative learning relationship with interactivity with peers, interactivity with the teachers and the engagement, is contributing towards students' academic performance.
TABLE 1: Descriptive statistics and correlations at 99 % confidence level


























**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
While the dependent variable students' academic performance has positive and significant correlation with collaborative learning (r= 0.555, P< 0.01) and positive correlation with collaborative learning. Correlation results of students' academic performance with interactivity with peers (r= 0.597, P < 0.01); interactivity with the teachers (r= 0.566,
P<0.01); engagement (r= 0.679, P< 0.01) so the positive and significant correlation with engagement. These results
ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e |5

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INNOVATION highlight that students' academic performance relationship with interactivity with peers, interactivity with the teachers and the engagement, is contributing to improve students' academic performance.
The table 2 indicate that interactivity with peers positively and significantly with collaborative learning (β2 =
0.295, p < 0.05) While support the interaction among the students may improve the students’ academic performance through the collaborative learning. Interactivity with teachers positively and significantly with collaborative learning was (β3 = 0.138, p < 0.05). The interaction between students and teachers found to be lower than interactivity with peers. The engagement also has positively and significantly with collaborative learning with standardized beta coefficients of 0.235. The standardized beta coefficient between the collaborative learning and students’ academic performance found to be a positively and significantly with value of 0.159 at significant level less than 0.05.
In line with the outcome of this study to understand students' academic performance by using social media in higher education, the following have been discovered: To acquire a general satisfaction of social media since it encourages and facilitates student utilization of social media for collaborative learning, and boost the education and experience with a students. In terms of interactivity with peers on social media and acquired a higher percentage when it comes to students' academic performance at University since it influences it to be simple for student to go over questions along with other students through social media It is easy to networking with peers and interact with them because it is the same age ,class and education level.
In terms of the students’ academic performance with engagement acquired a typical percentage when it comes to academic performance of students at University since it provides coalition and sharing of knowledge in the class and library by using of social media any time. The collaborative learning with social media usage and acquired a average percentage when it comes to academic performance of students at University. Since it helps make the students feel confident enough to presenting the social media by collaborative between peers, teachers and engagement within the class.
Finally, In terms of the students’ academic performance with interactivity with teachers of utilizing social media and acquired a Lowest percentage sometimes not allowed to communicate with teachers or shy students , but are good since it provides those more understanding form teachers, and academic achievement in education.
TABLE 2: The standardized beta coefficients
Coefficients a




CL (β1)




INT_P (β2)




INT_T (β3)




ENG (β4)




a. Dependent Variable: student academic performance (SAP)
b. Predictors: (Constant), collaborative learning (CL)
c. Predictors: (Constant), collaborative learning (CL), interactivity with peers (INT_P), interactivity with the teacher (INT_T), engagement (ENG).

5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK in this study suggested three predictors of using social media for improve students' academic performance by collaborative learning among students they are as follows with interactivity with peers, interactivity with the teacher and engagement .In the results acquired, it may be concluded that social media facilitates the academic experience with the majority of the participants but need to control and manage their time. Unless will affect the use of social media negatively on the academic performance of students. We propose for future work more studies and addition of factors have an effect
ISSN: 2289-1358
P a g e |6

JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INNOVATION with collaborative learning to improve students' academic performance and taking into account demographic factors, a larger sample to clarify more and Find more elements to measure the the factors that affect a student's academic performance through collaborative learning in higher education institutions this is in our search in the future.
This material is based upon work supported by Instructional Development Grant (IDG) and Research University
Grant (RUG) Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, and the Academy of Sciences for the Development World (TWAS) Research
Grant under Vote No. 08216,02J 57, and 10-147 RG/ITC/AS_C; UNESCO FR:3240246311. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those from the authors and do not necessarily reflect on the views of the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia and the Academy of Sciences for the Development World.
Interactivity with peers (INT-P)
INT-P1 Using the social media in class facilitates interaction with peers.
INT-P2 Using the social media in class gives me the opportunity to discuss with peers.
INT-P3 Using the social media in class facilitates dialog with peers.
INT-P4 Using the social media in class allows the exchange of information with peers.
Interactivity with teachers (INT-T)
INT-T1 Using the social media in class facilitates interaction with the teacher.
INT-T2 Using the social media in class gives me the opportunity to discuss with the teacher.
INT-T3 Using the social media in class facilitates dialog with the teacher.
INT-T4 Using the social media in class allows the exchange of information with the teacher.
Engagement (ENG)
ENG 1 By using the social media this class has favored my personal relationships with my peers and teachers.
ENG 2 By using the social media In this class, my peer and faculty interactions made me feel valuable.
ENG 3 By using the social media I felt that my opinions have been taken into account in this class.
Using social media for collaborative learning (CL)
CL 1 I felt that using social media for collaborative learning in my group was effective.
CL 2 I was able to develop research skills through peer collaboration.
CL 3 I was able to develop new skills and knowledge from other members in my group.
CL 4 Collaborative learning experience in the social media environment is better than in a face-to-face learning environment.
Students’ academic performance (SAP)
SAP 1 Using of social media to facilitate academic activities and coordinate with peers.
SAP 2 Using of social media to facilitate academic activities and coordinate with teachers.
SAP 3 Group discussions can be arranged with my classmates using of social media and this will improve my academic performance. SAP 4 Using of social media to build a student-lecturer relationship with my lecturers and this improves my academic performance. SAP 5 Using of social media improves my interaction with classmates and lecturers, thus, help me to improve my academic performance. ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e |7


Brown, S. (2010). From VLEs to learning webs: the implications of Web 2.0 for learning and teaching. Interactive
Learning Environments, 18(1), 1-10.
Schroeder, A., Minocha, S., & Schneider, C. (2010). Social Software in Higher Education: The Diversity of
Applications and Their Contributions to Students’ Learning Experiences. Communications of the Association for
Information Systems, 26, Article 25(1), 547-564.
Ferdig, R. E. (2007). Editorial: Examining Social Software in Teacher Education. Journal of Technology and Teacher
Education, 15(1), 5.
McLoughlin, C., & Lee, J. W. L. (2008). The Three P’s of Pedagogy for the Networked Society: Personalization,
Participation, and Productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 20(1), 10-27.
Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P., & Wheeler, D. (2008). The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student-generated content for collaborative learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(6), 987–995.
Rifkin, W., Longnecker, N., Leach, J., Davis, L., & Ortia, L. (2009). Motivate students by having them publish in new media: An invitation to science lecturers to share and test. Paper presented at the Motivating Science Undergraduates:
Ideas and Interventions, UniServe Science Proceedings.
Kennedy , G., Dalgarno, B., Bennet, S., Gray, K., Waycott, J., Judd, T., et al. (2009). Educating the Net Generation: A
Handbook of Findings for Practice and Policy. Carlifornia, USA: Creative Commons.
Hemmi, A., Bayne, S., & Land, R. (2009). The Appropriation and Repurposing of Social Technologies in Higher
Education. Journal of Assisted Learning, 25(Special Issue ), 19-30.
Jones, M. C., & Twidale, M. B. (2005). What's in a name? Exploring the connections between abstraction and appropriation. [text]. International reports on socio-informatics 2(2), 43-47.
[10] Hamid, S., Waycott, J., Chang, S. & Kurnia, S. (2011). Appropriating Online Social Networking (OSN) activities for higher education: Two Malaysian cases. In G. Williams, P. Statham, N. Brown & B. Cleland (Eds.), Changing
Demands, Changing Directions. Proceedings ascilite Hobart 2011. (pp.526-538).
[11] McLoughlin, C., & Lee, J. W. L. (2008). The Three P’s of Pedagogy for the Networked Society: Personalization,
Participation, and Productivity. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 20(1), 10-27.
[12] Tay, E., & Allen, M. (forthcoming 2012). Designing social media into university learning: technology of collaboration or collaboration for technology? Educational Media International.,
[13] Jones, N., Blackey, H., Fitzgibbon, K., & Chew, E. (2010). Get out of MySpace! Computers & Education, 54(2010),
[14] Kennedy,Judd, Churchward, Gray, & Krause (2008). First Year Students' Experiences With Technology: Are They
Really Digital Natives? Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET 24), 24(1), 108-122.
[15] Yampinij et al., (2012). a conceptual framework of Social networking to aid Collaborative Learning (SSCL) for improving understanding construction. computer inhuman
[16] Hamid, S. Chang, S. & Kurnia, S. (2009). Identifying the use of online social networking in higher education. Same places, different spaces. Proceedings Ascilite Auckland 2009. Retrieved 18
[17] Dabner, N. (2011). Design to support distance teacher education communities: A case study of a student– student ementoring initiative. Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher
Education International Conference 2011. Nashville, TN: AACE 1-880094-84-3., 2011
[18] Mack, D., Behler, A., Roberts, B., & Rimland. E. (2007). Reaching students with Facebook: Data and best practices.
Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 2007, 8(2).
[19] Ractham, P.; Firpo, D.;(2011) , "Using Social Networking Technology to Enhance Learning in Higher Education: A
Case Study Using Facebook," System Sciences (HICSS), 2011 44th Hawaii InternationalConference on , vol., no., pp.1-10, 4-7 Jan.
[20] Hao Jiang; MingXi Tang;(2010) , "Web-Based Learning Platforms Integrating Social Networking for Design
Education at High Schools in China," Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering (CiSE), 2010
International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-3, 10-12 Dec. 2010.
[21] Gray, K., Chang, S., & Kennedy, G. (2010). Use of social web technologies by international and domestic undergraduate students: implications for internationalising learning and teaching in Australian universities.
Technology Pedagogy and Education, 19(1), 31-46.
[22] Griffith, S., & Liyanage, L. (2008). An Introduction to the Potential of Social Networking Sites in education. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Second Emerging Technologies Conference.
[23] Oradini, F., & Saunders, G. (2008). The Use of Social Networking By Students and Staff In Higher Education. Paper presented at the iLearning Forum, 2008, Paris.
ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e |8





Dale, C., & Pymm, J. (2009). Podagogy – The iPod as a Learning Technology. Active Learning in Higher Education,
10(1), 84-96.
Andreas M. Kaplan, & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social
Media. Business Horizons, 53, 59-68.
Kane, G. C., & Fichman, R. G. (2009). The Shoemaker's Children: Using Wikis For Information Systems Teaching,
Research and Publication. [Journal]. MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 1-17..
Lockyer, L., & Patterson, J. (2008). Integrating Social Networking Technologies In Education: A Case Study Of A
Formal Learning Environment. Paper presented at the Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning
Silius, Miilumäki, Huhtamäki, Tebest, Meriläinen, and Pohjolainen, (2010).Students’ motivations for social media enhanced studying and learning. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An International Journal, vol. 2, pp. 51-67,
Farwell and Waters, (2010).Exploring the use of social bookmarking technology in education: an analysis of students’ experiences using a course-specific account. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, vol. 6, pp. 398408, 2010.
Rosen and Nelson, (2008).Web 2.0: a new generation of learners and education. Computers in the Schools, vol. 25, pp. 211-225, 2008.
Hazari, North, and Moreland,(2009).Investigating pedagogical value of wiki technology. Journal of Information
Systems Education, vol. 20, pp. 187-198, 2009.
Saba Mehmood (2013).The Effects of Social Networking Sites on the Academic Performance of Students in College of Applied Sciences, Nizwa, Oman. International Journal of Arts and Commerce Vol. 2 No. 1 January 2013
Nicole Ellison, (2007). The benefits of Face book "Fiends;" Social Capital and College Students' Use of OnlineSocial
Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication .
Vaughn, Coyle (2008). Social networking: Communication revolution or evolution? Bell Labs Journal, 13-17.
Khan U (2009). Facebook students underachieve in exams. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on July, 2013, from ook-students-underachieve-in-exams.html.
Englander, Terregrossa and Wang (2010). Educational Review, journal of education. 62(1): 85 -96.
Nalwa K, Anand AP (2003). CyberPsychology Behavior. doi:10.1089/109493103322725441. 6(6): 653-656.
Karpinski A (2009). A description of Facebook use and academic performance among undergraduate and graduate students. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, Calif.
Karpinski, A, & Duberstein. (2009). A Description of Facebook Use and Academic Performance among
Undergraduate and Graduate Students. San Diego, California: American Educational Research Association.
Kubey, Lavin, and Barrows (2001). Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings. J.
Commun., 51(2): 366-382.
Wang, Chen & Liang (2011). The Effects of Social Media on College Students. The Alan Shawn Feinstein Graduate
School. Providence: Johnson & Wales University .
Stollak, Vandenberg, Burklund, & Weiss (2011). Getting Social: The Impact of Social Networking Usage on grades
Among College Students. ASBBS, 18(1), 859-865.
Rouis, Limayem, & Salehi-Sangari (2011). Impact of Facebook Usage on Students' Academic Achievement: Role of
Self-Regulation and Trust. Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(3), 961-994.
Canales, Wilbanks & Yeoman (2009). Facebook Usage in Relation to Personality and Academic Performance.
Modern Psychological Studies, Spring.
Ahmed & Qazi (2011). A look out for academic impacts of social networking sites (SNSs): A student based perspective. African Journal of Business Management, 5(12), 5022-5031.
Hargittai, & Hsieh (2010). Predictors and Consequences of Differentiated Practices on Soical Network Sites.
Information, Communication & Society, 13(4), 515-536.
Pasek & Hargittai (2009, May). Facebook and academic performance: Reconciling a media sensation with data. First
Monday, 14(5-4).
Liu, (2003) .Developing a scale to measure the interactivity of websites.,Journal of Advertising Research, 43(3),
McMillan & Hwang (2002).Measures of perceived interactivity: an exploration of the role of direction and communication, user control and time in shaping perceptions of interactivity.,Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 29–42.
Gallini, & Moely (2003).Service-learning and engagement, academic challenge and retention. Michigan Journal of
Community Service Learning5–14, Fall.
So, & Brush (2008).Students perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: relationships and critical factors. Computers & Education, 51(1), 318–336.

ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e |9


Chang Zhu, (2012).Student Satisfaction, Performance, and Knowledge Construction in Online Collaborative
Banks. (2006).Reflections on the use of ARS with small groups. In D. A. Banks (Ed.), Audience response systems in higher education (pp. 373–386). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
Guthrie,& Carlin (2004) .Waking the dead: using interactive technology to engage passive listeners in the classroom.
In Proceedings of the AMCIS, paper 358. New York: August.
Carnaghan & Webb (2007). Investigating the effects of group response systems in student satisfaction, learning, and engagement in accounting education. Issues in Accounting Education, 22(3), 391–409.

ISSN: 2289-1358

P a g e | 10

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pm 586

...It is always difficult to terminate a business, especially after you have invested so much time, effort and money in the company. What makes it even more complex is going into business with others whom you expected to help the business succeed, yet it does not end up that way. For this case scenario, Chris and Pat Smith, and the two chefs, J. P. Martin and L. L. Miller, need to get together to make some tough decisions on potentially dissolving the business At Your Service. Chris and Pat Smith want to dissolve the business, but Miller is asking to have the business transferred to her and Martin. Assuming Chris and Pat Smith agree to transfer At Your Service to Martin and Miller, and Martin and Miller continue to run the catering business the following issues would need to be resolved: • How the $15,000 left in the investment would be split. • How to handle the lease on the rented space, which has 18 months more to run. • How to handle the lease for the van, which has 18 months more to run. • How to handle the lease on for the kitchen equipment, which as six months more to run. Chris and Pat Smith, and Martin and Miller decided it was best to have a termination contact set in place to secure all partakers in their final decisions. They noted it was best for all to have precise, clear explanations all of all essential fundamentals for the termination of their business partnership. An acknowledgement of the effective termination date would need to be set, and all potential...

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...Introduction: In 1975, Zara was founded by Amancio Ortega who is still their largest shareholder and wealthiest man in Spain. Ortega started in 1963 with clothing factories and expanded over time to retail and manufacturing. He believed that all functions should be linked in the apparel industry because consumer demand was very difficult to forecast. In 1985, two important events occurred. The first was the formation of a holding company for Zara and the other retail chains. The second key event was that Jose Maria Castellano Rios joined the company as their IT manager and shared Ortega belief’s that computers were critically important in enabling the type of business they were looking to build. Castellano became Inditex’s CEO in 1997. In addition to believing in the importance of computers, Ortegano and Castellano agreed on two other topics regarding the company: Zara must respond quickly to the needs of their customers and the two and other senior managers must leverage the intelligence and trust the judgment of the employees throughout the company, which is why stores were given the freedom to order what they thought they would be able to sell. Inditex operates 1,558 stores in 45 countries out of which 550 stores are a part of Zara chain and generates 73.3% of Inditex’s sales. Zara offers a large array of new style clothes for Men, Women, and Children couples with moderate price point. Women’s clothing accounts for 60% of Zara’s revenue. Zara has developed the business...

Words: 3163 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

It140-1304b-04: Introduction to Operating Systems and Client/Server Environments

...Phase 1 – Individual Project Colorado Technical University IT140-1304B-04: Introduction to Operating Systems and Client/Server Environments Table of Contents Introduction to Operating System 3 Project Organization 3 Windows 3 Linux 5 Virtualization 6 Components of a Computer System 8 Managing Client – Server Environments 9 Securing Operating Systems 10 System Administrators 11 Configuring Windows 7 and Linux+ Prep LabSim Toolkit 12 Phase 1 LabSim 12 References 13 * Introduction to Operating System Project Organization ACME is a pharmacy based healthcare provider that has 25 physical locations across the state of Michigan. The company provides long term patient care to the community mental health organizations across the State of Michigan. The organization is an industry leader in a clinical pharmacy services and has grown tremendously over the past 10 years. The organization is privately held and the senior leadership team as well as the centrally managed and support IT infrastructure is located at a single headquarter facility. ACME’s network is comprised primarily of Windows Server 2008 R2 servers, Windows 7 and Windows XP workstations, Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 for messaging, Microsoft SharePoint server for intranet support and Microsoft SQL server as the database platform. The company also utilizes QS1 Data Systems as its primary patient care system and DocuTrack as the document management system. The ACME network is a spoke and...

Words: 1536 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...filled with challenges and thrill, where I can use my technical and interpersonal skills and overall my creativity, which are really a great achievement in life as well as essential for the development of the organization. Personal Details: Name : Razia Ferdous Father’s Name : A. K. M. Bazlur Rashid Mother’s Name : Asma Parvin Sex : Female Date of Birth : 10th Oct, 1991 Height : 5’3’’ Nationality : Bangladeshi by Birth Blood Group : A+ (positive) Marital Status : Unmarried Permanent address : Village : Kharia Kazir Char Post Office : Kharia Kazir Char Thana : Sribordi District : Sherpur Educational Background: Degree : SSC GPA : 4.88 Institution : Kalshi Islamia High School Board : Dhaka Passing Year : 2006 Degree : HSC GPA : A+ Institution : Mirpur Girls’ Ideal Laboratory Institute. Board : Dhaka Passing Year : 2008 Degree : B.Sc in Economics Result : Appeared Institution : Jahangirnagar University Passing Year : Appeared. Additionald Courses In Honours Level: • English • State and Politics • Bangladesh: History, Society & Culture • Computer Fundamentals Language Proficiency: Bengali: Excellent in speaking, reading and writing. English: Excellent in speaking, reading and writing. Computer Skills: • Proficient in computer assembling, hardware troubleshooting and maintenance. • Operating system : Ms Dos and Windows (95, 98, XP, 07) • Microsoft Office...

Words: 385 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Star," Vol. 5, Nos 2-4, by Rick Joyner) The Evil Army I saw a demonic army so large that it stretched as far as I could see. It was separated into divisions, with each carrying a different banner. The foremost and most powerful divisions were Pride, Self righteousness, Respectability, Selfish Ambition, and Unrighteous Judgment, but the largest of all was Jealousy. The leader of this vast army was the Accuser of the Brethren himself. I knew that there were many more evil divisions beyond my scope of vision, but these were the vanguard of this terrible horde from hell that was now being released against the church. The weapons carried buy this horde had names on them: the swords were named Intimidation; the spears were named Treachery; and their arrows were named Accusations, Gossip, Slander and Faultfinding. Scouts and smaller companies of demons with such names as Rejection, Bitterness, Impatience, Un-forgiveness and Lust were sent in advance of this army to prepare for the main attack. I knew in my heart that the church had never faced anything like this before. The main assignment of this army was to cause division. It was sent to attack every level of relationship-churches with each other, congregations with their pastors, husbands and wives, children and parents, and even children with each other. The scouts were sent to locate the openings in churches, families or individuals that rejection, bitterness, lust, etc., could exploit and make a larger breech for the divisions that...

Words: 78232 - Pages: 313

Free Essay

Do the Right Thing

...DO THE RIGHT THING by Spike Lee Second Draft March 1, 1988; Brooklyn, N.Y. Forty Acres and a Mule Filmworks, Inc. YA-DIG SHO-NUFF BY ANY MEANS NECESSARY WGA #45816 INT: WE LOVE RADIO STATION STOREFRONT--DAY EXTREME CLOSE UP MISTER SEÑOR LOVE DADDY Waaaake up! Wake up! Wake up! Wake up! Up ya wake! Up ya wake! Up ya wake! CAMERA MOVES BACK SLOWLY TO REVEAL MISTER SEÑOR LOVE DADDY, a DJ, a radio personality, behind a microphone. MISTER SEÑOR LOVE DADDY This is Mister Señor Love Daddy. Your voice of choice. The world's only twelve-hour strongman, here on WE LOVE radio, 108 FM. The last on your dial, but the first in ya hearts, and that's the truth, Ruth! The CAMERA, which is STILL PULLING BACK, shows that Mister Señor Love Daddy is actually sitting in a storefront window. The control booth looks directly out onto the street. This is WE LOVE RADIO, a modest station with a loyal following, right in the heart of the neighborhood. The OPENING SHOT will be a TRICK SHOT--the CAMERA PULLING BACK through the storefront window. MISTER SEÑOR LOVE DADDY Here I am. Am I here? Y'know it. It ya know. This is Mister Señor Love Daddy, doing the nasty to ya ears, ya ears to the nasty. I'se play only da platters dat matter, da matters dat platter and that's the truth, Ruth. He hits the cart machine and we hear a station...

Words: 15149 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay


...Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define operating system. 2. Define enhancements. 3. Explain the function and purpose of OS version numbers. 4. List some of the types of system configurations. 5. Explain the need and procedure for booting the system. 6. Explain the function of disk files. 7. Explain the function of and rules for file specifications. 8. List and explain the importance of the two types of computer files. 9. Describe the function and purpose of commands. 10. Compare and contrast internal and external commands. 11. Explain the function and purpose of the DIR, VER, and CLS commands. 12. Explain the purpose of and the procedure for using the DATE and TIME commands. 13. Explain the legal and ethical ramifications of copying disks that were not purchased. 14. Explain the purpose and function of the DISKCOPY command. 15. Explain the necessary steps to end a work session. Student Outcomes 1. Identify your system configuration. 2. Boot the system. 3. Use the DIR command to display the files on the screen. 4. Use the VER command to determine which version of Windows is being used. 5. Use the CLS command to clear the screen. 6. Use the DATE and TIME commands to set or change the date and time on the computer. 7. Make a copy of a disk. 8. End a computer work session. Chapter Overview Most people who use computers are really interested in application software. They want programs that are easy to use and that help them solve specific...

Words: 73166 - Pages: 293

Premium Essay


...The Moose and the Sparrow Hugh Garner From the very beginning Moose Maddon picked on him. The kid was bait for all of Maddon's cruel practical jokes around the camp. He was sent back to the tool-house for left-handed saws, and down to the office to ask the pay cheater if the day's mail was in, though the rest of us knew it was only flown out every week. The kid's name was Cecil, and Maddon used to mouth it with a simpering mockery, as if it pointed to the kid being something less than a man. I must admit though that the name fitted him, for Cecil was the least likely lumberjack I've seen in over twenty-five years in lumber camps. Though we knew he was intelligent enough, and a man too, if smaller than most of us, we all kidded him, in the good natured way a bunkhouse gang will. Maddon however always lisped the kid's name as if it belonged to a woman. Moose Maddon was as different from Cecil as it is possible for two human beings to be and still stay within the species. He was a big moose of a man, even for a lumber stiff, with a round flat unshaven face that looked down angrily and dourly at the world. Cecil on the other hand was hardly taller than an axe-handle, and almost as thin. He was about nineteen years old, with the looks of an inquisitive sparrow behind his thick horn-rimmed glasses. He had been sent out to the camp for the summer months by an distant relative who had a connection with the head office down in Vancouver. That summer we were cutting big stuff in...

Words: 3241 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Pcs Versus Mainframes

...Internet Operating Systems For years I thought that operating systems were little programs (lines of code) placed inside my personal computer to help it run smoothly and efficiently. Which it is. But not until recently did I discover that operating systems must also be used in larger mainframes and servers as well. After all, servers are computers too! And any computer, regardless of its size or purpose, needs internal instructions. It needs a set of executable code that makes the thing come alive. Operating systems are the soul of all computers everywhere. This begs a question or two: what types of OS’s are out there? And how do they differ from the one in my Mac? Also, if I wanted to swap out my current operating system for a different one (my friends keep telling me about all of the great things they’re doing with Linux), how easy of a task would that be? The most common OS for a desktop (or a laptop) in use today is Windows 7 ("Os Platform Statistics", 2012). But what about the operating systems which are used by small and large companies that host web pages? Or store hundreds of thousands (if not millions) of large data files in a centralized data center? Or provide search engine services? Companies like Google, facebook, and Yahoo!, maintain their own, internal OS’s, which are designed to serve, store and manipulate data according to the needs of the public. (Consider how Google started out as nothing more than a search engine with fancier algorithms...

Words: 2332 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

The Fault in Our Stars

...(NZ), 67 A pollo Driv e, Rosedale, A uckland 0632, New Zealand (a div ision of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) | Penguin Books (South A frica) (Pty ) Ltd, 24 Sturdee A v enue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South A frica | Penguin Books Ltd, Registered O ffices: 80 Strand, London WC 2R 0RL, England This book is a w ork of fiction. Names, characters, places, and incidents are either the product of the author’s imagination or are used fictitiously , and any resemblance to actual persons, liv ing or dead, business establishments, ev ents, or locales is entirely coincidental. C opy right © 2012 by John Green A ll rights reserv ed. No part of this book may be reproduced, scanned, or distributed in any printed or electronic form w ithout permission. Please do not participate in or encourage piracy of copy righted materials in v iolation of the author’s rights. Purchase only authorized editions. Published simultaneously in C anada. The publisher does not hav e any control ov er and...

Words: 67221 - Pages: 269

Premium Essay


...(NZ), 67 A pollo Driv e, Rosedale, A uckland 0632, New Zealand (a div ision of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) | Penguin Books (South A frica) (Pty ) Ltd, 24 Sturdee A v enue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South A frica | Penguin Books Ltd, Registered O ffices: 80 Strand, London WC 2R 0RL, England This book is a w ork of fiction. Names, characters, places, and incidents are either the product of the author’s imagination or are used fictitiously , and any resemblance to actual persons, liv ing or dead, business establishments, ev ents, or locales is entirely coincidental. C opy right © 2012 by John Green A ll rights reserv ed. No part of this book may be reproduced, scanned, or distributed in any printed or electronic form w ithout permission. Please do not participate in or encourage piracy of copy righted materials in v iolation of the author’s rights. Purchase only authorized editions. Published simultaneously in C anada. The publisher does not hav e any control ov er and...

Words: 67221 - Pages: 269

Free Essay


..."The Home Depot NYSE: HD, headquartered in Vinings, Georgia, is a home improvement retailer that aims for both the do-it-yourself consumer and the professional in home improvement and construction. It is the second largest retailer in the United States, behind Wal-Mart; and the third largest retailer in the world, behind Wal-Mart and French company Carrefour. The Home Depot operates about 1,900 stores across North America. The company operates stores in the United States (including the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands), Canada, and Mexico. The Home Depot also operates EXPO Design Center stores in select U.S. markets, providing high-end home design products and services. Its 2004 sales totaled US $73.1 billion. It was ranked #13 on FORTUNE magazine's FORTUNE 500 The Home Depot also owns a chain of higher-end home decorating and appliance stores. The Home Depot employs over 325,000 people." The company was founded in 1978 in Atlanta, Georgia by Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank, and grew rapidly, with sales topping $1 billion annually by 1986. From the moment of its foundation, HD has continued to grow constantly by targeting strong markets with many new homeowners and young people such as New Orleans. Home Depot managed to grow fast by quickly adapting to change and continued to be successful by holding fast to the culture and values of the organization. The constant renewal and the work to sustain culture that produces good products, employees, and customers...

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

My Life to Save

...Prologue I leaned over the toilet for the fourth time this morning spilling whatever was left in my stomach. I dry heaved for the next five minutes trying to rid whatever was giving me this ill feeling. Once I finished I wiped the sweat off my forehead and laid back against my cold tub. It felt good against my warm skin. I removed my sweat drenched shirt and just laid against the tile floor. I have never experience such pain and nausea in my life. I didn’t want to think about the many possibilities that could be wrong with me. "Ki you alright?" asked my eight year old brother behind my bathroom door. "Yes boo just go get me a bottle of water." I could hear him scurrying off down the stairs to the kitchen. I tried my best to stand up but I just felt too weak. All of a sudden my body grew very tired and I couldn’t get my body to move. I heard my door open and a scream. "Mom, Dad hurry!" yelled my brother Jasone. I didn’t understand why he was screaming until I followed his horrified eyes down to my floor and there was blood everywhere. I slowly reached up to touch my nose and I felt the blood all over my hands and I knew something was definitely wrong. My brother rushed over to me and held my head in his lap as he cried. I tried to reach up and touch him but it all hurt too much. "Lord please I’m not ready to die." I said to myself. "Mom!!" my brother cried out again. "Jasone what is you doing in your sister room and screaming on-" she couldn’t continue her sentence as she...

Words: 1763 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Love Letter

...sleeping the whole day and I got so many thoughts playing on my mind so I choose to rise get the laptop and type. 1. Second to my final destination ( … Well this is not a horror film; this destination I’m talking about is the force or factor that makes me go and face every life’s circumstances I am facing. My ultimate dream is to become a flight attendant, cabin crew, flight crew or whatever they call this. Yes, I’ve been dreaming to become one someday and I am trying to give my very best for this not to become an unclear vision. I want this to manifest, I want this to happen in my life in every good ways or means I can. As I’ve said on my recent posts, I love to go somewhere, I love to experience different culture, and I want to meet new and different people. There are some times in my life when I face mirror, stand classically and gracefully and try to imitate flight attendants posture and speaking. I used to act like there are passengers and I am orienting them with safety procedures inside the plane. To train to become a flight attendant costs so much, that’s why my parents wasn’t able to send me to those schools practicing this course. But I’ve got this what they called life’s principle. I believe with all my heart that nothing is definitely impossible that my future has been planned and decided. I just love the thought that God is faithful, with His words, His promises and plans. I trust Him with this. This is my heart’s very secret petition to heaven and to Jesus. His...

Words: 1464 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...notice Advertising for Results is a work of fiction. Any resemblance between any people, things, places or entities in this book and actual people (living or dead), things, places, or entities, is purely coincidental. There is no connection whatsoever at all. In reading any part of this book, you agree to take no action against this book’s author or any party. You are completely and solely responsible for anything you do, and you will not attempt to link your actions to this book in any way. Advertising for Results is written for entertainment purposes only, so disregard everything in this book, including the so-called advice, recommendations, and statements that something will happen. No part of Advertising for Results may be sold by anyone except the author. You agree to never be compensated for it in any way. If you do not agree with all this, stop reading Advertising for Results now. All copyrights and trademarks belong to their respective owners. Copyright © 2003 by G.F. Brown from Richmond Heights. All rights are reserved. 2 Advertising for Results For my wife. 3 Advertising for Results “It is the dry and irksome labor of organizing precincts and getting out the voters that determines elections.” Abraham Lincoln 4 Advertising for Results Acknowledgments Thanking everyone would almost be a book in itself. It would fill lots of pages, and many excellent people would still be missed. If you have a question about who should be thanked for what, please...

Words: 45800 - Pages: 184