Free Essay

Notion of Authorship in Digital Media


Submitted By kmeshna
Words 1998
Pages 8
Authorship and Digital Media With the widespread adoption of personal computers, especially those connected to broadband Internet, the media landscape has changed drastically. All media-related industries, from newspaper to television to music and more, are experiencing this shift and are desperately attempting to react to the changing media landscape that has placed much of the control on the consumers rather than the producers of these media forms. Two digital media forms experiencing particularly interesting shifts of power are video games and digital music. Consumers of digital media forms such as video games and digital music files have complicated the traditional notion of authorship through their use of digital media technologies, which allows them to use digital media as an instrument of expression. Before delving into the intricacies surrounding this new form of authorship present in digital media it is first important to discuss the notion of authorship prior to the emergence of this digitally induced phenomenon. In non-digital mediums such as books, radio, and television, authorship exists as an individual endeavor, as authorship is only granted to the original author(s) of the media. As a consumer of this non-digital media the only point of contention as it relates to authorial expression is limited is the debate over authorial intent or narrative interpretation in these non-interactive cultural forms. Books, television, and radio are more or less consumed passively and the only means of authoring something from these forms of media is to create an entirely new piece of media that is related to the original. For example, a viewer of a television show or movie has the opportunity to create a satirical interpretation or write a review of the original. While this certainly may be construed as authorship, this version of authorship is of an entirely new work, even though it may be based on the original, and it does not bestow authorship onto the consumer within the work itself. Advancements in technology, most notably the inexpensive access to personal computers and broadband Internet, have profoundly affected these previously held lines of media production, consumption, and authorship. In the discussion of the resulting effects brought about by these rapidly emerging and evolving digital technologies, many theorize about the role of the producers and consumers of digital media. However, many theorists continue to define digital media forms in the terms of the more traditional media forms. Celia Pearce notes, “film and literary theorists have begun to discuss game theory within their own idiosyncratic frameworks” (143). These frameworks and notions of narrative and text place a more authoritative level of authorship on the original creator of the media form. This is to say that for these traditional media forms, sole authorship lies with the original author. When applying these frameworks to new digital media, this notion of authorship must be relinquished for a new participatory form of authorship. Henry Jenkins and Pearce each note a shift in authorship as an integral part of analyzing digital media forms, especially with respect to video games. What makes video games so vastly different from traditional media is the intrinsic need for human input in video games. In Jesper Juul’s essay concerning the notion of time in video games he states, “Games require at least one instance of the player interacting with the game state” (134). It is as if the game does not truly exist as games without input on the part of the user, even though the original author(s) of the games created it by writing the code and transferring it digitally onto a compact disc. Although the first thing that comes to mind when considering video games may be the original software-encoded disc or hardware console, this ignores the necessity of the user and what comes from the user’s playing of the game. According to Pearce, “A game is most simply described as a framework for structured play” (144). The framework itself exists as that which is authored by the game designer. However, when “play” is introduced, the notion of authorship is complicated, as the media is no longer simply “pushed” onto or consumed by the user. Instead, the user is able to interact with the media, which often allows for an additional level of authorship. Through this mode of play users can manipulate digital media in a vast array of capacities, which allows the user to be the author of a narrative that is not necessarily one that was directly intended by the game’s creator. One instance of the user-centric authorship is present in what Pearce describes as “collaborative fiction.” These collaborative fictions exist in their finest form as Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs), and authorship within these games occurs on multiple levels. In these games authorship exists not just for the game designers as the authors of the code that eventually becomes the tools with which a narrative can be created. While this level of authorship exists, the designers of MMORPGs also author both the backstory—the overall narrative framework of the fictional game world—and the individual metastories of a “predesigned story world and the various plots within it” (148). This intentional authorship on the part of the game’s creators lends itself to an authoring by the players as they “take actions that construct their characters on the fly” (149). The collective play by the entire body of MMORPG users allows for the creation of a collaborative narrative in which all players capitalize on the original game framework. This collective narrative is made possible by the originally authored framework, and more importantly by the existence and use of the Internet and personal computers, the combination of which grants users a unique means of expressing themselves through the creation and maintenance of a digital avatar.
In addition to authorship in collaborative fiction, in his essay on narrative architecture in video games, Jenkins points to “emergent narratives” as a means of allowing players to be the authors of new narratives within the video games they are playing. Jenkins defines emergent narratives as those games which “are not prestructured or preprogrammed , taking shape through the game play, yet they are not as unstructured, chaotic, and frustrating as life itself” (128). Jenkins’ primary example of such a video game is The Sims, which allows players to create intricate suburban worlds and author their own narratives through the ways in which they interact with the game state. Although Jenkins does not directly address the notion of “authorship” in his essay, he does state of emergent narratives, “players can define their own goals and write their own stories” (128). Pearce also comments on emergent narratives such as The Sims and notes that player-centric authorship has resulted in “a new play trend… in which players have transformed the game into a storyboard authoring tool” (151). As a result, while the original game designers are the original authors of these emergent narratives based on their writing of the code used to create them, these primary authors simply write the tools and basic rule structure with which the user is able to author their own unique narrative. Out of the authorship of the designers, a vast array of user-authored material arises, which creates an interesting dynamic when considering the effects of digital media as an instrument of user expression. Rather than simply consuming media, consumers of the media are able to express narratives by using the media as an instrument to create a new digital cultural form, with the game creator acting as a facilitator rather than a true author. The Internet then acts as an additional instrument as it provides a means of publishing these acts of expression, thus legitimizing the authorial nature of the player, much as publishing serves as the final barrier to legitimizing oneself as the author of a novel.
The notion of the dissemination of user-generated content on the Internet brings authorship of digital music into the discussion, especially when considering mash-up culture. Mash-up culture exists mostly through entirely digital means, as the media itself, the means through which it is produced, and the space in which the culture inhabits each operate in a digital sphere. For instance, in mash-up culture the primary media form is a splicing of digital MP3 files, which have been reworked with the assistance of digital software such as Abelton, and then posted in a digital space such as a forum or blog. As is the case with the video games previously discussed, these digital media forms possess an original author: the author of the pre-mashed-up recordings. Authorship in this instance stems from “access to various materials, including powerful personal computers, high speed Internet connections, listening practices and devices, as well as knowledge of postwar popular music” (Shiga 110). The access to these materials allows for the widespread dissemination of mash-up-authored works, which helps the culture grow. This cultural growth in turn allows for the authorship of further digital media forms, because it is the means by which these new consumer-producers are able to obtain, distribute and legitimize their craft through peer review. Much like the authorial transformation seen in video games, the Internet and music production technologies “have become emblems of democratization,” which allows authorship to no longer be confined to the experts in the music industry (Shiga 98). This creates an interesting economic landscape for the music industry, as musical production becomes less defined by the sale of records and more focused on the cultural capital of developing one’s “brand name” (Shiga 101). Rather than focusing on the monetary capital associated with the distribution of musical tracks, those of mash-up culture (and with them many players in the music industry) focus more on cultural capital of creating a name for themselves, which may result in fame and economic capital later (although this is not necessarily an end goal). This cultural capital is created by using digital media as an instrument of expression in a unique but intelligible way in order to develop a “trademark” or “brand name” that links one’s works together and to the brand name (Shiga 101). As a result of the advances in musical production technologies and the Internet, the mash-up artists that were formerly simply consumers of popular music morph into a hybrid of consumer-producer, authoring their own forms of digital expression from the reworking of musical frameworks provided by the original authors. Just as video game developers provide users with the instruments necessary to build new worlds and author unique narratives of expression, mainstream music producers indirectly provide mash-up artists with the instruments needed to author their own digital forms of expression. The expression that is the result of the manipulation of the original digital forms works in a cyclical fashion, in that the use and success of the newly authored music perpetuates further use as the digitally rendered mash-ups gain popularity and strength within both mash-up and mainstream communities.
The use and adoption of digital media, especially video games and mash-ups, creates a shift in the notion of authorship from that of producer as author to consumer-producer as author. The result of this transformation thus alters the landscape of how users interact with all types of digital media, which in turn causes users to view digital media as an instrument of expression, rather than just something to be consumed passively.

Works Cited
Jenkins, Henry. "Game Design as Narrative Architecture." First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game (2004): 118-30. Print.
Juul, Jesper. "Introduction to Game Time." First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game (2004): 131-42. Print.
Pearce, Celia. "Towards a Game Theory of Game." First Person: New Media as Story,
Performance, and Game (2004): 143-53. Print.
Shiga, John. "Copy-and-Persist: The Logic of Mash-Up Culture." Critical Studies in Media

Communication 24.2 (2007): 93-114. Print.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Intellectual Property Law

...Intellectual Property Law Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Abstract Intellectual property law is vital to protecting the rights of creative individuals and their realized ideas. Most countries around the world protect the intellectual property of authors, inventors, and artists, in some similar form whether it is copyright, trademark, or other sources of protection. The topic of discussion herein explores intellectual property law in America and the protections afforded to unique works and their creators here at home. Research was conducted using web-based resources made accessible to the public by prestigious universities such as UC Berkley and Cornell. The findings revealed a substantial legal framework of protection for authors, creators, and inventors of industrial, literary, scientific, and artistic works. Rights Protected by Intellectual Property Law Intellectual property refers to creations of the human mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. Exclusive rights protect the intellectual property and owners under corresponding categories of law. This law encompasses the legalities of copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, and trade secrets. Legal property rights are defensible in a court of law, and are further defined by article 9 on the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C). To expand on creations of the human mind, intellectual property is further broken down into two categories:...

Words: 1671 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Why Wikipedia Is Not a Source of Scholalry Research

...Wikipedia is the largest and most heavily used online encyclopedia in the 21st century. In this essay I will discuss the impact of Wikipedia as a primary source of information, and the effects this has on a fragmented audience. When used as a research tool, user generated content within Wikipedia can have a negative impact on the academic community. The nature of Wikipedia represents a fundamental shift in the relationship between the reader and the publisher. Through illustrating the ease to which Wikipedia offers this information transfer and how this constantly changing state impacts on culture and creative identity and place, I will expose the fraudulent nature of this over exhausted resource. The Hawaiian word for quick, Wiki Wiki is the basis for the name Wikipedia. Every article has an edit capacity, which allows any user, to add or delete content on any page. This Shortens the time frame needed to create, edit and publish content, making it the preferred tool for many people worldwide seeking answers and a path for basic research. Unfortunately it is also interpreted by some, as an authoritive source of information. However there is no gate keeping function in the program to ensure the authenticity of the information which is contributed. In defence, the functionality of the program which allows it to be constantly updated allows quicker access to many audiences and could be argued that it is a good way to stay informed and in touch with current issues. Although Wikipedia...

Words: 1445 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Problem Statement over the Previous Five Years, the U.S. Per Capita Beer Consumption Had Declined by 2.3%, Due to Changes in Beer Drinkers’ Preferences, and the Mountain Man Brewing Company (Mmbc) Is Considering

...The Entrepreneurs at Twitter: Building a Brand, a Social Tool or a Tech Powerhouse? MID-TERM ASSIGNMENT A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Robert Kennedy College MBA Course Nr. 57582 - Entrepreneurship Prof. Francois Therin October 27, 2010 1 Declaration of originality of work I affirm that the attached work is entirely my own, except where the words or ideas of other writers are specifically acknowledged according to accepted citation conventions. This assignment has not been submitted for any other course at Robert Kennedy College or any other institution. I have revised, edited and proof-read this paper. th Signed the student, October 27 2010 Certification of authorship I certify that I am the author of this paper and that any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and fully disclosed in this assignment/paper/examination. I have also cited any sources (footnotes or endnotes) from which I used data, ideas, theories, or words, whether quoteds directly or paraphrased. I further acknowledge that this written work has been prepared by myself specifically for this course. Signed the student, October 27th 2010 Word count: 1952 without title pages, index of contents, executive summary and bibliography 2 “If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will get you there.” The Cheshire Cat in “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland” by Lewis Carroll 3 Index of contents Executive Summary ...........................

Words: 2831 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Social Networking and Education: Emerging Research Within Cscl

...Networking Systems: The Next Wave of CSCL? Recent conference symposia, papers and journal articles within the CSCL community have demonstrated keen interest in learning from students’ everyday out-of-school socio-technical practices about how to better develop future technology-powered contexts for learning (Barron, 2006; Fields & Kafai, 2007; Forte & Bruckman, 2008; Gardner & Kolodner, 2007; Halverson, 2007; Miyake et al., 2007; Peppler & Kafai, 2007; Steinkuehler, 2007; Yardi & Perkel, 2007). One example of this include Steinkuehler’s research on online game-playing “in the wild,” a goal of which is to inform the design of intentioned learning environments in school and after-school contexts. Similarly, Forte and Bruckman (2008) examined authorship and editorial processes in...

Words: 3735 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay


...I. Introduction The Copyright Law Copyright is the exclusive right, to an intellectual property of any person, including elements of authorship, musical, literary, architectural, pictorial, choreographic, pantomimic, graphic, sculptural, and cartographic creations to print, publish or sell copies of his or her original work. Copyright is a law that protects published and unpublished work that you can see, hear and touch, from being reproduced without prior consent from the creator of the work. The copyright law was designed to strike a balance between the needs of consumers and those of creators. The issue is a control over piracy. Piracy has not disappeared, nor, by many measures, has it lessened. However, the success or failure of this act depends entirely on who you talk to. The debate is most often cast as a consumer issue, so both sides are looking for your (the consumer’s) ears. Strong arguments exist from either perspective, but both sides agree there have been unintended consequences to the provisions of the Copyright law. II. What is a Copyright? A Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of original works including literary works, movies, musical works, sound recordings, paintings, photographs, software, live performances, and television or sound broadcasts. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. The Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the...

Words: 3788 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

A Pattern-Oriented Approach to Fair Use

...William & Mary Law Review Volume 45 | Issue 4 Article 5 A Pattern-Oriented Approach to Fair Use Michael J. Madison Repository Citation Michael J. Madison, A Pattern-Oriented Approach to Fair Use, 45 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1525 (2004), Copyright c 2004 by the authors. This article is brought to you by the William & Mary Law School Scholarship Repository. A PATTERN-ORIENTED APPROACH TO FAIR USE MICHAEL J. MADISON* ABSTRACT More than 150 years into development of the doctrineof "fairuse" in American copyright law, there is no end to legislative,judicial, and academic efforts to rationalizethe doctrine. Its codification in the 1976 CopyrightAct appearsto have contributedto its fragmentation, rather than to its coherence. As did much of copyright law, fair use originated as a judicially unacknowledged effort via the law to validate certain favored practicesand patterns.In the main, it has continued to be applied as such, though too often courts mask their implicit validation of these patterns in the now-conventional "caseby-case" application of the statutoryfair use "factors"to the defendant's use of the copyrighted work in question. A more explicit acknowledgment of the role of these patterns in fair use analysis would be consistent with fair use, copyright policy, and tradition. Importantly, such an acknowledgment would help to bridge the often difficult conceptual gap between fair use...

Words: 74799 - Pages: 300

Premium Essay

Priracy on Internate Era

...Journal of Intellectual Property Rights Vol 18, September 2013, pp 457-464 Piracy in the Internet Age Nikita Hemmige† ILS Law College, Law College Rd, Pune 411 004, India Received 17 December 2012, revised 12 August 2013 The Internet has created boundary-less territories and has helped in evolving a unique method to share and transfer information, growth of e-commerce and in creating a global platform for all nations and its citizens. Online piracy is a major flipside to this development. Rampant intellectual property (IP) infringements by way of unlawful reproduction and unmonitored downloads is a matter of concern. It is significant to take note of the laws that various countries have enacted and enforced in order to curb or at least regulate online piracy and related activities. Further, though the Copyright Act, 1957 and Information Technology Act, 2000 in India deal with certain facets of piracy, they do not conclusively deal with this menace. It is the need of the hour for India to draft and enforce laws which will address the current problem and also take into consideration the technological advancements that are likely to give rise to more of such complex issues. Formulating such a law in the near future will be a welcome change and will definitely give India the IP advantage. Keywords: Online piracy, copyright infringement, jurisdictional barriers, Internet laws, intellectual property The Internet has become the first port of call for anyone in search...

Words: 6024 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

The Social Demography of Internet Dating in the United States

...THE SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY OF INTERNET DATING IN THE UNITED STATES* Jessica M. Sautter, Duke University Rebecca M. Tippett, Duke University S. Philip Morgan, Duke University This is a preprint of an Article accepted for publication in Social Science Quarterly © 2010 Southwestern Social Science Association. *All authors contributed equally and share authorship of this article. Direct all correspondence to Rebecca M. Tippett, Department of Sociology, Duke University, PO Box 90088, Durham, NC 27705 ( Data and coding used in this article are available upon request for those wishing to replicate this study. This research was partially supported by a contract, (N01 HD-3-3354; PI. S. Philip Morgan) "Designing New Models for Explaining Family Change and Variation," with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Data collection was carried out and funded by the Pew Foundation with partial support from Duke University. The authors wish to thank Emilio A. Parrado, Seth Sanders, Lee Rainie, John Horrigan, Lynn Smith-Lovin, Amanda Lenhart, Mary Madden, Douglas Downey, Linda K. George, and Nathan D. Martin for helpful comments and suggestions. Early versions of this article were presented at the 2005 Southern Demographic Association Annual Meeting and the 2006 Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting. 1 THE SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHY OF INTERNET DATING IN THE UNITED STATES ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the sociodemographic correlates of internet...

Words: 6068 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Law Essay

...A major issue for copyright lawyers at the present time is how to deal with the rapid development of the Internet and the prospect of the ‘information superhighway’, world-wide telecommunications systems which permit the rapid, indeed virtually instantaneous transmission around the world, at times chosen as much by individual recipients as by transmitters, of information and entertainment in all media - print, pictures still and moving, sound, and combinations thereof. The issues are manifold. Is the ease of perfect reproduction and manipulation of material in the digital form used by our communications systems the death-knell of the whole basis of copyright? Are we at least going to have to reconsider such fundamentals of copyright law as what constitutes publication, copying and public performance, or the old distinctions between categories of work such as literary, artistic, sound recording and film? What rights should users enjoy? Are the rights accorded them in the analogue world so ill-defined that they will undermine the utility of copyright as a source of income for digital authors and their publishers? Will we see the emergence of a genuine market-place in which producer and user bargain about the price for individual transfers of...

Words: 22271 - Pages: 90

Free Essay


...The Wealth of Networks The Wealth of Networks How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom Yochai Benkler Yale University Press New Haven and London Copyright _ 2006 by Yochai Benkler. All rights reserved. Subject to the exception immediately following, this book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. The author has made an online version of the book available under a Creative Commons Noncommercial Sharealike license; it can be accessed through the author’s website at Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Benkler, Yochai. The wealth of networks : how social production transforms markets and freedom / Yochai Benkler. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-300-11056-2 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-300-11056-1 (alk. paper) 1. Information society. 2. Information networks. 3. Computer networks—Social aspects. 4. Computer networks—Economic aspects. I. Title. HM851.B457 2006 303.48'33—dc22 2005028316 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1...

Words: 214717 - Pages: 859

Free Essay


...THE PLAYER Good game design is player-centric. That means that above all else, the player and her desires are truly considered. Rather than demanding that she do something via the rules, the gameplay itself should inherently motivate the player in the direction the designer wants her to go. Telling players they must travel around the board or advance to the next level is one thing. If they don’t have a reason and a desire to do it, then it becomes torture. In creating a game, designers take a step back and think from the player’s viewpoint: What’s this game about? How do I play? How do I win? Why do I want to play? What things do I need to do? MEANINGFUL DECISIONS Distilled down to its essence, game design is about creating opportunities for players to make meaningful decisions that affect the outcome of the game. Consider a game like a boxing match. So many decisions lead up to the ultimate victory. How long will I train? Will I block or will I swing? What is my opponent going to do? Where is his weakness? Jab left or right? Even those few, brief questions don’t come close to the myriad decisions a fighter must make as he progresses through a match. Games invite players into similar mental spaces. Games like Tetris and Chess keep our minds busy by forcing us to consider which one of several possible moves we want to take next. In taking these paths, we know that we may be prolonging or completely screwing up our entire game. The Sims games and those in...

Words: 111961 - Pages: 448

Free Essay


...HISTORY AND THEORY STUDIES FIRST YEAR Terms 1 and 2 Course Lecturers: CHRISTOPHER PIERCE / BRETT STEELE (Term 1) Course Lecturer: PIER VITTORIO AURELI (Term 2) Course Tutor: MOLLIE CLAYPOOL Teaching Assistants: FABRIZIO BALLABIO SHUMI BOSE POL ESTEVE Course Structure The course runs for 3 hours per week on Tuesday mornings in Terms 1 and 2. There are four parallel seminar sessions. Each seminar session is divided into parts, discussion and submission development. Seminar 10.00-12.00 Mollie Claypool, Fabrizio Ballabio, Shumi Bose and Pol Esteve Lecture 12.00-13.00 Christopher Pierce, Brett Steele and Pier Vittorio Aureli Attendance Attendance is mandatory to both seminars and lectures. We expect students to attend all lectures and seminars. Attendance is tracked to both seminars and lectures and repeated absence has the potential to affect your final mark and the course tutor and undergraduate coordinator will be notified. Marking Marking framework adheres to a High Pass with Distinction, High Pass, Pass, Low Pass, Complete-toPass system. Poor attendance can affect this final mark. Course Materials Readings for each week are provided both online on the course website at and on the course library bookshelf. Students are expected to read each assigned reading every week to be discussed in seminar. The password to access the course readings is “readings”. TERM 1: CANONICAL BUILDINGS, PROJECTS, TEXTS In this first term of...

Words: 22588 - Pages: 91

Free Essay

Sleight of Hand, Sleight of Mind: Orson Welles' F for Fake and the Art of the Cinematic Con

...Sleight of Hand, Sleight of Mind Orson Welles' F for Fake and the Art of the Cinematic Con Orson Welles' 1974 "film essay" F for Fake opens with a scene of Welles, in the role of a magician, performing a sleight of hand trick with a young child, "transforming" the key the young boy has presented him into a coin and then showing how the young boy had the key all the time in his pocket. The magic was the perfect illustration of Welles' purpose in the film. F for Fake was a film about fraud and deceit, about how the makers of art (and, in particular, film) use "trickery" to fool their intended audience into believing something that is not true. The film focuses on three known "charlatans" (Elmyr de Hory, Clifford Irving, and Welles himself) who used their talents to produce such magnificent forgeries that they were able to fool everyone (even so-called "experts") into believing in the truth of their claims. Despite the status of this film as one of Welles' "minor" films from late in his life (it was one of the last films he completed prior to his death in 1985), it has had a tremendous impact on filmmaking, both in a technical sense (the film's complex editing of various film stocks and styles) and in a textual sense. Welles' identification of the ways in which an audience can be manipulated into believing anything as long as it has the "air" of authenticity has had a tremendous impact on current filmmaking, especially in the realm of horror filmmaking with the current crop...

Words: 4052 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Acer America

...Fourth Edition, last update November 01, 2007 2 Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume IV – Digital By Tony R. Kuphaldt Fourth Edition, last update November 01, 2007 i c 2000-2010, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modification of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: PRINTING HISTORY • First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. Plain-ASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. • Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source files translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. • Third Edition: Printed in February 2001. Source files translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like A LTEX, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but search-and-replace substitutions. • Fourth Edition: Printed in March 2002. Additions...

Words: 29763 - Pages: 120

Free Essay

Introduction to Multimedia Systems

...Introduction to Multimedia Systems This Page Intentionally Left Blank Introduction to Multimedia Systems Editors Gaurav Bhatnagar Shikha Mehta Sugata Mitra Centre for Research in Cognitive Systems (CRCS) NIITUd. New Delhi, India ACADEMIC PRESS A Harcourt Science and Technology Company San Diego San Francisco New York Boston London Sydney Tokyo Cover art: © 2001 John Foxx Images This book is printed on acid-free paper, w Copyright © 2002 by ACADEMIC PRESS All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Harcourt Inc., 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida 32887-6777 Explicit permission from Academic Press is not required to reproduce a maximum of two figures or tables from an Academic Press chapter in another scientific or research publication provided that the material has not been credited to another source and that full credit to the Academic Press chapter is given. Academic Press A division of Harcourt, Inc. 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, Cahfomia 92101-4495, USA Academic Press Harcourt Place, 32 Jamestown Road, London NWl 7BY, UK http ://www. academicpress...

Words: 60427 - Pages: 242