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Topic 12 – The Nature and Properties of Water

Hydrosphere | The combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of a planet; the liquid water component of the earth – includes atmospheric water vapor, ground water, lakes, rivers, polar icecaps, oceans * Oceans 87.54% * Ice caps 1.81% * Groundwater .63% * Everything else .02% | Condensation | The conversion of water from the vapor to the liquid state. When it occurs, the energy required to vaporize the water is released into the atmosphere. This is about 585 calories per gram of water at 20°C | Viscosity | A property of a substance to offer resistance to flow caused by internal friction | Latent heat | The quantity of heat gained or lost per unit of mass as a substance undergoes a change of state (such as liquid to solid) at a given temperature and pressure | Icecap | Ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area | Dissolved solids | Cl, Na, SO4, Mg, Ca, K; Salinity is a measure of amount of dissolved material in water after correcting for gases and organic material | Dissolved gases | At the ocean/atmosphere interface, gases are added to seawater by diffusion and wave action. Gas composition at the ocean surface is in equilibrium with atmosphere. Gas composition changes with time and depth in the oceans | Hydrologic cycle | The cycle of water exchange among the atmosphere, land, and ocean through the processes of evaporation, precipitation, runoff, and subsurface percolation. Also called the water cycle | Ground water | Water located beneath the Earth’s surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations | Heat capacity | The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1°C | Salinity | A measure of the quantity of dissolved solids in ocean water. Formally, it is the total amount of dissolved solids in ocean water in...

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