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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JUTE (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.) EXTRACT AS AN ADDITIVE IN MAKING DISHWASHING SOAP

A THESIS

Submitted to the Faculty Ilocos Norte National High School
Engineering and Science Education Program (ESEP)
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in
Research I

ABIGAIL RIO C. ACOBA
IX – SSC RUTHERFORD

CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM: RATIONALE & BACKGROUND

Background of the Study Soap is now considered as a regular need for almost all of the living human population across the world, mainly as softening agent and as a product for other personal hygiene purposes, wherein some are proven to be expensive and less effective. One of its kinds is dishwashing soap which we use in washing the dishes in removing the tough stains and grease that is all over the common kitchen tools we use in our everyday lives. It is a great help to minimize the time of removing those tough stains and grease on our kitchen tools. Buying and using the wrong dishwashing soap could put your family’s safety to danger. Your food could pick up a part of the residue that the dishwashing soap left and could cause food poisoning especially because most products contain chlorine in a dry form that is highly concentrated. It could also cause you a lot of skin damages such as unexpected whitening, rashes, and dry skin problems. Putting all of these aside, the question in everyone’s mind is, “What can be a lot safer, cheaper, and more effective ingredient in making and producing dishwashing soap for every one’s daily consumption.
Jute (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.) is a common plant in the Philippines and is known as the ‘Golden Fibre’ due to its golden brown color and its importance. It is a rain-fed crop that doesn't need much in the way of fertilizer or pesticide. It is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene, calcium, and iron.

Objectives of the Study
This study aimed to utilize the Jute (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.) extract as additive to dishwashing soap. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. Is jute extract effective as an additive in making dishwashing soap? 2. Is there a significant difference between the jute dishwashing soap and the commercial dishwashing soap products in terms of appearance, texture and smell?

Hypotheses of the Study

H0 Jute, as the main ingredient in making dishwashing soap is not effective. There is no significant difference between the jute dishwashing soap compared to the commercial dishwashing soap products in terms of appearance, texture and aroma.

Significance of the Study

To the field of Soap Manufacturing Technology, the result that can be accumulated from this study can contribute to the knowledge as regard to the cleaning purposes of dishwashing soap of the essential extract of Jute (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.)
To the vendors of jute, they will gain more income which can help sustain their family to progress.
To the farmers, they will plant more jute in order for them to be able to help in the manufacturing of dishwashing soap.
To the community, the essential jute (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.) extract can be used for the development of an alternative dishwashing soap which is less expensive and safe that can help solve the problems of the citizens about removing stains and greases of the dishes.
To the future researchers, considering the potential impeding effect of jute (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.) extract as an additive in the development of an alternative dishwashing soap, it can be used as a reference for the development of a new treatment that is highly available, cheap and safe.

Scope and Limitations of the Study This study is all about finding out if the Jute (Corchoruscapsularis Linn.) extract as an additive in making dishwashing soap is effective or not. This study aims to provide other people an alternative dishwashing soap product which is less expensive, safer and more effective. The researcher will conduct this study in Ilocos Norte National High School – Science Compound from June to March 2016 with the help of their research teacher.

Definition of Terms

Dishwashing Soap- is a detergent used to assist in dishwashing. It is usually a highly-foaming mixture of surfactants with low skin irritation, and is primarily used for hand washing of glasses, plates, cutlery, and cooking utensils in a sink or bowl.

Extract- refers to withdraw (as a juice or fraction) by physical or chemical process.
Fibre- a fine, threadlike piece, as of cotton, jute, orasbestos.

Impede- to delay or prevent (someone or something) by obstructing them; hinder.

Insecticide- a substance or preparation used for killing insects.

Pesticide- a chemical preparation for destroying plant, fungal, or animal pests.

Soap- substance used with water for washing and cleaning, made of a compound of natural oils or fats with sodium hydroxide or another strong alkali, and typically having perfume and coloring added.

Independent Variable * Control = Distilled Water

+ Control = Commercial
Dishwashing Soap

Jute extract dishwashing soap

Dependent Variable

Zone of Inhibition

Figure 1.1 Research Paradigm

CHAPTER 2
This chapter includes the review of related literature and studies which focuses on the history of soap & detergents and the exposure to dishwashing soap. The internet has been used as a reference to get the necessary facts and information in the study.

Related Literature
Earliest evidence of the existence of soap is as early as 2800 B.C. They were found during the excavation of ancient Babylon.
Based in the Ebers Papyrus, the combining of animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts is used to form a soap to prevent the ancient Egyptians from skin diseases and for washing. The Ebers Papyrus is a medical document from about 1500 B.C.
As time went by, the Israelites received detailed laws governing cleanliness from Moses. Moses related the cleanliness to health and religious purification.
The early Greeks doesn’t use soap for bathing but Greeks bathed for aesthetic reasons. Instead of using soap for their bodies, they used blocks of clay, sand, pumice and ashes, then rub themselves with oil, and they scraped off the oil and dirt using the metal instrument that known as a strigil. Despite of this, they also used oil with ashes and their clothes were washed without soap.
According to an ancient Roman legend, soap got its name from Mount Sapo. Mount Sapo is where animals were sacrificed. A women found out that this kind of clay mixture that was made from melted animal fat, or tallow, and wood ashes down into the clay soil along the Triber River can made their wash cleaner with much less effort.
During the mid-1800s, the advancement of technology was started and the invention of the Belgian Chemist, Ernest Solvay of the ammonia process, which also used common table salt, or sodium chloride, to make soda ash. Solvay's process further reduced the cost of obtaining this alkali, and increased the quality and quantity of the soda ash that is available for manufacturing soap. An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. Originally, the alkali is used in soap making were obtained from the ashes of plants, but they now a days they are now made commercially.
Based in scientific discoveries and the improvement of power to operate some factories, soap making is one of the America’s fastest-growing industries back in 1850. As time went by, the use of soap has changed from being a luxury item to an everyday necessity. With this, the improvement of the milder soaps for bathing and soaps for washing machines that were available to consumers.
Back in seventh century in Europe, Soap making was an established craft. Soap maker used vegetable and animals oil with ashes of plants for the fragrance of the soap. In this century the soap became available in different used. Example for shaving, shampooing, bathing and as well as laundering.
During 12th century the center of soap manufacturing was Italy, Spain and France because they are a lot and ready supply of raw materials such as oil from olive trees which is used in manufacturing a soap. During 12th century the English began to start a soap business. The English business became successful and it was good because of the business were successful, in 1962 King James I granted a monopoly for the soap maker for about $100,00 every year. In 19th century the soap was heavily taxed because it’s a luxury item in several countries. But when the high tax was removed, soap became available to ordinary people and the cleanliness standards were improved.
The ingredients of soap manufacturing stayed essentially the same until 1916, because of WWI they’ve experienced shortage of fats which is used for making soap. The first synthetic detergent was developed in Germany which is the solution in their problem. Synthetic detergents are the non-soap washing and cleaning products that are synthesized.
In the early 1930’s the household detergent production began in the United States. The first detergents were used for hand dishwashing and fine fabric laundering. The development of detergents for all-purpose laundry uses came in 1946. The ingredients that used in the first built detergent was a surfactant/builder combination and it was introduced in the U.S. Surfactant means a basic cleaning ingredient in manufacturing detergent product’s. While the builder helps the surfactant to be more effective and efficiently. Phosphate compounds used as builders which is can used to improve the performance.

Related Studies In recent years, more attention has been paid to exposure of the general population to household products. In order to assess exposure, it is necessary to generate exposure data. For this reason, a preliminary study of dishwashing liquid contact on Brest university students was performed.
Dishwashing liquid is frequently used and when it is improperly mixed it can liberate harmful molecules. As for university students, they may have a repetitive contact with dishwashing liquid during their academic studies.
Relevant parameters as frequency of dishwashing, duration, and amount of dishwashing liquid were assessed from questionnaires and laboratory tests. Tests revealed that overall no difference between the sexes and the type of residential household on dishwashing was present on this population.
Amount of washed items and duration was significantly correlated, which could seem logical but remarkable considering the lack of correlation between other parameters. Values of 1.39 and 58.8 μg/kg bw/day for the 95th percentile of dermal and inhalation probabilistic exposure were found, respectively.
Dermal exposure coincides with deterministic published data. In the case of inhalation exposure no published data are available. Higher inhalation exposure value may show that dermal exposure is diminished by high dilution of dishwashing liquid in water.

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH DESIGN

This chapter presents the Research Design that comprises the research instrument, data gathering procedure, statistical treatment of data, and the tools used for data analysis.

Research Design In this study, the researcher will use the two group design to find out if there is a significant difference between the effectiveness of jute dishwashing soap and the commercial dishwashing soap. In the experiment the independent variable is the dishwashing soap that is made of jute extract and the dependent variable is the measured zone of inhibition.
Materials and Tools The materials and tools which will be used by the researcher are cooking stove, stirring rod, beaker, face mask, petri dish, 1.4 kg MC GEL, 300 g industrial salt, 30 mL colorant, 30 mL scent, 120 mL BC-06-grease cutter, 500 mL bubble enhancer, 15 mL anti-bacterial, 11.6 liters purified water, and 15 mL preservative.

Procedure The Set-up The following set-up will be prepared in the study: * Control = Distilled Water

+ Control = Commercial
Dishwashing Soap

Jute extract dishwashing soap

Preparation of Jute Extract Jute will be bought, washed and cleaned. The 50 grams jute will be squeezed and be placed in a beaker.

Production of the Dishwashing Soap In the production of soap, there will be only one treatment to prepare. The treatment is prepared by mixing MC gel with 150 grams of industrial salt. After which purified water, colorant and scent are added, mixing it with BC-06, antibacterial, bubble enhancer, and preservatives. Then, the remaining 150 grams industrial salt should be diluted to 300 mL mixing it with purified water. The mixed solution shall be left for 24 hours and then finally, it shall be packed into a bottle and be sealed.

Data Gathering Instrument The observation method was used in this study. This method is process in which the researcher observes.

Statistical Treatment The researcher will make use of mean and t-test for two-independent sample in determining the significant difference in the effectiveness of the dishwashing soap products .

REFERENCES

Exposure to Dishwashing Liquid Assessed in University Students from Brest City: A Preliminary Study—A First Approach to Household Products Exposure in France. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807039.2013.879018 on September 12, 2015.
Janna Mae A. Colman, John Paolo S. Barrameda.Renzett Garcia (2013). History of Soaps & Detergents. Kahel: Dishwashing Liquid from Orange Peelings. Retrieved September 12, 2015 from http://kahelito2013.blogspot.com/2013/10/kahel-dishwashing-liquid-from-orange.html.
(May 2010). How To Make Dishwashing Liquid. The Filipino Entrepeneur Retrieved December 14, 2015 from http://www.filentrep.com/home-based-business/dishwashing-liquid.htm.

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Baking

...HISTORY OF BAKING On today’s market there is a never ending variety of the most delicious sweets and pastries to please both the palate and the eyes. We have become so used to this diverse range of bread, mouth watering pastries and cakes that seldom we ask just how they come into existence. I guess my initial interest in the origin of the baking industry was not aroused by accident; rather I suspect it was kindled by a chain of events occurring earlier in my life... My Grandfather owned a small hotel and bakery in Switzerland and when he retired my father who was an excellent pastry cook continued the business. As a small child I spent many hours watching my dad at work and later followed in his footsteps almost as a matter of course. Then again, I have a suspicion that it may have been “fate-by-design” that made me take up pastry-cooking. The question still remains, was my career pre-determined by the fact that my grandfather had thousands of letterheads printed for his bakery which included his name? The prospect of a hefty quantity discount would no doubt have made perfect sense to my frugal fore bearer; it must have been so much cheaper getting all this printing done in a big way. Grandfather should have realised (and I suspect that he might have) that there was not the slightest chance that any one generation could ever use up this huge mountain of stationery. Granddad’s first name “Fritz” was also my father’s first name and when I was born there was never any question...

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