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Organizational Development Practitioner Tools

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The Johari Window model is made up of 4 sections and is used to identify individual interpersonal communication styles. The model is a quad-chart with each square representing a specific area of knowledge about oneself. The first area of the model is the public area. This area is a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are known to others. This is what we think of as our public image or persona. Brown suggests that the larger that this area is for a person, then the more effective communication will be. The second area of the model is what is referred to as the blind area. These are the behaviors, thoughts and feelings that characterize a person that are not known to the person, but are generally thought of by others. These are the mannerisms and habits exhibited by someone that the person is unaware of. The third area of the model is the closed area. The closed area is the thoughts, feelings, and other characteristics known only to the person who possesses them. These are characteristics that are only apparent to others if they are disclosed. People go to great lengths to broaden their closed area in order to what they perceive as protect themselves. The fourth and final area of the model is the unknown area. This area is characterized as the thoughts, feelings, and characteristics that are hidden to the individual and others around them. These are psychologists refer to as deeply repressed or unconscious behaviors and feelings. We may gradually become more aware of this area within ourselves as time goes on.

Chapter 9 Review Question #7: Organizational development is broken up into 5 stages. The first step is to anticipate the need for change. Every organization must identify that they need to change for them to be successful. Managers must feel what Brown calls, a “disequilibrium” in order to begin change implementation. Brown identifies that managers must be sensitive to the outside competitive environment. The second stage of organizational development is to develop a practitioner-client relationship. This relationship is crucial because it determines the probable success or failure of any future organizational change. During this stage, the practitioner needs to establish an open line of communication and set the groundwork for future interactions. The third stage in the organizational development process is the diagnostic process. This is the stage where the organizational practitioner begins to collect data in order to provide him or herself with the most comprehensive understanding of the situation that they are in. It is important for the practitioner to question the clients diagnosis of their organization because that client bias within the organization. The fourth stage of the process is the actions, plans, strategies, and techniques stage. These are the operational responses to the data collected and diagnoses made in the diagnostic process. Brown notes that this is the stage that will have the most time spent on it out of all of the stages. The final stage of the organizational process is the self-renewal, monitor, and stabilize stage. This stage is characterized as the time to monitor the results of the changes made, and also take the necessary actions to stabilize

the changes. The ideal OD program has self-renewal systems built into it so that the client can optimize their change

Chapter 10 Review Question #1: Brown describes the factors that take away from a team’s effectiveness as “operating problems.” If these “operating problems” are diminished or do not exist at all, then a team will operate effectively. Firstly, Brown assert that a team with 5 to 7 members is at its most effective size. A team with a goal will allow for focus and a group understanding of what needs to be accomplished. Teams can often lose their sense of purpose and direction. A team with a goal can rectify problems with focus and thus, will be more effective. When a team does not cloud their ability to accomplish their goals with member needs, the team can be effective. Member needs are often prioritized against the greater goals of the team. Brown notes that norms must be developed amongst a team. This being said, the norms that are established need not to promote antisocial behavior amongst the team. This will cause a lack of effectiveness amongst the team members. Members of a team also need to be of diverse mindsets to maximize effectiveness. When a team is made up of like-minded people, the ideas generated from the group with be homogenous and lack balance. A decision making process needs to be established within a group. Brown notes that there are multiple methods to decide this like majority, authority, or unanimously. A

team that cannot make decisions and move on will lack effectiveness. This is usually the result of the lack of another crucial characteristic of an effective team, leadership. With what Brown has described as characteristics of an effective team, I cannot honestly identify a golf “team” as a team. They are a group because they are members who operate independently and compete on an individual basis without impacting their “teammates.”

Chapter 10 Review Question #5: According to Brown, the team development process is made up of six steps aimed at the task or work agenda of the group and the processes that the members negotiate their tasks. The first step is to initiate the team development meeting. In this step, members of the team can discuss their level of in which they support team development. The discussion of whether a team is even necessary to accomplish the given task is also discussed. The second step is setting objectives. This step is where broad objectives are created. Certain team building questions can be answered in this stage like, what does the team want to accomplish, or how will team will be measured or evaluated? The third step in the process is collecting data. Brown notes that it is best that as much information as possible is collected before the initial meeting. Questionnaires can be given to members during initial meetings to increase data. A practitioner can also hold meetings with smaller groups within the team to collect data.

The fourth step in the process is to plan the meeting. The planning takes place after the data that has been collected has been analyzed. The arrangement of the time and place and any other logistical considerations are accomplished during this step. This step is crucial in meeting the previously identified needs of the members.
The fifth step is to conduct the meeting. Brown asserts that these meetings usually last two to three days. It is recommended that these meetings be held at an offsite location away from where any business is usually held. This is to promote an equal plane in which all members are now on for the duration of the meeting.
The sixth and final step is to reflect and evaluate the team development process. This is the time where action items are determined to be effective or not. The team as a whole reflects on how to resolve ongoing problems and how to continue to improve in the future.

Summary/Reflection: This week’s readings focused on the importance and building of teams and the role in which organizational practitioners play in increasing and maintaining effectiveness. While I understand the intent behind having an organizational practitioner perform team building using a variety of techniques, I also believe that teams cannot be built to their highest potential effectiveness through inorganic means, like an organizational practitioner’s intervention. I believe that teams are built best from within by coming together to achieve by having proper leadership and guidance given from a higher level. Teams who are subjected to an outsider putting them through offsite “team-

building exercises often look at the intervention as a hassle and will go through the motions because it is part of the job. I think time together working through tasks while struggling together as a team is the ultimate team builder. The idea of an organizational practitioner’s interventions building a team feels corny and forced to me. I thought the most interesting part of this week’s lesson was Brown’s notes on laboratory learning. I think the idea of having your “blind spots” exposed to you is an excellent tool for personal development and can build you into a more effective team member in any setting by giving you a better idea of how you affect others around you.
The humility built through the laboratory learning is a very powerful virtue because it allows you to stay grounded and gives you a better understanding of how you fit into your role in whatever organizational environment you find yourself in.

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