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专家系列讲座 第二讲 护理综述论文的书写

李晓惠

护理综述论文简称综述(review),是指围绕护理学中某一专题收集、查阅大量的近五年的护理文献资料,并对其进行整理、归纳、分析、整合后所撰写而成的综合性护理学术文章。护理综述的内容可以是多种多样的,它可以是基础护理中一个理论或学说,也可以是护理学中的某一个分支领域或专科护理中的一个专题,还可以是一种护理操作技术或方法。总之,护理综述论文是用纵向或横向的角度来比较和高度归纳概括某一问题的历史背景和迁移、研究现状及发展动态,同时还常常带有作者本人恰如其分的评论。因此,综述充分体现出专题性、概括性、综合性、评论性和超前性。护理综述论文的篇幅一般5000字左右,也可长达数万字。护理综述论文的写作分为以下几个步骤,见图1。
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图1护理综述论文写作步骤 1选题护理学是一门独立的应用学科,护理综述的选题范围包括护理基础理论、临床护理、护理技术操作、护理管理、护理教育、社区护理等方面的问题。护理综述选题是撰写综述的第一步,选题是否恰当,直接关系到综述质量的好坏和价值的高低。一般而言,选题应根据目的而定的,并应遵循一定的选题原则。即明确综述目的、力求立题创新、善用自已所长,这些原则都是综述选题的关键。
2收集资料综述题目选定后,紧接着就是要大量收集与选题有关的中文和外文文献。这一过程称为资料收集过程。文献数量的多少是决定综述内容是否新颖的基础,也是衡量综述质量重要指标之一。因此收集的资料越新越多越全越好。在收集文献时,要特别注意文献的发表时间。为了使综述能够反映某一护理理论或护理技术操作的新观点、新方法和新技术,应保证所选文献是近期的。要收集近几年发表的原始文献。尤其是强调"新进展"时则应选取近2~3年内的新文献。当然,也应根据综述的时限要求进行文献收集。
3阅读文献文献阅读是综述的基础工作,只有在大量阅读的基础上,才能较全面地了解某一护理问题。文献阅读包括精读和泛读。要求在广泛阅读的基础上,还应对有创新性、权威性、或质量好的文献进行精读、细读和反复阅读。在精读和泛读过程中,要特别注意写好读书笔记,为综述的写作做好资料准备。
4整理资料与拟定提纲
在确定选题、收集和阅读文献之后,就应对文献进行综合分析、归纳整理并拟定写作提纲。在整理归纳资料时,应进行合理的、适当的取舍。即去粗取精、去伪存真。要选取理论意义强和实践意义大的文献资料,舍弃意义不大的文献。最后,在拟定提纲时,应对综述的每一部分的标题和内容加以确定和明确。如引言部分的概要,中心部分的主要内容及小标题,小结的内容和结尾。大体设计出综述的框架,以保证在写作之前做到心中有数。请见下例提纲格式案例参考。
[提纲格式参考: 原文摘自王素婷等,胰岛素应用方式的研究进展.南方护理学报,2003;10(3)21-22。]
题目:《胰岛素应用方式的研究进展》
前言部分:概述胰岛素对糖尿病患者治疗的重要性,并指出目前胰岛素应用中存在的主要问题,以此确立本综述的立题依据和本综述的目的。
中心部分:
1皮下注射胰岛素治疗方法的研究近况
1.1胰岛素皮下注射解剖部位的选择
1.2胰岛素皮下注射角度的选择
1.3胰岛素皮下注射时间的选择
1.4胰岛素皮下注射使用工具
1.4.1胰岛素笔
1.4.2喷射式胰岛素注射器
1.4.3皮下胰岛素注射泵
2胰岛素其他应用方式的研究近况及进展
2.1植入式胰岛素输入泵
2.2鼻腔内给药法
2.3气雾吸入疗法
2.4口服胰岛素药丸研制 小结部分:依据注射与非注射胰岛素各种使用方法的比较,或胰岛素传统应用方式与新的应用方式进展的比较。指出目前哪一种胰岛素应用方式是比较简便、准确、安全。并预测未来胰岛素应用方式的发展动向。
参考文献部分
5综述写作格式与内容护理综述论文的写作格式与其他医学文献综述论文的格式一样,分为:题目、作者署名和单位、摘要、关键词和正文等五大部分。通常摘要部分可省去。正文又包括:前言部分、中心部分、小结(总结)部分和参考文献部分,其写作格式与内容请见表1。有关题目、作者署名和单位、摘要、关键词等内容可参考护理科研论文的写作要求。 表1综述写作格式、内容与常见问题 正文部分格式 内 容 与 要 求 常 见 问 题
引言 前言是综述写作的开始,具有概括和点题的作用, 1.大量描述与本文综述无关的内容
(前言) 主要内容包括: 2.引言篇幅过长,将中心部分的内容写入引言 1.叙述综述有关护理问题的概念 2.概述目前有关护理问题的现状、存在的问题和未来趋势 3.指出本文立题的依据和综述目的

中心部分 1.中心部分的常用写作方法是通过提出问题、分析问题和 1.对所提出的问题概念不清楚
(核心部分) 解决问题的过程,叙述各家的观点,尤其是不同的观点(也 2.对论述问题不明确 可以适当结合作者自己的观点),从不同的角度叙述本专题 3.对不同的观点,只介绍与自己观点相同的, 的历史背景、现状、存在的问题、解决问题的方法及发展方向 而不描述否定意见 2.中心部分的框架一般是按照所拟定的写作提纲进行,中心 4.没有客观地反映原作者的论点和实验结果 部分可以由几部分组成,每部分又可以冠以小标题 小结部分 1.小结部分应是概括性地总结综述中心部分提出的各种观点 1.小结的内容与中心部分无关
(总结) 研究结果、结论,并加以比较,从而指出未来的发展趋势 2.没有归纳总结文献的观点、结果和结论, 2.小结部分应与前言部分相呼应,即小结对前言部分提出的 而是仅仅叙述自己的观点和看法 问题应给予一个较明确的答案或回答 3.缺少小结部分 3.小结用词要恰如其分,留有余地 参考文献 参考文献的质量和数量可反映综述的质量 1.引用的参考文献较陈旧或缺乏权威性 1.参考文献的质量要求:与护理科研论文的要求一样 2.引用与本文研究问题不密切的文献 2.参考文献的数量要求:与其它护理论文相比,护理综述参考 3.不是作者亲自阅读过的原文文献 文献相对比较多,国内期刊一般要求列出主要参考文献15~30篇 4.不是公开发表的文献

6综述范文分析
《高血压病人服药依从性的研究进展》一文综述是一篇小型综述。全文分为引言部分、中心部分、小结部分和参考文献,详见附录原文。(原文摘自:肖惠敏等,高血压病人服药依从性的研究进展.中华护理杂志,2003,38(1):46-47)
6.1题目本篇综述题目非常具体、简洁,引人注目。通过题目,使读者对本综述的中心内容一目了然。
6.2引言部分本篇综述利用引言概述了降压药对高血压病人治疗的有效性和重要性,并指出患者服药依从性差是高血压病人血压得不到有效控制的一个重要原因,同时也是目前高血压病人治疗中存在的主要问题,以此确立了本综述的立题依据。而了解服药依从性差的原因、提高服药依从性的措施及如何评价服药依从性是本综述的目的。引言部分语言精练、开门见山。
6.3中心部分综述中心部分由四部分组成。第一部分是依从性概念的描述,该部分详细介绍了依从性的定义,这一部分也可放在引言里;第二部分介绍了评价服药依从性的常用方法。作者主要比较了三种评价服药依从性的方法,并指出了每种方法的特点与不足,另外还介绍了国内近几年采用询问与调查方法评价高血压病人服药依从性的新方法;第三部分介绍了服药依从性差的原因;第四部分概述了提高服药依从性的措施。整个中心部分层次分明、结构严谨、内容丰富。作者通过中心部分的叙述,使读者能全面地了解高血压病人服药依从性差的有关原因、提高服药依从性的有关措施及评价高血压病人服药依从性的方法。为护士选择评价高血压病人服药依从性的方法,和采用提高服药依从性的有关措施提供了科学依据。故本篇综述具有一定的实践意义。
6.4小结部分本篇综述的小结部分概述了影响高血压病人服药依从性的主要因素是病人的知识信念、治疗方案、护患关系、降压药的副作用等因素,并预测今后研究病人的社会心理因素对服药依从性的影响及探讨提高高血压病人非药物治疗依从性的课题是今后的研究趋势。小结内容与引言部分相呼应。
6.5参考文献(因篇幅所限,未将其具体列出)本综述共查阅中外文文献共18篇。其中11篇为外文文献,7篇为中文文献。11篇是近5年内发表的,故其参考文献的质量较高。 附录
高血压病人服药依从性的研究进展
肖惠敏 姜小鹰 陈晓春 高血压是最常见的心血管病,是全球范围内的重大公共卫生问题,推测我国现有高血压病人约1亿人。随着降压药的不断更新换代,现有的降血压药能使90%以上的高血压病人血压控制在正常水平,但在高血压人群中,血压正常率并不高,美国1988~1991年的调查为27%,英国最近的调查为6%[1],北京方庄的调查为18.5%[2]。可见,目前高血压的控制仍是一个棘手问题。原因是多方面的,其中病人的服药依从性差是血压得不到有效控制的一个重要原因。
1依从性的定义1976年Scakett等定义依从性为"病人的行为在药物、饮食、生活方式改变的方面与医学指引的意见相一致的程序"[3]。"遵医行为"这个术语,我国最早是由阮芳赋教授译出并使用的。他指出遵医行为是在治疗和预防疾病方面,病人的行为与医生的处方相符合的程度。从现代健康概念出发,遵医行为分为二类:一是病人对医疗措施的遵从:二是为防止疾病的发生,对健康教育与行为指导,避免危险因素的预防措施的遵从。本文侧重于阐明高血压病人的服药依从性。服药依从性是指病人的服药行为与医嘱的一致性。
2评价服药依从性的常用方法
2.1检测血、尿中药物、代谢产物的浓度[5]:通过实验指标的检测,评估病人是否按时、按剂量服药的一种方法。优点是客观正确,但费用昂贵,病人不易接受,因而难以普遍应用。
2.2药片计数[6]:随访时由医护人员计算剩余药片、胶囊的数目,或称量剩余药。这是一种较客观、准确的方法,但其局限性在于无法证实实际上病人服用多少药物、用法是否正确。此方法在评估精神病人治疗依从性中广泛应用,是否也适用于高血压病人治疗依从性的测评有待证实。
2.3询问与调查病人服药情况[7]:病人报告自己用药情况,包括已用药物种类、数量及原因。这是最常用的方法,但自我报告的依从性受调查表可靠性的影响,有时可能过高地估计用药的依从性。近年来,国内采用询问与调查方法评价高血压病人依从性的方法主要有以下3中:①范维虎等[8]提出高血压病人凡1年中服用降压药时间在3/4以上者为规则服药,不到3/4者为不规则服药。这个指标可初步确定服药情况,但欠全面。显然,病人的服药依从性不仅表现在服药时间上,还体现在服药的剂量等方面。②叶晓青等[9]从高血压病人是否按医嘱定时服药、服药次数、服药剂量、坚持长期不间断服药4个方面完善了评价高血压病人服药依从性的指标,但问题的设计不够完美,容易使病人产生抵触心理,从而拒绝回答。③戴俊民等[10]引进MORISKY推荐的评价高血压病人服药依从性的4个问题:你是否有忘记服药的经历?你是否有时不注意服药?当你自觉症状改善时,是否曾停药?当你服药自觉症状更坏时,是否曾停药?则比较巧妙地解决了问题设计上的不足。
3服药依从性差的原因
3.1知识:调查提示有好的疾病知识,并不一定具有好的服药依从性,相反高血压病知识得分愈高者,服药依从性愈差[11]。可见,治疗方案的详细解释对于正确执行方案很重要,但信息本身并不增强病人的依从性。
3.2态度与信念[12]:以病人的感受为核心基础的健康信念模式,认为病人主观感受患某病的危害越高时,病人采取遵从医嘱行为的可能性越大,病人认为采取遵守医嘱行为将获得利益时,病人的依从性越高。
3.3治疗方案的特征[13]:用药种类越多,每日用药次数越多,方法越复杂,疗程越长,服药依从性越低;即1天只需服药1次的病人,其服药依从性最好。
3.4害怕药物的副作用[14]:高血压病人中有相当一部分人,由于害怕药物的副作用,如脚面浮肿、干咳、低血压导致的头痛等,而自行减量或停药,造成血压反跳,病情反复无常。
3.5老年高血压病人依从性差还有其特殊性[15]:一是记忆力减退,认识分辨能力差;二是经济原因,老年人经济收入减少,无法支付药品费用;三是亲属对其关心不够,不能及时督促老人按时服药。
4提高服药依从性的措施
4.1开展健康教育:健康教育是预防和控制高血压病的基础和前提。健康教育效果直接影响高血压病人的健康信念模式。而正确的健康信念,有利于病人的服药依从性[16]。因此,在护理活动中,护理人员可通过个别咨询、书面指导、团体指导等方式加强宣教,提高病人对高血压的危险因素、并发症、预后和规则药物治疗的重要意义等相关知识的认识,帮助病人树立正确的健康信念,促进高血压的有效控制。
4.2建立伙伴式的护患关系:护理人员要明确高血压病的护理目的,不是单纯的降低血压,而要着眼于护理一个高血压病人。合作性护患关系的建立,不仅有利于护理活动的开展,更重要的是为医护人员尊重、体谅、理解病人,病人信任医护人员,有利于提高病人的服药依从性[17]。
4.3最大限度地简化治疗方案[18]:由于高血压病的治疗是长期的,甚至终身的过程。复杂的治疗方案,病人常常难以坚持。应提倡择副作用低、廉价、长效的控释片剂,有利于提高病人的依从性。
4.4行为的治疗措施[4]:①行为监测:要求病人记服药日记、病情自我观察记录等。②刺激与控制:将病人的服药行为与日常生活习惯联系起来,如设置闹钟提醒服药时间。③强化行为:即当病人依从性好时给以肯定,反之依从性差是给以批评。
5展望今后的研究趋势高血压是常见的慢性病,不仅患病率高,且可引起严重的心、脑、肾并发症。病人的依从性行为直接关系到高血压的病情发展和治疗效果。研究表明高血压病人的知识信念、高血压病的治疗方案、护患关系、降压药的副作用等因素影响病人的依从性,而病人的社会心理因素对其服药依从性又是如何作用的,是对生物-心理-社会医学模式提出的挑战,有待进一步探索。此外,提高血压病人非药物治疗依从性也是今后研究的课题。

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...A Guide for Writing a Technical Research Paper Libby Shoop Macalester College, Mathematics and Computer Science Department 1 Introduction This document provides you with some tips and some resources to help you write a technical research paper, such as you might write for your required capstone project paper. First, congratulations are in order– you are embarking on an activity that is going to change the way you think and add to the overall body of human knowledge. The skill of gathering information, deciding what is important, and writing about it for someone else is extremely valuable and will stay with you for the rest of your life. Because we humans have been doing this for quite some time, we have some reasonably standard forms for technical research papers, which you should use for your capstone. You should do this because your paper will better understood by readers who are familiar with this form. Before you can begin writing your paper, you need to have a sense for what research entails, so I’ll start there. Then I will give you some tips about writing, including connecting with your readers, defining your topic, the format of your paper, and how to include references from the literature. I am a computer scientist, so be aware that parts of this paper are biased toward my discipline. 2 What is Research? A short definition of research, as given by Booth, Colomb, and Williams (Booth et al., 1995) is “gathering the information you need to answer...

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...are often used interchangeably to describe work which previously was done with paper, but which now has been adapted to information & communication technology (ICT) devices and software. The Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) has defined information technology (IT) in the electronic era as "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT entails processes involving the use of computers and software to create, convert, store, process, transmit, and retrieve information securely. The term has recently been broadened to ICT (Information and Communications Technology), so as to include the idea of electronic communication. To be paperless means essentially that the traditional paper-based practices-such as writing, note taking, reading, editing, communicating, and even drawing-are instead performed electronically with ICT devices and software. Much has been said and written about the paperless office in recent years, and the rapid development of ICT is enabling an increasing number of paperless practices. The relationship between paperless work styles and ICT is intimate and interdependent; a paperless work and lifestyle cannot be implemented without ICT, and the use of ICT should naturally lead to becoming paperless. Paradoxically, however, the consumption of paper has increased exponentially since the advent of personal...

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...Learning Letter To be honest I’ve never been an excellent writer. When it comes to writing a paper for high school classes, scholarships, and basically everything else I’ve always had trouble with starting my paper and figuring out what to write about my topic. However, choosing a topic has never been a problem for me because I’m passionate about many different things. Whenever I would write a paper in high school I usually wouldn’t spend much time on it because of a couple different reasons, either the teacher chose a topic for me and I simply wasn’t very interested, and also because of procrastination. I believe this class will help me become interested in writing which will motivate me to do the work. As a person I’ve always been more of a reader than a writer. I started reading fantasies like the Lord of the Rings novels at a young age. During my freshmen year of high school I was introduced to writers and poets like Charles Bukowski, Allen Ginsberg, and Hunter S Thompson, and I’ve been reading similar works ever since. One thing that I’ve always wanted to do with writing is being able to write poetry similar to Bukowski. I’m hoping this class can help with that. Even though this class is obviously required to take I’m excited to be in it so I can improve on the things that I struggle with in writing. By the end of this quarter I want to be able to choose a topic, start the paper with ease, and also be able to generate ideas about the topic easily. I’m excited to see what...

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...Peer review for Zunwang Liu’s Draft By Guanyi Pan Summary: -the author analyzed the EJBR, and talk about its characteristics such as the length of the article, design of each journal, the audience of the journal, the tones of the articles and so on. Then she perorates that EBR is a example of text that can help us to learn the characteristic of discourse community with readers of JEBR actively share goals and communicate with others to pursue goals. Major point: Observation: the main point of the introduction is unclear. The analyzing parts in the paper is OK. The whole paper is talking about the EJBR. But it is hard to find a conclusion about them. 2. Do not have page number. 3. Observation: lack of the purpose of analyzing Location: page:page 2 Suggestion: After analyzing the length and other formats of EJBR, the author does not give a conclusion of them. So I am confused about why she wrote this, and what is the purpose of it. 4.Observation: unclear object Location: page 3 Suggestion: When the author talks about the audience of the journal, she only wrote “expert members”. I think she should point out what kind of the experts they are. 5. Observation: Need more examples in details. Location: page 5 Suggestion: I think there should be some examples to define about the gatekeeping of this journal. Minor Point: 1.There are some grammar problems and most of them have been corrected by last peer viewer. 2. The in-text citation format is not total correct. 3....

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...students will reflect on what they are thankful for, and visually present it by creating a placemat to use on their Thanksgiving table. Materials Pencil Paper Construction paper with leaves Construction paper with lines Large construction paper in various colors Glue Scissors Butcher paper Procedure: Beginning Teacher will instruct students to write a list of things they are thankful for. Once the list is written, the students will be handed a sheet of construction paper with the outlines of four different shapes of leaves on it. The students will cut out the leaves, and choose four things they are thankful for to copy down onto the leaves. Middle Once the leaves are finished, the students will be given three more sheets of construction paper; one large sheet, and two with lines on it to cut into strips. Students will be instructed to fold the long sheet in half, and cut from the fold to one inch away from the edge. The teacher will model this so there are few errors. Students will cut the other sheets of paper into strips along the drawn lines. Students will weave the strips of paper into the large sheet of paper, creating a placemat Once all strips are woven in, the students will glue the four leaves with what they are thankful for on them. End The students will place their placemats on a sheet of butcher paper in the back of the room to dry Once all students have finished, teacher will lead a discussion with the students to talk about what they are thankful...

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...match the genre of the writing that the position would involve. For example, if you are applying for journalism positions, submit “clips”—actual articles that have been published in a campus newspaper, blog, or other publication. For a research position, submit an in-depth analysis of an issue or a topic. For a PR position, submit a press release that you have written from a previous internship or as the marketing chair of a campus group. If you don’t have any, you can write a press release for an upcoming event (just make sure you specify that it has not been published). Submit your best writing. If you are deciding between two papers you have written, and one is better written than the other but your weaker paper is topically more relevant, then choose the paper that is better written to submit. The other option is to rewrite the relevant paper to be stronger before you submit it. Remember, it’s your writing skills that the employer is assessing, and being topically relevant is just an added bonus. Provide excerpts if your samples are long. Most employers will specify how many pages...

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...free account Copy & PaCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste Your PaperCopy & Paste...

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...‘ My Reflection Letter” I feel like my writing has come along way however this class has given Me the opportunity to see that I need a lot of improvement in my grammar. But it as help me learn to take better notes while reading .I feel that I have learned a lot thus far in English- 090. However in the past, I have always felt afraid to express myself when writing. This I know is a very important aspect of composing and have been very critical of myself. I have always expected to strive to do my best . I put effort and thought into each assignment. However writing the first paper that was given , It really helped me to understand that most people don’t get it right their first try. Initially I would approach it as preparing my writing down note. Next, I proof read my work and correct the grammar and punctuation. Often, I will have someone read it for composition and clarification of my sentences. Finally, I would prepare my final copy. I have felt so much less pressure knowing that my writings don’t have to be perfect the first time. This is why I really like how you give us the opportunity to revise our essays as many times as we need to get them to our satisfaction. I know that I’m never content Often it reaches the point when I get frustrated and think, “Okay, I need to stop stressing over this. My biggest Road blocks does not allow me to think of ideas fast enough. As writing, one thing I really need to work on is organizing my thoughts...

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...Technology(IJAET) ISSN 2231-1963 CALL FOR PAPER IJAET is a carefully refereed international publication. Contributions of high technical merit are to span the breadth of Engineering disciplines; covering the main areas of engineering and advances in technology. IJAET publishes contributions under Regular papers, Invited review papers, Short communications, Technical notes, and Letters to the editor. Book reviews, reports of and/or call for papers of conferences, symposia and meetings could also be published in this Journal Author Benefits : • • • • • • Rapid publication Index Factors and Global education Index Ranking Inclusion in all major bibliographic databases Quality and high standards of peer review High visibility and promotion of your articles Access of publications in this journal is free of charge. PUBLICATION CHARGES: A small publication fee of INR3500 upto 10 pages is charged for Indian author and for foreign author is USD 100 upto 10 pages for every accepted manuscript to be published in this journal. All the transaction Charges will be paid by Author (Inter Banking Charges, draft). Submission Guidelines: Guidelines Authors are kindly invited to submit their full text papers including conclusions, results, tables, figures and references. • The text paper must be according to IJAET Paper format and paper format can download from our website (www.ijaet.org).The Full text papers will be accepted in only .doc format. • The papers are sent to the reviewers for...

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...How to Make Charcoal from Paper By Karren Doll Tolliver, eHow Contributor Homemade paper charcoal briquettes can be used in backyard grills.  Commercial charcoal for grilling food is expensive and can be harmful to the environment. However, industrious do-it-yourselves can make their own "charcoal" from newspaper. This reduces the amount of newspaper refuse as well as the amount of commercial charcoal consumed. In addition, no lighter fluid is needed with the homemade charcoal paper. Therefore, petroleum-based products are also conserved. Making your own charcoal takes only water and a washtub. The time spent forming the charcoal paper briquettes is negligible, although they need to dry for a couple of days in the sun. Things You'll Need • Washtub • Water • Old newspaper Instructions 1 Tear the old newspaper into pieces about the size of your hand or smaller. 2 Place all the torn newspaper pieces in the washtub. Cover with water and let sit for at least one hour. The newspaper will be ready when it is thoroughly saturated with water and is mushy to the touch. 3 Grab a large handful of the mushy newspaper. Form it into a ball about the size of a golf ball or ping pong ball, squeezing out as much water as you can. Repeat until all the mushy newspaper is in ball form. Discard the water. 4 Place the wet newspaper balls in the sun for at least two days. Do not let them get rained on. They must be completely dry and brittle. At this point they are ready for use in the same...

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...Leonie Oakes, ‘With Shadows that were their nightgowns’, 2012, maps, ephemera, antique paper, thread, letter press, screenprint, shellac, dye, ribbon. Model: Philly Hanson-Viney. Photographer: Bernie Carr Winner of 2012 Sustainable Fashion Award: Leonie Oakes, ‘With Shadows that were their nightgowns’, 2012, maps, ephemera, antique paper, thread, letter press, screenprint, shellac, dye, ribbon. Model: Philly Hanson-Viney. Photographer: Bernie Carr For the past 70 years Burnie has been a paper making town. The papermaking tradition is kept alive by local artists and artisans. Following the great success of the inaugural 2012 Paper on Skin competition, our aim is to further foster and promote the cultural paper heritage of our town by presenting innovative and wearable paper apparel. The competition celebrates Burnie's proud tradition as a papermaking town by presenting innovative contemporary wearable paper art. Burnie based artist, Pam Thorne, had for a long time harbored the idea of a competition for wearable paper art. In 2011 Pam and Burnie Arts Council approached the Burnie Regional Art Gallery with this idea. After some lively brain storming the paper on skin Betta Milk Burnie Wearable Paper Art Competition became a reality and the inaugural competition was held in May 2012. The success was such that the involved parties decided to make this a biennial event. The 2014 paper on skin Gala Parade & Award Evening was held on Friday 11 April. Betta Milk Major...

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...the assumption that I would only have to compose simple paragraph papers while also learning the ropes of grammatical writing. I was sadly mistaken. Through the semester Josh gave the class five writing assignments. They ranged from three to five pages long. Out of all the writing assignments I received my favorite was a four page paper I had to write an allegory of myself. My least favorite was a five page paper the whole class had to write. About mid semester, when my hand only had a tingle, Josh lectured about Plato’s “A Allegory of the Cave.” Thus giving me my next challenging task he had in store. I had to compose an allegory of myself while explaining the concept of the Plato’s allegory. I had to dissect the symbolism in Plato’s allegory and prove how it coincided with my own allegory. What made this objective so interesting, yet so strenuous was the fact that my allegory had to be based upon a difficult time I have had in my life. My essay was littered with very detailed descriptors of my dreadful situation and Plato’s allegory. That is why this particular essay was my favorite. I8 was able to take a seemingly arduous task and break it down, in my own words, so that a reader would be able to comprehend “The Allegory of the Cave,” and still be able to relate to my allegory. The last essay due came just before my hand fell off. Before the class took our final exam we were obligated to write a five page paper as a whole. Josh told us we had to accomplish the task without his...

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