Free Essay

Peoples Republic of China

In: Social Issues

Submitted By sweethah75
Words 1907
Pages 8
People’s Republic of China

The People’s Republic of China: Who is in Charge

SOC 315 Cross-Cultural Perspectives

Instructor: Randall Norris

June 21, 2012

People’s Republic of China
My paper will focus on the People’s Republic of China. I will explain how the Communist Party of China came into power. While researching the Chinese Government I found the biggest problem is the government itself is based on a lie. The supreme ruling body that elects officials and makes laws is nothing more than a figure head with over 2000 members. Real power lies not with elected officials but with members of the communist party, many of whom are not in the public eye or are retired. A country would have to have been beaten down and kicked to allow this type of government to take root. In China’s case that is exactly what happened. To understand how The People’s Republic of China, or the PRC, came into power we must first look at the “Century of Humiliation”. This was a period that started with the first Opium War and continued until the end of WWII. Over this period the Chinese suffered at the hands of other countries (Mislan 2012). The Chinese were exploited by the British looking for a way into Chinese trade they offered up a highly addictive Narcotic. When the Emperor finally banned the importation of Opium half the country was addicted (Brook 2000). The British with the help of corrupted Chinese government officials won the war even against a Chinese army with superior numbers. The next insult, and more foreign transgression, came in 1856 with the Second Opium War. Imperial Britain again felt it their right to have open trade with all ports in China, Legalization of Opium, and the abolishment of import taxes on British goods in China just to name a few demands (Brook 2000). In present day terms I believe this would be like Britain telling the United States they shouldn’t have to pay any taxes on goods they ship to our country, because they profit from Heroin it should be made legal, and their
People’s Republic of China citizens should be allowed entry into our country whenever and wherever they like. These demands came at a time when Imperial Britain needed Chinese trade, the Chinese were working to abolish the large rate of addiction in their country, and the Chinese were trying to stabilize the economy in their country (Brook 2000). To add to the growing dislike of foreign governments France took up arms to ally themselves with the British. Although the United States and Russia did not join the war they supported the British as well. The Opium Wars were just the first of many events that lead to Chinese defeat by foreign powers and unbalanced treaties. By the end of WWII China had been exploited by the British, French, Japanese, Americans, and even communist Russia. China had been forced to go to war numerous times, been subjected to unequal trade agreements, lost the right to many of its lands, and even forced to endure Britain “pushing” drugs onto its citizens with no legal recourse (Brook 2000). During WWII the Chinese also suffered at the hands of the Japanese. Citizens were treated as enemies of Japan and executed, raped, and tortured. Not only were the Chinese suffering indignities in their own country they were not tolerated in other countries either. The Chinese Exclusion Act put severe restrictions on Chinese Immigration to the United States for a period over 60 years (Young 2012). At this point in history the Chinese had to feel a touch of Xenophobia. It was time for a strong nationalist party to step up. The current Communist Party attached itself to this nationalist movement, the KMT, and became known as the First United Front (Young 2012). With the kind of history China has with foreign countries there is little question why a dictatorial government could take power. The history China has with foreign powers and the abuse its people have suffered has left them wary of any kind
People’s Republic of China of foreign assistance.
The People’s Republic of China as it is known today took power shortly after WWII. On October 10, 1949, The People’s Republic of China was founded when the Civil War that arose from the split of the First United Front ended (Louisa 2012). The communist leaders who had fled the cities during an anti-communist purge had taken advantage of the fighting with Japan that arose during WWII. The Chinese Communist Party, or CCP, offered poor peasant farmers land in exchange for their loyalty (Louisa 2012). While the KMT fought the Japanese in the cities the Chinese Communist Party waited to take power from the KMT army. They used the fighting during WWII to build their power in the countryside and capture Japanese weapons (Louisa 2012). The fighting between the KMT and communist lasted for 3 years after WWII with over 1 million loyal party members finally winning and the KMT leaders fleeing the country to Taiwan (Louisa 2012).

China runs its government similar to the Nazi Germany Propaganda Machine. Although the National People’s Congress is the top branch of government it is nothing more than a “rubberstamp” and all decisions about constitutional law and leadership is made before it convenes (Bernstein & Xiaobo 2003). The real decision makers in China may not even hold office in an official capacity. The Chinese Communist Party elders are the true leaders of China. The Politburo is an elected, or chosen, group of higher up Party leaders who come together to make policy and deal with constitutional issues (Bernstein & Xiaobo 2003). The membership totals 24 men who represent China’s entire
People’s Republic of China population which is 1.4 billion (Bernstein & Xiaobo 2003). That’s 1 constituent for every 58 million people. In the United States larger states complain about their representation being equal to smaller states in the Senate. Maybe these citizens should visit China. All decisions are safe guarded from controversy by secret delegations and the appearance of uniformity. Dissent is met with swift discipline. Whenever there is significant disagreement, or rivalry, a reallocation of power and removal of the members on the “losing” side is sure to follow (Bernstein & Xiaobo 2003). The first leader and father of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, said,” Every Communist must grasp the truth. Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun” (Cohen 2008). Looking at politics in China this quote speaks like a teacher to his students since the majority of party leaders seem to follow this as truth.

I compared the Chinese Communist Party’s propaganda to that of the NAZI Party in Germany. Both hid their atrocities from the public especially the rest of the world. Both would spin events so as not to tarnish their illusions of perfection. Anyone within the group that did not agree to the majority consensus was treated as an enemy.

The Tiananmen Square Protests came in 1989. It was a buildup of conflicting ideas and desire for an end to the secret dealings and untouchable corruption that had come to represent Chinese Politics. That year became known as “Revolutions of 1989” or ”The Fall of Communism” many countries abandoned Communism and many declared an “End to the Cold War.” With this happening in the rest of the world it isn’t
People’s Republic of China surprising that China’s students and intellectuals stood up united (Mislan 2012). Political reformist Hu Yaobang was not popular among Communist Party old guard members. He was outspoken against corruption and favored a democratic government system. His death was what the Chinese government blamed for setting off the protests. Do to this the government censored the use of his name and any public mention of his name is not permitted (Cohen 2008). Zhao Ziyang, who was a supporter of Hu Yaobang, tried to resolve the conflict before it escalated. He gave a speech to the gathered protesters which promised a reconciliation and talks to commence. This would be his last public appearance he was placed on house arrest and stripped of all power shortly after the incident. Zhao like Yaobang has been removed from Chinese media, erased from their history (Cohen 2008). The day after he made his plea for the protesters to disperse Martial Law was declared and the Military was sent in. A famous picture “The Tank Man” sums up what the protesters were up against (Cohen 2008). A lone student faces down a Chinese tank refusing to move out of the way (Cohen 2008). He has never been identified (Cohen 2008). The exact number who lost their lives in the days that followed is not known, it could be in the thousands. Again the outside world punished China with trade embargos and some countries even denounced the protesters for fear of upsetting the Chinese Government.

In conclusion, Zhao Ziyang said to the protesters,” We are already old, it doesn’t matter to us anymore” (Sen & Li 2003). If he proves right and the Communist Elders allow the youth to take the reigns China may have a hope for Democracy. China needs a

People’s Republic of China new generation unrelated the past to come in and take the example of Hu Taobang and Zhao Ziyang. The children of China’s communist elite may have a different agenda than their parents. One criticism of Hu Yaobang was his tenacity in holding the children of the ruling elite responsible for their actions (Sen & Li 2003). Many Chinese Party leaders send their children to Western Universities. Children of the Elite, Princlings or the “Crown Prince Party,” have recently had to answer for transgressions. One Xi Jinping criticized the west saying, ”some foreigners with full bellies have nothing better to do than engage in finger pointing. First, China does not export revolution; second it does not export famine and poverty; and third, it does not mess around with you. So what else is there to say?” (Sen & Li 2003 p. 94). Not a very Nationalist friendly statement to make to foreign press. As Propaganda motivated as China is, I am surprised he hasn’t been held accountable. Maybe “Clown Prince Party” would have a been a better term. Maybe the children educated in our Universities will take home the ideals of freedom and democracy.

People’s Republic of China
References
Bernstein, T. & Xiaobo, L. (2003). Taxation Without Representation in Rural China. Retrieved from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10070336&ppg=67

Brook, T. (2000). Opium Regimes : China, Britain and Japan, 1839-1952. Retrieved from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10058831&ppg=46

Cohen, M. (2008). Political Philosophy: From Plato to Mao (2nd Edition).London, GBR: Retrieved from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10480004&ppg=22

Kahn, J. (2005). China to Give Memorial Rite to Hu Yaobang, Purged Reformer. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/15/international/asia/15china.html

Lim, L. (2012). A Pragmatic Priceling Next in Line to Lead China. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2012/02/14/146815991/a-pragmatic-princeling-next-in-line-to-lead-china

Mislan, D. (2012). Cross-cultural perspectives. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
China : Major Events (1978-1991). Retrieved from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/Doc?id=10449914&ppg=121

Young, M. (2012). Structure of the State. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/state_structures/64401.html

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Management People in China

...Introduction: China as a developing country, she changes a lot especially in the recent years. China had changed planning economic into market economy. After the reform of China policy, China’s gross domestic product growth rapidly. These kinds of situation bring about good opportunities for foreign investment to invest in China. Howton Ltd, is interested to take over a Chinese telecommunication company, New wonders in Shanghai, and Howton Ltd was interested in increasing its market share. Before the take over, to understand the local situation and Human Resource situation in China is very important. In term of the requirement of the Chief Executive Officer of Howton Ltd, Mr. Richard Wilson, we reported some researches and give some recommendations to Mr. Richard Wilson. The purpose of study of this report were as followings: To provide necessary information for Howton Ltd take over the local telecommunication company. Analysis the Chinese local situation for the Human Resource Department, help them to know the opportunities and threat in China. Recommend some suggestion for Howton Ltd to cope with the local situation in China, also give some recommendation for reform New Wonders’s Human Resource System. The scope of our research included all the east city of China; the emphasis of our research is Shanghai. During in the research we use interview, research on the ground, questionnaire, also get some professional report from the......

Words: 3009 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

China

...CHINA • Official name: People’s Republic of China • Capital: Beijing • Currency: Renminbi • Population: 1.35 billion • Government: Communist • Language: Mandarin HISTORY • Third largest country in the world in terms of area and population • Official Name: People’s Republic of China (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo) • Republic was established in 1949 • The name CHINA is probably derived from the Qin (Ch’in) dynasty (206-221 BC) which first unified the nation • Chinese used the name Zhonggua (Chung-kuo) which means middle country with their belief that China is in the middle of the world • China is divided into 23 provinces and 5 autonomous regions • China’s written history began during the Shang Dynasty • In 1921. the long civil war between the ruling nationalists or Kuomintang, led by the Chiang Kaishek, and the communists led by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse –Tung) RELEVANT FACTS • One in every five people in the world is Chinese. China’s population is estimated to reach a whopping 1,338,612,968 by July 2009. China’s population is four times that of the United States. • Red symbolizes happiness for the Chinese and is commonly used at Chinese festivals and other happy occasions such as birthdays and weddings • China’s “one child” policy has contributed to female infanticide and has created a significant gender imbalance. There are currently 32 million more boys than girls in China. In the future, tens of millions of men will be unable to find wives,......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

China

...Reasons why China is unique: 1. Population: The population of China is 1,321,290,000 and it is the most populated country in planet earth followed by India. 2. Due to this high population the People’s Republic of China is the only country that has introduced the one child policy to control the high amount of births. The policy allows many exceptions: rural families can have a second child if the first child is a girl or is disabled, and ethnic minorities are exempt. 3. China is the great economic success story of the past decade 4. Adapting to its rise will pose a challenge to the political, economic and even moral bases of the current international order. It will have an impact on the security architecture of Asia and the Far East, the so called China Effect. 5. Chinese growth is built on a unique but unsustainable model- impossible high levels of export growth largely driven by assembling half- completed imported goods, state driven capital accumulation and cheap labor with very low productivity, little technical innovation and the absence of an appropriate business culture or legal structure. 6. World’s largest exporter: China's exports rose at an annual rate of 7.9% in 2013, while imports grew 7.3%. 7. In 2012 83 million mainland Chinese spent $102 billion abroad overtaking Americans and Germans -making them the world’s biggest tourism spenders according to UN World Tourism Organization. Reasons why China is unusual: 1. Despite a phenomenal......

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

China

...hina was officially called the People’s Republic of China. It is located in the East Asian continent on the western part of the Pacific Ocean. The capital of China is Beijing, and is the third largest country in the world. China’s border countries includes: Korea, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, India, (the top of Mount Everest marks the border between China and Nepal), Nepal, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Laos. China is the world’s most populous country with approximately 1.35 billion people. China is a single- party state governed by the communist party which is run by President Hu Jintao. China is made up of 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, and four municipalities directly under the Central Government. Most of the population of China lives in the middle and lower part of the Yellow River, Yangtze River (longest river) and Pearl River valleys. In China, over 35 million people still lives in caves. Approximately 91.6 percent of Chinese people are Han. Non-Han population includes 55 ethnic minorities, of which the major groups are the Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Yi, Tujia, Mongolian, and Tibetan. The number of religious worshippers in China is estimated at approximately 100 million, most of which are Buddhism. Other religions are Taoism, Islam, and Christianity in both its Catholic and Protestant forms. There are many different languages spoken in China, including Mandarin, Yue, Wu, Minbei, Minnan, Xiang, Gan, and Hakka. The flag of China is red with five stars on the......

Words: 480 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Republic

...Book VII Summary: Book VII, 514a- 521d In Book VII, Socrates presents the most beautiful and famous metaphor in Western philosophy: the allegory of the cave. This metaphor is meant to illustrate the effects of education on the human soul. Education moves the philosopher through the stages on the divided line, and ultimately brings him to the Form of the Good. Socrates describes a dark scene. A group of people have lived in a deep cave since birth, never seeing the light of day. These people are bound so that they cannot look to either side or behind them, but only straight ahead. Behind them is a fire, and behind the fire is a partial wall. On top of the wall are various statues, which are manipulated by another group of people, lying out of sight behind the partial wall. Because of the fire, the statues cast shadows across the wall that the prisoners are facing. The prisoners watch the stories that these shadows play out, and because these shadows are all they ever get to see, they believe them to be the most real things in the world. When they talk to one another about “men,” “women,” “trees,” or “horses,” they are referring to these shadows. These prisoners represent the lowest stage on the line—imagination. A prisoner is freed from his bonds, and is forced to look at the fire and at the statues themselves. After an initial period of pain and confusion because of direct exposure of his eyes to the light of the fire, the prisoner realizes that what he sees now are......

Words: 3699 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Republic

... The situation of this scenario is that an American of Czech Steve Kafka is a business- man and a franchise owner of Chicago Style Pizza; he has decided to expand his business into his own country Czech Republic. Steve’s thought is that it may be a risky situation, but he is willing to take a chance on success or failure. However, he has already had to overcome many difficulties as a franchisor. At this time Steve mainly knows that he will face some difficult times just because he is trying to move his business to Prague to expand the business but realizes in today’s economy to survive he has to expand. Although Steve was born in the United States his family and associates live in the Czech Republic also Steve speaks the language fluently because of this he has visited the country many times and understands what and where he has to establish his structure. In other words he has a good idea on what needs to be done to make this project a success or at least he thinks he does. Nevertheless, Steve through it has decided to open and expand to the Republic despite the situations that may cause issues. An important thought of mind should be Steve understanding the Czech Republic Cuisine this process will help him for a possible successful outcome. In the past Czech Republic has been known for their beautiful cakes and popular pastries, well known throughout Central Europe. Within most of the country Czech cuisine is strongly known for the popular meats dishes such as pork,......

Words: 1105 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Republic

...PAD 700 Prof A. Blazina Chapter 2 Homework Sept 15, 2009 Republic is a form of government where a boss or someone high up resides in the people who elect agents to represent the people in decision making; Ex: The United States is republic because of how the gov’t is chosen starting from the congress, president, and then broken up into judicial and legislative branches. In this case the people would be the boss because their ones that elect the agents (gov’t) to represent us for social, economic, and political decisions. Representative Democracy is a group of citizens that establish a relationship between them and the gov’t. In today’s society the U.S. structure is broken up into a Hierocracy that allows congress to oversee all the parties, administrators, and president, etc... If you think about history and going back to the slavery policy was that blacks didn’t have any freedom. The regulators were the slave owners who had to make sure that was implemented and put into play. Policy sets orders and direction for someone or something to gain power. Policy must have administrative structure because of the different decision making and implantation set for various depts. in various complex organizations. Without order or policy settings for any organization there wouldn’t be any progress. Now and days if you look from the bottom street bureaucrats like police officers cannot fire their guns just because there are certain guidelines and steps that they have to follow......

Words: 681 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

China

...interest in China originated from their current economic standing. I find China’s position in the world economy very interesting because this is the most interdependent country. The recent stunt in their economy’s growth highly affected other countries markets, including America. This is a representation of how deeply rooted China’s economical presence is around the globe. China’s economic stance has drastically changed within the past 50-60 years. Up until 1949 China was known as Republic of China, but after the civil war the Communist Party of China took control and the People’s Republic of China took place. Under this rule China was known as a very strong centrally planned government. However, after Mao’s death in 1976 the new ruling government decided to move the country into a free market economy. The Chinese government implemented agriculture and commerce reforms in order to quickly increase trade. Within the last 40 years, China’s decision to become a free market economy has rapidly increased the country’s GDP. Part of the reason for this increase is due to China’s extreme work ethic. According to Geert Hofstede’s study, China’s masculinity is ranked at 66%; this means that the Chinese would prefer to work in extensive jobs that allow them to make a better living rather than work in a job that is for pleasure and low pay. This ranking represents the culture’s hunger and ambition for success. This mentality plus its enormous population of 1.35 billion people is......

Words: 551 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Republic

...History of Central African Republic: The Central African Republic (CAR) is located in the heart of equatorial Africa. The country, with an estimated population of 4.4 million and a landmass of 622,984 sq km , is landlocked, sharing borders with Chad, Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Republic of the Congo, and Cameroon. The country, a former colony of France (formerly known as Ubangi-Shari), gained independence on August 13, 1960. Like most former colonies, CAR was subject to interference in domestic affairs by its former colonizer. The French were linked to the death of Barthélémy Boganda, the country’s pre-independence leader . The French were also directly involved in several coups within the CAR. Following the death of Boganda, David Dacko a former Boganda aide, would go on to become the country’s first President (with assistance from France). During his first term as president, Dacko significantly increased the country’s diamond production, and even had a diamond cutting facility built in the country’s capital city of Bangui. As a result, diamonds became the co... ... middle of paper ... ... documents, administrative fees for customs clearance and technical control, terminal handling charges and inland transport. The cost measure does not include tariffs or duties. Based on the Bank’s data the cost for importing one 20-foot container into the CAR is $ 5,554, and the cost for exporting, $5,491. Compared to the Sub-Saharan average of $2,365 and......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

China

...For the first half of the 20th century, China faced political chaos. Following a revolution in 1911, which overthrew the Manchu dynasty, the new Republic failed to take hold and China continue to be exploited by foreign powers, lacking any strong central government. The Chinese Civil War was an attempt by two ideologically opposed forces – the nationalists and the communists – to see who would ultimately be able to restore order and regain central control over China. The struggle between these two forces, which officially started in 1927, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in 1937, but started again in 1946 once the war with Japan was over. the results of this war were to have a major effect not just on China itself, but on the international stage. Long-term causes of the Chinese Civil War[edit] Socio-economic factors[edit] Summary of Socio-economic factors In 1900, China was ruled by the imperial Manchu dynasty. The vast majority of the population were peasants. Their life was hard, working the land, and most were extremely poor. It was the peasants who paid the taxes that in turn paid for the great Manchu imperial court.It was also the peasants who faced starvation during floods or droughts, as their subsistence farming techniques often left them with barely enough to feed their families. The population in China grew by 8 per cent in the second half of the 19th century, but the land cultivated only increased by 1 per cent. This imbalance made......

Words: 2625 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Tort Law of the People's Republic of China

...Tort Law of the People's Republic of China (Adopted at the 12th session of the Standing Committee of the Eleventh National People's Congress on December 26, 2009) Table of Contents Chapter I General Provisions Chapter II Constituting Liability and Methods of Assuming Liability Chapter III Circumstances to Waive Liability and Mitigate Liability Chapter IV Special Provisions on Tortfeasors Chapter V Product Liability Chapter VI Liability for Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident Chapter VII Liability for Medical Malpractice Chapter VIII Liability for Environmental Pollution Chapter IX Liability for Ultrahazardous Activity Chapter X Liability for Harm Caused by Domestic Animal Chapter XI Liability for Harm Caused by Object Chapter XII Supplementary Provision Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 In order to protect the legitimate rights and interests of parties in civil law relationships, clarify the tort liability, prevent and punish tortious conduct, and promote the social harmony and stability, this Law is formulated. Article 2 Those who infringe upon civil rights and interests shall be subject to the tort liability according to this Law. "Civil rights and interests" used in this Law shall include the right to life, the right to health, the right to name, the right to reputation, the right to honor, right to self image, right of privacy, marital autonomy, guardianship, ownership, usufruct, security interest, copyright, patent right, exclusive......

Words: 5385 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

China

...China (traditional Chinese: 中國; simplified Chinese: 中国) is a cultural region, an ancient civilization, and a nation in East Asia. The last Chinese Civil War has resulted in two nations: The People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known as China, has control over mainland China and the largely self-governing territories of Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999). The Republic of China (ROC), commonly known as Taiwan, has control over the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu. China has one of the world's oldest civilizations and has the oldest continuous civilization.[1] It has archaeological evidence over 5,000 years old. It also has one of the world's oldest writing systems, and is viewed as the source of many major inventions. The first recorded use of the word "China" is dated 1555.[nb 1][3] It is derived from Cin, a Persian name for China popularized in Europe by Marco Polo. History of China Ancient China was one of the first civilizations. Chinese civilization was also one of the few to invent writing,[2] the others being Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley civilization, the Maya civilization, the Minoan civilization of ancient Greece, and Ancient Egypt.[5] It reached its golden age during the Tang Dynasty (about A.D. 10th century). China is home to some of the oldest artwork in the world. Statues and pottery, as well as decorations made of jade, are some classic examples. China's economy and military weakened during the Qing Dynasty (around the......

Words: 1102 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Czech Republic

...came to appreciate the unique cultures and values of the people that I met. Despite the contrasting lifestyles and material wealth I witnessed in each country compared to what is in the US, I also saw how similar my values and beliefs are to those I met. In each case, the people I met helped make me a more well rounded person. I only wish I could have stayed longer. 2. Do you have any foreign language skills, either reading or conversational? (*) Currently, I would characterize my knowledge of Spanish as: Speaking = conversational, Listening = basic, Writing = conversational. I studied Spanish in high school and was fortunate to have the opportunity to complement my studies with the knowledge that came from conversing with the Latin American employees of my father’s various farming operations in their native language. After, moving away from home to attend college, I continued to study Spanish; however, I quickly realized that my knowledge and application of the language was deteriorating, as I was unable to use it in real-life situations everyday. 4. What activities have you pursued to familiarize yourself with the culture of the country? (*) Prior to business school, I worked for a large packaging distributor based in Chicago, as a financial analyst. Though my role was not in global sourcing, I was very aware and intrigued by sourcing operations in emerging markets in both Eastern Europe and China, and how our company had to balance the financial risks......

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

China

...People Nationality: Noun and adjective--Chinese (singular and plural). Population (July 2011 est.): 1,336,718,015. Population growth rate (2011 est.): 0.593%. Health (2010 est.): Infant mortality rate--16.06 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--74.68 years (overall); 72.68 years for males, 76.94 years for females. Ethnic groups (2000 census): Han Chinese 91.5%; Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5%. Religions (2002 est.): Officially atheist; Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian, Muslim. Language: Official--Mandarin (Putonghua); there also are many local dialects. Education: Years compulsory--9. Literacy--92.2%. Total labor force (2010 est.): 780 million. Labor force by occupation (2008 est.): Primary (agriculture)--297.08 million, 38.1%; secondary (industrial)--216.84 million, 27.8%; tertiary (services)--266.03 million, 34.1%. Government Type: Communist party-led state. Constitution: December 4, 1982; revised several times, most recently in 2004. Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC; Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on February 12, 1912; People's Republic established October 1, 1949. Branches: Executive--president, vice president, State Council, premier. Legislative--unicameral National People's Congress. Judicial--Supreme People's Court, Local People's Courts, Special People's Courts. Administrative divisions: 23 provinces......

Words: 4275 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Economy of the People's Republic of China

...Economy of the People's Republic of China The People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy after the United States. It is the world's fastest-growing major economy, with average growth rates of 10% for the past 30 years. China is also the largest exporter and second largest importer of goods in the world. China became the world's top manufacturer in 2011, surpassing the United States. For 2010, inbound foreign direct investment into China surpassed $100bn for the first time, and investment overseas by Chinese companies in non-financial sectors totaled $59 billion. The country's per capita GDP is $7,518 in 2010. The provinces in the coastal regions of China tend to be more industrialized, while regions in the hinterland are less developed. As China's economic importance has grown, so has attention to the structure and health of that economy. In the modern era, China's influence in the world economy was minimal until the late 1980s. At that time, economic reforms initiated after 1978 began to generate significant and steady growth in investment, consumption and standards of living. China now participates extensively in the world market and private sector companies play a major role in the economy. Since 1978 hundreds of millions have been lifted out of poverty: According to China's official statistics, the poverty rate fell from 53% in 1981 to 2.5% in 2005. However, in 2006, 10.8% of people still lived on less than $1 a day (purchasing power......

Words: 2614 - Pages: 11