Free Essay

Power Dynamics and Job Interviews

In: Business and Management

Submitted By redtreksam
Words 3319
Pages 14
The true benefits of any learning process are seen when they are applied outside the classroom. What are the key things that the student takes away from the lesson and how will they apply them. This process is most effective when those learnings are applied immediately to a situation that the student is facing. The author is currently attending job interviews following a period of unemployment. By approaching a job interviews as a negotiation, the author can break the process into phases of preparation, differentiation, exploration, and exchange, to examine what happens in each and how it can be improved. Sometimes the acceptance of the job may lead to further negotiations about terms and conditions, such as salary, leave entitlements and start date, however this discussion will look at the actual interview, between submission of the application and the job offer itself. Fells (2012, p. 8) described negotiation as like DNA, with the two parties being the strands and elements that give it support being reciprocity, trust, power, information exchange, ethics and outcome. This discussion will focus on the element of power and how it applies to job interviews. In particular the way that power is perceived by the interviewee, such that it is seen to be mainly with the interviewer. However, the balance of power shifts during the interview, a factor which can used by the interviewee to improve future negotiations.

Power
Power is the capacity to influence others (McShane et al. 2013, p. 318). McShane et al. (2013, p. 318) note that power is not “the act of changing someone’s attitudes or behaviour; it is only the potential to do so”. It is also about the perception of dependence, not necessarily the ability to influence another party itself. Therefore it is possible to have power and not realise it or create a perception of power based on a false premise. Fells (2012, pp. 29-31) discusses power having an effect on negotiations in several ways. These are people withholding information on the basis that ‘information is power’; bargaining power and the ability to secure an agreement on one’s own terms (Chamberlain 1986; cited in Fells 2012, p. 30); the power of a solution; and the power of knowing when not to negotiate. The facet of power in negotiations that will be discussed here the different sources of power that each party has and the effect that has on the negotiation process. The different sources of power can be summarised as follows (McShane et al. 2013, pp. 320-321):

Legitimate: an agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviours of others; Reward: a person’s ability to control the allocation of rewards valued by others and to remove the negative sanctions; Coercive: the ability to apply punishment; Expert: an individual’s capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value; and

Power Dynamics and Job Interviews Referent: the capacity to influence others on the basis of an identification with and respect for the powerholder.

Power is present in any human interaction and the different sources of power apply in different situations. For example, in some negotiations, both parties may have expert power. However, as Fells (2012, pp. 29-30) notes, during a negotiation two knowledgeable people on opposing sides should be able to influence the other as to their point of view. During job interviews the interviewer has legitimate power. If the interviewee wishes to continue with the process, both sides are aware that the interviewer is the one that decides. The interviewer also has reward power – they can offer the reward of the position, which has a significant influence on the dynamics of the negotiation. The power that each party have has is not always equal, nor does is stay constant, and in an interview the power commonly shifts between interviewer and interviewee (Nunkoosing 2005, p. 699). In a job interview the interviewer starts with the power, but if it is progressing towards an outcome, the power shifts to the interviewee. The initial offer rests with the interviewer, so again they have the power at that point, but once the offer is made, the interviewee has the power as to whether they choose to accept and the negotiations can move into the next phase.

The Job Interview
Much has been written about conducting job interviews, and how to conduct them, both from the interviewee’s and the interviewer’s perspectives (e.g. Cole 2013; Allen 2004; Rogers 2011; Tjan 2012; Gallo 2014; Macan 2009). A search of the term “job interview” on LinkedIn, a professional networking website, resulted in 554,806 articles, mostly offering advice on how to conduct the most effective interview for both sides. Academic research on the topic has looked at cross-cultural differences (e.g. Deprez-Sims & Morris 2010; Manroop et al. 2013; Rakic et al. 2011), anxiety management (Feiler & Powell 2012; McCarthy & Goffin 2004) and the structure of interviews, among other topics (Chen et al. 2008; Judge et al. 2000). A study about power in interviews found that recalling a personal experience of power prior to the interview can significantly increase the success of the interview (Lammers et al. 2013, p. 778). In summary, the research has focused on the how of interviews and ways to conduct them, but it has not focused on the why of interviews, for example the dynamics and balance of power between the parties and how those dynamics develop. The job interview process can be viewed as a negotiation because the two parties, the interviewer and the interviewee, have differences. The interviewer has a position that needs to be filled and a view of the type of person that they want to do it, including skills, expertise and personality. The interviewee has skills and experience to do the job (assuming they have made it past the initial screening process), but may not exactly match the interviewer’s ideal candidate, or have all of the skills required. During the process each side has to establish whether they will be a suitable “fit” for the other and be able to work successfully together. The differences need to be resolved. Do both parties have enough in common to explore options for an agreement? Both parties may have alternatives: other applicants and other job opportunities, therefore, is this the best alternative for both? In order to reach an agreement, each party needs to Bolton 10376249 2

Power Dynamics and Job Interviews determine that the other is suitable. The parties explore some options during the interview, such as establishing the work conditions (e.g. terms of engagement, organisational culture). After the interview, an offer is made by the interviewer and an agreement is reached. Job interviews are usually cooperative negotiations, as opposed to competitive ones. This is because the nature of the discussion is usually integrative, rather than distributive, and if an offer is made and the negotiation is completed, it is ultimately a win-win situation (Fells 2012, p. 68). As with any negotiation, job interviews are rarely exclusively cooperative or competitive, but it is counterproductive for them to be argumentative and a win-lose situation occurs when no agreement is reached. Following is a discussion of the phases of a job interview within the framework of a negotiation – that is, preparation, differentiation, exploration and exchange (Fells 2012; Olekalns et al. 2003; Rackham & Carlisle 1978). There are several models used to describe the process, for example the Nullarbor Model of negotiation (Fells 2012; 2000). The one that will be used here is that of a cycling group, described in a previous paper by the author (Bolton 2015). For simplicity, the process will only be discussed from the interviewee’s point of view, and the discussion will be focus on the aspect of power – who has it, what the interviewee’s perceptions are and how the balance of power changes during each phase of the interview process. Note that also for simplicity, the interviewer is referred to as a single person, although can consist of a panel of people. Poor preparation in a cycling group will result in a rider being unsure where they are going, how they will handle the ride, and possibly a bike that will not work (Bolton 2015). Similarly, in a job interview, poor preparation will result in the interviewee not clearly answering questions, not giving specific examples and not being able to ask the right questions about the position and the company in order to establish the interviewer’s interests. That is, they do not know where they are going in the interview or how they will handle the any questions. Analogous to the bike not working, the interview does not work – the interviewee is unable to answer the questions so they are not offered the job. At this phase the balance of power between the two parties is even, assuming that information is freely available (e.g. about the company and about the interviewee) and neither party is deliberately deceiving the other. As a result of the initial written application, information about the interviewee and the company and position have already been made available to the other side and it has been agreed that there is the potential for further discussion. They have also had the opportunity to do further research to get an idea of what to expect. Preparation for a job interview typically consists of two components. First the interviewee considers what it is about them that will convince the interviewer to hire them. How can they persuade the interviewer that they will be a great recruit (Dubois 2013)? It is during this component that the interviewee perceives the interviewer as having the power. It is up to the interviewee to convince the interviewer that they have something to offer and the relationship is worth continuing. The second component centres on the interviewee getting more information about the role and the company. Is this a job that they are capable of doing and a company that they want to work for? Do they agree to the terms and conditions on offer? Despite the request for information shifting from the

Power Dynamics and Job Interviews interviewer to the interviewee during this process, the interviewee still perceives the interviewer as having the balance of power. This is because it does not matter what the position or company are like, whether or not there is an offer still lies with the interviewer, regardless of the interviewee’s position. During the differentiation phase of a group ride, each rider is assessing how their teammates are riding this week and establishing what each member wants out of the ride, for example is someone doing a big ride the next day and wants to have an easier or shorter ride (Bolton 2015)? This is the most revealing stage of a job interview. It is to establish whether the interviewee is suitable for the role and whether the company and positon are suitable for the interviewee. Depending on each party’s outlook, it is during this phase that the power oscillates between the interviewer and the interviewee, as each seeks information from the other. Information exchange at this stage is usually open and forthcoming, with each party keen to establish their interests in an attempt to establish whether the other party aligns with those interests. The exploration phase of a group ride occurs when everyone has an idea of how the others are feeling and what they want to achieve from the ride. The final route is determined, and speed is established, varying depending on how each rider is feeling (Bolton 2015). In the job interview process, during this phase, options and conditions are discussed. On a basic level, this can include working hours, days required (particularly if it is a casual job), room for flexibility and any entitlements. However it can also go beyond the job description and requirements. Does the interviewee have other skills and expertise that can be used in ways that the interviewer had not previously thought of? In a group ride the exploration phase often involves pain as individual riders struggle with the conditions. If the pace is increased riders have to work to catch up then after a bit of rest they are feeling good and are able to push on once more. There are periods of feeling good and not so good. Similarly there will be times in the interview when it is going well and perhaps other times when it is not going so well. Thus the interviewee may go through periods of pain, yet feel all right when it is over. At this point the balance of power is delicately balanced. What each party’s best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) is (i.e. how many other opportunities each party has), and how much each needs or wants the other, will influence the balance of power. For example, if the interviewee is unable to get work and is desperate for any job, their perception of how much power they have will be lower than if they had a few potential opportunities. If the interviewer has few strong candidates for the position, then they may feel that they have less power as they have less choice. Yet the interviewer typically withholds this information, again leading to a perception by the interviewee that the interviewer holds the power. The exchange phase of a ride comes towards the end, when the pace is settled, there are no more additional challenges such as hills and sprints and the cyclists are about to roll into the coffee shop, ready for a well-earned break (Bolton 2015). Agreement is reached, the ride is finished, and some are happier with results than others. A job interview differs from other types of negotiations in that the exchange of offers does not occur in the interview itself, and the initial offer can only ever come from the interviewer. Once this offer is made, then the process continues. As with the previous phases, the power initially is with the interviewer – they have to make the offer of a job before the interviewee is able to consider the options.

Power Dynamics and Job Interviews Once the offer is made, the balance of power switches to the interviewee, particularly if they have other options. In a group ride, the rider’s BATNA is how they will get home in case they cannot make it due to mechanical failure, a crash or just tired legs. In a job interview, the interviewee’s BATNA is to not take the job.

Lessons Learned
Reflecting on job interviews that the author has participated in recently and the balance of power, there is room for improvement. Although there is no doubt that the interviewer is in a greater position of power, as they are the ones that are deciding the fate of the interviewee’s future career prospects, there is the interviewee’s perception of power to consider. Ways to address the perceived balance of power include recalling a personal experience of power prior to the interview (Lammers et al. 2013). By using this technique, the interviewee’s perception of power may change, and therefore the interviewee will act with more confidence and achieve a better outcome (i.e. get offered the job). Another way to improve is to use the imagery of the cycling group to remind the interviewee to approach the interview process as a negotiation, where the balance of power is not as one-sided as is often perceived. By going through the process of preparation, differentiation, exploration and exchange, the interviewee can remember during each phase what their objectives are and remain focused. Finally, the interviewee can remember, and be aware of, the shifts in balance of power during the negotiation. The power does not rest solely with the interviewer, and through the differentiation process and exploring the interviewer’s interests, the interviewee can use this information to increase their power and work towards an outcome that they want.

Conclusion
The process of finding a job, from the application, interview and offer of a position is one of negotiation. It varies from other negotiations in that the perception of power is usually one-sided in favour of the interviewer. However, if the interviewee remembers to approach it as a negotiation, and remember the appropriate tools and techniques to use during the process, they may achieve a better outcome than one where no job offer is made. As with a group cycling ride, with each negotiation, the negotiator improves, they explore different options, they learn what does and does not work and they work out what to do differently next time (Bolton 2015). There are painful moments along the way, but eventually an exchange of offers is made.

References
Allen, JG 2004, The Complete Q&A Job Interview Book, 4th edn, Wiley, New York Hoboken. Bolton, S 2015, Negotiation Behaviour Individual Self-Reflection Assignment - Summary and Key Insights, University of Western Australia. Chamberlain, NW 1986, Collective Bargaining, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York. Chen, Y-C, Tsai, W-C & Hu, C 2008, 'The influences of interviewer-related and situational factors on interviewer reactions to high structured job interviews', International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1056-1071. Cole, K 2013, Management Theory and Practice, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW. Deprez-Sims, AS & Morris, SB 2010, 'Accents in the workplace: Their effects during a job interview', International Journal of Psychology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 417-426. Dubois, D 2013, Power Boosters: How to Land That Job When You Think You Can't. INSEAD, Fountainebleau. Available from: . [26 January 2015]. Feiler, AR & Powell, DM 2012, 'Interview anxiety across the sexes: Support for the sex-linked anxiety coping theory', Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 12-17. Fells, R 2000, 'Of models and journeys : keeping negotiation and mediation on track', Australasian Dispute Resolution Journal, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 209-219. Fells, R 2012, Effective Negotiation: From research to results, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, Vic. Gallo, A 2014, Setting the Record Straight on Job Interviews, Harvard Business Review. Available from: . [26 January 2015]. Judge, TA, Higgins, CA & Cable, DM 2000, 'The employment interview: a review of recent research and recommendations for future research', Human Resource Management Review, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 383. Lammers, J, Dubois, D, Rucker, DD & Galinsky, AD 2013, 'Power gets the job: Priming power improves interview outcomes', Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 776-779. Macan, T 2009, 'The employment interview: A review of current studies and directions for future research', Human Resource Management Review, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 203-218. Manroop, L, Boekhorst, J & Harrison, J 2013, 'The influence of cross-cultural differences on job interview selection decisions', The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 24, no. 18, p. 3512. McCarthy, J & Goffin, R 2004, 'Measuring Job Interview Anxiety: Beyond weak knees and sweaty palms', Personnel Psychology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 607-637. McShane, S, Olekalns, M & Travaglione, T 2013, Organisational Behaviour: emerging knowledge, global insights, McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd, North Ryde, NSW. Nunkoosing, K 2005, 'The Problems With Interviews', Qualitative Health Research, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 698-706. Olekalns, M, Brett, JM & Weingart, LR 2003, 'Phases, transitions and interruptions: Modeling processes in multi party negotiations', The Intemational Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 14, no. 3/4, pp. 191-211. Rackham, N & Carlisle, J 1978, 'The Effective Negotiator Part 2: Planning for negotiations', Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 2-5. Rakic, T, Steffens, MC & Mummendey, A 2011, 'When it matters how you pronounce it: the influence of regional accents on job interview outcome', British Journal of Psychology, vol. 102, no. 4, p. 868. Rogers, J 2011, Job Interview Success Be Your Own Coach, McGraw-Hill International UK Ltd, Maidenhead.

Power Dynamics and Job Interviews Tjan, AK 2012, The Most Important Job Interview Question, Harvard Business Review. Available from: . [26 January 2015].

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Nurse Leader Interview Paper

...Nurse Leader Interview Paper Uchenna Enewally University of Phoenix NUR 587 February 25, 2013 Breta Lieke, RN, MSN, NE-BC Nurse Leader Interview Getting a chance to interview a true nurse leader is not easy as many attempts to get an appointment fail. Nurse leaders have very busy schedules because of their organizational roles and finding time to grant a quality interview about their leadership style is slightly out-of-the-box for their daily routines. Interviewing a nurse leader is even harder when the interviewer is working from a remote area in Africa and has to do the interview by phone. The interview must take place so when finally MK, the Patient Advocate/Patient care services of St. Francis Medical Center consented and gave the interview, it became possible to report the personal in-sight of a good nurse leader. This interview report is a summary of MK’s perspectives on her leadership style, changes made because of evolving leadership role, challenges faced as a leader in today’s health care system and the effects of formal and informal power in the organization. Summary below are her answers to the questions asked by the nursing graduate student presenting this report. Leadership Style MK started at the organization in 2004 as the patient advocate manager to improve the customer satisfaction rating and advance the image of the hospital in the......

Words: 1464 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Bsn Requirements

...policies that help patients with drug abuse issues and problems. Interventions need to be taken to make sure there is the right support for these patients. ANA supports efforts to address prescription drug abuse. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.theamericannurse.org/index.php/2015/10/22/ana-supports-efforts-to-address-prescription-drug-abuse/ Great job on your post Larry! Nurse fatigue is a very real and dangerous issue in the healthcare setting. Not only is nurse fatigue negative for the nurse suffering from it, but also for the patients being taken care of by the nurse. Nurse fatigue has a negative impact on the nurse’s physical health as well as his or her's mental health. It's very important for nurses to have the right support and interventions to reduce the risks of getting nurse fatigue. If a nurse has nurse fatigue, this puts the patient in an unsafe condition. Wrong medications, or wrong procedures could be done on the patient due to the nurse being tired. There needs to be some type of policy or protocol set in place to reduce the risk of nurse fatigue. This will improve patient safety and outcomes. Great job on your post Breanna! Inadequate nurse staffing is an issue that seems to...

Words: 810 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Study Gudie

...Business and Professional Speaking Midterm Study Guide The midterm will cover notes from class, book chapters, and assigned external readings. Those include: Chapters One, Two, Three, Eight, Nine, Reading #1: Corporate Social Responsibility, Reading #2: Businesses Speak Out, Reading #3: Role-play for Management Theory, and Reading #3: Strategy Maps. Below is a narrowing down of what you will be expected to know about what we’ve covered so far, but do not let this be the sole determining factor of what you study. Be aware that these sub-topics/areas are directions for you to help lead your research process. Best of luck to everyone! Reading #1: CSR - what is corporate social responsibility? CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in "actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law." - examples of CSR For example, a firm might provide day care to increase employee morale and decrease absenteeism. The provision of this day care may provide social benefits by lowering juvenile crime and increasing school retention. Reading #2: Making Academia Applicable - what’s the disconnect between academic and businesses? Lack of communication - what are modern problems businesses are facing? New technology the threat of new competition reducing firm market share substitutes internal turmoil an overall decline in an industry due to new competition rapid increase in the......

Words: 1244 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Cover Letter

...PSY 110 Group Dynamics Assignment 4 Lauren Vinson Strayer University PSY 110 Group Dynamics Assignment 4 Lauren Vinson Introduction; At my previous college in Richmond, Virginia I was involved in a work-study job. In the work-study job, the job involved Audio Visual Services. The description of the job was to provide media equipment for certain events on campus. In the work-study job, I worked in a group but, also by myself at times. When I applied to the job, I was the new member in the group. Everything went smoothly and I got along with everyone, and we all become friends. I ended up being released from my work-study job, because I had worked all my hours that was provided for me. Overall, it was a good experience. With me being a part of a group, Moreland and Levine’s Model of Group Membership was involved. Moreland and Levine’s Model of Group Membership has five phases which are investigation, socialization, maintenance, resocialization, and remembrance. In the Investigation phase, the group seeks people who seem likely to attain group goals, and prospective members seek groups that provide the opportunity to satisfy personal needs (Franzoi, 2009). This phase is all about a potential member entering the group. A potential member enters the group if both individual’s and the group’s commitment levels are strong (Franzoi, 2009). I experienced this phase because; before I got the work-study job I had to go to an interview. During the interview, the......

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

A Project

...and designed a database for databank, incentive database and HRM database by access database. EDUCATION / QUALIFICATION: - Postgraduates Studies in Human Resources Management FROM Banha University. Graduation date: 2013. Grade: good - Graduation of Banha University. Graduation date: 2007. Bachelors of: accounting. Grade: fair. EXPERIENCE: - hr. specialist – may2014 till now ADAM – For chemical industries (manufacturing unit) SHABANA group – approximately 200 employees. Recruitment Building up pool of candidates (blue collar and white collar ) Screening CV, conducting interviews and tests and handling the hiring and orientation. Post any open positions and review resume and set up interviews. Conduct prescreening interviews including phone and face to face interview. Keep updated database of current cvs through employment fairs, walk INS, online job posting. Hiring process and procedures....

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Power and Influece

...POWER AND INFLUENCEThe course examines the bases of power in organizations and the ways in which power can be built and used effectively. It also explores the positive and negative effects that power-oriented behavior can have on organizations. The ethics of power will be a recurrent concern throughout the course. Class sessions will be devoted to discussing “case” materials in light of theoretical arguments advanced in “readings.” Case materials include standard Harvard Business School cases, book chapters about individuals (Robert Moses and Henry Kissinger), corporations (e.g., Lehman Brothers and Time Warner), and industries (e.g., the auto industry), and in-class videos (e.g., a “Bill Moyer’s Journal” segment on David Rockefeller). COURSE REQUIREMENTS Final course grades will be based on student performance on three written assignments and on student participation in class discussions. Written Assignments. Each student will be expected to submit two individual case analyses that indicate what the student learned from reading and discussing the case in question. The case analyses should be one single spaced typewritten page long and should be submitted the week after the case that they address is discussed in class. Individual case analyses will be graded on a scale from 1-3 and together will comprise 10% of a student’s final grade. Each student should also form a group with three to four other students to complete a case study of a real organization.......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Job Security

...“Job security” is the most important characteristic and according to the person I have interviewed, “working independently” is the least important characteristic. The characteristic gave the person greatest satisfaction is the “chances for promotion” and the least satisfaction is the “little job stress”. In fact, compare to the researched responses, the subject’s scores are quite different from the “answer” sheet. Important: In the interview, the person mentioned that the career is dependent upon how well the economy does because the work is based on the client’s business. You can always find work in marketing companies of all sizes—big and small—who are looking for people with experience. Marketing always has the potential to let people develop themselves. Base on the experience you have, people would be moving from analyst to project manager to department manager. Need to keep these in mind, if you want to be successful in such field, you have to be creative and you have to be brave. Not important: John Patterson states that people could see more potential power from a group instead of individual. Working independently may have less working efficient than team work. Different people hold different skills and gifts. So it is more important to work as a team and make the most of it. Greatest satisfaction: is the “chances for promotion”. People are looking forward for a quality not only for personal development and performance improvement, but also for the chances......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Leadership

...Before Steve Jobs became a leader and manager of one of the largest corporations in the world, he was a groundbreaking innovator in the technology industry. In 1976, along with Steve Wozinak, Jobs created Apple Computers (Wikipedia, 2013). Forbes (2012) stated that Apple has since become “the most valuable company in history[…]in terms of market capitalization” (para.1). In the late eighties he also co-founded Pixar Animation Studios, another highly-prosperous enterprise. With these two powerhouses alone, Jobs has redefined leadership by having one of the most extreme success stories in the business arena. Thousands of articles, dozens of books, several documentaries, a handful of feature films, and a play have been based on Steve Jobs’ success story. Starting Apple at the age of thirty, he had a rocky start as he was not very likable as a leader. Zenger (2013) stated, “Yes, he could be rude, unreasonable, fickle, and arrogant. He even took credit for others’ ideas. The list of his weaknesses is quite long” (para.6). Jobs was a highly-intelligent man that was first a computer programmer before managing and leading thousands in two multi-billion dollar companies. To sum this up, Zenger (2013) said, “Let’s be very clear: if Jobs had not possessed the remarkable strengths…these behaviors would have capsized him early in his career, but strengths eclipse shortcomings” (para.6). Early on at Apple in 1985, Jobs was stripped of his powers in the company due to his......

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Human Resources

...As I’m now working as an Human Resources Officer – Recruitment. Below is the job responsibilities and requirements: Responsibilities: • Assist to the HR Manager for the hiring issues • Managing the recruitment, selection and interview process • Identify the effective recruitment channels • Prepare and update the job description and specification • Maintain all records related to the hiring • Follow-up new staff on-board issues • Closely work with HR Team in Hong Kong & China • Undertake the ad-hoc HR issues or projects Requirements: • Tactful and sensitive in handling confidential information • Good business acumen and high integrity • Responsible, committed and self-motivated • Excellent communications and interpersonal skills • Excellent spoken and written English and Putonghua As my main job duties is Recruitment, the skills I need for my jobs will be: • Excellent computer skills like Human Resources Information System (HRIM), Microsoft Word, Excel • General knowledge of various employment laws and practices • Able to work independently with minimal supervision • Skills in database management and record keeping • Ability to maintain the highly confidential nature of human resources work • Good Interpersonal skills and communication skills • Able to identify and resolve problems in a timely manner • Gather and analyze information skillfully • Initiative in dealing with daily......

Words: 941 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Organisational Change at Gm Motors

...TABLE OF CONTENTS I.INTRODUCTION a) Organisational Change –an overview b) Kurt Lewin and his theories of change c) General Motors International 2. APPRAISAL OF KURT LEWIN’S 3- STEP MODEL (Manufacturing change at General Motors as a case study) 3. CRITIQUES OF THE MODEL 4. CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION In a dynamic world of increasing technology, competition, power relations and managerial opportunism, investment in Research and Development (R&D) by organisations and fluctuations in consumer demand, a complex phenomenon such as change is imperative. Change can be defined as the art of altering the current state of an entity from its present state to another while organisational change is the transformation process of taken up by an organisation in order to move from its existing level to a strategically proposed level by taking up new ideas and a different approach to its operational practices and procedures (Beckhard and Harris, 1987. cited by: Andriopoulos and Dawson, 2009). In analysing the various categories of change, research works have identified a number of traits used to classify the various levels and sorts of change. These include substance of change, scale and scope of change, timeframe of change.(Dawson and Adriopoulus,2009). Grundy (1993) also stated that three varieties of change has set a basis for how managers view change as a homogenous concept and coined them as Discontinuous, Smooth incremental and Bumpy incremental change(Senior......

Words: 1598 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Leadership

...Eight Leadership Paradigms In this intriguing Wharton Leadership Digest interview, authors James Quigley and Mehrdad Baghai talk about eight archetypes of leadership from their new book, As One: Individual Action, Collective Power (Portfolio, 2011): • The landlord and tenants – Tenants voluntarily decide to join landlords, but once they do, the boss has the top-down power, controlling access to scarce resources, doling out rewards and sanctions, and dictating the terms of tenants’ participation. • The community organizer and volunteers – The power for setting direction comes from the bottom up, but the community organizer is the glue that holds things together. Volunteers can’t be ordered around; instead, they join on their own terms if they are motivated by the organizer and the cause. This archetype can be dysfunctional if one or more volunteers have disproportionate influence or the leader can’t articulate a compelling logic for cooperation. • The conductor and orchestra – This archetype is based on “highly scripted and clearly defined roles that focus on precision and efficiency in execution as defined by the conductor,” say Quigley and Baghai. “The orchestra members, who have similar backgrounds, need to be fully trained to comply with the requirements of the job and, therefore, must be carefully selected to ensure they fit the strict culture and scripted tasks.” This model is ideal for leaders who require and value precision and consistency, but not in a more fluid......

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

3g Network in Pakistan

...3G Technology 3G is the next generation of technology which has revolutionized the telecommunication industry. Apart from increasing the speed of communication, the objective of this technology is to provide various value added services like  video calling, live streaming, mobile internet access, IPTV, etc on the mobile phones. These services are possible because the 3G spectrum provides the necessary bandwidth.   Technically speaking 3G is a network protocol which refers to the generations of mobile phones and telecommunication equipments which are compatible with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) standards stated by International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The basic requirement for compiling to IMT-2000 standards is that the technology should provide peak data rates of at least 200 Kbit/s. It’s worth mentioning that speed isn’t the only criteria for deciding whether the network protocol is 3G or not. 3G isn’t just any high speed network but a protocol which has its own standards defined under IMT-2000 by ITU.   3G Technology is designed for multimedia communication. It provides services like higher data transfer rates. One of its key visions is to provide seamless global roaming, enabling users to move across borders while using the same number and handset. According to ITU it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum speed of 2Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348kbit/s in a moving......

Words: 1378 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Employee Rights

...part-time and temporary employees, and five were not hiring at all. Wal-Mart U.S. Chief Executive Bill Simon confirmed this new strategy, saying, “Their hours flex by the needs of the business from time to time.” Both the human resource frame and the political frame demonstrate numerous issues with Wal-Mart’s new strategy, which could be detrimental to organizational health. The human resource frame illustrates certain key points that would advise against Wal-Mart’s new hiring strategy. First and foremost, one of the oldest views regarding motivation, which is still popular among many economists today, is that workers’ primary motivation is based on financial rewards. Wal-Mart spokesman David Tovar defended his new strategy in a recent interview, saying that temporary workers will be paid the same starting salary as full-time employees. However, Tovar clearly lacks understanding that current research in the field of motivation demonstrates that employees are more motivated by things beyond money, such as doing good work, getting better at what they do, bonding with other people, and finding meaning and purpose. According to Lencioni’s “The Advantage,” compensation and rewards should connect to one or more of the Big Six Questions and contrary to what many leaders believe, praise is the most effective motivator of employees, not money. Immediately, there are multiple issues with Wal-Mart’s new strategy. It is difficult for employees to improve when they are working......

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...26 January, 2015 To Human Resource Division,  Bengal Scientific & Surgical Co. 26/A/2 (2nd Floor) Topkhana Road, Segunbagicha, Dhaka - 1000 Tel: +88029558771 Subject: Application for the position of “Office Executive”. Dear Sir, In response to your job advertisement published in the Bdjobs.com, I would like to apply for the captioned position. I understand from your advertisement that your organization needs young and dynamic people for working in Office executive. You will note from my enclosed CV that my work experience and educational background is well enough to perform the job advertised for. I believe working in a reputed organization like your one will provide me excellent opportunity for my career growth in the area of office executive. I am confident that if you provided the opportunity to serve your organization, I will prove myself to be an important asset for your company through my dedication, sincerity and highest level of professionalism. I would request for an interview at your convenience. For any query, you can reach me at my mobile 01670916636. You can also e-mail me at tarekaziz01@gmail.com. Sincerely Tarikul Islam Enclosure: 1. Resume 2. Photograph | TARIKUL ISLAM | | | Address: 12/1, NAJMA MONJIL,2nd FLOOR, BASHIRUDDIN ROAD, KALABAGAN,DHAKA-1205 Home Phone: +8801557381110 Mobile : +8801670916636 e-mail : tarekaziz01@gmail.com | | |   |   | Career Objective: | To prove myself as a quick...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Assessment in an Industrial Context

...techniques * Second and third is concerned with assessment of groups and organizations and measures used are not classified as psychological measures even though the process follows a psychometric process. Assessments of individuals The goals for individual assessment in the workplace are to assess: * Individual differences for selection and employment purposes * Inter and intra individual differences for placement, training, development, compensation and reward purposes Where measures which coply with technical standards of psychometry can be used? Personal selection Two approaches used in the application of psychological measures for selection purposes are * Input based approach where individuals are compared with the job specifications in terms of their personal characteristics or personality traits, also called the psychometric evaluation of testing approach * Output based approach where individuals are compared in relation to the required output standards of a job.also called the competency assessment approach, eg the copmtency to write, use a computer programe. Measures that are used to assess the competencies of individuals should be reliable and valid even though they are not classified as psychological measures Further important standards such as checking for bias and adverse impact should be in place especially when assessments are done in a multicultural context. Adverse impact refers to the situation where a specific selection strategy......

Words: 884 - Pages: 4