Premium Essay


In: English and Literature

Submitted By egomez4
Words 1035
Pages 5
Propaganda as defined by Jowett and O’Donnell “is the deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist” (Prop, 7). In this definition, similar to others, the words “shape”, “manipulate”, and “direct” tend to spur an uneasy feeling for many. Propaganda, which “is associated with bad things or evil forces,” (Pers 33) has such a negative connotation that people who disagree with a message will publicly label it as propaganda to make the audience feel threatened by the communicator and by the message delivered by the enemy. Historically, propaganda has been known to be the cause of war and deaths. But, can propaganda ever be a good thing? It has served as an end to genocide and as a reinforcement to stay healthy. Therefore, propaganda can be ethical or unethical depending on the situation and the purpose. The role of propaganda during wartime periods has been present since we can remember and has such a powerful impact that brings out the same result of a violent war in a nonviolent manner (Prop, 231). When propaganda outcomes are viewed as similar to war it most definitely makes it an unethical form of persuasion. A specific example of that is Nazi propaganda during World War II. When Hitler took power his Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, described Hitler’s propaganda as possible to prove that a square is a circle with enough repetition and a well psychological understanding of the people (Pers 261). Here clearly the people are being deceived because Hitler does not care if what he is trying to persuade is correct as long as the people believe it. Nazi war propaganda included films, speeches, symbols, posters that portrayed anti-Semitic images, square-jawed Aryan Nazi troopers, etc. (Pers 268). It dehumanized the enemy and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Propaganda by Edward Bernays Book Review “We are governed, our minds molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society” stated Bernays (p.37). Whether I believe this statement of organized propaganda to be true or not, I do accept that our society today is influenced on a daily basis through all facets of media and leadership through manipulation (both ethical and unethical). The main point Edward Bernays effectively brings to our attention is that fact that propaganda is an evolving code of ethics and practice and invisible leaders control the public mind and how it is influenced by the leaders “who seek to create public acceptance for a particular idea or commodity” (p. 44-45). Edward Bernays provides the reader with many subject topics, in particular business and political leadership, to support his arguments. He makes clear points and provides countless examples how businesses understand the valuable uses of propaganda to promote ideas and products while politicians have a hard time recognizing what the public wants and the valuable use of “dramatic” propaganda in order to connect to the audience. The politician, according to Bernays, should determine his objectives, clearly promote his objectives to the public, follow a strict......

Words: 686 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Warfare Propaganda explain how propaganda and psychological warfare influences and manipulates people to make them support a country. I am going to show how the media works as the medium through which the governments spread their propaganda. The government manipulates masses using pamphlets, speeches, morality and priorities. This manipulation is done through the media. Media and subjects like censure are going to be discussed in this report. I will show how the Persian Gulf War can be set on as an example of the media spreading government propaganda and psychological warfare. This report also includes an analysis on propaganda and it’s denotative and connotative meanings. This report is also going to show us it’s effect and importance in our community and society. Whats Propaganda All of us, know about the horrors and the devastation that are a result of wars. Despite these horrors, we act indifferent towards war and it’s effect on the world community. Countries’ governments manage to manipulate us and make us think that their war actions against another nation, race or culture are well justified. Nations make the members of the society believe, that they are doing the right thing, and that this military action against a declared enemy is the most desirable thing to do in order to keep “the world’s stability and peace”. For this reason people say we are “meant” to help and serve our country, in it’s war against their enemy which changes into being our enemy too. Propaganda and......

Words: 2808 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

The Evil Propaganda

...Is Propaganda Evil? Most people associate the word ”propaganda” with Nazi Germany in which it was used to unify a nation by turning Adolf Hitler into a demigod, by identifying and demonizing those countries which stood in the way of Germany fulfilling its destiny, and by scapegoating Jews. The result of all that propaganda was the destruction of Europe and the death of some 50 million people, so it is not surprising that propaganda has negative connotations. Propaganda is also used to keep North Korea’s dictatorial Kim family in power by stirring up hatred of the imperialist USA which – according to the Kims – is determined to destroy them. Propaganda was also used to prevent the Soviet Union from fragmenting, also by positioning the USA as a threat. Propaganda leads to deception and that makes it different with Public Relations(PR). This evil technique was used by Nazi party and it is used in advertisements nowadays. I will argue all these points in this text. There are people who believe that there is beneficial propaganda, that supports noble causes such as mobilizing the nation in the face of nation, promoting equal rights for women or racial minorities and for the sake of improved public health, to give just a few examples. One propaganda campaign that might be considered ethical is the one opposing the practice of female genital mutilation in North Africa, a brutal practice that entails surgery performed by mothers or grandmothers on little girls......

Words: 1362 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Propaganda Poster Essay

...World War II Propaganda Poster The poster I made was a propaganda poster that would be used in hopes of recruiting more soldiers. In this case I have used my poster to go mainly against the Nazi’s, but I added a little bit against the Japanese as well. Within the poster itself you are able to see a nasty green hand with a swastika on top of it. I also included four hands breaking apart the swastika, and lastly I have portrayed the Japanese and their evils within a sort of scythe. This is what is mainly seen, apart from the slogan itself and the evil eyes in the background. As you can see, I used Demonization in this poster. This can be seen in the way Hitler’s hand was drawn. It is a nasty green color, with long yellow nails in which way giving it the looks of, perhaps, being a zombie or simply un-human. When it comes to the Japanese, I have represented them within the scythe. This was supposed to be a scythe just like the one of the grim reaper, but I decided in the end to make it look more like a skeleton hand as opposed to just having a long rod as is typically seen. The last factors used were the evil-looking eyes. I added Hitler’s mustache and comb-over so that he could be identified. In this way effectively showing how evil he is. The next tool I was able to use was name-calling. By saying, “Help get rid of those filthy Huns!” I am, in a sense, degrading the German army. I also used “Eliminate the yellows from the rainbow.” By doing so, I am not only making fun of...

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

War and Propaganda

...1. What were the primary roles of media delivering news to the public during the Vietnam War? One of the main roles is providing correct and accurate news. Media are different in each country, so they handle information in several ways; some emphasize the behavior of people and some others the way they live. The way of transmitting news, and the way of talking about those news shows the way people get informed. Although the responsibility of media is to inform real stories, they must be aware about the way they are impacting our minds. Nevertheless, the main goal of media is achieved since they do have an impact on modern society, whether good or bad. 2. What were the significant result of immediate news media delivery on our culture? Since media is nowadays the most important source which is feasibly accessible by all people through several devices, such as television, radio, Internet, appliances, etc, it is said that the world is getting used to using news media as an important part of their lives. The significance of immediate news media delivery on culture is that media is implementing and reinforcing new ideas and new ways to act. Immediate news is a form of expression, a form to get informed and a way to tell us how to live and what to think. 3. What were the outside influences on our media during the Vietnam War that helped perpetuate the destruction of our social culture towards the military? News media must provide individuals with accurate information......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Spin Doctoring and Propaganda

...Week 4 Assignment Critical Thinking Exercise - Spin Doctoring This assignment is worth up to 80 points and references TCO 4 as it applies to impression management and TCO 6 as it applies to the role of social influence in shaping attitudes and behaviors. We will apply course concepts from Myers Chapter 7 (Persuasion) to the following case: Case. Spin doctoring is form of impression management that has been in the repertoire of public relations practitioners for four decades. The term refers to the tactic of shifting the focus off of the negative and harmful aspects of something by substituting another issue that has positive connotations. Spin doctors change the terms of public perception and debate using the mass media, which today includes blogs and social media like Facebook. Spin doctoring is an international phenomenon the serves the interests of organizations in every sector of society. The tobacco industry is considered to be the classic case of spin doctoring. After 1966 when the Surgeon General of the U.S. pronounced that cigarette packages must carry a health warning, the tobacco industry found a way to offset the damaging publicity by sponsoring sports and arts events and giving grants for community development. By de-emphasizing the dangers of smoking and emphasizing the positive contributions being made to community life, Big Tobacco trivialized the health problems and turned attention instead to its displays of corporate social responsibility. ......

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Spanish Civil War Propaganda

...Ben Hayward Propaganda Poster Analysis 11/05/13 Propaganda, by definition is an illustrated idea, fact, or allegation that is deliberately spread to further one’s cause or to damage an opposing cause. Throughout the Spanish Civil War the Republican, and Fascist parties created and distributed a plethora of propaganda. Spanish homes, institutions and buildings were covered in various parties’ propaganda that depicted both the heroes and villains of the Civil War. The emergence of these propaganda posters was a direct result of the fascist takeover the government. The posters served as a visual representation of party affiliation and their goals pertaining to the war. This poster that I present above on the first page represents the Anarchist’s party and their revolution in Spain. More specifically, the column de hierra, or otherwise known as the “Iron Column” was a militia column of the Anarchist ideology. This column was a subset of Militias Confederal and represented the Spanish Republicans. In my analysis of the poster, I will point out the symbolism of the color scheme and the figures represented in the poster as well as the text presented in the poster. The color scheme in any propaganda poster is vital in evoking the direction and intent of the artist’s poster. Also, colors can show viewers of the poster what party is affiliated with them. The red coloring in this poster exhibits the Anarchist party’s colors and distinguishes itself from the dark coloring of the...

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Our Age of Propaganda Reflection

...reading; Pratkanis, A; Aronson, E, (1992) "Our Age of Propaganda" from Pratkanis, A; Aronson, E, Age of propaganda : the everyday use and abuse of persuasion pp.1-14, New York: W H Freeman Personally sourced reading; Doob, LW; Robinson, ES. (1935). Psychology and Propaganda. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 179, p.88-95 The following readings have been selected due to their similarities of discussion and engagement. The two reading interact in an explicit way and therefore touch on similar debates while providing varied opinions. Psychologists Pratkanis and Aronson present a thorough overview of how individuals and the mass media manipulate us using devious persuasive techniques. While Doob and Robinson attempt to understand propaganda through understanding communications and the behavioural sciences. In order to understand how and why we are persuaded, Pratkanis and Aronson analyse the various tactics marketers use in advertising to get us to conform. This set reading points out ways in which we might deal sensibly and effectively with propaganda, by examining persuasion in a context of argument and debate. Pratkanis and Aronson quarrel about persuasive communication techniques and suggest that rather than using logical argument, propaganda uses emotional symbols in order to manipulate us. In the personally sourced reading by Doob and Robinson, the approach suggested states that propaganda is not ‘automatically’ successful. Doob and......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Propaganda and Lies in American News Outlets

...Propaganda and lies in American news outlets What is propaganda? How is propaganda perpetrated through the media and especially in media broadcasting American news? Propaganda is some sort of action based on communication that is made purposely for the intention of influencing opinion as well as the thinking of a specific community so that conflict or disagreements may arise. In most cases propaganda happens through media since it’s the most common place where individuals pay attention to and it normally end up influencing the opinions of so many people. A very good example is how the news outlets in America spread lies and propaganda based on some of the most crucial situations with the aim of protecting specific famous individuals (Fawcett 2007). This paper will show and analyze presence of propaganda in some of the major news outlets in America, the reasons they do this as well as what the opinion of the public. For so many years almost all the news outlets in America have been on the fore front spreading lies and propaganda. Some of the executives, senior producers and the executive producers know what the media is doing and it is under their consent that such this happens. They are involved in all the activities of the news outlets and because they tend to be biased, they use the media to spread lies and propaganda in the American news outlets. ( This has led to so many Americans questioning the integrity and reliability of these news outlets as much as......

Words: 2709 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Everyday Uses of Propaganda Techniques

...The Everyday Uses of Propaganda Techniques Caitlin Matthew 27483147 February 19, 2016 Coms 361 Propaganda has been associated with both the terms technique and phenomenon, and it’s been questioned as to which term it best meets. The Webster dictionary defines phenomenon as “something (such as an interesting fact or event) that can be observed and studied and that typically is unusual or difficult to understand or explain fully”, and technique is defined as “a way of doing something by using special knowledge or skill”. I believe that propaganda as a whole is always a technique, the technique of trying to convince people of certain messages and ideas, and only in particular propaganda messages, not in all circumstances, are they subject to being a phenomenon, which is why propaganda, in its entirety, cannot be called a phenomenon, and this essay will argue why this is true. Propaganda is a technique, ancient, well known and studied; employed in all politics, religions, ideologies, and of course in every sales method known to man. “Propaganda is itself a technique, resulting partly from the application of the social sciences, including psychology, to technology. It is a technique used to promote acceptance of other techniques” (Marlin 2013, 23). There are multiple different forms of technique that propaganda uses, such as emotional appeals which aim at getting an emotional attachment out of the individual, or such as the use of morally evaluative language, which......

Words: 1368 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Use of Propaganda and the Media by Political Groups

...The Use of Propaganda and the Media by Political Groups Propaganda is a tool that is used all over the world to influence how people think. Propaganda has fittingly been referred to as “the weapon of mass persuasion” by the Canadian Broadcasting Channel. Propaganda can be defined as communications with the goal of influencing the opinion or attitude of a population in favor of the ideology of oneself or one’s group. The messages behind propaganda are almost always political. Governments and militaries around the globe have used propaganda again and again to control their followers. Famous examples of aggressive propaganda campaigns are those of the United State Military, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Emperor Hirohito of Japan and Joseph Stalin. In the past, printed media was the main form of spreading war propaganda. As society and technology evolved over the decades, so did propaganda. The messages hidden in modern media are far more difficult to identify than ever before. The use of propaganda has always had specific motives, but are the reasons behind war propaganda harmful towards society? What are specific ways that propaganda has affected the populations of the world? There are many negative examples of ways that the global population has been influenced by propaganda during war times throughout history. Propaganda produced by the government is almost always under-handed and one sided. There seems to be a formula for the perfect war campaign using propaganda that......

Words: 2179 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Has There Really Been Any Difference Between Wartime Propaganda and Peacetime Advertising or Politics?

...difference between wartime propaganda and peacetime advertising or politics? 2500 words. Introduction Propaganda is an art requiring special talent. It is not mechanical, scientific work. Influencing attitudes requires experience, area knowledge, and instinctive “judgment of what is the best argument for the audience”. No manual can guide the propagandist. He must have a good mind, genius, sensitivity and knowledge of how that audience thinks and reacts From this we can consider that propaganda is not something based solely on warfare or politics or advertising. The use of propaganda is virulent in peaceful societies not at war by virtue of bombarding the general public with advertising (Newspaper/Magazines/Radio/TV/Internet) for goods and services, political canvassing and promotional material (to channel social development and public opinion, to mold the population into following the the ideals of conflicting political ideologies). Does this contrast with the use of propaganda in wartime? The objective is obviously the same – to get the general populace to accept what the propaganda states and take appropriate action i.e. buy goods, vote for a party or support the war effort. Advertising and political propaganda continue to take place during the periods of War propaganda although the reverse is not generally true (or is reduced to recruitment advertising and maintaining armed deterrents). The method of delivery of the propaganda, in whichever age you......

Words: 2878 - Pages: 12

Free Essay


...Propaganda Scrapbook 2014 Lachlan MacDonald Mr. Kavanaugh, Grade 9 5/19/2014 prop·a·gan·da   [prop-uh-gan-duh]   noun 1. Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. 2. The deliberate spreading of such information, rumors, etc. 3. The particular doctrines or principles propagated by an organization or movement. Lachlan MacDonald May 19 2014 Like mosquitoes in the woods, propaganda is everywhere. Think about all the sources you encounter each day, from the radio to television, signs at a grocery store and bumper stickers, propaganda is everywhere. Nor is it going anywhere. We are all so easily influenced by it that we hardly even know it's there. We can barley recognize it anymore... Above you see an altered picture of Barrack Obama, used to help in the possible election of a different president. They use tactics to make it so that it both appeals to people and makes them hate it. This is propaganda because it doesn't tell the whole truth on what Obama is. They are altering - much like the picture shows - what Obama stands for and what he is against. Considering Animal Farm was just read, it would be appropriate to include a piece relating to the book. Likewise, this qualifies for propaganda because it states that "[a]ll are equal," which is a ploy to help get more supporters - farm animals - to come and join the rebellion. Above is an......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Summary and response essay Subway’s slogan and advertisements suggest to eat their fresh food. However, what the advertisements don't say is if the food is even fresh or healthy, which we just tend to predict it is. Therefore, Subway uses propaganda in order to lure people to eat their so called "fresh food”. Indeed, propaganda is widely used by various companies in order to sell their products with different brainwashing techniques. In the essay, "Propaganda Techniques in Today’s Advertising” by Anna Mcclintock suggests that propaganda influences people’s thoughts over a subject by using different propaganda techniques, I believe that those techniques work and do change people’s opinion over a subject. In fact, propaganda can be found on advertisements all around the world, like in magazines, commercials, and newspapers. The truth about propaganda is that it was designed to influence people’s opinion towards a certain point of view or a specific subject or product. Thus, propaganda uses seven different techniques in order to lure people towards the subject or product. For instance, one of the techniques is Name Calling, in which one uses negative or offensive names against a subject or product in the process changing someone’s opinion about it. In contrast, the Glittering Generalities technique uses attractive and appealing words or phrases in order to influence positive emotions towards the product a company is selling. Another technique is Transfer, which a company......

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Propaganda Used during War Propaganda was used to mobilize the minds of the nations towards war; Propaganda can be explained as telling lies to make people believe a certain thing. But the meaning is much broader then that, it can be a complete lie, but it can be the half-truth, or it could be the truth exaggerated. In basic terms it is making people believe something that they are not entirely told the truth about. Propaganda was used in 3 main types of ways in the First World War. It was used to keep up morale, this is when the truth maybe tampered with to make it seem Britain are being successful in this war, and to make it seem like they are winning. It was also used to create hatred and suspicion towards the enemy; they would do this by lying or exaggerating the truth to make the enemy seem brutal and vicious. Propaganda would also be used to help support the war. As well as recruitment for the army, they also needed recruitment for the war industries (factories, mines etc.) Also they need to conserve resources, by this i mean to ration things and conserve resources etc. water, food, coal. Propaganda would be used to make the people who weren't fighting to feel guilty, so they would work in the war industries to try and help out. Propaganda would also be used to stop drug and sex abuse because they were believed to have a negative affect on the war effort. Also the government would make it seem there were German spies, so everyone would tighten national security.......

Words: 1323 - Pages: 6