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Question 1 (a)Write a detailed account of the Burma Road Riot in Nassau, Bahamas. During the time of World War 11, Edward, Duke of Windsor served as governor of the Bahama Islands. It was during his term of office that the Burma Road Riot occurred. This event was destined to change the social, economic and political fabric of life in The Bahamas.In this article, Sir Randol F. Fawkes (1924-2000), better known as the Father of Labour in The Bahamas, gives an eyewitness account of the day he saw “hundreds of ragged, black workers moving downhill towards us. I thought all the gates of hell hand opened and the demons let loose.”Sir Randol Francis Fawkes was knighted by her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth 11 for the contribution he made to the development of trade unionism in The Bahamas. Sir Randol Fawkes, elder statesman, attorney-at-law, free trade unionist, civil rights activist, sportsman, author and musician, changed the course of Bahamian history when he helped to usher in majority rule in the country in 1967. In August 1940, by a strange set of circumstances, the former Liege Lord, Edward the Eighth by the Grace of God, of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India, became the fifty-fifth Governor of The Bahama Islands. This was the second exile for the embattled Duke of Windsor. On December 10th, 1936, this uncrowned Monarch, having abdicated the British throne for the woman he loved, adopted France as his new home rather than return to England and be pushed into the bottom drawer by the high society of Buckingham Palace. Later, when France collapsed under the muddy heels of Germany’s storm troopers, Winston Churchill offered and the Duke accepted the post of Governor of The Bahamas. The Duke’s regime in The Bahamas was the best advertisement the Colony ever had. Many an American tourist came to our shores to get a glimpse of His Royal Highness and his Duchess in their island kingdom. Shortly after the Duke’s arrival news came to The Bahamas from the West Indies of the people’s demand for universal suffrage and a larger voice in the government of their home affairs. The Duke of Windsor was caught in the crossfire of Churchill’s imperialism and Roosevelt’s idealism: the one, advocated, with some pain and anguish, self-government for the Colonies within the British Commonwealth; the other, espoused a world of peace without spheres of influence or regional balances of power. Added to these problems was the extreme conservatism of Bahamian white oligarchy and the awakened masses ready to shed their chains. On May 24th, 1942, approximately two years after his arrival in Nassau, the Duke of Windsor reflected this change in the British colonial policy as he addressed school children and teachers on Empire Day. “When you say Rule Britannia, you say, ‘Britons never, never shall be slaves’, these are not mere words but a very definite challenge which has been upheld by the bravery and devotion of generations that have gone before.” There was an effective pause to prepare teachers and children for what was to follow. “This heritage of freedom now is in the very course of being contested again and when handed down to you, as surely it will be, we should look to you with confidence for its safekeeping.” America’s entry into World War 11 in Europe and the Far East created a shortage of manpower on its farms. Therefore on May 27th, 1942, the Duke flew to Washington to negotiate with President Roosevelt for the recruitment of Bahamian farm labor and to arrange for the further involvement of The Bahamas in the total war effort. A few days after the Duke’s departure, a social upheaval erupted in New Providence the rumblings of which are still heard today. On June 1st, 1942 at about 8:30 a.m. a crowd of workers threw down their tools at Oakes Field job site, then called the Burma Road Project, and marched toward the City of Nassau. Armed with sticks, clubs, and machetes they sang: “Burma Road declare war on the Conchie Joe,
Do Nigger don't you lick nobody, don't you lick nobody" Their purpose was to stage a demonstration before the Bay Street merchants and Government officials. They wanted these ruling powers to know that the laboring masses were no longer content to suffer economic injustices on the job-sites and social inequalities that sapped their self-respect and prevented them from attaining their full status as citizens. All the deputations, letters, appeals and arguments for higher wages sent and made on the workers' behalf had gone unheeded. It was hoped that this forceful demonstration would cause the authorities to take the workingman's place seriously. When that mob marched on that early June morning, they took upon their shoulders the common burdens of all Bahamians -those who protested, those who were silent, and those who did not even realize the indignity of their status. This teaming mass of workers marched for all of them, and, in doing so, they marched themselves straight into history. The coloured people were in the majority but they had minority problems. They were poorly educated, ill fed and ill housed. Few could afford an English education, yet by custom this was the only type of training officially recognized in the Bahamas. American ideas of freedom were considered detrimental to the peace and good order of the Negro masses ever since the first attempts of the British to colonize the American continent came to grief. Crowds totalling about fifteen hundred workers marched from over the hill in every direction and converged on the corner of George and Marlborough Streets in the city. At first the march east along Bay Street was quite peaceful, but the sudden sound of a smashed glass windowpane sent the mob into an uncontrollable excess of looting and pillaging that resulted in the destruction of many shops up and down the main thoroughfare of Nassau. Milo Butler, A. F. Adderley, and Percy Christie all tried to bring the representatives of labour and capital around a conference table to conciliate their differences but without success. While the pillaging was at its height and missiles were flying in many directions, a detachment of British forces accompanied by a number of policemen with fixed bayonets moved down Bay Street against the rioters. Corporal Pinder arrested Leonard Store, alias Leonard Green, the ringleader, on the instructions of Captain Sears. The mob now became furious at the site of their leader in the clutches of the police. With one daring and desperate thrust against the armed might, the workers rescued Green from their grasp. The confrontations still continued, however, as about eight hundred rioters resisted the attempts of the armed forces to push them off Bay Street over Bailliou Hill Road and into their villages in Bain Town. In the struggle, fifteen gunshots were heard. Four of the rioters were killed, seven seriously wounded, and forty suffered minor injuries. Only one soldier was hurt. Many of the stores on Bay Street were extensively looted and some were completely emptied of their merchandise. In fact, the "Street of Contracts" resembled a township that had recently been hit by a hurricane. When the frenzied mob reached Grant's Town, they looted again and pillaged some more. While Alfred Stuffs alias "Sweet Potato" burned the photographs of the King and the Royal Family, others damaged almost everything that represented the white man's wealth. In the wake of this rampage, grocery and liquor stores were broken into, the Southern Police Station and the Public Library were occupied, and the fire engine and ambulance were set ablaze. Cole Thompson Pharmacies on Market and East Shirley Streets were also burglarised and extensively damaged. On Tuesday the 2nd June, the rioting continued. Attempts were made to break into Bay Street again but these were prevented by armed might. On Tuesday the 2nd June, the rioting continued. Attempts were made to break into Bay Street again but these were prevented by armed might.When the news of the riot broke, His Royal Highness, the Duke of Windsor, was in Washington, D.C., investigating the possibility of using Bahamian labour in the harvesting of crops on American farms. He returned on Tuesday evening the 2nd of June and after holding discussions with all parties, he went on the local station Z.N.S. and made an appeal for peace.The Duke’s return to Nassau was greeted with much anticipation by the labouring masses who had not forgotten his Empire Day message which had been give a few days prior to his departure. Furthermore, who had not heard of the Duke’s sympathy for the poor and underprivileged of England? Arrangements were immediately made to have leaders of the B.F. of L. meet with the Duke’s Committee. The workers selected their most articulate spokesman, Dr. Claudius R. Walker to state the case on their behalf.

A week after the riot the workers returned to their jobs with one shilling per day raise in their pay and free meal during the luncheon break. What price freedom? In addition to all the blood, sweat and tears one hundred and twenty-eight persons were prosecuted in the Supreme and Magistrate's Courts for their involvement in the riot. One hundred and fourteen were convicted. Some were imprisoned; some fined. And was it worth it'? Time and history will tell. Out of their agony a Commission or Inquiry was born consisting or Sir Alison Russell, Herbert McKinney, and Herbert Brown. The Commission, after interviewing some ninety-nine witnesses made "inter alia" the following recommendations: · That labour legislation should be brought in line with modern standards.
· That the life of the House of Assembly should be reduced from seven to five or four years.
· That the Out Islands should be represented in The House of Assembly by residents of those respective constituencies (local government)
· That permanent officer in the Civil Service should not take part in politics. They should be above even the allegation that they have been influenced by purely political considerations.
· That the imposition of a fair system of income tax and death duties should be thoroughly considered by the legislature with a view to placing the burden of taxation on the shoulders of those better able to bear it.
· That land should be reserved for Bahamian cultivators and that no such land should be allowed to be sold to realtors without approval of Government and subject to conditions as may be laid down.
· As Out Islands in the past had been treated as “poor relatives”, Government should introduce as soon as possible a realistic and imaginative development plan.
· That universal suffrage be introduced based on the principle of one man one vote.

Promptly at 8 o'clock the drama began unfolding with the Messenger striking the wooden floor three times with his staff and shouting: "House!" Everybody stood as the procession entered the main Chamber, headed by the Sergeant-at-Arms carrying the Mace, the symbol of the Speaker's authority. Immediately behind him was the Speaker, resplendent in tails wearing black knickerbockers, long white wig, and a facial expression to match the mock solemnity of the hour.The principal actor that night was a young Lawyer/ Politician/ Businessman of twenty-nine years, known as Stafford Sands. He moved with teutonic thoroughness to demolish the progressive points of the Report made by the Governor's Riot Commission. The terms of reference of his Motion on the Agenda paper called for "a consideration of all matters relating to, connected with, and arising out of the June 1st disturbance with a view of preventing a recurrence thereof with powers to send for persons and papers." The majority or the members of the House did not trust the Duke of Windsor or his advisors and they said so in no uncertain terms through their official mouthpiece and minion, Stafford Lofthouse Sands. The broadening of a franchise, the reduction of the life of the House from seven to four years and reform in the system of taxation foretold an unwanted possibility to their selfish political and economic ambitions. As Mr. Sands rose to speak on that Monday evening, an aura of silence descended upon the House. Every head was turned in his direction so great were his histrionic powers. Sands had only one good eye, the other was made of glass, but among those pompous Cyclops this one-eyed giant was "King"."House Members," Mr. Sands said, "You have no doubt heard of T. P. Barnum's famous phrase, 'A sucker is born every minute'.” There followed a ripple of laughter. "Mr. Speaker," he continued, "I sincerely trust that the Honourable Members will not allow the Governor, the Duke of Windsor, to consider that this House falls within Barnum's category. "When Barnum operated his first side show in New York, one of the most prominent signs was an arrow with the legend: 'This way to progress'. The trusting members of the public who followed Mr. Barnum's pointing arrow," Mr. Sands said making a pointed gesture in the air with his right hand, "soon found themselves in the street without having seen the show.

"We, Mr. Speaker, know the difference between 'progress' and 'egress.' Our way represents 'progress' the Governor's report points to the 'exit' the famous 'exit' of all our ancient rights and privileges." With these words Stafford Sands's colleagues proceeded to appoint their own Select Committee which would be responsible to the Bay Street merchants. The Committee sat for a few weeks and recommended that all merchants who had suffered loss or damage during the riot should be compensated out of public funds. The mountain had indeed laboured and produced a grain of sand.Twenty-five years later, on January 10, 1967, the sons of those who fought and fell on June 1, 1942, were to wrest the Government from the white oligarchy. Stafford Lofthouse Sands was to flee the country and seek refuge in Spain while the first Friday in June of each year was to be celebrated as LABOUR DA Y – a day which was to be set aside to remember the events of June 1st, 1942. On the first unofficial Labour Day in 1956, The Bahamas Federation of Labour planned a mammoth parade to exhibit the strength of the labour movement. They invited no less a person than His Excellency, the Governor, the Earl of Ranfurly himself, to address the workers’ rally at the Southern Recreation Grounds.As I spoke to thousands on Labour Day, 1962, I reflected on that first of June morning twenty years ago when Albert Stubbs, Joseph Rolle and Lawrence Green led that rag and bone army up Burma Road toward Bay Street and demanded better working conditions on the jobsite. Thanks to them, we, labour statesmen, have now learned how to substitute the Conference Table for The Riot Act. I will say no more except to add: "The mills of God grind slowly. But they grind exceedingly fine...

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...Chapter 1: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 * Application Problems: 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 * Issue Recognition Problems: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Chapter 2: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17 * Application Problems: 3, 4, 5, 7, 9 * Issue Recognition Problems: 2, 4, 5 Chapter 3: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12 * Application Problems: 3, 5, 8, 11 * Issue Recognition Problems: 2, 5, 8, 9 Chapter 4: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 1, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13 * Application Problems: 1, 2, 4, 7, 12, 14, 15, 17 * Issue Recognition Problems: 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 Chapter 5: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: - Please review ALL these questions before your CCH training session on September 20. It is not necessary to write these out on paper (Chapter 5 homework is not subject to collection). Chapter 6: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13 * Application Problems: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 32 * Issue Recognition Problems: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 Chapter 7: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17 * Application Problems: 4, 5, 7, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30 * Issue Recognition Problems: 6, 7, 8 Chapter 8: * Questions & Problems for Discussion: 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12 * Application Problems: 1, 3, 5,......

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Study Habits

...CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the data gathered, analysis and interpretation of data. The study focused on the Study Habits of Tourism Students of College of the Holy Spirit. It initially determines the demographic profile of the respondents. Problem 1: What is the demographic profile of the respondents. Age Number of Respondents (f) Percentage (%) 16 – 17 7 14% 18 – 19 24 48% 20 – 21 12 24% 22 – 23 5 10% 24 – 25 2 4% Total 50 100 Table 1 Frequency Distribution of the Tourism Students According to Age Table 1 shows the frequency distribution of tourism students according to their age. Most of the students belonged to the age bracket of 18-19 years old having the biggest percentage of 48% with 24 respondents. The second biggest percentage belonged to the age bracket 20-21 having 24% with 12 respondents. The least percentage, 4% belonged to the age bracket 24-25 years old with 2 respondents, both irregular students. Gender Frequency (f) Percentage (%) Male 0 0 Female 50 100 Total 50 100 Table 2 Frequency Distribution of the Tourism Student According to Gender Table 2 presents the frequency distribution of the respondents according to gender. Based on the table, there were no male tourism students enrolled at College of the Holy Spirit, meaning all of the respondents were female with a total number of 50, equivalent to 100%. Year/Level Number of Respondents (f) Percentage (%) BSTM II 8 16% BSTM......

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