Free Essay

Racial Disparity in Us Prisons


Submitted By mambobad
Words 1830
Pages 8
Racial disparity in u.s prisons
Institution affiliated

Racial disparity in prisons in America can be conceptualized as a situation where the population of a specific group of people is the most in the criminal justice system as compared to the general population. Prisons in U.S.A are a significant constituent of the criminal justice system. The main function of the American prisons is to protect society from violation of law, to rehabilitate also punish the law breakers in order to assist them to be responsible members of the society. The prisons in the state continue to grow in order to meet the demands of the correctional and the criminal justice system in general. However, the trend in the justice system, especially in the prisons, is characterized by ethnic disparity. This normally compromises the level of justice dispensation. It has been a controversial issue for several decades among the prisons in the state.
Some individuals seem to defy the concept of existence of disparity in the justice system. They believe that it does not exist. For instance, statistics that were presented by Marc Mauer proved that if the argument that there existed racial discrimination in the prisons, then the extraordinary rise in the American prisons in the past three decades would be explained in six fold increase. This to him would eventually lead to incarceration of two million Americans. For instance, “one in every eight African –American male aged 25-34 year old is an incarceration case. He adds that 32% of the African- American male born are expected to spend at least a term in the state prison if racial disparity would continue.” (Mauer, 2004, p. 79).
From Tabak’s point of view the flourishing of the racial discrimination in the prisons has emanated from a number of factors including; “ineffectiveness in prosecutorial discretion, procedural bars and council, jury selection and venue, juror racism (Tabak, 1999, p. 6). Ineffectiveness in the procedural bars is difficult to prove because the lawyers are ineffectual (Tabak, 1999, p.6). An individual may seem quite hopeless when he/she chooses anyone to try appealing the case concerning an ineffective ruling of the council. The discriminative actions done against the minorities may not be felt most of the times in the justice system. Jury and venue selection are another area where the racial disparity is experienced. The other issue that poses the challenge of racial discrimination in the prisons is the selection of racial jurors. There are remarkably few African- American jurors in the criminal justice system which predisposes the African- American citizens to mistreatment. There is the abuse of power among the prosecutors against the African- American citizens. More whites are usually used in every trial in the criminal justice system. The exclusion of the minority groups in the jury is a significant factor that prevents the accomplishment of an objective, free and impartial judgment (Tabak, 1999, p.6).
The black Americans are commonly known to live in the in the Ghetto regions which are characterized by multiple problems. Some of the problems include the drug addiction. The penalties imposed on the drug trafficking are generally harsher than those imposed on the white collar crimes. The normal law violations which are predominant in the black American residents are normally treated unfairly. In addition, the emphasis of the American society that the black Americans are a menace usually culminates into long term effects to them. Stereotypes from the whites pertaining the black citizens that they are potential menaces in the society has resulted to the African- American being treated with a lot of contempt (Kennedy, 1996,p.20). According to Kennedy, courts normally authorize the law enforcers to be partial in their handling of the different criminals on the basis of their races. They believe that a different race from the whites is more likely to commit crimes as compared to a white in a similar condition (Kennedy, 1996, p.20). These issues in the long run penetrate deep into perceptions and fear which culminates into racial disparity of the sentencing. Statistics also show that blacks and the Hispanics serve a greater sentence than their counterparts, the whites, even if having committed similar crimes (Silas, 1983, p.1355). Other studies show that the type of the crimes committed also account for the racial disparities in the United States prisons. The prior criminal records of individuals and the seriousness of the crime are significant factors that account for the differences in the sentencing (Chirico, 1991).
The legal justice system needs to be revolutionized in the U.S.A to allow for transparency and accountability in the prisons. The declaration of the equal rights act by one of the former American presidents, Abraham Lincoln, was a pivotal focus in ensuring that all the sectors related to treatment of the citizens would be effected in a way that all people would enjoy equal rights. The rise of a series of equal rights movement has also been sparked off by the denial of justice to the minority group, usually the black- Americans. With regards to these challenges affecting the criminal justice system, some of the plans that can be effected to minimize escalation of racial inequalities in the American prisons are as follows:
The systems of justice need to be balanced with respect to the types of crimes committed. The legal practitioners should be able to know that what works best in one point may not necessarily work better in another situation. The system should therefore develop diversified correctional measures that will ultimately assist in eliminating unfair treatments. Each component of the justice system requires its own unique strategy of dealing with the crimes in respect to the nature and the extent of the offense committed. The specific populations affected by such crimes should not be overemphasized. The criminal justice system should be ready to defend the rights of the offenders by ensuring proper dispensation of the right treatment to them (Nellis et. al., 2008).
The legal justice systems should also acknowledge the existence of the racial disparities in the prisons. This is normally evident in all the processes of the criminal justice systems such as the arrest, parole, institutionalization and others. The acknowledgement of the prevalent racial inequalities in the American prisons will consequently allow the necessary stakeholders to be able to take measures that will be aimed at reducing the disparity in all sections of the legal justice system (Nellis et. al., 2008).
Communication among the key players should also be emphasized. Coordinated ways of dealing with individuals at every stage need to be strengthened. This will discourage cases of unwarranted disparities. The systematic approach to the problems arising will ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Without this, there will be a possibility of gains in one area being offset by the reversals in a different area.
Systematic changes need to be introduced. This is supposed to be in the whole system and not just a section. In this case, transparent and accountable legal practitioners need to be elected into posts that will create a platform for dispensation of justice among the prisoners. The leaders in these positions are expected to address the issues of racial disparities in the legal systems. Proper leadership system should be emphasized also. This measure will ensure that the prevailing racial inequalities are minimized (Nellis et. al., 2008). From a broad perspective, the prevalence of racial inequalities in the prisons can be perceived as an extension of the racial disparities prevailing in the society. This is through factors such as language, culture, and others. The legal justice leaders are normally brought up in such environments that overemphasize the differences among races. This means that the society has got a mandate of making sure that such racial differences are stamped out. The presence of the overt bias among the justice system will therefore be eliminated. This will be a long term measure of dealing with the racial inequalities in the prisons. The need to deal with the issues of racial disparity wherever and whichever way it exists becomes a prerequisite measure in dealing with the cumulative prevalence of inequalities in all sectors of the society in America.
There is a need to maintain a diverse representative of the legal justice practitioners in America. This will ensure that all racial or ethnic groups are sufficiently represented. The tendency to be lenient on the offenders who are affiliated to ones ethnic or racial group will therefore be minimized. The institutions should recognize the human nature of the judges for instance and consider that they are likely to dispense results which are skewed in favor of their ethnic or racial members. From this perspective, the legitimate requirements of all people within the prisons will be met if racial inequality is abolished.
Emphasizes on training cultural competency can also be a solution. This will apply to both the police force as well as those who participate in making direct decisions to the offenders. The police force normally works in different areas including those where the residents differ in culture. To enable them to adapt to such conditions, it will be the duty of the ministry of security and defense to come up with training programmes that will equip them to adapt more to such conditions. Close review and examination of the offenders alleged crime needs to be done so that the individual is tried on the mistakes that he/she has done. There are a lot of processes that take place between the time the police arrest the person and during the trial period. A critical examination by competent personnel has to be incorporated to ensure justice.
In a nutshell, there is a significant need to address the issue of racial inequality in the American prisons. The short term plans and long term plans need to be applied in order to curb this vice. The measures range from providing cultural training programmes up to ensuring that the justice system is comprised of diverse members of all racial groups in the state. This will ensure that the inequality will be minimized.

Boies, J., Gorton, J. (1999) Sentencing Guidelines and Racial Disparity across Time:
Pennsylvania Prison Sentences in 1977, 1983, 1992 and 1993 * 37-54. Retrieved September 25, 2011 from EBSCO Host database.
Kennedy, R. (1996) Is Everything Race? The New Republic, 18-21. Retrieved September 25,
2011 from EBSCO Host Database.
Mauer, M. (2004) Race, Class, and the Development of Criminal Justice Policy, Review Of
Policy Research, Volume 21, Number 1, 79-92. Retrieved September 25, 2011 from EBSCO Host database.
Silas, F. (1983) Serving time: Sentencing Disparities Shown, p.1355 Retrieved September 25,
2011 from EBSCO Host database
Tabak, R. (1999). Racial Discrimination in Implementing the Death Penalty. Human Rights 5-8.
Retrieved September 25, 2011 from EBSCO Host database.
Ashley Nellis (2008) .Reducing Racial Disparity In The Criminal Justice System: A
Manual For Practitioners And Policymakers. Washington, DC

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Racial Disparities

...Racial Disparities in America’s Judicial System The mandatory imprisonment policies written for the judicial system are creating disparity of minority inmate population primarily due to non-violent drug crimes and the unjust mandatory minimum sentencing laws. America’s prisons are the most populated in the world, and they are disproportionately populated by minorities due to the set of mandatory imprisonment policies set in place. Over the past five decades, the disparity between races has widened dramatically according to the National Center on Institutions. In the 1950’s, blacks and Hispanics were the minorities in the prison system, whereas today whites are. Is this due to poverty? I’m sure poverty plays a big role in most cases. Robert Woodson Jr., president of the National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise said the reason young men engage in criminal activity is not just for money, it is to make a name for themselves, to have some expression of worth, even if the expression is self-destructive. Crack cocaine hit the streets in the early 1980’s, infesting the lower income areas. It’s a cheap drug compared to cocaine and easier to come by than some of the higher priced drugs. Is this considered racial disparity? The Sentencing Project in 2007 states that two-thirds of the regular crack users are white and Latino, 82 percent of defendants sentenced in federal court for crack offences are African-American. Criminologist William Chambliss suggest that blacks are more...

Words: 2051 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay


...lot in our everyday life and also accept it although many of us might have a doubt as to what it truly means. Justice is the phenomenon through which we could achieve righteousness and equality. But unfortunately racism has been a common practice in the criminal justice system. Racism is actually discrimination against a group or individual based on color, social and financial status. It is something that occurs more than we notice. Many scholars believe that racism play a more important role in targeting and sentencing process in the criminal justice system and this is something which should not happen in any country no matter what. In order to understand the role that racism plays in the criminal justice system we must, first, look at the role that it plays before the criminal reaches the day of sentencing in the court. There are various publications that speak on profiling and actuarial methods which unwillingly get people into the system. Though these are two major components of the discriminatory acts that exist within the criminal justice system, it does not actually begin with these institutionalized methods. It is the laws and crime control policies that create discrimination in the system. It has been witnessed that in some instances these laws and policies are set in favor of the white people and in opposition to the black ones. In this paper, a detailed discussion has been done on the racial disparities in criminal justice system along with its adverse effects to...

Words: 5548 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

An in-Depth Examination of Racial Disparity from Arrest to Incarceration

...An In-Depth Examination of Racial Disparity from Arrest to Incarceration ENG 122 English Composition II Prof. Ashton Schwarz September 13, 2014 An In-Depth Examination of Racial Disparity from Arrest to Incarceration The disparate number of minorities in prison populations is a concern for many who believe this disproportion is due to a systematic bias in the judicial system. While many factors may contribute to this overwhelming discrepancy, I contend that the disparate number of minority populations in prison is an accurate portrayal of how crime is committed in the United States. In order to understand the cause of this disparity, I will delve into the arrest rates and sentencing statistics that attempt to show why minorities are incarcerated at a higher rate, and why they're incarcerated for longer periods of time, than their white counterpart. These two focal points, arrest rates and sentencing statistics, I believe, are the best for gathering data, considering it is where the justice system both begins and ends. Though many may think that there is a racial bias concerning the disparate number of minorities in prison working against minorities, an article entitled, “Are Blacks and Hispanics Disproportionately Incarcerated Relative to Their Arrests?” provides impressive data to oppose this claim. This article boasts being one of the first studies to include the Hispanic ethnicity in their data, which other studies omitted from, or never incorporated into, their...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Racial Disparities in Prisons

...RUNNING HEADER: American Prisons 1 The American Prisons and Judicial Systems Megan Pierce English Composition 122 Professor Angela Temple September 23, 2013 American Prisons 2 There’s no question about the about the racial disparity in America’s prison system. More than 60 percent of people in prison are now racial and ethnic minorities. For black males in their thirties, one in every ten is in prison or jail on any given day. These trends have been intensified by the disproportionate impact of the “war on drugs,” in which two thirds of all persons in prison for drug offenses are people of color. Guerin, P., Harrison, (2011) Washington, D.C: Bureau of Justice statistics. American prisons have a disparity of minority inmate population. Is this trend due to a higher rate of minority crimes, or the manner in which the judicial system operates? Some people have negative views about the people in the inner cities where disproportionate numbers of impoverished and African Americans live. Robert Right, an evolutionary psychologist believed the high rate of young African American men in prison is due to their adaptation to poverty. Conservatives think poverty is due to African American sub culture that is pathologic. Harvard professor James Wilson claimed, “The reason why it is called an underclass is that its members have a bad character: they mug, do drugs, and desert children.” (Miller,1996). There is a recurring idea that the inner...

Words: 2136 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Racial Disparities in the U.S. Prison Population: Causes, Effects and Remedies

...Racial Disparities in the U.S. Prison Population: Causes, Effects and Remedies Michael C. Pugh Bethel University Introduction America’s war on drugs has contributed to a steady influx of non-violent offenders into the nation’s judicial system for over thirty years. Many of these inmates are serving long sentences with rigid probation and parole policies that many believe are designed as a set-up for failure and re-offense. The result of this influx of offenders is a growing racial disparity, as shown by Bobo & Thompson: In 2004. for example, black males constituted 43.3 percent of those incarcerated in state, federal, and local prisons or jails, though only 13 percent of the total population. Whites on the other hand represented 35.7 percent of the male inmate population in 2004, well under their 75 percent of the total male population (Bobo & Thompson, 2006). (p. 451) This ballooning disparity has become a trend of increasing concern among proponents of racial equality. Many view this trend as another cog in the wheel of covert institutional racism, even labeling it “The New Jim Crow”. Among the men and women of color now residing in U.S. prisons are the potential business owners, educators and leaders of communities that sorely need them. Immediate and results-oriented attention to the racial disparity in U.S. prisons will do much to repair the damaged, needful communities of color throughout the country. BLACK CRIME: CRIMINAL OR CULTURAL? “Black...

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Body Art and Ornamentation

...simply not the case. In fact the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the entire world-five times the world’s average. A total of 2,380,000 are now in prison. The US has five percent of the world’s population, but 25 percent of the world’s prison population (Fisher, 2010).In fact minorities make up a large share of the prison population in the U.S. African Americans have a 32 percent chance of serving time in prison at some point of time in their lives, Hispanic males have a 17 percent chance, while white males a 6 percent chance (Fisher, 2010) . Such disproportions of incarceration rates gives reason to believe that minorities, especially African Americans commit the majority of crimes requiring incarceration or the fact that our justice system is flawed to the point where it singles out a specific racial or ethnic group. The question of why there are so many minorities especially African Americans being held in our criminal justice system leads one to question? Are African Americans predisposed to commit criminal actions or is the criminal justice system set up to arrest and prosecute them more frequently. The premise of justice is that everyone is treated fairly in the eyes of the law. The question being asked is if minorities are being targeted unfairly by the police by using such practices as racial...

Words: 2104 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Racial Disparity

...2015 Putting Racial Disparity to an End: My overall topic is about prisons, and why the majority of the prison make up involves ethnic groups, such as Hispanics and African Americans. I want to know could reduce racial disparity in the criminal justice system, in these prisons. I personally think that we can reduce the racial disparity rate in these prisons, and the criminal justice system. It will take a lot of hard work and take a lot of important people. It first will start with the people that get the people for the crime, and secondly on how they pursue the crime. Is it as bad as they are making it seem? Are they trying to set an example out of these ethnic groups? What specifically are they trying to do? Why haven’t they be stopped? In order to change this disparity these questions will have to be answered. African Americans make up the majority of the make up in most of these prisons. One million of the 2.3 million people in prisons are black. 60% of the populations in these prisons are of ethnic minorities. Only a quarter of the U.S. population are made up of ethnic groups. The fact that majority incarcerated in prisons are black and Hispanic seems to be impossible, this is how we know there’s some injustices going on in the criminal justice field. If we want to put this to an end it’s going to take a lot of hard work. This kind of thing would start with the police first. If the police main thing is set out to get ethnic minorities. Racial disparity needs to be reduced...

Words: 1479 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...DeErica Martin “In 2008, more than 2.3 million Americans (0.7 percent of the US population) were incarcerated, in nearly 1,700 state, federal, and private prisons, and more than 5 million Americans were under other forms of custodial supervision, including probation and parole, for a total of 7.2 million Americans-3.2 percent of the US population-under some form of custodial of supervisory control of the criminal justice system (120).” African American men make up a majority of the US prison population. This is bad being that some African American men are look down upon. It was mentioned that all African Americans men that are incarcerated is about 5 percent compared to the 1 percent white men that are incarcerated. This means that African Americans men are 10 times more like to be incarnated then white men. Thesis: The purpose of this essay is to analyze the causes to African American incarceration such as racial profiling, sentencing disparities, and exonerations; having a life is not what they have....

Words: 667 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Massive Incarceration: a Racial Perspective

...Massive Incarceration: A Racial Perspective Sociology 350N Abstract In 2010 there was a significant imbalance in the incarceration rate of males within the U.S.; these differences were among the ethnic groups of Caucasian (white), Hispanic and African American (black). In reference to the number of people incarcerated per 100,000 in their individual group, black males had the highest number of inmates, followed by Hispanic males; however, white males had the lowest number of prisoners (Wagner, 2012). We must ask the question “why”. Why and how is this occurring? The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world; so, is the system that was designed to protect and serve abusing its power. Some factors that can possibly be contributing to this disproportion is socioeconomic status, prejudices within the criminal justice system and power investments. Massive Incarceration: A Racial Perspective Introduction Today the US makes up for about 5% of the world’s population and carries 25% of the world’s prisoners, this 20% difference shows that the US imprisons more people then actually living in the country (NAACP, 2015). This is the highest prison population when compared to other countries. Records show from 1980 to 2008, the number of individuals that have been incarcerated has quadrupled from 500,000 to 2.3 million (NAACP, 2015). During that time frame crime & poverty rates have also increased dramatically, while unemployment & educational...

Words: 2328 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...Endnotes 1. Mauer, M. (2006). Race to Incarcerate. 2nd Ed. New York: The New Press, p. 13. 2. Throughout this manual, we use terms such as “racial groups” and “minorities” interchangeably, with an understanding that many, but not necessarily all, of the dynamics of the criminal justice system apply to various racial and ethnic groups. 3. Leinfelt, F. H. (2006). Racial Influences on the Likelihood of Police Searches and Search Hits: A Longitudinal Analysis from an American Midwestern City. Police Journal, 79(3): 238–257. 4. Office of Justice Systems Analysis (1995). Disparities in Processing Felony Arrests in New York State: 1990–1992, Office of Justice Systems Analysis, New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. 5. Sabol, W. J., and Couture, H. (2008). Prison Inmates at Midyear 2007. Washington, D.C. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 6. U.S. Census Bureau (2007). 2006 American Community Survey. Available online at: www/index.html. 7. Sabol and Couture, op. cit. 8. U.S. Census Bureau, op. cit. 9. Bonczar, T. P. (2003). Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974–2001. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics. 10. Snyder, H. (2006). Juvenile Arrests 2004. OJJDP Bulletin: Washington, D.C.: National Disproportionate Minority Contact Databook. 11. Federal Bureau of Investigation (2007). Crime in the United States, 2006. Washington, D.C. 12. Spohn, C. (2001). Thirty Years of Sentencing Reform: The Quest...

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Justice System or Not

...all incarcerated men. While whites make up 67% of U.S. population, yet they also only make up 40% of incarcerated men. The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world compared to other nations ("Sentencing Project," 2013). There is clearly an abundance of African American men incarcerated in the justice system as compared to men of other ethnicity (Hartney & Vuong, 2009). “If current trends continue, one in every three African American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime…….,compared to one in every seventeen white males” ("Sentencing Project," 2013, p. 1) . As stated by Kirby, males of African American descent continue to be arrested, sentenced, and imprisoned at higher rates when compared to males of white descent (2012). These statistics bring to the table the continued issue involving racial disparities in the United States Justice System. A system that people of today’s society trust to abide by the laws and regulations set forth for racial equality. Statistics show that arrest...

Words: 1383 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Minorities in Prison

...Minorities in Prison, Why So Many? Jennifer A. Spry ENG 122: English Composition II Ava Hardiek January 7, 2013 Minorities in Prison, Why So Many? Introduction Racism has been a part of history for many years and is a very real problem in the world, not just in the United States. For example, New England colonists fled to a new land, later to be known as America, for religious freedom from European dictators, early settlers of the United States enslaved African-Americans, Adolf Hitler murdered millions of Jewish people, and Middle Eastern Muslim terrorists destroyed the World Trade Towers killing thousands. In the United States, before the Civil rights movement, African-Americans were severely discriminated against. They were not allowed into certain restaurants, they were given restrooms and water fountains that were only used by “colored people”, and they were forced to sit in the back of the bus. Schools and neighborhoods were segregated and interracial relationships were forbidden. Racism was considered socially acceptable and the judicial system upheld arrests and convictions of those that did not conform to the laws. It was impossible for a person of color to receive a fair trial. Today the judicial system is designed to punish criminals for the crime not their minority status, but the truth can still be twisted by racism. Some people argue that the law is flawed and the courts are biased because we are judged by a group of people who are randomly selected to decide...

Words: 2123 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Minority Inmates in America

...Minority Inmates in American Prisons Noreen Harman ENG122: English Composition II Instructor January Pearson July 7, 2014 There is a disparate rate of minorities in the American prison system currently.  I will present evidence from scholarly resources proving that the reason why the minority population is so high is due to racial profiling.  The judicial system imposes stricter and longer prison terms on minorities because of their culture.  Blacks are about eight times more likely to go to prison than whites, which dwarfs black-white disparities in, for example, unemployment rates (2-to -1 disparity), infant mortality (2-to -1 disparity), and out of wedlock births (3-to-1 disparity). L.J. Geo (2010). African American and Hispanic offenders were more likely than whites to be sentenced to prison, especially if they were male, young and unemployed, S. Spohn (2000). Even though there may be a high rate of minority crimes being committed, I believe the reason for having so many minorities in prison is due to the current judicial system stereo typing. In the article Rethinking Drug Courts: Restorative Justice as a Response to Racial Injustice, it talks about the rate of drug crimes committed by minority and longer sentences imposed to blacks and Hispanics. Drug court offers offenders the opportunity to not do time in prison and get court supervised treatment instead. This is beneficial to the families of minorities so they can keep working and providing...

Words: 3140 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Race, Incarceration, and Recidivism in America

...Writing Assignment (Part 4): Race, Incarceration, and Recidivism Nicholle Harris SOC 100 - Intro to Sociology Professor Deborah White June 15, 2014 Writing Assignment (Part 4): Race, Incarceration, and Recidivism Racism in this country directly impacts incarceration and recidivism; specifically for African American males. This is an age old issue in our country that continues to propagate itself. Our society strips away the rights of felons and they become life-long criminals. The implications of incarceration, recidivism and race directly creates quality of life issues for a large percentage of people in the country. There are several sociological concepts that apply to this theory. Poverty leads to higher crime rates. People with lower social classes are more likely to be targeted by the police. The Drug Policy Alliance (n.d) explains in the article “Race and the Drug War” that law enforcement has a “focus on urban areas, on lower-income communities and on communities of color” (para. 1). This type of targeting creates a negative view and disrespect for authority; as a result, it is more likely for crime to be committed. Macionis (2010) states that “race is closely related to social standing, which as already explained, affects the likelihood of engaging in street crimes. Many poor people living in the midst of wealth come to perceive society as unjust and are therefore more likely to turn to crime to get their share.” (p. 232). Higher crime rates...

Words: 1738 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Social Inequality

...inequality in society. These articles are Incarceration and Stratification (2010), The Mark of Criminal Record (2003) and The Black-White Test Score Gap (2004). The overarching theme that will be pointed out below is inequality face by black people in the United States. These articles show inequalities face by black people in three different landscapes: incarceration cells, employment, and education. This paper included the role of media in the proliferation of racial inequality between white and black people. Lastly, this paper also presented the missing gaps on literature and how should we address the problem of racial inequality. Summary Inequality is present in incarceration cells. Wakefield and Uggen (2010) claimed that incarceration became a powerful “engine of social inequality that plays a massive and racialized part in the contemporary stratification system” (Wakefield and Uggen, 2010, p. 388). The study conducted by Wakefield and Uggen (2010) covers the scope of imprisonment and the process of selection into prison. The authors then proceed by giving the implications of incarceration in different aspects of their lives such as education, labor market, health, family and civic life. The method used by the author is through graphs and statistics from different institutions. They looked at the percentage of the number of prisoners and or post inmates. The authors juxtaposed this with the unemployed population of the country and it shows that the figure showing the percentage...

Words: 1958 - Pages: 8