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Introduction

Sports by their nature are enjoyable, challenging and absorbing, and require a certain amount of skills and physical condition. In the order of human values conquest in field of sports hold a unique plane. It is the combination of success, victory, triumph and domination of mover other team mates and fiends. The sublimity of competition is in the loser’s acclaim for the winners, which along with the friends and shake acknowledge both defeats and triumphs. Athletes for superior performance in any sports are selected on the basis of physical structure and body size, which has proved to be appropriate for high performance in the given sports.

The intramural program is designed for maximum student participation and effective operations. A determined effort will be made to provide a well-organized and supervised program that is responsive to the needs of the students and faculty/staff members, offering them the opportunity to engage in athletic endeavors in individual and team sports.

The intramural program is a team of individuals working together to provide high quality organized activities for the students, faculty, and staff. Talented and energetic people were selected to work together to achieve this goal.

The game volleyball offers opportunities for the development of strength, endurance, speed, agility, and neuromuscular skills and immediate action with many precise educational outcomes. The game of volleyball requires a conditioning program, which develop flexibility, muscular strength, power and agility all of which must be integrated to achieve the optimum skill performance from each player.

Volleyball is a sport played by two teams on a playing court divided by a net. There are different versions available for specific circumstances in order to offer the versatility of the game to everyone. The object of the game is to send the ball over the net in order to ground it on the opponent's court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent.

Background of the study

Intramural sports are recreational sports organized within college or university settings involving club teams that compete regularly. These organized recreational sports are used to promote wellness among college students, while also allowing those who do not compete at an elite level, an opportunity to be active. In 2003, Marsh and Kleitman suggested that athletic participation has shown an increase in commitment and identification to the participant’s school. Elmer Mitchell is considered to be the father of intramural sports (Rothwell & Theodore, 2006). Rothwell and Theodore also indicated that he stated collegiate sports began with intramurals. Rothwell and Theodore defined intramurals as “those activities carried out under the auspices of a particular institution and in which all the participants are members of the particular institution” (Colgate, 1978, p. 46, as cited in Rothwell & Theodore). Today, intramural tournaments are still organized within a specific community or municipal area between teams of equivalent age or athletic ability.

Statement of the problem The study aims asses the Volleyball game in the Intramural Program. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions. 1. What are the effects of being a Volleyball Player in Intramurals Program? 2. What are the perception of a Volleyball Player in terms of: 1. Volleyball Games, and 2. Intramurals Program?

Scope and Delimitations

The study focused on the assessment of Volleyball Game in Intramural Program as the dependent variable. The independent variable are the Volleyball Players. A total of 12 volleyball players were selected from the 6 colleges of TUP-Manila, CLA, CIT, COE, COS, CAFA, and CIE who participated in the 2013 Intramurals Program.

Significance of the Study

Chapter 2
Theoretical Framework This chapter discusses the importance of volleyball game and intramurals program in a University and players.

Review of Related Literature
Independent Variable

Volleyball The sport of volleyball incorporates highly specific movement patterns while emphasizing different metabolic systems. Volleyball uses three main positions: front row hitters, front and back row setters, and back row defense (Dyba, 1982). Each position employs unique footwork patterns, muscle recruitment, metabolic systems, and upper and lower extremity positions (Sheppard, Gabbett, Claudio, & Newton, 2010). Volleyball requires mostly anaerobic physiologic components of fitness, as well as agility, speed, and power components. Hedrick (2007) determined that volleyball is an explosive, fast-paced sport. Volleyball athletes must be physiologically conditioned for continuous jumps, changes of direction, and repeated attacking of the ball (Hedrick, 2007). On average, a play lasts approximately six seconds, with an average fourteen second rest period, and a total 12 competition time of 90-120 minutes including rest periods (Hedrick, 2007). This brief performance period requires repeated explosive movements with a relatively short recovery period. Volleyball performance requires both offensive and defensive capabilities. The player must be able to transition between jumping, running and executing a needed skill. Volleyball follows a bump (also known as a forearm pass)-set hit pattern. The game of volleyball requires the athletes to return the ball over the net in no more than three touches (Seidel, 1975). Volleyball requires 6 athletes on the court at a time; each athlete has a specific role in the game. Volleyball athletes are characterized by positions based on the primary skill that is performed. These positions are:
• Hitter, which can be divided into three categories, outside, middle, and right-side (Marques, Tillaar, Gabbett, Reis, & Badillo, 2009). The functions of hitters are to complete the third touch of the ball when available. This is completed by creating an approach, jump, and contact with the ball in one sequential movement. Another function of the hitter is to block the opponents at the net (Seidel, 1975). When striking the ball for an attack, the hitter increases the speed of the striking arm by performing a loading phase, contact phase, and follow through with landing phase.
• Setter, which controls the second touch of the ball and “set-up” the hitter. The setter primarily performs the overhead set by positioning the hands between the chest and eyelevel. A right-leg-forward stride position is assumed while the force is applied through the ball to create an upward trajectory (Seidel, 1975). The setter must be able to set all three hitting positions, while controlling the specific height of the ball. Volleyball is a complex game of simple skills. The volleyball court is a rectangular field with the size of 9 × 9 m on each half separated by a net of 2.24 m in height in the middle. Two teams in the match, as opponents, will exercise various skills and tactics to attack and to defend. The ball is served into play. To attack, the players try to make the ball fall down onto the ground of the opposite side. To defend, they try to prevent the ball from falling down onto the ground of their own side. A team can touch the ball three times on its own side. As a purely rebound ball game (you can't hold the ball), volleyball is a sport of constant motion. The basic pattern of movement in making an attack includes a dig (an underarm pass made with the forearms), a set (an overhead pass made with the hands), and a spike (the overhead attacking shot). Teams can also try to block the opponent's spike as the ball crosses the net (International Volleyball Federation, 2008). In each team there are six players standing in two rows with three players in each. In a match, every player should change their position in turn except the libero, which means every player on the court should be able to serve, set, pass, spike and block. So it is essential for the players to possess physique and physical performance that allow them to play their roles most effectively (Chen, 1989a). The height over the volleyball net always means the mastery of the game. The height is decided by a combination of the athlete’s body height and the jumping height, and usually it is shown in blocking height and spiking height. A team will lose its capacity of winning a score if there is a lack of predominance over the net (Tian, 2006).

Intramural Programs: Students at the college and university level have been known to feel more satisfied with their college experience when participating in recreation programs such as intramurals. Rothwell and Theodore (2006) suggested that intramurals have been a part of college life since the earliest days of American higher education and are present in most colleges and universities throughout the United States. In a study by Hall-Yanessa and Forrester (as cited in Moffit, 2010), they found that students who participated in club sports indicated higher levels of satisfaction with their collegiate experience as opposed to those who did not participate. Mathner, Martin, Tatum, and Chouti (2010) stated that “sport holds a position of importance in American society” (p. 119). In 2009, Lindsey et al. defined campus intramural sports as a service provided to offer students an opportunity to physically participate in fitness and sport activities. Another important aspect of intramurals and the relationship it has with college students is the time commitment from students themselves. Moffit also affirmed that as the student’s level of commitment to campus recreation increases, their satisfaction with their campus experience increases. Intramural sports programs commonly enforce standards of moral conduct such as good sportsmanship and positive reinforcement. Students must agree to abide by rules or face the consequences of penalties (Rothwell & Theodore, 2006). Debatable sportsmanship situations may involve penalties against the offending team. Disagreements with moral conduct standards forces individuals to analyze their personal values and beliefs when participating in intramural sports. Rothwell and Theodore also suggest that actual participation in intramurals provides opportunities for such attitudes to be publicly affirmed, whether negative or positive. For many years, collegiate recreational sport administrators have known that student participation in recreational sport and fitness participation directly contributes to the learning and development of college students (Belch, Gebel, & Mass, 2001). In a study of college student use of time, Wade (1991) found that 39% of the students who were studied participated in intramural sports. Wade also confirmed that an important and critical component of retention for students was their feeling of belonging to a community (as cited in Belch, Gebel, & Mass, 2001). Intramural sports create a way for college students to feel a sense of belonging. They also create a sense of community when they are in some cases geographically located far from what they know. They have a chance of interacting with peers while demonstrating common values and beliefs. This constructs not only a better environment to study in, but a better environment to live in as well. Research in participation in team sports shows that when students were taught moral principles, such as leadership and conflict resolution, positive sportsmanship behaviors were present (Mathner, Martin, Tatum, & Chouti, 2010).

Dependent Variable
Volleyball Player:

Volleyball players require well-developed muscular strength, power and endurance, speed, agility, and flexibility, and have a high level of jumping ability, fast reaction time and swift movements (She, 1999). Considerable demand is also placed on the neuromuscular system during sprints, jumps (blocking and spiking), and high-intensity court movements that occur repeatedly during competition (Hakkinen, 1993).

Volleyball players at different positions have different anthropometric characteristics, especially in height. Nowadays, among the prominent volleyball players in the world, the average height of setters is about 180~185 cm, spikers are about 185~190 cm, second spikers is about 190~200 cm, and second setters is about 185~195 cm (Ling, 2007b).

Conceptual Framework

Input Output

Figure 1. Research Paradigm

Figure 1 shows the research paradigm of this study which includes the input and output as well. Input includes the volleyball game and the volleyball players. While the output or result is the intramurals program.

References
Dyba, W. (1982). Physiological and activity characteristics of volleyball. Volleyball
Technical Journal, 6(3), 33-51.
Hedrick, A. (2007). Training for high level performance in women’s collegiate volleyball: Part 1 training requirements. Strength and Conditioning Journal,
29(6), 50-53.
Gabbett, T., Georgieff, B., & Domrow, N. (2007). The use of physiological, anthropometric, and skill data to predict selection in a talent-identified junior volleyball squad. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(12), 1337-1344.
Marques, M., Tillaar, R., Gabbett, T., Reis, V., Badillo, J. (2009). Physical fitness qualities of professional volleyball players: Determination of positional differences. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 23(4), 1106-1112.
Seidel, B. L. (1975). Sports skills: A conceptual approach to meaningful movement.
Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown Co.
Hakkinen K (1993) Changes in physical fitness profile in female volleyball players during the competitive season. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness,
33, 223-232.
Ling GZ (2007b) Physique and event specific physical capacities of young female volleyball players in China. Journal of Physical Education, 14, 113-116.
Tian MJ (2006) Sports traing. Beijing: Higer Education Press.
International Volleyball Federation (2008) http://www.fivb.org/.

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Volleyball game

Volleyball Player

Intramurals Program

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