Regulation and Policy in the Telecommunication Industry – a Look at Telecommunications Reforms in Czech Republic, Botswana and Liberia.

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By dueh
Words 4089
Pages 17
1.0 Introduction
Telecommunication is very important in the social and economic empowered both for developed and developing countries. The government must be able to promote growth of vibrant telecom sector. However, most of the governments seek to come up with methods of ensuring that there is an independent telecoms regulator. Communication infrastructure reforms are a concept which enables operators to offer quality services. Infrastructure sharing is one of the reforms that can take place. It refers to the ability of operators to share networks or the ability of one party building communication infrastructure that will lease to other providers. Communication infrastructure can be done in fixed, mobile and broadcasting networks, and it is one of the best options of bringing reforms and best practices by bringing competitors in the industry to collaborate with an aim of lowering the cost and increasing their capital. It is also a method of reducing the risk of proliferating network deployment. There can be active or passive communication infrastructure sharing. In active sharing, the active network and components are shared by the operators. The regulator is aimed at providing clear directions towards achievement of national and regional development goals. This paper looks at the reforms of three countries, Czech Republic, Botswana and Liberia. The historical perspectives of how reforms have been achieved will the area of concern in this review.

2.0 Czech Republic
Czech Republic had state owned telecommunication operator prior to 1989. Sprava Post a Telekomunikaci was a state owned telecommunication operator that was mainly dealing with postal and telecommunication services. The postal services were separated from the telecommunication services in January 1993 of the state owned operator. SPT Telecom was the result of the separation of the two…...

Similar Documents

Telecommunication Industry.

...Telecommunication Industry. Communication networks in the digital world make possible joint production of a range of different services for a diverse group of customers. In the case of telephony, technological development has increased economies of scope far beyond joint production of voice and fax connection. For most calculation purposes, this means that the old costing systems and allocation assumptions stemming from the days of national voice telephony simply do not offer relevant facts any longer. This is true for internal decision making in the telecommunications, but perhaps more importantly for setting interconnection charges. Activity Based Costing (ABC) is an alternative to or improvement of previous costing practices. The activities in telecommunication network can be process steps and switching. For example, a long distance call passes by several switching processes. In this case, we can calculate cost per switching following the call time and distance used by subscriber. In the central process steps in telecommunication network, cost varies according to traffic. Call consists of switching, connection before call, and call connection. In this operating level, cost driver is the number of switches in switching process and the time to call in channel and transmission process respectively. Activity Based Costing (ABC) is an alternative to or improvement of previous costing practices. The activities in telecommunication network can be process steps and......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Presentation Compensation Policy Bd Telecommunication Rukana.Ppt

... was the cornerstone of its strategy.  Banglalink has brought changes in the telecommunication sector in Bangladesh and is translated in their slogan "making a difference" or "din bodol". Company Overview Banglalink Contd.  Banglalink has brought changes in the telecommunication sector in Bangladesh and is translated in their slogan "making a difference" or "din bodol".  "Making a difference" not only in the telecom industry, but also through its products and services, to the lives of its customers.  Banglalink currently has 25.49 million subscribers as of June 2012, representing a market share of 27.18% Compensation Plan   Compensatory day-off: An employee can take day off leave instead of any weekly or Govt. holiday if he works on that day for at least eight hours (in one day).  Encashment of Annual Leave:   An employee is eligible for leave encashment if his/her leave application rejected for two times It will be based on basic salary  Salary & Benefits:   Salary transfers to employee account within 28th of every month Provident fund and income tax has been deducted from salary  Allowances :  House rent, medical allowances, conveyance and utility  Festival Bonus: two bonuses on occasion of    Eid Chistmas Amount is equal to basic salary  Provident Fund:   PF fund is 10% of basic salary eligible for 5 years of membership  Transfer Reimbursement: Company pays transfer allowances in following amount     TK. 15,000/ for a married...

Words: 1585 - Pages: 7


...TELECOMMUNICATIONS Telecommunication is communication at a distance by technological means, particularly through electrical signals or electromagnetic waves. Due to the many different technologies involved, the word is often used in a plural form, as telecommunications. Early telecommunication technologies included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern telecommunications include audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Electrical and electromagnetic telecommunication technologies include telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites and the Internet. A revolution in wireless telecommunications began in the 1900s with pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi. Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for his efforts. Other highly notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications include Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse (telegraph), Alexander Graham Bell (telephone), Edwin Armstrong, and Lee de Forest (radio), as well as John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth (television). The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks grew from 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, to 471 petabytes in 1993, to 2.2...

Words: 7569 - Pages: 31


...The Influences of Brand Awareness, Brand Associations, and Perceived Quality on Customer Loyalty Angry Birds Rovio Entertainment Ltd. Games in Bandung City Fenny Fathiyah Business Management of Telecommunication and Information Telkom Institute of Management, Bandung, Indonesia Abstract Increasing financial and sales performance of games Angry Birds, a product of Rovio Entertainment Ltd, as a new industry and becoming a success market leader in mobile gaming platform segment show a good part of popularity brands. This is the researcher’s background to do research about brand awareness, brand associations, and perceived quality also its influence on customer loyalty of games Angry Birds in Bandung city. The method of this research is descriptive method and causal association method by involving 400 respondents as its objects. The analyses are used to know how brand awareness, brand associations, and perceived quality on customer loyalty. Data analysis techniques are used as the path analysis. Studied variable are brand awareness, brand associations, and perceived quality as independent variable and customer loyalty as dependent variable. Based on the results of research on, it can be concluded that (i) brand awareness, brand associations, and perceived quality stood at 68.1%, 70.5%, and 71.1% respectively, (ii) customer loyalty stood at 69.5%, (iii) brand awareness, brand associations, and perceived quality simultaneously has a significant influence on...

Words: 6576 - Pages: 27

Regulation and Policy in the Telecommunication Industry – a Look at Telecommunications Reforms in Czech Republic, Botswana and Liberia.

... autonomous regulator in the telecommunication sector. Policy and legal environment have reduced risks if the regulator is independent compared to an environment where there is no independent regulator. In other words, if a country has weak regulatory body, there will be regulatory capture and the influence from the existing operators, political interests, or other government entities. This means that dependence of the regulator is critical to the investment analysts whenever they are looking at the telecoms market of a country (ITU, 2002a). Conclusion Regulatory reforms are very significant in the growth of the telecommunication industry. There are countries that started telecommunications reforms much earlier than others. Some of the reasons for late reforms include civil unrest and political will. Having comprehensive legislative framework also plays an important role in the growth of the regulatory bodies. There are many benefits that results from a vibrant and independent regulator in the telecommunication industry. The road to reforms in Czech Republic’s telecommunication sector started with the opening up of the network operation services in 1994. In Botswana, the telecommunication policy of 1995 marked a new chapter in the telecommunications sector in Botswana. The country realized market liberalization in 2000 when many players were issued with a license. On the other hand, Liberia stated telecommunications reform recently because of the civil......

Words: 4089 - Pages: 17

Structure of the Telecommunication Industry

...Structure of the telecommunication industry Telecommunications involves an exchange of information, over a long distance, by means of electronic methods. (Rouse, 2007) In South Africa, there are three distinct forms of telecommunications, namely fixed landlines, mobile networks and broadband communication. This network industry, known as telecommunications, is an industry in which high initial fixed costs and exhibiting increasing returns to scale are presented. (Theron & Boshoff, 2006; p.2). In this industry, as network effects are realized, the average cost may decline over a long period. The high initial capital costs will be recovered over a period of time. (Theron & Boshoff, 2006; p.2) In this essay, these three forms of telecommunications will be discussed in depth, in accordance to their market structures, their nature of competition, their pricing and lastly their strategic decision making. The first part of the telecommunication industry is fixed landlines. The fixed landline in South Africa is Telkom. Telkom is seen as a pure monopolist business, because their market structure only exists of a single seller, which means the market for their goods and services is dominated by themselves. The demand for their goods and services in the entire markets is the demand for the firms individual output. In this case, Telkom is the firm supplying fixed landline services to all the consumers of South Africa. Telkom has no competitors or close substitutes, and is seen as...

Words: 2763 - Pages: 12


... seen more rapid international bandwidth and traffic growth in the last five years than any other major European cities, with compounded annual growth in excess of 100 percent Country Germany United Kingdom France Netherlan ds Sweden Spain Russia Italy Belgium Austria Poland Denmark Czech Republic Hungary Ukraine 2013 28,644 20,268 18,322 15,339 6,013 4,995 4,768 4,381 3,568 2,981 2,924 2,723 2,526 1,990 1,613 CAGR 2009-13 44% 39% 44% 43% 39% 35% 57% 34% 73% 43% 57% 41% 55% 44% 89% International Internet Bandwidth Rank Route Netherlands 1 United Kingdom Germany 2 Netherlands 3 France - Germany United Kingdom United States 4 France - United 5 Kingdom 6 France - Spain Germany - United 7 Kingdom France - United 8 States 9 Germany - Poland 10 Germany - Sweden 2013 4,593 4,581 4,150 4,118 3,670 2,732 2,475 2,161 2,138 1,833 Source: Telegeography 2014 Top Bandwidth Routes for Europe Europe – Traffic Flows European International Internet Bandwidth by Region Region Gbps Percentage Africa Asia Europe Latin America U.S. & Canada Total Europe 1,235 5,599 60,066 72 8,949 75,921 2% 7% 79% 0% 12% 100% Synopsis: • While the U.S. remains a prominent hub of interregional Internet traffic, Europe now hosts a vibrant IP transit market in its own right, attracting international buyers from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. • As in North America, prices in Europe continued to decline over the past year, but at a more moderate rate than the longer term trend. • Carriers dropped......

Words: 6331 - Pages: 26

Telecommunication Certifications

...Tonex Training Technology and Management Training Courses and Seminars Telecommunications Certification - Certificate in Telecommunications Why should you choose TONEX for Telecommunications Certification? Certificate in Telecommunications Technology, Engineering and Management? Telecommunications Certification, Technology, Engineering and Management, a 8-week program, addresses the requirement of the communications industry for technical and management expertise and business skills. Telecommunications Certification provides telecom technical knowledge along with telecom management. skills: telecom planning, implementation, management of physical systems for voice, video, and data communications. Telecommunications Certification Objective: Provide a strong foundation in the technical aspects of telecommunications technologies Learn about Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) Industry Structures and Concepts Assess current and emerging telecommunications technologies including wireline, wireless, mobile and broadband Establish an understanding of telecommunications management Become proficient in the technical specifications of telecommunications technologies Evaluate alternative technologies for the fulfillment of communications needs Understand telecommunications trends for voice, data transfer,video and digital entertainment converge Telecommunications Certification optional courses include: Introduction to Telecom Networks 1/3...

Words: 426 - Pages: 2


...INTORDUTION Sindh Rural Support Organization ( SRSO ) was incorporated on May 29, 2003 as a not-for-profit Organisation and registered under section 42 of the Companies Ordinance, 1984. SRSO is funded by government of Sindh to work in the designated districts of Sindh. This policy has been endorsed by government to achieve the goals of poverty reduction through community empowerment, skills enhancement, capacity building and development of community supported infrastructure projects, and the provision of support for income generation, enterprise development and micro credit. For this purpose SRSO organizes the local communities and develop their managerial and technical capacity. People and the government are supported in forging partnership and inculcating the sense of ownership among the people. SRSO is presently entrusted with the responsibility of fostering a countrywide network of community organizations at the grassroots level in 9 districts of Sindh and works in the following sub-sectors while applying the participatory development approach of sustainable development. BACKGROUND The social mobilization movement began in Pakistan in December 1982 originating in the Northern Areas. The pioneer of this movement was the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP). It gradually spread to the rest of the country under the guise of provincial Rural Support Programmes (RSPs) established by the Government of Pakistan and collaborative donor funding. For the purpose, Sindh...

Words: 1513 - Pages: 7

Telecommunication Industry

... While electronic banking can provide a number of benefits for customers and new business opportunities for banks, it exacerbates traditional banking risks. Even though considerable work has been done in adapting banking and supervision regulations, continuous vigilance and revisions will be essential as the scope of e-banking increases. Moreover, the ease with which capital can potentially be moved between banks and across borders in an electronic environment creates a greater sensitivity to economic policy management. To understand the impact of e-banking on the conduct of economic policy, policymakers need a solid analytical foundation. REFRENCES Khurana Sunayna, “Analysis of Service Quality Gap in Indian Banking Industry”, The IUP Journal of Bank Management, Vol. XII, No. 3, 2013 DR. Roshan Lal & DR. Rajni Saluja, “ e-Banking: The Indian Scenario”, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.1 (4), December (2012)...

Words: 618 - Pages: 3


...Introduction The Telecommunication industry plays an important role in the Irish economy in terms of size and employment. Continuous development in the telecommunication sector improves the lives of Irish citizens by changing the way we interact with family and friends, the way we learn and the way we do business. In Ireland, the Telecommunication industry is regulated by the Commission for Communications Regulations (Comreg), which is responsible for the regulation of the telecommunications, broadcasting and postal markets, based on the EU regulatory framework. (The contribution of Telecommunications to the Irish Economy, 2005). Currently, the major players in the Irish Telecommunication industry are Vodafone, Eir, Sky, Three Group and Virgin Media. This report will focus on Three Ireland. In order to analyse Three Group in Ireland and give future recommendations to the company, we have started from an external analysis of the Irish Telecommunication Industry. In doing so, we have used tools such as PESTEL analysis and Porter’s Five Forces that allowed us to better understand the environment in which the company operates. We have then focused on the internal strengths and weaknesses of the company by conducting a SWOT analysis. Finally, we have identified areas in which the company should focus in the future in order to keep its competitiveness. According to their website, Three is Ireland’s largest high speed network and fastest growing mobile operator. Launched in...

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5


... ------------------------------------------------- (Literature Review) ------------------------------------------------- This chapter reviews the literature that will be used extensively in forming this report. This chapter has been divided into different sections covering all the important aspects of the research subject. 2.1 Growth of the Telecom Industry Telecommunication basically is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication, though the technology involved in communicating has changed significantly over the years. Like telecommunications itself, the telecommunications industry is broader than it was in the past. Telecommunication has a significant social, cultural and economic impact on the modern society. In 2008, estimates placed the telecommunication industry's revenue at $3.85 trillion or just under 3 percent of the gross world product (Plunkett Research Limited, 2010). The telecom industry is one of the world’s fastest growing industries regardless of what the indicators being measured according to Wauschkuhn (2006). The telecom industry in Bangladesh is relatively new compared to the western counterparts, but it is now growing and evolving at an unimaginable pace. As a result of being a high profit generator, the telecommunications industry has historically been an agent of the government and owned by the state in both the countries. But over the last fifteen years, there has been an intensive effort to loosen the...

Words: 11596 - Pages: 47


...AT&T WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION GERVAS MGONJA GB 540-03N ECONOMICS FOR GLOBAL INSTRUCTOR: FAHLINO SJUIB AT&T is focusing on domestic American operations in order to provide innovative, reliable, high quality products and services and excellent customer care. AT&T is bringing it all together for their customers, from revolutionary smart phones to next generation TV services. AS wireless companies move into more advanced third-generation (3G) technology, they are beginning to offer more data services such, video, photo messaging, e-mail, and mobile internet services. Phone and other devices that connect to these networks are essential to get new customers and retain the ones they already comprise of. AT&T is continued to break new ground domestic and international and deliver new solutions, they are focusing on delivering the high quality customer service and high quality technology at the affordable price. Service has become the key to retaining customers in the telecommunications market, because the market has become very competitive. It is very important to keep customers happy, because they can drop one service provider and have many others to choose from. Companies target call completion rates of 95% and higher and a 3% rate is targeted for drop calls. This ensures customers that almost every time they pick up their phone to call; the connection is made and kept. By having reliable networks, AT&T is able to maintain their customers. AT&T put together different...

Words: 1261 - Pages: 6

Czech Republic

... from home to attend college, I continued to study Spanish; however, I quickly realized that my knowledge and application of the language was deteriorating, as I was unable to use it in real-life situations everyday. 4. What activities have you pursued to familiarize yourself with the culture of the country? (*) Prior to business school, I worked for a large packaging distributor based in Chicago, as a financial analyst. Though my role was not in global sourcing, I was very aware and intrigued by sourcing operations in emerging markets in both Eastern Europe and China, and how our company had to balance the financial risks in developing these supplier relationships. For this reason, I was immediately excited about the opportunity to visit and learn in Czech Republic and Austria. My research in both countries has only increased my excitement at this opportunity. First, my husband lived in the Czech Republic for three months in the city of Ostrava, to play soccer in high school. During this time he lived with a Czech family and had the opportunity to travel around the country. Though this was many years ago, it was an experience that he claims changed his life and though the country has changed greatly since then, the stories have left me very intrigued. Due to this, he was able to connect me with several Czech friends who he has kept in touch with that now live in the US. Through several conversations with them, I was very fascinated by how their families...

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5

The Future Path of Malaysian Telecommunication Industry

... will be based on the coding system (each company will be presented by codes) chosen by a client; for instance, code 181 is for Telecom; 182 - Binariang; 183 Time Telecommunication; 186 Mutiara Telecommunication; and 189 - Celcom. This project will be commencing on January 1, 1999. Since the telecommunication and IT industry are essential to the technological advancement in Malaysia, many elements of practices have to be reviewed. Hence, the government proposes a new law to replace the existing law by submitting the Communication and Multimedia Law 1998 in the parliamentary session in 1998. One of the important provisions in the new law is to establish a new Ministry so called the Multimedia Ministry to guide the telecommunication and IT industry in more viable ways in the future. This implementation will definitely affect the restructure of Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication, and Post and Ministry of Information (responsible for broadcasting in Malaysia at present). This issue is still debatable but the law will definitely be enforced next year.   Conclusion These progresses are not a dream that encapsulates with unreal events and nightmares, but they are the vision that will bring the nation to stand on his or her feet as tall as the other nations around the world. There is no doubt that telecommunication sector will be expanded farther and further after the government of Malaysia has agreed to focus more attention on the Space Industry. In conclusion, Malaysia has......

Words: 1815 - Pages: 8