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Research

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ghina
Words 4738
Pages 19
Question 1: Why should a manger know about research when the job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like?

Answer:

Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Research is the organized and systematic inquiry or investigation which provides information for solving a problem or finding answers to a complex issue.

Research in business:

Often, organization members want to know everything about their products, services, programs, etc. Your research plans depend on what information you need to collect in order to make major decisions about a product, service, program, etc. Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems.

The more focused you are about your resources, products, events and environments what you want to gain by your research, the more effective and efficient you can be in your research, the shorter the time it will take you and ultimately the less it will cost you.

Manager’s role in research programs of a company:

Managing people is only a fraction of a manager's responsibility - they have to manage the operations of the department, and often have responsibilities towards the profitability of the organization. Knowledge of research can be very helpful for a good manager.

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Question 2: a. How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. b. Briefly explain Independent, dependent and extraneous variables in a research design.

Answer:

a. Research design for exploratory research:

Research simply means a search for facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods.

It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”

b. Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design:

The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study.

Dependent and Independent variables:

A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables‟. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables‟. In statistical term, they are also known as „discrete variable‟. For example, age is a continuous variable; whereas the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable.

And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute.

Extraneous variable:

The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children’s school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental error‟. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables.

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Question 3: a. Differentiate between ‘Census survey’ and ‘ Sample Survey’ b. Analyse multi-stage and sequential sampling.

Answer:

a. Difference between Census survey and Sample Survey

|Census Survey |Sample Survey |
|A census measures absolutely everyone in the whole country. This |A part of the population is known as sample |
|obviously means that a census survey is a much bigger exercise in | |
|nature and procedures | |
|Census survey also is a very time consuming exercise as information|On the other hand, sample survey is easier as a representative |
|needs to be collected from each and every individual from the |sample is taken from the population and the results obtained are |
|population. |extrapolated to fit the entire population. |
|There are times and requirements where governments have to indulge |Sample surveys cannot count the number of people in the country but|
|in census survey even if it is time consuming and very expensive as|when government is planning on a welfare program for cancer |
|it needs to formulate policies and welfare programs for the |patients, it can conduct a sample survey of some of the cancer |
|population. For example, when a government has to count heads of |patients and then extrapolate the results on the section of the |
|the population |population that is undergoing treatment for cancer. |
|Census survey is more accurate. |there is margin for error in sample survey |

b. Analyse multi-stage and sequential sampling:

Multi-stage sampling:

In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more stages. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated.

Sequential sampling:

Sequential sampling is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval, conducts his study, analyses the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. This sampling technique gives the researcher limitless chances of fine tuning his research methods and gaining a vital insight into the study that he is currently pursuing. There is very little effort in the part of the researcher when performing this sampling technique. It is not expensive, not time consuming and not workforce extensive.
This sampling method is hardly representative of the entire population. Its only hope of approaching representativeness is when the researcher chose to use a very large sample size significant enough to represent a big fraction of the entire population. Due to the aforementioned disadvantages, results from this sampling technique cannot be used to create conclusions and interpretations pertaining to the entire population.

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Question 4: List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them?

Answer:

Measures of Central Tendency:

The term central tendency refers to the "middle" value or perhaps a typical value of the data, and is measured using the mean, median, or mode. Each of these measures is calculated differently, and the one that is best to use depends upon the situation.

Analysis of data involves understanding of the characteristics of the data. The following are the important characteristics of a statistical data:

➢ Central tendency ➢ Dispersion ➢ Skew ness ➢ Kurtosis

In a data distribution, the individual items may have a tendency to come to a central position or an average value. For instance, in a mark distribution, the individual students may score marks between zero and hundred. In this distribution, many students may score marks, which are near to the average marks, i.e. 50. Such a tendency of the data to concentrate to the central position of the distribution is called central tendency. Central tendency of the data is measured by statistical averages. Averages are classified into two groups.

1. Mathematical averages
2. Positional averages

Statistical Averages

Mathematical averages Positional averages

Arithmetic mean Median Geometric mean Mode Harmonic mean

Arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean are mathematical averages. Median and mode are positional averages. These statistical measures try to understand how individual values in a distribution concentrate to a central value like average. If the values of distribution approximately come near to the average value, we conclude that the distribution has central tendency.

Difference between Mean and Median:
|Mean (Mathematical averages) |Median (Positional averages) |
|When the sample size is large and does not include outliers, the |The median may be a better indicator of the most typical value if a|
|mean score usually provides a better measure of central tendency. |set of scores has an outlier. An outlier is an extreme value that |
| |differs greatly from other values. |
|The mean is the most commonly-used measure of central tendency. |The median often is used when there are a few extreme values that |
|When we talk about an "average", we usually are referring to the |could greatly influence the mean and distort what might be |
|mean |considered typical. |
|The mean is simply the sum of the values divided by the total |The median is determined by sorting the data set from lowest to |
|number of items in the set |highest values and taking the data point in the middle of the |
| |sequence |

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Question 5: Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.

Answer:

For performing research on the literacy levels among families, the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of:

1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household life style etc.
2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc.
3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.
4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talluks, districts, state and the nation.

The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study.

Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies

The sources of data may be classified into: a. Primary sources b. Secondary sources.

Primary Sources of Data:

Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from as ample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.

Advantage of Primary Data: ➢ It is original source of data ➢ It is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. ➢ It flexible to the advantage of researcher. ➢ Extensive research study is based of primary data

Disadvantage of Primary Data: ➢ Primary data is expensive to obtain ➢ It is time consuming ➢ It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. ➢ It is difficult to administer

Methods of Collecting Primary Data:

Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socioeconomic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A ‘Method’ is different from a ‘Tool’ while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are (a) observation, (b) interviewing,(c)mail survey,(d)experimentation,(e) simulation and (f) projective technique. Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters.

Secondary Sources of Data:

These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO, WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc.

Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc.

Features of Secondary Sources:

Though secondary sources are diverse and consist of all sorts of materials, they have certain common characteristics. First, they are readymade and readily available, and do not require the trouble of constructing tools and administering them

Second, they consist of data which a researcher has no original control over collection and classification. Both the form and the content of secondary sources are shaped by others. Clearly, this is a feature which can limit the research value of secondary sources. Finally, secondary sources are not limited in time and space. That is, the researcher using them need not have been present when and where they were gathered

Use of Secondary Data:

The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. First, some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. For example, the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country, their coverage of villages, their capital structure, volume of business etc., may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state.

Second, secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research maybe tested, e.g., the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages; the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole; and so on.

Finally, secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour, Financial Analysis of companies, Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks, sociological studies on crimes, historical studies, and the like, depend primarily on secondary data. Year books, statistical reports of government departments, report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises, Censes Reports etc., and serve as major data sources for such research studies

Advantages of Secondary Data:

Secondary sources have some advantages:

➢ Secondary data, if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Once their source of documents and reports are located, collection of data is just matter of desk work. Event he tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided, thanks to Xeroxing facilities. ➢ Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. Thus, the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. ➢ The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. ➢ Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. ➢ The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support. The researcher needs not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected.

Disadvantages of Secondary Data:

The use of a secondary data has its own limitations.

➢ The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different; units of measure may not match; and time periods may also be different. ➢ The available data may not be as accurate as desired. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. ➢ The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print, because of time lag in producing them. For example, population census data are published two or three years later after compilation and no new figures will be available for another ten years. ➢ Finally, information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. Even if the location of the source is known, the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. For example, most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city, and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places.

Evaluation of Secondary Data:

When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research, he should evaluate them before deciding to use them.

1) Data Pertinence:

➢ The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study. The following questions should be considered. ➢ What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent? ➢ What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research?

On the basis of above consideration, the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined, as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data.

2) Data Quality:

If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs, the next step is to examine the quality of the data. The quality of data refers to their accuracy, reliability and completeness. The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. Then only, the researcher can review the cautionary and other comments that were made in the original source.

3) Data Completeness:

The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. The question of possible bias should also be examined. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organization’s own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues. The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researcher’s study.

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Question 6: a. Explain the role of Graphs and Diagrams? b. What are the Types and General rules for graphical representation of data?

Answer:

a) Role of Graphs and Diagrams:

In presenting the data of frequency distributions and statistical computations, it is often desirable to use appropriate forms of graphic presentations. In additions to tabular forms, graphic presentation involves use of graphics, charts and other pictorial devices such as diagrams. These forms and devices reduce large masses of statistical data to a form that can be quickly understood at the glance. The meaning of figures in tabular form may be difficult for the mind to grasp or retain. “Properly constructed graphs and charts relieve the mind of burdensome details by portraying facts concisely, logically and simply.” They, by emphasizing new and significant relationship, are also useful in discovering new facts and in developing hypothesis.

The device of graphic presentation is particularly useful when the prospective readers are non-technical people or general public. It is useful to even technical people for dramatizing certain points about data; for important points can be more effectively captured in pictures than in tables. However, graphic forms are not substitutes for tables, but are additional tools for the researcher to emphasize the research findings.

Graphic presentation must be planned with utmost care and diligence. Graphic forms used should be simple, clear and accurate and also be appropriate to the data. In planning this work, the following questions must be considered.

a. What is the purpose of the diagram? b. What facts are to be emphasized?

c. What is the educational level of the audience? d. How much time is available for the preparation of the diagram? e. What kind of chart will portray the data most clearly and accurately?

Role of Graphs:

Because graphs provide a compact, rhetorically powerful way of representing research findings, recent theories of science have postulated their use as a distinguishing feature of science. Studies have shown that the use of graphs in journal articles correlates highly with the hardness of scientific fields, both across disciplines and across subfields of psychology.

Role of Diagrams:

Recent technological advances have enabled the large-scale adoption of diagrams in a diverse range of areas. Increasingly sophisticated visual representations are emerging and, to enable effective communication, insight is required into how diagrams are used and when they are appropriate for use. The pervasive, everyday use of diagrams for communicating information and ideas serves to illustrate the importance of providing a sound understanding of the role that diagrams can, and do, play. Research in the field of diagrams aims to improve our understanding of the role of diagrams, sketches and other visualizations in communication, computation, cognition, creative thought, and problem solving. These concerns have triggered a surge of interest in the study of diagrams.

The study of diagrammatic communication as a whole must be pursued as an interdisciplinary endeavor. Diagrams attract a large number of researchers from virtually all related fields, placing the conference as a major international event in the area.

b) Types and General rules for graphical representation of data:

Graphical representation is done of the data available. This is very important step of statistical analysis. We will be discussing the organization of data. The word 'Data' is plural for 'datum'; datum means facts. Statistically the term is used for numerical facts such as measures of height, weight and scores on achievement and intelligence tests.

Graphs and diagram leave a lasting impression on the mind and make intelligible and easily understandable the salient features of the data. Forecasting also becomes easier with the help of graph. Thus it is of interest to study the graphical representation of data.

The graphical representation of data is categorized as basic five types: 1) Bar graph 2) Pie graph 3) Line graph 4) Scatter plot 5) Histogram

Examples of graphical representation of data:
Let us see some examples of graphical representation of data.
1) Bar chart:
A Bar chart (or diagram) is a graphical representation of data using bars (rectangles of same width).
It is one dimensional in which case only the height of the rectangle matters.

|year |1931 |1941 |
|0-5 |2.5 |10 |
|5-10 |7.5 |16 |
|10-15 |12.5 |30 |
|15-20 |17.5 |42 |
|20-25 |22.5 |50 |
|25-30 |27.5 |30 |
|30-35 |32.5 |16 |
|35-40 |37.5 |12 |

[pic]

2) Cumulative Frequency Curve(ogive):

The Cumulative frequency curve for a grouped frequency distribution is obtained by plotting the points and then joining them by a free-hand smooth curve.
This is also known as ogive.

Method: ➢ Form the cumulative frequency table. ➢ Mark the upper class limits along the x-axis. ➢ Mark the cumulative frequencies along the y-axis. ➢ Plot the points and join them by a free-hand smooth curve.

Draw a cumulative frequency curve for the following data: |Marks |0-4 |4-8 |8-12 |12-16 |16-20 |
|Number of students |4 |6 |10 |8 |4 |

The cumulative frequency table is as follows: |Marks |Number of |cumulative |
| |students |frequency |
|0-4 |4 |4 |
|4-8 |6 |4+6=10 |
|8-12 |10 |10+10=20 |
|12-16 |8 |20+8=28 |
|16-20[pic] |4 |28+4=32 |
|Total |32 | |

Joining these points by a free-hand smooth curve, we have the following cumulative frequency curve:

3) Pie-chart or Pie-graph:

It is drawn by first drawing a circle of a suitable radius and then dividing the angle of 360 degree at its centre in proportion to the figures given under various heads.
Solution:

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...Research Article Research is important to every business because of the information it provides. There is a basic process to researching information and that process begins by deciding what information needs to be researched. The next step is to develop a hypothesis, which describes what the research paper is about and what the researcher’s opinion is regarding the topic. The research article chosen for this paper is titled, “The Anchor Contraction Effect in International Marketing Research.” The hypothesis for this paper is, “This raises the issue of whether providing responses on rating scales in a person’s native versus second language exerts a systematic influence on the responses obtained.” Simply explained, the hypothesis of this paper is to determine whether research questions should be in a person’s native language rather than expecting them to respond to questions in a language in which they might not be fluent. The hypothesis of this paper was accepted based on the research data gathered by the research team. This hypothesis was supported by nine studies using a variety of research methods. The research methods provided data that demonstrated the level of inaccuracy based on questions being asked in a language that was not the respondent’s native language. The research data provided insight into the probability of more accurate results when the respondent was asked questions in a manner that related well with their culture. There are several......

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...ACE8001: What do we mean by Research? & Can we hope to do genuine Social Science Research (David Harvey)  What do we mean by research? What might characterise good research practice? There is no point in us trying to re-invent the wheel - other and probably more capable people than us have wrestled with this problem before us, and it makes good sense and is good practice to learn what they have discovered.  In other words - we need to explore more reliable and effective methods and systems for the pursuit of research than we have been doing so far. What is research? Dictionary Definitions of Research: * "The act of searching closely or carefully for or after a specified thing or person" * "An investigation directed to discovery of some fact by careful study of a subject" * "A course of scientific enquiry" (where scientific = "producing demonstrative knowledge") Howard and Sharp (HS) define research as:  "seeking through methodical processes to add to bodies of knowledge by the discovery or elucidation of non-trivial facts, insights and improved understanding of situations, processes and mechanisms".  [Howard, K. and Sharp, J.A. The Management of a student research project, Gower, 1983 - a useful and practical “how to do it” guide] Two other, more recent guides are: Denscombe, Martyn, 2002, Ground rules for good research: a 10 point guide for social research,  Open University Press. Robinson Library Shelf Mark: 300.72 DEN, Level 3 (several copies)...

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...solve analytic models or whatever, but they often fail to demonstrate that they have thoroughly thought about their papers—in other words, when you push them about the implicit and explicit assumptions and implications of their research models, it appears that they haven’t really given these matters much thought at all.[1] Too often they fall back on saying that they are doing what they are doing because that is the way it is done in the prior literature, which is more of an excuse than a answer. (Of course, once a researcher reaches a certain age, they all feel that youngsters aren’t as good as they were in the good old days!) Therefore, in this class we shall go beyond simply studying research in managerial accounting. For many of you, this is your first introduction to accounting research and to PhD level class. Hence, in these classes we shall also learn how to solve business problems systematically and to understand what it means to have thoroughly “thought through” a paper. We begin not with academic research, but with some real world cases, because we should never forget that ours is an applied research field: accounting research is a means towards the end of understanding business and is not an end in itself, in the way pure science research is. Developing a systematic procedure for solving a real world business problem is the starting point for developing a...

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...Volume 3, number 2 What is critical appraisal? Sponsored by an educational grant from AVENTIS Pharma Alison Hill BSC FFPHM FRCP Director, and Claire Spittlehouse BSc Business Manager, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, Institute of Health Sciences, Oxford q Critical appraisal is the process of systematically examining research evidence to assess its validity, results and relevance before using it to inform a decision. q Critical appraisal is an essential part of evidence-based clinical practice that includes the process of systematically finding, appraising and acting on evidence of effectiveness. q Critical appraisal allows us to make sense of research evidence and thus begins to close the gap between research and practice. q Randomised controlled trials can minimise bias and use the most appropriate design for studying the effectiveness of a specific intervention or treatment. q Systematic reviews are particularly useful because they usually contain an explicit statement of the objectives, materials and methods, and should be conducted according to explicit and reproducible methodology. q Randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews are not automatically of good quality and should be appraised critically. www.evidence-based-medicine.co.uk Prescribing information is on page 8 1 What is critical appraisal What is critical appraisal? Critical appraisal is one step in the process of evidence-based clinical practice. Evidencebased clinical......

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...goal of the research process is to produce new knowledge or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. This process takes three main forms (although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure): * Exploratory research, which helps identify and define a problem or question. * Constructive research, which tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question. * Empirical research, which tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two ways to conduct research: Primary research Using primary sources, i.e., original documents and data. Secondary research Using secondary sources, i.e., a synthesis of, interpretation of, or discussions about primary sources. There are two major research designs: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose one of these two tracks according to the nature of the research problem they want to observe and the research questions they aim to answer: Qualitative research Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. This type of research looks to describe a population without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables. It is viewed as more restrictive in testing hypotheses because it can be expensive and time consuming, and typically limited to a single set of research subjects.......

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...Marketing Department, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RQ, United Kingdom e-mail: 1sh@ukm.my 1,3 ABSTRACT This study examined the adequacy of using undergraduate student samples in research on online consumer attitudes by comparing the attitudes of students (n = 161) towards online retailing services with the attitudes of non-students (n = 252) towards such services. A structured questionnaire administered online was used to gather data on perceptions, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions with regard to online retailing services. The t-test results showed that, in general, students' attitude towards online retailing services is similar to that of non-students. Therefore, undergraduate students may be reasonable surrogates for consumers in research on online retailing. Keywords: internet users, electronic commerce, online consumer attitudes, online retailing services, student surrogates INTRODUCTION The usage of the internet as a communication and transaction medium in consumer markets is growing rapidly (Castells, 2000; Hart, Doherty, & EllisChadwick, 2000). In line with this expansion, consumer-based electronic commerce has become an emerging research area (e.g. Demangeot & Broderick, 2006, 2007; Teo, 2006; Tih & Ennis, 2006a, 2006b). In particular, a stream of research addressing issues related to online consumer attitudes (e.g. George, 2004; Wang, Chen, Chang, & Yang, 2007) and behaviors (see Cheung, Chan, & Limayem, 2005 for a review) has emerged.......

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...How To Formulate Research Problem? Posted in Research Methodology | Email This Post Email This Post Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. Research Process Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings. The research process consists of the following stages – 1. The Primary stage :– This stage includes – a. Observation – The first step in the research process is that of the observation, research work starts with the observation which can be either unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation.It can be said that an observation leads to research, the results obtained from research result in final observations which can play a crucial part in carrying out further research. Deliberate and guided...

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...activities for the quarter 4 which include weekly class discussion, class participation, midterm and final exam * Learned about what Research is and what Research is not. * Eight characteristics of research. * Sub problem – that is a question or problem that must be address before the main problem is resolved. * Hypothesis- that is a reasonable quests that needs to be proving. * I learned about assumption –that is a statement that is presume to be fact. * Learned about theory * Learned about methodology- that is a process a researchers use to collect data and information is research work. * Learned about internet – A researchers use internet to access information online. * Learned about two types of research report which is Juried or refereed – a reviewed report * Nonjuried or nonrefereed – none reviewed report. E.g. Journal report. * Learned about checklist evaluating research- that a report juried that is judge. * Learned that a research that is not screen or viewed by expert is not valid * Guidelines in reviewing research by going to library to sort for information needed for case study. * I learned as a researcher, you must read more than articles. * I learned about research paper / APA Style – that first thing is to choose the research topic. * Learned about what research paper entails, like cover page, table of content, abstract, introduction, summary, conclusion and references. * I learned about......

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...Importance Of Research Research is tool, which is utilized by my organizations and co-operations to have a fundamental knowledge of goods, products, and also to finding out consumer behavior. It is also a systematic investigation into the study of materials and sources inn order to establish facts and reach new conclusions. Research informed the marketers of Glidden paint because it helped them start from were the audience was which was Walmart in this case scenario. A marketer finds out what you want, and creates or finds product that fits you. Research aided the marketers of Glidden paint to come to a conclusion that not only should you hypothesize, you should also carry out experiments as well. In this case we see that the help of experiments helped them realize that Walmart’s brand name of saving money was not deterring the perceived quality of the paints. Meaning that Walmart’s cheap pricing of goods played no part in the durability of the paint. Research helped the marketers of Glidden paint realize that they could revamp the Walmart paint section, which has been ignored for years. They are confident that Glidden paint will do great numbers because they have raised awareness and created a media platform that consumers can interact with the most. Not only has research helped in satisfying consumer wants, it also gives the marketer an in-depth knowledge on the frequent changes of consumer taste. Research helped Glidden paint marketers......

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