Free Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

In: Science

Submitted By beeloves
Words 1008
Pages 5

This chapter presents the summary of related literature and studies that were gathered by the researchers from different references like the Internet, books and unpublished theses that were really a big help in relating this study. The gathered related information served as a starting point in evaluating and understanding the whole study. The following chapter shall review the current literature on energy related consumer behavior and attitudes to sustainable consumption. This section of the research also reviews the trends of previous research conducted on domestic energy use. The chapter shall finally delve into some of the instruments used to affect energy efficient consumer behavior, as well as the effectiveness of one or a set of instruments.
Related Literature Saving energy is one of the most fundamental things we can do as student of Bicol University to save money and help balance our budget. "This is an opportunity to cut expenses without affecting services; I encourage everyone to make energy conservation part of our daily routine", (President Curt Tompkins), [1]. The energy is conserved by the “law of conservation of energy”. It states that energy can be neither created nor be destroyed. Energy is a finite resource. The materials we derive energy from (oil, coal, electricity, etc.) can also harm the environment. By conserving energy you help to save parts of the environment. There are many ways to conserve energy. The most obvious is to not waste it. This can easily be done by shirring off lights when you leave a room, or turning off the computer or TV when it is not being directly used. Some other ways would be to recycle (it takes more energy to produce new cans, for example, than to re-use recycled ones) or re-use bottles or bags so that energy doesn't need to go into making new ones and the others aren't wasted.
Related Studies
This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage the students in Bicol University to conserve energy and reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation are considered key means for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving other energy policy goals, but associated market behavior and policy responses have engendered debates in the economic literature. In the issue of energy conservation, the energy suppliers of electric power, city gas and others are included in the demand side of factories as one of energy consumers since they use resources (primary energy) to create products (secondary energy). Enhancing efficiency of energy consumption for private power generation and of energy production process (e.g., efficiency of power generation and improvement of power transmission in power plants) is also the target of energy conservation.
The term of energy conservation has various definitions. The term is often defined as “to reduce the consumption of non-renewable resources”. The efficient use of other energy such as coal and natural gas is not included in energy conservation. However, technologies that lead to oil-use reduction without influence upon energy use efficiency are called “energy conservation technologies,” including the use of new energy, for example. On the other hand, demand in many developing countries is not only reducing the use of non-renewable resources but also enhancing efficiency of energy use in the entire society. Thus, the term of “energy conservation” treated in the Guidelines means enhancing efficiency of energy consumption including coal, natural gas, and other energy as well as oil.
From the 1970’s onwards the research was partly driven by an environmental agenda, with the main interest in pollution control, energy conservation (Dwyer et al, 1993). An important aspect of the 1970’s energy conservation research was the use of various intervention measures such as education and information on energy 12 conservation (information campaigns), feedback on energy use (in-house meters). Several studies conducted between 1970 – 1980 included behavioral intervention studies, to modify environmentally conscious behavior (Dwyer et al, 1993).

Theoretical Framework
Energy is wasted each day due to lack of awareness among societies. Past research suggest that there are two main energy conservation methods technology fixed and behavioral approach. Technology fixed is based on instruments such as motion sensor control lighting and photovoltaic. Behavioral approach requires changes in human attitudes by using motivation, raising awareness and skill developing. This paper intends to explore the roles of behavioral approach in promoting energy conservation through raising energy awareness. Two related theories -- Information Processing Theory and Three Term Contingency were reviewed. The information processing theory explains how people perceive information from their environment, operates on it, integrate it with information available in the memory, and used the product as the basis for deciding how to perform. The three-term contingency theory was invented to experimentally analyze human and animal behavior, by dividing the behavior into three key parts which constitute - stimulus, operant response and reinforce/ punishment. A conceptual framework of energy awareness development process was proposed based on these two theories. The conceptual framework consists of nine phases-- energy awareness stimulus, transference methods, interpretation, comprehension, awareness, reinforcement, short term motivation, obedience and long term motivation. Energy awareness stimulus explains that employees can be stimulated to support an energy management program. Transference methods are techniques or tools that could effectively transfer the stimulus to the receiver. The stages of interpretation, comprehension and awareness are receiver dominant, meaning that these phases are beyond the control of the building or facility manager. Reinforcement phase is required to strengthen the association between a response and preceding stimuli. Short term motivation is whatever activities that make people to act voluntarily in a certain way and then to persist in the face of difficulty. The employees expected to be in the phase of obedience that shows the early success of the energy awareness development process. The long term motivation such as public recognition, personal pride and energy award should be introduced to the receivers so they can continuously practice energy conservation. Finally the paper explains that validations are required to determine the effectiveness of the conceptual framework and to identify desired improvement.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Review of the Related Literature and Studies

...Review of the Related Literature and Studies A researcher needs to review the write-ups, readings, and studies related to the present study in order to determine the similarities and differences of the findings between the past and present studies Related Literature * Literature maybe defined as written works collectively, especially those enduring importance, exhibiting creative imagination and artist skill which are written in a particular period, language, and subject. * In other words, any written matter such as book, journal, magazine, novel, poetry, and encyclopedia are considered as literature. Guidelines on Effective writing of Literature 1. Research paper must be written in a formal style, which is in the third person, not the first person. 2. Avoid highly descriptive writing style, not appropriate for a scholarly research. 3. Language should be neutral gender, no sexy language like his. 4. Make the conclusion and contradictions found in the literature clear in the report. 5. Use proper grammar and proofread the work. 6. Never plagiarized, give credit to the original author of ideas. 7. Pay attention to the structure and form of published articles, which are good examples of how literature reviews can be written. Example 1. Peters (1993) claims that job-related stress can enhance productivity up to a certain point. There is, however, a threshold point beyond which stress becomes a harmful factor in one’s productivity. On...

Words: 909 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

...Chapter II Review of Related Literatures and Studies This chapter presents the related literature and studies that is relevant and significant to the current studies. This presents a survey of related literature and studies which is reviewed by the researchers to be understood and help the researchers to gather more information. Analysis of Students’ Performance in Junior Secondary School Mathematics Examination in Bayelsa State of Nigeria The finding of this study showed that students’ performance in 2006 JSS Mathematics test was high. Comparing the hypothetical pass mark of 20.00 with the students’ mean score of 28.59 this indicated that the students performed very well. This result is in agreement with Linn (1965), Anderson (1942) and Akpan (1989) who reported that if an examiner has a favourable attitude towards a particular subject, then this will reflect in his performance in that subject. This is to say that since mathematics has been made compulsory and a pre-requisite for admission into the senior secondary, hence the students have developed a favourable attitude towards the subject resulting in their high performance. On whether performance is influenced by sex, the result showed that male students obtained higher mean score than the females with the calculated t-value significant. This result is in line with those of Fememe and Sherman (1977), Grambs (1972), Comber and Keeves (1973), Tyler (1961), Fin et al. (1979) and Maccoby and Jacklin (1975) who all...

Words: 1895 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

...Review of Related Literature and Studies Foreign Literature Classroom management is defined as a “multi-faceted concept that includes the organization of the psychical environment, the establishment of rules and routines, the development of effective relationships, and prevention of and responsive to misbehavior” (Garrett, 2008) The ideal classroom environment will have “fewer disruptions during instructional time, better teacher planning, classroom organization, and student engagement, this will allow for more learning time” (Weiner, 2010) Montessori’s pedagogy, as those of Dewey (1937) and Kilpatrick (1918), follows a belief of constructivism rather than behaviorism. Montessori (1912) strongly encourages educators to be observers of student’s activities and not restrict the student’s mobility with unnecessary discipline. A student will learn when that student is actively engaged in an assignment, problem-solving and constructing their own understanding. Foreign Studies According to Milner & Tenore (2010), Teachers are sometimes pressured and closely monitored by their administrators to follow a set frame of referral, discipline, and management, which can make it difficult for teachers to employ culturally responsive classroom management. Teachers can experience less than ideal support from administrator; consequently, their students may believe that the teachers “forget to care” about them. In a highly structured classroom environment we...

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Review of Related Literature and Studies

...II. Review of Related Literature and Studies Interacting with friends and family across long distances has been a concern of humans for centuries. As social animals, people have always relied on communication to strengthen their relationships. When face-to-face discussions are impossible or inconvenient, humans have dreamed up plenty of creative solutions. The history of social media is the roots of social media stretch far deeper than you might imagine. Although it seems like a new trend, sites like Facebook are natural outcome of many centuries of social media development. The earliest methods of communicating across great distances used written correspondence delivered by hand from one person to another it is also called letters. The earliest form of postal service dates back to 550 B.C., and this primitive delivery system would become more widespread and streamlined in future centuries. In 1792, the telegraph was invented. This allowed messages to be delivered over a long distance far faster than a horse and rider could carry them. Although telegraph messages were short, they were a revolutionary way to convey news and information. Although no longer popular outside of drive-through banking, the pneumatic post, developed in 1865, created another way for letters to be delivered quickly between recipients. A pneumatic post utilizer’s underground pressurized air tubes to carry capsules from one area to another. Two important discoveries happened in the last decade of the...

Words: 1302 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies

...CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a review of literature and studies both local and foreign which are relevant to the present study. Local Studies Foreign Studies According to Waldbridge, "Responsible gaming is an attitude we need if we are engage into Computer Game. Developing this attitude is not a personal choice alone, it requires the participation of society (parents, school, and game developer and government)." As a computer game user, player and fan, it has led me to study the effects of playing computer games such as DOTA, KHAN, and other highly innovative and competitively graphical games. The purpose of the study was to establish an understanding of to what extent is the effect of playing online games, network games and other types to the studies of the students in the university where I graduated. While it was difficult to set a parameter of classifying games according to types and quality since I and my friend believed that the characteristics of the games have something to do with the addiction of students to playing, we thought that it would be safe to just assume games as if have the same characteristics even though these games are under of different types and of the different level of complex graphical presentation, level of real-time experiences, the plot of story it is trying to project and a lot more qualities. Thus, if we quantify the effects then assumption holds that each game that we have studied has a...

Words: 2104 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Grading System

...REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES GUIDELINES A. Content Chapter 3 Review of Related Literature and Studies 3.1 Review of Related Literature 3.1.1 Title of Related Literature 1 Discuss the relevance of the related literature 1 and make the conclusions and contradictions found in the literature clear in the report. Use the guidelines below in discussing review of related literature. 3.1.2 Title of Related Literature 2 Discuss the relevance of the related literature 2 and make the conclusions and contradictions found in the literature clear in the report. Use the guidelines below in discussing review of related literature. 3.1.3 Title of Related Literature 3 Discuss the relevance of the related literature 3 and make the conclusions and contradictions found in the literature clear in the report. Use the guidelines below in discussing review of related literature. 3.2 Review of Related Studies 3.2.1 Title of Related Study 1 Discuss the relevance of the related study 1 and make the conclusions and contradictions found in the study clear in the report. Use the guidelines below in discussing review of related study. 3.2.2 Title of Related Study 2 Discuss the relevance of the related study 2 and make the conclusions and contradictions found in the study clear in the report. Use the guidelines below in discussing review of related study. 3.2.3 Title of Related Study 3 Discuss the relevance of the related study 3 and make the conclusions and contradictions found in the study clear...

Words: 1151 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Related Studies

...Related Literature as a generic expression refers to all information which has substantial bearing on the study at issue whose source/s could be quoted appropriately. * Refers to books, periodicals, magazines, newspapers, legal reports and other published materials containing facts, laws, theories and documented observations. Related studies – refers to theses, dissertations and research studies substantially characterized by the presence of the following parts: research problem, hypotheses, objectives, related literature, methodology, findings, conclusions, recommendations and bibliography. Purpose: The review of related literature is the scholarly foundation of the study. It spells out whether there is sufficient documentary basis to pursue a problem which came to the attention of the student or there is none. The review of related literature serves the following purposes: 1. Generally, it provides the formal and scholarly data proving that there is sufficient reason to pursue the problem. 2. It provides a clearer understanding of the problem of the study, the circumstances surrounding the problem, and the approaches to pursue the study. 3. It provides the needed comprehensive information of underlying theories, concepts, and principles which are essential in developing the theoretical and conceptual frameworks. 4. It is the documentary proof that the current undertaking is filling-in a research gap. 5. It is the proof that the current undertaking...

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...Chapter 2 – Review of the Literature Writing Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature 04 NOV A literature review is designed to identify related research, to set the current research project within a conceptual and theoretical context. The second chapter should… start with a brief introductory paragraph concerning the researcher’s exploration of related literature and studies on the research problem; state the main coverage of said chapter; should be organized thematically to confirm to the specific problems; should synthesize evidence from all studies reviewed to get an overall understanding of the state of the knowledge in the problem area; should be limited within the last ten years; should include a clinching statement showing how the related materials had assisted the researchers in the present study at the last part. How to Write the Introduction of a Review of Related Literature Identify the general topic of the sources under discussion. Thus, you will provide the context of your review of related literature; Discuss what was already presented about the topic of your paper: conflicts in a theory, conclusions, gaps in research and scholarship, etc. Explain why the literature used is worth reviewing. How to Write the Body of a Review of Related Literature Group the sources according to their common dominators (approaches, objectives or any specific chronologies); Give the examples of how to sort out these groups. Use quotations, evidences, data...

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Sip Format

...Statement of the problem and specific questions   Significance of the study   Delimitation of the SIP   Definition of terms    CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES   Local studies   Foreign studies   Other readings    CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY   Research design   Respondents/ content of the study   Sampling techniques   Data gathering and procedure   Statistical treatment  CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA    CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND INTERPRETATION    CHAPTER VI: BIBLIOGRAPHIES    OTHERS:   Appendices   Curriculum vitae   Questionnaire/ interviewer guide   readings and other documents    HOMEWORK: TECHNICAL WRITING  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES    TWO MAJOR PARTS OF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE   Conceptual – It contains literature coming from books, journalism and other  forms of material, concerning ore relevant to the study, but are data‐free or  non‐empirical material, coming from both foreign and local sources.   Research  –  These  are  empirically‐based,  like  scientific  paper,  theses  and  dissertations,  both  published  and  unpublished,  coming  from  local  and  foreign sources.  PURPOSE OF REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE   It  gives  researcher  several  ideas  on  how  to  select  and  formulate  his  own  research problem.   It helps researcher identify studies that have been done related to the topic  he is interested in.   It avoids possible duplication of similar studies.   It guides the researcher on the possible theoretical framework he can use ...

Words: 404 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Importance Of Literature Review

...For a literature review, is usually in the of single research reports, statistics, texts about specific topics, specialist websites news media and other front line accounts of events .These reports may be by academics and other field researchers such as journalists .Literature can also include audio, film and videotexts scripts, commentaries and credits. Category selection is the Structural dimensions and related analytic categories are selected, which are to be applied to the collected material. Structural dimensions form the major topics of analysis, which are constituted by single analytic categories. And the material evaluation is analysed according to the structural dimensions. This should allow identification of relevant issues and interpretation of results. For the material analysis mentioned above provides a detailed description of the process in the analytic of literature review, while it includes a feedback circle for the collected material resources only such as a circle that might be needed for the overall process. For the material analysis provides a detailed description of the process and the structural dimensions and related analytic categories which allow classification of the reviewed literature can be derived deductively or inductively. In a deductive...

Words: 978 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...CHAPTER III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Studies on Learning Styles Studies on Mathematics Learning and Learning Style Studies on Learning Style and Teaching Style Studies on Co-operative Learning Studies on Co-operative Learning and Mathematics Conclusion CHAPTER III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Review of related literature plays a significant role in any type of research work. It allows the researcher to acquaint oneself with current knowledge in the field in which the research is being done. The availability and utilisation of adequate sources or related information enables the investigator to complete the research fruitfully and thus make unique contribution in the field of education with special focus on the method of instruction, learner variables, etc. For many years, educators and researchers have debated on the different variables which influenced student achievement. Decades of research in education suggest that students utilise individual learning styles (Felder, 1996). Instruction should therefore be multifaceted to accommodate the variety of learning styles. The literature in support of this assertion is vast and includes textbooks, learning style inventories and resources for classroom implementation (Dunn & Dunn, 1993). Though research in education and applied psychology has produced a number of insights into how students think and learn, the resulting impact on actual classroom instruction is uneven and unpredictable. ...

Words: 6353 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay


...Review of Related Literature A review of related literature is the process of collecting, selecting, and reading books, journals, reports, abstracts, and other reference materials. The following information may be collected: 1. Background information about the problem and related concepts. 2. Theories that explain the existence of the problem and the possible connection between certain factors and the problem 3. Data that confirms the existence and seriousness of the problem 4. General and specific findings of studies related to the problem 5. Recommendations for further study given in related studies Why Review Literature? A review of related literature is a must in research. The following are some of the obvious reasons; 1. It helps the researcher identify and define a research problem 2. It helps justify the need for studying a problem. 3. It prevents unnecessary duplication of a study 4. It can be a source of a theoretical basis for the study 5. It enables the researcher to learn how to conceptualize a research problem and properly identify and operationally define study variables 6. It helps formulate and refine research instruments 7. It provides lesson for data analysis and interpretation. When to Start Reviewing Related Literature? While the research problem is still being conceptualized, the researcher must already start reviewing literature. In identifying and defining the research problem, the researcher must be able...

Words: 520 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

How to Write a Literature Review

...How to write a Literature Review: Step 1: Read a lot. Sounds simplistic, but the fact is that you do have to read a lot, and read with care and purpose. There are things that you can do within the process to make your life easier, and the purpose of this short document is to point some of them out. Hopefully, this will help. However, there is no substitute for good, thorough, and hard work. When you start your reading, start broadly. If you have an area you are interested in, such as computers in education, multi-media, distance education, web-based instruction, or some other specific concentration, start your reading in those areas. Course assigned reading will help, but you will have to branch outwards and inwards. Don’t be afraid to follow an area that seems not to be related to your area. You are trying to define your interests. Allow yourself the freedom to do that. Here are some tips on how you might branch out, and/or focus in: A. Look carefully at the references. Should the author raise a salient point that interests you and they happen to cite somebody, look up the citation and read the original source. The original source will have its own references, follow these. Repeat as necessary. B. Read from tangentially related fields. Don’t be afraid to look outside of the literature in IT to other areas. Educational Psychology, Human Resources, Computer Science, and Communications Studies are but a few of the related fields with important information...

Words: 1603 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Apa Format

...Briefly describe the problem that your study is designed to address. Purpose of the study Briefly explain why this research project is being undertaken. Research questions (or objectives or hypotheses) Briefly state the research questions that this study addresses. Indicate your major hypothesis: what do you expect the results of your inquiry to reveal? Theoretical perspective Your hypotheses about how the independent and dependent variables in your study are related to each other should be based upon a theory that would predict what is likely to occur. Describe that theoretical grounding of your study. Definition of key terms Here you should indicate what you mean by key terms that you use in your study. Pay particular attention to terms that may not have the same meaning for all readers. Later on, in the methods section, you will define all of the variables used in your study in operational terms. Delimitation and limitations of the study Describe the scope of your study. What are its boundaries? What issues will be addressed and what issues are considered beyond the scope of the study? What are the limitations of your study? Pay special attention to limitations in terms of the sample which is available to you, and the extent to which it may or may not represent the population of interest. Potential threats to the internal validity of your study are identified here. Significance of the study What will this study contribute to our understanding of the...

Words: 1119 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...ECE THESIS WRITING GUIDELINES I. Abstract All capitalized, bold font style, center page alignment, double line spacing (body) The abstract gives the reader an overview of the study, based on information from the other sections of the report. The information given in the abstract is usually the basis of many readers as to whether they will read the entire report or not. The abstract is one paragraph of about 100-200 words. The typical information elements included in an abstract are as follows: 1. Some background or general information on the study and the main topic (or purpose of the study and its scope) 2. Some information on how the study was conducted (or the methodology used in the study) 3. The most important findings of the study. 4. A statement of conclusion (justified based on the data presented). I. Body of the Manuscript Chapter 1 (Capitalize the first letter only, bold font style, center page) TITLE (FIRST LEVEL HEADING, bold face, center page) Example: Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Line spacing: double space Spacing before: 0 pt Spacing after: 0 pt Paragraph indention: 1.50 cm Alignment: justified. Line spacing in the body: double space; 0 pt before and after No extra space will be given after the last sentence and another paragraph Content of The Problem and its Setting This chapter gives an overview of the thesis/practicum of research report, giving the reader background or basis of the problem to be...

Words: 1405 - Pages: 6