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《非诚勿扰》案例分析

小组名称:miracle

目录

摘要…………………………………………………………………………………-1-

正文

一、《非诚勿扰》的成功之道……………………………………………………-2-

1.节目定位准确

2.创意独特新颖

3.主持人理性化

4.嘉宾多元化、个性化

5.策划精心,制作精美

二、《非诚勿扰》营销模式浅析 ………………………………………………-7-

1.自我营销

2.话题营销

3.品牌营销

摘要

近几年来,全国刮起了相亲风,特别是自2010年以来,各地大小电视台分别推出各类相亲节目。《非诚勿扰》是江苏卫视于2010年推出的一档适应现代生活节奏的大型婚恋交友节目,旨在为广大单身男女提供公开的婚恋交友平台,因其独特的创意、精心的策划、精良的节目制作和全新的婚恋交友模式受到观众和网友的广泛关注,并迅速成为全国卫视节目的收视冠军。

自2010年1月15日开播以来,截至2010年6月6日,共播出了34期节目,共取得了30多次同时段第一名,同时包揽了2010年前23周的15次全国卫视周收视率总冠军。自2010年3月13日改为一周两期以来的12周中,更是连续12周夺得全国周收视率总冠军和亚军。在当前电视交友节目众多、竞争激烈的情况下,作为一档新派交友节目,《非诚勿扰》能够在这番龙争虎斗中脱颖而出,营销策略是当之无愧的主角。

本文针对《非诚勿扰》这一节目进行了全面分析,解读它的成功之处并结合其成功所在浅析其营销策略。

正文

1. 《非诚勿扰》的成功之道

1.节目定位准确

准确的定位,是节目获得成功的首要条件。《非诚勿扰》栏目定位准确,契合江苏卫视“情感世界幸福中国”的新品牌定位。《非诚勿扰》定位于新派婚恋交友节目,作为一档交友节目,它超越了之前各种传统的相亲节目和婚恋节目。之前这类节目主题相对单一,节目宗旨明确,即为单身男女寻找恋爱和婚姻对象,节目形式固定,通常以男女嘉宾一对一的交流为主,进行一对一轮配,是一种典型的服务类节目,其功能性比较突出。与之相反,《非诚勿扰》节目不仅仅停留在相亲的层面上,旨在为广大单身男女提供公开的婚恋交友平台,更为当代年轻人提供了一个探讨情感、婚恋、家庭、生活等价值观念的公共空间,因此该节目实际是为大众提供了一个探讨情感、探讨幸福,展示多元幸福观、价值观的大舞台,这与江苏卫视“情感世界幸福中国”的新品牌定位相吻合,与其追求“幸福”的宗旨相契合。

从节目的名称上看,《非诚勿扰》首先借用了电影《非诚勿扰》的品牌效应,利用其极高的知名度,将其品牌效应最大化,使节目从一开始就引发极高的关注度。电影《非诚勿扰》讲述的是秦奋(一夜暴富的“剩男”)踏上漫漫“征婚”旅程,寻找幸福,历经周折,终于找到真爱、找到幸福的过程。电影是关于都市“剩男”找寻幸福的过程,对于参加节目的男女嘉宾来说,参与节目、找到意中人,也就是找寻幸福的过程,再次体现了江苏卫视追求“幸福”的宗旨。

《非诚勿扰》中的“诚”体现了节目独特的定位,不同于一般的喧闹、热闹甚至吵闹的交友节目,该节目讲究一个“诚”字,节目给观众传递出一种真诚和信任;另一方面,栏目名字也暗示了对参与者的要求,参与者要诚实、选择要诚实、说话要诚实等。

2.创意独特新颖

当前交友、婚恋类电视节目众多,而要在众多的节目中脱颖而出,创意是关键,也是灵魂,更是节目的制胜法宝。《非诚勿扰》定位于新派婚恋交友节目,“新派”使其与传统相亲节目拉开了距离,也凸显了自己的特色,而要体现出“新派”的特色,其创意必须更加新颖,在功能上更趋向于情感娱乐,其娱乐性更加突出,更能满足受众的娱乐需求。

传统的交友节目中男女数量相等,以男女嘉宾一对一坐着聊天、交流为主,进行一对一轮配,节奏比较缓慢,缺乏激烈的言语冲突和极端效果,因而缺乏戏剧冲突性和刺激性,娱乐性也不强。《非诚勿扰》在人数设置上突破传统的配对模式,打破以往节目的平衡格局,在男女人数极端不平衡的状态下进行———24位女嘉宾和1位男嘉宾,男女人数上的极端不平衡增强了节目的戏剧冲突效果,更具有可看性。节目过程中男嘉宾独自一人等待和接受24位女嘉宾的“审视”、“质询”和“选择”,女嘉宾掌握主动权,处于“看”和“选择”的位置,女嘉宾先选择男嘉宾,每位女嘉宾都有淘汰男嘉宾的权利;而男嘉宾却处于“被看”、“被选择”的位置,只有给女嘉宾留下好感的男嘉宾才能有最后选择的机会,否则很可能没有发言就直接出局。这种颠覆传统的游戏规则,完全不同于以往男女嘉宾数量相当、从头至尾都是对等交锋的相亲节目,而是首次将女性嘉宾摆在了突出的甚至是决定性的地位,男性嘉宾反而成为节目的陪衬,给观众一种颠覆传统、耳目一新的感觉,同时也大大增强了节目的对抗性和戏剧冲突效果。节目中设置“爱之初体验、“爱之再判断”、“爱之终决选”三个环节,逐步深入,犹如游戏中设置的闯关环节,增强了其趣味性和刺激性;节目中女嘉宾以亮灯和灭灯的方式来决定男嘉宾的去留,节目中不断出现的各种悬念、意外等再次增强了戏剧性和娱乐性。

此外,节目中用规模宏大的24盏灯来代表当代女性的婚姻、家庭、金钱、价值等观念,可谓别出心裁、独具创意。节目过程中,女嘉宾亮灯表示对男嘉宾满意,愿意继续了解,灭灯则表示对男嘉宾不满意。若场上只有一位女嘉宾亮灯,主持人将询问男嘉宾的意见,如果他也中意亮灯的女嘉宾,则速配成功;若场上所有女嘉宾都灭灯,则男嘉宾必须离场。三关之后,如果仍有多位女嘉宾亮灯,则男嘉宾将获得选择权挑选自己心仪的女嘉宾。

3.主持人理性化

主持人是电视节目的核心人物优秀的节目主持人是电视节目成功的关键因素。作为一档娱乐性极强的新派交友节目,《非诚勿扰》并没有选择娱乐节目主持人,而是选择了新闻节目主持人孟非来担此重任。由新闻节目主持人担任娱乐节目的主持人,在主持人的选择上该节目是一个创新。

首先,节目名为《非诚勿扰》,中间有一个“诚”字,而作为交友节目,讲究的也就是一个“诚”字,节目需要给观众传递出一种真诚和信任;孟非曾是新闻节目主持人,与娱乐节目主持人相比,新闻节目主持人更容易使观众产生信赖感。其次,该节目的定位是一档落点比较深的交友节目,因此主持人必须是成熟稳重又有内涵的,这样在节目中,主持人已有的阅历,对情感的认识和体会,才能在讨论中有自己的观点,并巧妙设置话题、引导讨论。由于新闻主播主持娱乐节目,其视角和深度都不一样,孟非是一个经验丰富、成熟稳重、富有内涵的男士,能够赋予节目理性、沉稳的气质,因此能够使节目在气质上胜于其他交友节目,避免流于浮华和浅薄。

事实证明,孟非的风格很受欢迎,既严谨又不失风趣,分寸拿捏得当,正因为有民生新闻主持人的经历,使其更能了解普通人心态,对婚恋这个社会性话题有独到的见解,对节目过程中的局势和进程能够熟练掌控,其点评一针见血,恰如其分,孟非也被网友评为“史上最睿智的月老”。

除此之外,《非诚勿扰》还有别于其他同类节目的一个独特之处,是邀请性格分析师乐嘉作为嘉宾在节目进行中随时进行点评,坐在观众席上的乐嘉的角色代表的是台下观众及电视机前观众的心声,因此起到了台上与台下的良好互动。乐嘉是中国性格色彩研究中心创办人、“FPA性格色彩学”创始人、国内性格分析应用领域的权威,是备受各阶层广泛推崇的演说家和性格分析研究专家,被各类媒体广泛誉为“破译性格的魔术师”。

节目中,两位主持人一个站于场上,一个坐于场边,两人一搭一唱,相互呼应,改变了传统节目中主持人都站在台上的旧模式。此外,两位主持人孟非和乐嘉同为“光头”的形象,颠覆了其他娱乐节目帅男加美女的经典搭配。

4.嘉宾多元化、个性化

《非诚勿扰》每期邀请24位女嘉宾参加,与同类节目的女嘉宾相比,该节目的女嘉宾风格迥异、个性鲜明,谈吐犀利,并且外形靓丽、打扮时髦前卫、表现大胆奔放,呈现出多元化、个性化特点。

每期节目有24位女嘉宾参加,她们分别来自不同的行业,其年龄、职业、教育程度、家庭背景、价值观念、性格特征等存在很大差异,体现出多元化特征。例如女嘉宾年龄跨度较大,有80后、90后,也有70后参与节目;其职业更是多元化,有教师、私营店主、外企经理、职业模特、服务员、护士、博士、健身教练、学生等。给观众留下更深的印象还有女嘉宾犀利的言语。《非诚勿扰》里的女嘉宾似乎个个都是巧舌如簧、妙语连珠。《非诚勿扰》提供的不是一个还原于生活的舞台,而是一个有着情节、有着张力、有着冲突的戏剧舞台。

每期节目有5位男嘉宾上场,男嘉宾的年龄、职业、收入等也存在很大差异,体现多元化。从国籍来看,男嘉宾里有中国人,有韩国人,还有混血儿;从收入和职业等来看,有成功人士,有海归,有高调的富二代,有自主创业的淘宝店老板,有时尚的品香师,有舞蹈教练、健身教练,也有城市美容师,还有待业青年;就性格来说,有高傲自负的,有热情豪放的,有性格内敛的,也有腼腆害羞的。

由于嘉宾的年龄、职业、学历等方面的巨大差异,必然使得他们的择友标准大相径庭,嘉宾的爱情观、家庭观、婚姻观等价值观念在台上展示出来,尤其80后、90后强烈的个性意识,率真、张扬、敢说敢做的个性特征更展现得淋漓尽致。参与嘉宾多元化、个性化和观点的多元化、差异化,使节目不仅仅是一档以相亲为主题的节目,而更多是各类价值观、金钱观、就业观、人生观的碰撞。在此意义上,《非诚勿扰》已成为一个人文主义的大观园,里面包罗了人生百态。在《非诚勿扰》中,既有物质女的物质渴望,又有情感女的爱情渴求,还有对花样美男的直接表达。“小舞台涵盖大世界。”正如主持人乐嘉所说,“(《非诚勿扰》)实际上每一个人的呈现都是对社会的缩影,实际上它是一个人生舞台。”

5.策划精心,制作精美

精心而细致的策划,巧妙的流程设计和安排,时尚动感的舞台设计,选择考究、恰到好处的背景音乐等是该节目成功的另一重要因素。

由于事先经过了精心而细致的策划,《非诚勿扰》的流程安排非常巧妙,并且富有节奏感,犹如一部电影,剧情跌宕起伏。节目中,每位男嘉宾从出场到离开即构成一个板块,五个男嘉宾构成五个板块,五个板块组成一期节目。这样的板块化设计使节目流程清晰、节奏明快,即使中途收看节目的观众也能很快地投入节目。在每一个板块内部采用渐进式的结构方式,高潮迭起。这种悬念迭起的节目形态能引起观众的期待心理,调动观众的收看情绪和兴趣。不同于同类节目完全告知的方式,《非诚勿扰》引导观众和嘉宾、主持人一起探寻结果,具体表现为节目中嘉宾多次不断的提问,把观众逐步引向最终答案。

此外,与同类节目相比,该节目在环境、灯光、舞台设计、服装、化妆、道具等各个环节和细节方面,都体现出高水准。例如宏大的演播室电子制作现场方式,以时尚的蓝色为主色调的舞台造型、炫目多变的灯光、响亮的熄灯音等充分体现出节目的时尚感和潮流感;24位女嘉宾造型靓丽、着装时尚、气质各异、一字排开,布满整个大舞台,显得气势恢弘。摄像机镜头的切换,则体现出对细节的驾驭和掌控,摄影师善于捕捉嘉宾脸上强烈或细微的表情变动。表情虽然被称为是人类的第二语言,但特定场合下,第二语言比第一语言更有表现力。

恰如其分的背景音乐是《非诚勿扰》的另一大亮点,其选择非常考究,给人的感觉是为节目、为各个环节“量身定做”的音乐,与节目现场的情景和氛围巧妙融合,营造了良好的现场气氛,并把观众或者嘉宾带入一个或喜或悲的情境中。

二、《非诚勿扰》营销模式浅析

(1)自我营销

江苏卫视《非诚勿扰》5月9日档节目中的一号男嘉宾李海宁,想必看过的观众都不容易忘记他,仅两天与被冠以“涂料大叔”的他相关的文章谷歌网页搜索的结果是120000条,而百度达到276000篇,另类搞笑的语言让他非常火爆。

我们暂且不论他的背景,在整个节目出他出位的惊人语言是吸引人的,虽然可能得到的是恶言,然而他却已成功的将自己的涂料企业及涂料品牌以最快的速度推广出去。

他在收视率最高的节目中自我营销,实际上也是在推销产品,而名片上据有的14个联系方式,使得精准营销充分到位,不论你是想通过开心网、慧聪网、、QQ、E-mail,南京手机、无锡手机等来联系他都没问题,主要是他是为了方便大家使用熟悉的联络方式。他通过高收视率的电视媒体,与高流量的网络媒体双重结合,将自我营销做到了极致。

涂料大叔的精准营销影响力大,其实在节目中还有不少借此自我营销的,拍摄的短片里出现自己的淘宝网址,以及公司名称等等,只是他们没有涂料大叔做得这么极致。

另外,类似那些雷人做秀的女嘉宾,其实同样是在自我营销,她们销售的不是商品,而是上其他节目的资本。

(2)话题营销

话题营销主要是运用媒体的力量以及消费者的口碑,让媒体的产品或服务成为消费者谈论的话题,就此形成关注以达到营销推广的效果。这里的话题,可能是节目生产商有意制造的,也可能是观众引发的;可能是紧紧围绕节目本身的,也可能是由节目派生衍射出来的;可能具有普遍社会性,也可能是群体性小众性的。

这个天气变化无常的春天,江苏卫视交友节目《非诚勿扰》成为了全国观众的话题和谈资。根据央视-索福瑞34城市收视率调查统计,节目收视率最高达到了2.82%,成为全国卫视综艺娱乐节目收视冠军。不少观众表示质疑:这个节目到底是相亲还是表演秀?

本文无意讨论这个问题,我们关注的是:马诺等女性成为话题中心,在网络上毫无遮拦的谩骂、电视媒体的高频度曝光和传统媒体的新闻关注三重力量的作用下,一个个平常普通的女孩子成为明星,而节目也夺得了电视观众的眼球。这个现象再次验证了早些时湖南卫视在《超级女声》和《快乐女声》中所运用的话题营销手法是有效的,只不过,这次江苏卫视的看点更多。

从一开始,为了避免国内观众对于“真人秀”定义的无法理解,《非诚勿扰》将节目定位为“一个新派交友节目,只提供邂逅不包办爱情”。没有人说过上这个电视是为了找终身伴侣和结婚对象,节目组没有、嘉宾也没有,但很多观众却认为这是“电视红娘”,把现实婚姻与交友节目捆绑起来对应。这就使得有关话题具备了公开与冲突的特质,通过自由的网络平台和组织性的新闻媒体,各色人等找到了话题的“战场”。谭小芳老师认为,《非诚勿扰》的话题营销主要在以下几点体现:

1)话题的公共性

《非诚勿扰》的的话题,把复杂的人性抽离为单一的表述,把观众群分裂成一个个观点的“粉丝”团,对相异观点的不宽容,发展为真实社会中不同群体之间借助媒体尤其是网络媒体展开的口水战。

《非诚勿扰》播出以来,“马诺”、“拜金女”一度成为炙手可热的新闻关键词。用百度搜索“非诚勿扰马诺”,找到相关网页约4,450,000篇,用时0.003秒。一个人能够吸引几百万网帖,不能不说她已经成为了“公众人物”。

2)话题的争议性

《非诚勿扰》几乎每期都有一个道德方面的争端。节目中拜金女的毫不掩饰,富二代的显摆臭屁,孔雀女的撒娇发嗲,凤凰男的自卑自尊,杭州极品婆婆的农民鄙视等等,无论是否是他们的真实看法,一经电视节目播出,这一切都构成了非常具有看点的娱乐元素。《非诚勿扰》的确抓住了现实生活中的热点争议话题。

3)话题的延展性

这些“非常流行的切合实际的话题”,既是节目所讨论和表达出来的,又是现实社会中纠结在普罗大众心中的痛。节目嘉宾就相关话题发表的观点,往往是类型化的,讨论和交锋难免继续。谭小芳老师强调:而节目所制造出的“明星”具有了光环效应,推动受众对嘉宾和评委的观点、嘉宾的命运以及次生话题进行跟踪关注,并形成累积效应。

(3)品牌营销

1)品牌营销的概念

品牌营销是指企业通过利用消费者的品牌追求,通过市场营销使客户形成对企业品牌和产品、服务的认知过程,创造品牌价值,最终形成品牌效应的营销策略和过程。企业要想不断获得和保持竞争优势,必须构建高品位的营销理念。品牌营销说的简单些就是把企业的品牌深刻地映入消费者的心中,形成品牌忠诚度。

品牌营销包括:品牌个性、品牌传播、品牌销售和品管理。

a. 品牌个性:包括品牌命名、包装设计、产品价格、品牌概念、品牌代言人、形象风格、品牌适用对象……

b. 品牌传播:包括广告风格、传播对象、媒体策略、广告活动、公关活动、口碑形象、终端展示……

c. 品牌销售:包括通路策略、人员推销、店员促销、广告促销、事件行销、优惠酬宾……

d. 品牌管理:包括队伍建设、营销制度、品牌维护、终端建设、士气鼓励、渠道管理、经销商管理……

2)《非诚勿扰》品牌建设

作为一档电视节目品牌,《非诚勿扰》借助品牌符号进一步成功地塑造其品牌形象,并提升其社会知名度和美誉度,使之烙印到公众心里,使节目随品牌符号走进观众心里,其品牌建设主要体现于一下几点:

a. 精准的品牌定位。《非诚勿扰》把节目定位为时尚、婚恋的真人秀节目,强调节目的真人秀内核,既与其他的交友节目实现了区隔,又紧紧扣住了时代敏感的神经,迎合了受众心理,为锁定庞大的目标收视群体提供了可能。

b. 良好的品质保障。《非诚勿扰》以真诚交友为前提,以争议性话题为看点,以犀利深刻的点评为支撑,以凸显真实人性为理念,把大众关注的热点话题真实地摆在每个观众面前,通过对社会热点的真实透视深刻剖析和对观众心态的准确把握摆脱了单纯以娱乐为目的的电视形式,站在一个较高的起点来满足电视节目的娱乐功能。

c. 节目的品牌策划。电视节目作为一种特殊的产品,也有它的生命周期。在不同的生命周期,《非诚勿扰》分别采取了有针对性的品牌营销传播策略。

d. 持续的品牌扩张。《非诚勿扰》虽然是一档相亲节目,同时更是一个娱乐作秀节目,不同于一般的选秀节目和综艺节目的是,它的气氛把握除了两个光头主持人之外,更多的是犀利热辣的女嘉宾的自由展现,从马诺一夜成名到百度专场无一不是《非诚勿扰》的品牌营销之路。

e. 品牌延伸,持续的品牌传播与运用。力图触及社会各个热点的《非诚勿扰》更接近一部描写‘80后’年轻人生活状态的热门电视剧,80、90后这个群体在《非诚勿扰》的嘉宾、观众中占据了相当大部分,他们已经开始日益在社会主流价值观和生活方式上掌握了话语权。也正因为如此,《非诚勿扰》不仅嘉宾开设个人博客、甚至更时髦的新浪微博,还与相亲网站以及百度、优酷等网站开展广泛的合作,围绕《非诚勿扰》打造出一个平台或是一个社区,将相亲节目从电视上延伸到现实生活中。

3)《非诚勿扰》品牌营销策略

A.鲜明的品牌个性塑造

※ 主持人特色:节目采用一个主持人,两个嘉宾主持的形式,无论从主持人形象还是点评都极具自己的特色,无论是孟非的沉稳,乐嘉的犀利还是黄菡的温情都不断为节目制造出一个个对话亮点,成为节目的一大看点。

※ 嘉宾特色:《非诚勿扰》的每一位男女嘉宾都有自己的鲜明个性,语出惊人者更是不在少数,因此《非诚勿扰》不仅是大众剩男剩女搭建缘分的平台,同时也成为一个制造和产生单身明星的舞台。

※ 节目话题特色:无论是现场男女嘉宾还是主持人,节目最大的一个看点就是不断引爆一个个热门话题,《非诚勿扰》也因此成为中国草根娱乐文化的又一次延续。

※ 品牌形象特色:从主持人到现场男女嘉宾,从节目的背景音乐到现场火爆话题,从节目的初衷到理念,《非诚勿扰》始终注重打造自己的品牌形象,没有流于纯粹的娱乐整蛊。

B. 巧妙的品牌传播策略。

※ 引爆话题,聚焦眼球:《非诚勿扰》从创办伊始,每一期都有爆点,话题不断,疯狂语录、麻辣语录不断触动受众敏感的神经,引发诸多话题,使节目迅速聚焦受众,成功获得高收视率。

※ 网络营销:《非诚勿扰》的蹿红网络媒体的传播力量不容小觑。目前《非诚勿扰》网络传播主要包括新浪官方网站、新浪官方博客,新浪、网易、百度等门户网站的新闻报道,传统媒体的网站新闻报道,百度视频、土豆网、优酷、56等视频网站的网络视频,百度贴吧-非诚勿扰吧,天涯论坛上的帖子等,甚至百度logo也曾更换为江苏卫视《非诚勿扰》的主题标。

※ 跨界互动,构筑全方位的媒体态势:《非诚勿扰》通过协同整合传统媒体与网络媒体,创造社会热点和公众焦点,从而产生较高的社会关注度,在《非诚勿扰》节目传播过程中,包括江苏卫视在内的传统媒体在节目引爆市场的过程中发挥着导火索的作用,真正实现信息传播和受众的节目卷入以及受众与受众之间的互动、渗透,实现节目传播扩散,再进一步让受众聚焦到江苏卫视《非诚勿扰》节目上,还是在网络这个互动参与平台上完成的。

※ 循环扩散,推动信息进入自我扩散:《非诚勿扰》最不缺的就是话题,节目中出位的话题像导火索一样不断引爆公众言论,更以口耳相传、网络发帖等形式迅速扩散到报纸、电视等传统媒体,广电总局、《人民日报》、新华社等媒体以及《焦点访谈》和《新闻联播》对其轮番点名正成了其营销策略中最成功的地方。

※ 娱乐营销,使品牌充满活力:作为一档电视娱乐节目,娱乐精神自然是不可或缺的重要元素,无论是具有争议性的引爆话题还是温情感人的真情流露,无论是幽默诙谐的男女经典语录还是主持人中肯成熟的建议都使得《非诚勿扰》成为一档尺度把握最精准的高品质娱乐节目。

※ 注重品牌自身形象传播:《非诚勿扰》在传播内容方面十分注重自身形象的塑造。节目既有出位的话题,也有温情感人的情感故事,更有中肯客观的建议,而且节目注重利用软文的形式来传播节目的情感和服务功能,塑造节目良好的社会形象。

C. 品牌管理和维护

※ 温情路线:在完成品牌营销之后,考虑到要想提高节目的美誉度和观众的满意度,进一步树立强有力的品牌形象,节目开始有意识地削减娱乐成分,增加情感方面的内容,走温情路线。

※ 增强服务性:主要体现为:节目中配对没有成功的男嘉宾的联系邮箱在节目之后及时公布;女嘉宾年龄层、职业以及外在条件都更趋多元化、平民化;在官网上增设婚姻恋爱免费咨询板块,为所有在婚恋方面存在困惑的人免费提供服务;推出面向社会特定人群的专场节目,如首先开例,举办外来务工人员专场,在教师节期间又举办了教师专场。这些专场节目既满足了不同阶层人士的真实情感需求,又展现了节目的人文关怀和社会责任。

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...Advantage Science gives us safe food, free from harmful bacteria, in clean containers or hygienic tins. It also teaches us to eat properly, indicating a diet balanced in protein and carbohydrate and containing vitamins. The results is freedom from disease and prolonged life. In pre-scientific days, food was monotonous and sometimes dangerous; today it is safe and varied. It is varied because through improved sea, land and air transport food can now be freely imported and exported. Science has also improved clothing and made it more appropriate for climatic and working conditions. Man-made fibers and versatile spinning machines, today enable us to dress in clothes both comfortable and smart without being expensive. Home, school and office all bear witness to the progress and application of science. Nowadays, most homes possess electric lighting and cooking, but many also have washing machines, vacuum cleaners and kitchen appliances, all designed to increase comfort and cleanliness and reduce drudgery. Science produces the fan which cools the air, the machinery which makes the furniture and fabrics, and hundred and one other features for good living. The books and papers are at school, and again everything from the piece of chalk to the closed-circuit television of instruction are the direct or indirect results of scientific progress. Learning is therefore easier. And clerical work is made far more speedy and efficient by the office typewriter, quite apart from the hundreds of...

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...One of the major shortcomings of science supposedly is a lack of communication between scientists and the general public. Many argue that too often, science is only presented in written academic journals that are not so easily obtained by the general public. This is discussed on a daily basis and was argued in the aftermath of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan, as well as in on-going debate about other scientific theories and ideas. However, people fail to realize a few things. One of the major things is that, in terms of an earthquake or tsunami, you simply cannot predict anything like that. You cannot blame scientists for not being able to predict an earthquake like a meteorologist can predict weather events. Scientists can study things like seismic activity and they can make assumptions as to what may happen should an earthquake of a high magnitude hit and cause something catastrophic like a tsunami. Yet, some fail to realize that some safety measures were taken, and even inspectors that visited the Fukushima Nuclear power plant asked Japanese authorities to increase safety measures further. According to a France24 news article written three months after the catastrophe, “A three-page summary was issued at the end of the 18-member team’s May 24-June 2 inspector mission to Japan. It said the country underestimated the threat from tsunamis to the Fukushima plant and urged sweeping changes to its regulatory system. Japanese authorities have been criticised for...

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...In this essay I will focus on the events surrounding the regulation of Alar (diaminozide) up to and including 1985, as a case-study of knowledge and decision-making amidst uncertainty (418-19). I pick this time period in particular, because it is when the NRDC and other public interest groups began their campaign in protest against the EPA's decision to not ban Alar. My analysis of the events surrounding Alar will take shape around a critique of Michael Fumento's article "Environmental Hysteria: The Alar Scare," in which he paints the NRDC as "fanatics" launching a "smear campaign" not founded in any rational decision-making. This is an important argument to counter, because it has not only been taken up by many to condemn citizen-group action in the case of Alar, but to criticize their activities in many other regulatory processes. The chief framework used to devalue public action in these cases is the technocratic model, wherein it is believed that decisions can be best made by objective, rational experts acting based upon scientific knowledge. In this case, we can see a perfect example of when a decision was decided by scientific experts, in accordance with the technocratic model. Fumento and other supporters of the technocratic mode privilege the scientific knowledge of bodies such as the Scientific Advisory Panel in this case over other forms of knowledge. He denounces NRDC as fanatics based on his claim that they acted in spite of, and in contradiction to scientific...

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...Scientific papers are for sharing your own original research work with other scientists or for reviewing the research conducted by others. As such, they are critical to the evolution of modern science, in which the work of one scientist builds upon that of others. To reach their goal, papers must aim to inform, not impress. They must be highly readable — that is, clear, accurate, and concise. They are more likely to be cited by other scientists if they are helpful rather than cryptic or self-centered. Scientific papers typically have two audiences: first, the referees, who help the journal editor decide whether a paper is suitable for publication; and second, the journal readers themselves, who may be more or less knowledgeable about the topic addressed in the paper. To be accepted by referees and cited by readers, papers must do more than simply present a chronological account of the research work. Rather, they must convince their audience that the research presented is important, valid, and relevant to other scientists in the same field. To this end, they must emphasize both the motivation for the work and the outcome of it, and they must include just enough evidence to establish the validity of this outcome. Papers that report experimental work are often structured chronologically in five sections: first, Introduction; then Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion (together, these three sections make up the paper's body); and finally, Conclusion. The Introduction...

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