Free Essay

Second Hand Clothing


Submitted By farhanwahid
Words 9244
Pages 37
Preference of used clothing purchase among middle & upper income group of Karachi.

Table of Contents 1 1 Introduction: 2 1.1 Purpose of the Study: 4 1.2 Scope of the Study: 4 1.3 Research Questions: 4 2 Literature Review 5 3 METHODOLOGY: 26 3.1 DATA: 26 3.2 SAMPLE & SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: 34 3.2.1 CONVENIENT SAMPLING: 34 3.2.2 PURPOSIVE SAMPLING: 34 4 CONCLUSIONS: 35 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 36

1 Introduction:
A second-hand or used good is one that is being purchased by or otherwise transferred to a second or later end user. A used good can also simply mean it is no longer in the same condition as it was when it was first transferred to the current end user. Used goods may be transferred informally between friends and family for free as "hand-me-downs" or they may be sold for a fraction of their original price at garage sales.
Used clothing sector has grown into an important economic factor. It has clear consumer benefits. This is especially true in countries with low purchasing power, and for poorer consumers though it seems that almost all socio-economic groups are choosing to buy used clothing. Affordability is the key reason why people buy these goods. Fashion and consumer preferences also seem to be shifting towards western-style clothing. Many believe that clothes that are second hand are dirty. While this can be true in rare occasions, many times second hand clothing comes from clean homes and clean people who wash the clothes before they redistribute them. Second hand shops are not always for poor or poverty stricken folks, many middle class and wealthy individuals shop at second hand shops and also swap designer clothing on a regular basis. There are different types of second hand clothing that you can purchase or receive. Any article of clothing from shirts to pants to shoes and under garment can be redistributed as second hand. Used clothing from a family member or friend that is given to someone else is considered second hand.
Every nation shudders in fear at the prospect of a global recession. This period amounts to tumultuous times for governments and citizens alike. People have to contend with dwindled economic opportunities and high prices of commodities. These two situations combine to constrict the financial muscle of various individuals. As prices skyrocket, sources of obtaining money become hard to find.
In 2008, the universe experienced a global recession unseen in recent times. The last period the world underwent severe economic times occurred in 2001. The 2008 global recession came about as a result of liquidity in the American banking sector. The result of the economic disaster reared itself through evictions, folding up of corporations, foreclosures and retrenchments. In this duration, the price of oil increased thereby affecting the prices of basic commodities. Virtually, all sectors of the economy took a beating from the economic recession.
The clothing industry also took a beating from the damages of the economic tumble. The textile manufacturing world had to cut back on its products, which in turn affected the wholesale clothing industry. The target market reacted to the increase in commodity prices by shelving some necessities from their budgets. Most consumers prioritized basic necessities like food and shelter instead of clothes. Due to the increased fuel prices, apparel manufacturers increased their prices, which passed on to the clothing retailers.
Consequently, the garment shops passed the burden to the consumer through increased prices. Thus, most people shied away from purchasing many types of apparel. The reduced number of sales portended a big headache for the clothing industry with regards to its employees. The stakeholders of the industry encompassed retailers, tailors, designers and technicians. Stories abound of many people who lost their jobs because their companies faced credit crunch.
The clothing industry has always depended on the fashion world to showcase various attires in the market. The fashion industry suffered greatly when its counterpart cut back on its production. As a result, the sector resorted to low-profile fashion shows. This reared itself in Milan and Paris fashion events in 2008. Furthermore, companies specializing in wholesale apparel businesses turned to their national governments for a financial bailout. Some corporation opted to put themselves up for sale.
The New York Fashion week witnessed the withdrawal of three clothing designers; Betsey Johnson, Carmen Marc Valvo and Vera Wang due to the tough economic times. This incident exemplified the extent of the recession on the clothing sector. Bankruptcy also came up as a viable option for clothing firms during this difficult period. These companies could not fathom the idea of credit problems and production reductions.
It depicted irony that people decided to cut down on lavish spending on clothes and accessories. However, the global recession gave the individuals little choice with regards to their expenses. It boiled down to be able to put food in the stomach. This research will explore how people from middle class and upper class are catering to their clothing needs and luxuries in this difficult time of recession. Whether the preference for used clothing has increased among these income groups and how much it is expected to grow in future.

1.1 Purpose of the Study:
To find out whether middle & upper class income groups are shifting their preferences towards used clothing or not in today’s economic recession.
1.2 Scope of the Study:
The scope of the study includes the middle & upper class income groups of Karachi.
1.3 Research Questions:
Are people switching from new clothing to used clothing in this time of recession?

2 Literature Review
According to Pakistan Today (Year 2011)
Skyrocketing prices, rising inflation and shrinking incomes hit the middle tier of the society badly, Imported used items also not immune to price hike g Many prefer them for their quality, durability
“Prices here are quite reasonable and much less than other commercial areas in the posh parts of the city. But still you need to be good at the bargaining,” said Shazia Bibi, who is a frequent visitor of landa shops near the Jamia Masjid. During the survey, one noticeable thing was that the upper middle class families had sharply replaced the poor as the agile shoppers.

The reason behind their preference is that skyrocketing prices, rising inflation and shrinking income have hit the middle and upper-middle classes hard and they feel no hesitation to roam around the landa bazaars in contrast to the past practices. “I have come here to purchase imported warm clothes, which are very high-quality and priced within our means,” said Fakhir, a young software engineer. “Earlier, I used to purchase shoes from the city’s top store but the alarming inflation has forced me to think about other options,” said Tahir Khan, a university student who was happy after finding a pair of high-quality shoes

According to Dawn News (Year 2011)
While the people-friendly government claims improvement in living standard of people — the rising import of used wearable nullifies the government’s stance. A number of consumers are unable to purchase locally-made clothes, shoes, wearable goods, jackets etc., because of 20-40 per cent price hike in the last one and a half years.
Besides high food prices, frequent rise in the prices of power, gas petroleum and CNG/LPG have further hit their cost of living, especially of low-income bracket people, forcing them to purchase used items.
Figures of Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) revealed 12 per cent jump in quantity and 13 per cent jump in value in used clothing import which stood at 124,043 tons ($45.5 million) in July-Oct 2011 as compared to 110,965 tons ($40.4 million) in the same period of 2010.
A total of 354,465 tons of used clothing landed in the country after spending foreign exchange of $128.3 million in July-June 2010-2011 as compared to 252,898 tons ($94.4 million) in 2009-2011, showing a jump of 40 per cent in quantity and 36 per cent in value.
Traders of used items said that the lower income group and many people of the middle class throng the used-item markets. As weather is changing, people surround pushcarts at many roadsides to buy jackets, shirts/trousers, baby items, shoes, socks, sweaters, etc. In connivance with the police, the pushcart owners occupy many main roads and operate their business without any fear, causing traffic congestion.
Light House at M.A. Jinnah Road used to be the main hub of used items, but over a couple of years, some other hot spots like Empress Market Saddar, Banaras, Sher Shah, Liaquatabad etc., had been developed to attract a number of buyers.
As temperature is set to decline, the bargain hunters are trying hard to lift the desirable items because buyers feel that any increase in the intensity of winter will further push up the demand of used items as well as their prices.
A pushcart owner of used sweaters opposite Light House demanded Rs250 for a medium sized sweater, saying that after two to three weak its price would swell to Rs350-400 if weather turns chillier.
A pushcart owner of in the same area was asking Rs100 for a used shoe pair of 14 year old kid while another dealer sought Rs150 for the same shoes. A pair of used gent’s shoes was tagged at Rs600. They said prices depended on the purchasing price by dealers. However, they both said that the price of kids’ shoes was higher by Rs30-40 per pair as compared to last year’s.
The price of shoes produced by local manufacturers have gone up sharply because one pair of leather shoes for man is not available at less than Rs2,200.
A used-shirt seller near Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI) claimed of selling UK made shirts at a price hovering between Rs110-550. “A buyer can use these imported used shirts for six month to one year at a price of Rs110,” he added.
The price of a good quality new shirt produced by many garment makers (claiming of using imported fabric) starts from Rs750 to Rs1,200 while shirt of some big garment makers carries price tag of Rs1,500 to Rs2,200 per shirt.
Similarly gents’ pants made by local garment makers are available at Rs900 to Rs2,200 each. The huge price of locally-made sweaters is not affordable by many people as a result they switch over to low-quality sweaters or buy used item.
President of the Karachi Second Hand Clothing Merchants Group (KSCMG) Salim Wakani told Dawn that due to the deteriorating law and order situation, the bulk buyers of these second-hand items belonging to the interior Sindh, Punjab and Northern Areas have stopped their frequent visits to Karachi.
Instead of coming here, they had hired their agents in the city or sometimes they dealt on phone with the Karachi-based importers, he added.
He said their agents were buying the wearable goods at a normal pace.“Falling purchasing power and high price of new clothes and other wearables are the main reasons in pushing up demand of used items,” he said.
He claimed that prices of used items in world markets did not increase but the landed cost had been going up following devaluation of the rupee against the dollar, making imports costlier. Used items are mainly arriving from European countries, US, Japan, UK, Australia, Korea, Malaysia etc.
He said because of rising cost of living, the availability of used wearable items has made way in our society and these goods are now easily available in bulk quantity in almost all parts of the city, even in weekly bazaars of posh areas. The number of importers is increasing day by day following rising demand.
He claimed that these wearable goods were shipped from foreign destinations to other parts of the world after passing through fumigation process at warehouses for maintaining hygiene.
As fashion changes in world markets rapidly followed by sale of items at various occasions, including Christmas, foreigners usually dispose off clothes and shoes in less than 12 months.

According to Business Recorder
As a result of unprecedented economic slow down, majority of people have lost their purchasing power and have been heavily depending on second-hand clothes to meet their demands of clothes.
"I had never been to Lunda Baazar in the past but the present economic turmoil has forced me to buy used warm clothes for my children," said Gulnaz, a resident of old Clifton area”, import of second-hand clothes had increased by 30 percent as people from every cluster were now forced to buy second-hand imported garments because of unemployment and high inflation

According to Daily Times (Year 2007)
KARACHI: The import of second-hand clothes from USA, Europe, Australia, Japan and South Korea has registered an increase of around 20 percent to Rs 3.89 billion during February 2006-January 2007 against the import of around Rs 3.15 billion in same period last year, the importers said on Tuesday.
The consumption of second-hand clothing mainly in lower and lower middle class segments has also gone up to some 25 percent to Rs 840 million in all four provinces, excluding Karachi, during this period due to inflation and rise in stitching charges.

According to The Nation Pakistan (Year 2011)
LAHORE - Despite soaring prices of second hand warm clothes, people belonging to lower stratum of the society have thronged ‘Landa Bazaars’ of the City as the winter season has reached its peak.
Taking advantage of the cold weather some opportunist traders have increased the prices of old stuff as well, a survey conducted by The Nation revealed.
As business of warm clothes is on the rise in the provincial metropolis particularly after the change of weather, the people belonging to different walks of life are rushing towards the markets for buying warm items like socks, caps, sweaters, coats and jackets for warming up their bodies in cold weather.
As the prices of new winter garments are beyond the reach of a common man owing to inflation, the citizens changed their direction towards Lanada Bazaars considering them ‘cheap’ but unfortunately high-priced used clothes also disappointed them.
Thousands of buyers including women, youngsters, children and old aged were witnessed in Lunda Bazaars of the city.
Many of them were purchasing used clothes for their families while the youngsters were trying jackets, sweaters and caps of their size.
Moreover, the people, particularly belonging to the poor, lower middle and middle class of the society, are compelled to purchase second hand clothes as they are already pressed hard by the spiraling prices of other items of daily use coupled with growing unemployment. The second hand clothes go a long way economically in helping the poor given the current costly living.

Author: Sajid Bashir (Year 2011) With the advent of winter, Landa Bazaar, famous for sale of generally secondhand clothes and other articles, is dynamically keeping its attraction for middle-income people and the poor.
The market, due to its historical background, is one the most famous among the markets of similar type in various parts of the country. People come here from all over Punjab and other provinces to purchase commodities for their personal use as well as in large quantities for their retail outlets. Majority of the traders of Landa Bazaar say that heavy import duty, inflation and raise in petroleum prices have caused a significant raise in secondhand items’ rates. The people buy used cardigans, sweaters, jackets and other clothes to keep themselves warm during the winter. Shoppers, majority of them women, are seen buying woolen clothes for their minors to protect them against cold, particularly at night, when temperature dips considerably and may lead to various ailments in children.
Low purchasing power forced people to prefer used clothes to the new ones, a customer at Landa Bazar told The News. He said that it was impossible for a common man to buy a new jacket or a sweater in the prevailing circumstances when daily income of a worker was around Rs 200 while the price of a jacket was in thousands of rupees. Prices of new jackets and sweaters were skyrocketing and were out of the reach of common man, he added. Saeed Ahmed, a trader of Landa Bazar, said used clothes were imported from Europe, the USA, South Korea, Australia, Singapore and Thailand. He said the imports were expected to pick up further in the coming weeks with the onset of winter season. He dispelled the impression that only the people belonging to the lower middle class buy used clothes, saying that even elite class was also interested in buying items from these bazaars. Though weather is changing, yet warm clothes are yet to arrive in markets in large quantity. It is hoped that many people belonging to the middle and lower middle classes will frequently visit these bazaars. Another shopkeeper said that most of the people who did shopping at the bazaars belonged to the middle class. People from the middle class prefer purchasing used clothes as these were much cheaper than the new ones, he added.

Within its main body the Landa Bazaar has many different kinds of markets, known for their specialties, like the most famous new market, shoe market, ready-made clothes market and Baboo Market. The congestion problem, as usual with other downtown places, is also experienced here. When vehicles carrying goods for shops try to reach the centre of the market or try to carry articles out, there is a massive traffic jam. Almost all the walkways are occupied by the illegal encroachers, leaving no room for the people to move around. The narrow market streets are congested due to the unlawful stalls. Interestingly, prices here are quite affordable and very low as compared to other commercial areas in the posh parts of the City. Like other major city markets, the Landa Bazaar is also facing chronic cleanliness problem. Only hand-pushed carts or donkey-driven carts are for transportation within the market. Secondhand cloth dealers are facing a lot of problems in Landa Bazar as the shopkeepers said the business situation was becoming so poor due to uncertainty in the country and people did not visit the market for shopping. They said the other reason for weak business is that season of cold winter had not started yet due to this mostly people did not start to purchase winter clothes. Rabia Ali, a shopper, said she had come to the market to purchase sweaters for her schoolchildren. Prices of new garments are very high and she cannot afford to buy such expensive items, she said. Rabia said that she was left with no option but to buy used clothes for her children from the Landa Bazaars.

Author: Rabia Ali (Year 2011)

The clothes are brought to Dubai from the UK, US, Korea and Germany. Then they are shipped to Karachi Port in containers. PHOTO: ATHAR KHAN/EXPRESS

According to Zafar Ahmed (Year 2011)
Zafar Ahmed, a college student, sifted through a carton of second-hand woollen caps and selected a black one with “Armani” imprinted on it.
“Brands always make a person cool,” said Ahmed. “This market is a blessing for all those who can’t buy expensive branded clothes.”
Light House is home to one of Karachi’s biggest Lunda Bazaars (second-hand clothes markets). People who can’t afford the real designer clothes make do with cheaper alternatives – faded jackets or used sweaters. The narrow market has it all – zipped jackets, woollen caps, mufflers, gloves, sweaters, pullovers and even blankets. People come to shop from across the city.
Noticing the preferences of their young customers for international brands, this season the shopkeepers have categorized winter wear. Category A has clothes of Next, Gucci, Prada, and Armani, Category B is for Korean brands while the third category, C, is for worn-out clothes. Although the winters in Karachi are not harsh, according to the shopkeepers, the thought of looking “hip” makes people buy warm clothes.
“After Aamir Khan’s film Fanaa, people started wearing mufflers,” said Muhammad Shah, a shopkeeper. His little shop was filled with red and yellow mufflers of football clubs, at Rs50 to Rs100.
A banker had sneaked to the market during his lunch break. “I know many people like myself who buy winter things from here but don’t want to tell anyone that they are wearing second-hand clothes.”
Even shopkeepers in other parts of the city buy large amounts of merchandise from Light House to sell it at their shops at higher prices. Jan Mohammad said that many shopkeepers from Zainab market bought jackets from him. “They don’t tell the customers that the clothes are used,” he said as he showed off a cargo jacket to two young men. “They wash and press the clothes, so what they sell looks completely new.” The prices of jackets at his shop were between Rs200 to Rs1,000. “Zipped and army jackets are in these days,” Mohammad said. “But if they are going to northern areas like Gilgit then they buy woollen ones.”
The clothes are shipped from Dubai in containers, explained Mohammad. From the Karachi Port they are stocked in a warehouse in Shershah from where the shop owners buy them. “Dubai is where all the used clothes from the US, UK, Korea and Germany are collected and then shipped to Karachi.” But the best ones are saved for Sunday Bazaars that are set up in DHA, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Nazimabad and others.
According to Mohammad, people at Sunday Bazaars buy more used clothes even if they can afford new. “For that market we select the cleanest and neatest pieces of the branded clothes,” said a shopkeeper who sets up a stall at Sunday Bazaar in DHA.
Why do people buy used when they can afford new clothes? To answer, he pulled out a beige sweater and said, “This sweater will remain the same even if it is washed ten times. The quality and the fabric will be usable for many years.”
The clothes are not washed before they are sold. The shopkeepers do their best to convince the customers that they disinfected the merchandise before selling it. Naseema came to Light House to buy winter wear for her grand children. She said that she would wash them thoroughly before using. “Who would want their children to wear someone’s discarded clothes and get diseases?” she asked. “But I have no other option. I will make sure that the clothes are properly cleaned.”

Author: Jamash (Year 2006)
Itwar Bazzar , also known as bachat bazaar, is a place where our daily use items are available on a discounted rate. But in reality vegetables, fruits, and un branded items like Iron Grill Stands, books, towels are sold here on slightly higher rates and one can get discounts on the company stalls only. But this is not what people actually come for in an Itwar bazaar as these sections are often not very crowded, so let us move to a crowded spot.

Used Shoe section is the most crowded of all, here you will find old used shoes ranging from Rs.60/- to Rs.250/- and you can still bargain over the said price and you might get a shoe or sandal at half the price quoted but it will never drop cheaper then Rs.60/-. You can find excellent foot wear at this spot at a very low rate, but beware, don’t go for the worn out ones, if the pair of your choice is repaired or if its outer sole has been replaced with a new one, don’t buy it, if you feel a pair is glued or there are glue marks on a joint leave it out, in short you will have to look at each pair carefully before you decide which one to buy. And just for the record I have seen income tax officers, several artists, a surgeon, and even a prominent fashion designer on a similar shop.

Now we move to a considerably less crowded spot, This is where you will find User sweaters and ladies under garments, yes a something that was once a taboo is now a routine for every bachat bazaar, I don’t know if it is a prove that our cultural values are quickly disappearing or not and yes, the topic indeed is debatable but I have no intentions to go in any further details, it’s there so I am writing about it.
The sweaters sold here are often in excellent condition, just look for the wool mark and search your selected piece for holes, don’t go for the worn out ones and you can get an excellent sweater in no more then Rs.250/- For children the price ranges from Rs.50 to Rs.80 and for grown ups the price is from Rs.150/- to Rs. 300/- and you can still bargain.

Moving further to the even less crowded spot you will find used shirts, trousers, track suits and leather/fabric jackets stacked on different small tables. Shirts with price ranging from Rs.35 to Rs.50 per piece, in tempting colors and designs are ready for you to buy but you have to be careful while chousing one of these, look out for replaced collars, worn out shirts and holes in the fabric, actually you will be lucky to find a good shirt if you ever will but your chances for being lucky are brighter then winning a HERO Lottery.
The jackets here range from Rs.35/- to Rs.120/- a piece, and while purchasing one you have to lookout for holes, worn out fabric and broken zipper, if none of these signs appear on your selected jacket then you can happily go home with one and believe me you will rarely find a defected piece here if you are considering the fabric ones.
In a bachat Bazaar, used purses and hand bags are also a popular pick, you can get a ladies leather hand bag or a good carry bag for your laptop for no more than Rs.100/- .Suit cases, and duffle bags range from Rs.150/- to Rs.500/-, you will often find branded bags at this spot at literally throwaway rates.

The rest of the Itwar Bazar is clustered with stalls of kitchen items, books and stationary, decoration, flowers, posters, clothes, imitation jewelry and toys, and on your way out of the Itwar bazaar you will find beggars some old an’ deserving ones and some eunuchs who will annoyingly tail you for more if you hand them a 5 rupee coin or even two, they will hang to your car, will touch your chin and will ask for more, more and more. Also you will spot some people with birds in cages, they will be asking you money to set these birds free, and if you look closely in these cages you will surely spot a few dead birds as will, I never give these people a dime for being cruel to God’s creatures.
So that’s about it, a Trip to the Itwar Barzaar here in Karachi, and I may have missed out a thing or two, which you can always fill in with your comments.

According to Pakistan Today (Year 2011)
ISLAMABAD - With a change in the weather, the sale of winter clothes including the second-hand ones particularly in the ‘Lunda Bazaars’ has seen a rise in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. All kinds of wears and accessories including gloves, woolen hats, mufflers, pullovers, sweater shirts and jackets can be seen hanging in front of stalls, shops in weekly bazaars, attracting the customers.
Muhammad Ramazan, a customer at the Faizabad landa stalls, said on Monday that the prices of new winter wears were out of customer’s reach. “We, therefore, have turned to second-hand clothes stalls, where quality clothes are available at affordable rates”, he added.
Stall of winter clothes and sales points of shoes can be witnessed mushrooming every day at Aabpara Market, Melody Market, Super Market, Jinnah Super Market, Sittara Market, Peshawar Morr, Karachi Company, Faizabad, Commercial Market, Sadiqabad Chowk, Raja Bazaar and at many other big shopping malls and markets of the twin cities.
Many people throng to weekly bazaars and lunda bazaars to buy clothes at cheaper rates. “The poor people get warm clothes from Lunda Bazaars at very cheap prices,” said Saeed Khan, at a stall in the G-9 Weekly Bazaar. But many customers complained that second-hand clothes were also becoming expensive. The prices of used clothes are spiraling every year, commented a shopper at weekly bazaar.
However, a second-hand clothe-dealer said that they were getting these clothes at exorbitant prices from wholesale dealers in Lahore and Karachi and were forced to sell them accordingly.
Secondhand shirts, trousers, sweaters and pullovers are mainly imported from the USA, the UK, Japan and European countries and blankets, carpets, rugs, shoes, overcoats and jackets from South Korea, Japan and China, Shah Muhammad, the dealer added.

Author: Jayne O'Donnell and Elaine Hughes, USA TODAY
What!? Buy someone else's clothes?
It's a reaction many people have until they see the typically low prices, good quality and large selection at many of the more than 25,000 resale, consignment and thrift shops in the USA. And with back-to-school season in full swing during trying economic times, the resale industry is geared up for better-than-usual sales.

STORY: Stores work hard to stay on top of recalls
"When people perceive things are getting a little tighter, we do see the benefits in our retail stores," says Taylor Bond, CEO of Children's Orchard, a chain that specializes in "gently used" kids' clothing, toys and products. Secondhand clothes have "become more acceptable," he says.
The National Association of Resale & Thrift Shops (NARTS) estimates sales in the secondhand industry have risen about 5% each year for the last decade. America's Research Group says up to 15% of people shop at resale or consignment shops at least once a year; 21% visit a department store at least that often.
Thrift stores, which are operated by non-profits such as Goodwill, have been around for decades, but more-upscale resale and consignment shops didn't really take off until the 1980s. Resale shops buy good-condition used clothing outright from consumers, while consignment stores will sell them but don't give the donors their cut — usually half of what the clothes sell for — until after the sale.
Many shoppers steer toward resale and consignment shops for children's clothing, designer or vintage apparel and even wedding dresses, while others look for more mainstream brands such as Banana Republic and Ann Taylor at a fraction of their retail price. In an informal survey, most USA TODAY shopper panel members who have children said they have shopped for their kids at secondhand stores, and many said they'd be doing so this year.
Christina Griffey of San Mateo, Calif., always considered resale/consignment shops to be like thrift stores. But after a friend, who is "as finicky as I am about wearing other people's clothes," told her she shopped at Palm Beach vintage shops, Griffey decided to give secondhand a chance. She and her 17-year-old daughter went shopping for prom dresses at upscale San Francisco stores and found great buys.
"We will certainly be looking, come back-to-school time, for clothes for my daughter," Griffey says of resale shops. "She had, in the past, looked down her nose at those types of places, but now we have both come to realize that they are not 'those kinds of places' any longer."
Children's secondhand stores "are definitely busier before the school year starts," says Adele Meyer, executive director of NARTS. "Clothes are so expensive, and this is a good way to find good clothing at a good price. Kids grow quickly, and many times, they outgrow clothes before they have a chance to wear them."
Bond acknowledges that finding kids' casual clothing that is both used and presentable isn't easy: "The toughest things to get in resale are boys' jeans." To help compensate, Bond says, Children's Orchard stores have "playwear" sections that have clothes that "might not come up to our highest standards."
Rhea Lubich of Prescott, Wis., says her children have friends who find great buys at secondhand stores, but it's definitely not for them. "Once we did go into a consignment store, and the girls reversed immediately out the door. The store had such a foul odor."
Valerie McKenzie, who owns Texas-based consignment chain Restyle, says she and other store owners have worked hard to overcome that image. McKenzie says her stores smell so good and are so organized that people walk in and ask if the clothing is really used.
There's usually no question the clothing is used in resale shops that specialize in vintage clothing, but that doesn't mean the standards are any lower. Vintage items, which include clothing from the turn of the century to the 1970s, are popular these days, especially platform shoes, handbags, chunky jewelry and anything designed by Emilio Pucci, says Uesa Robinson, a former Capitol Hill shop owner who will start selling vintage and secondhand designer clothes next month at The clothes need to be inspected carefully and treated delicately, but a really fun find can be "nirvana," she says.
Even used wedding dresses are attracting a following. White Chicago, which sells new and used wedding dresses, does a brisk business.
"Bridal stores often carry only five or six designers, but bridal consignment shops have dresses from a lot of designers and many that are discontinued or from previous seasons," says White Chicago owner Ursula Guyer.
When it comes to selling to secondhand shops, consumers report varying experiences, with many saying the shops were so selective — and stingy — that it made more sense to donate to a charitable group.
Bridget Menke of Jacksonville says a local resale shop offered her only $1 on a shirt she got from Baby Gap for $10 and her child wore only once. When the store told Menke it'd be selling the shirt for $6.50, she decided to give it to a friend. After a resale store near Lincoln, Neb., balked at Susan Bejot's basket of clothing from Urban Outfitters because its wasn't "more neatly prepared," she decided resale wasn't for her.
"It simply is not worth the hassle to get so little money for so few items and still have a lot to donate anyway," says Bejot.
McKenzie acknowledges being picky. She requires that clothes be styles that are from the past two to three years, be clean and free of holes or spots.
Robinson appreciates the high standards: She buys nearly all her clothes at consignment shops or estate sales. "I love the high of not knowing what you're going to find."

Author: Muhammad Ali (Year 2011)
Lunda Bazaars, the only source for poor and the have-nots to meet their clothing needs usually in winters, were creating health hazards for its consumers.
As a result of unprecedented economic slow down, majority of people have lost their purchasing power and have been heavily depending on second-hand clothes to meet their demands of clothes.
The multimillion industry of secondhand clothes, which offers everything including woolies, quilts, curtains, blankets, rugs, trousers, shirts, T-shirts, children wear and jackets, was running across the country with no governmental check.
The government has totally neglected this industry, be it the issue relating to the welfare of stakeholders or health safety of second-hand clothes' users.

Despite the fact that the industry has been catering to the needs of middle, lower-middle and poor segments of society for several decades, the government has not constituted any body to regulate this industry and ensure health safety of its workers and consumers.
"I had never been to Lunda Baazar in the past but the present economic turmoil has forced me to buy used warm clothes for my children," said Gulnaz, a resident of old Clifton area, despite the fact that she appeared well informed about the health hazards.
"I have no option but to purchase second-hand clothes for my kids because of poverty and unfriendly attitude of the government," said Mobeen Kausar, a widow of an army official and mother of eight children.
"Although we all know that the use of second-hand clothes could cause skin or any other infection, the price spiral has forced people from all walks of life to buy these used imported garments," said Haris Pirzada, a college student.
Dr Qaiser Sajjad, finance secretary PMA while talking to this scribe said the second-hand clothes are transmitters of several skin and ENT diseases.
He said the use of these imported clothes was one of the major causes for severe dermatitis, nostril and other allergies.
He said second-hand clothes have to be disinfected by warm water to avoid contagion, despite the claims of shopkeepers to have sanitized these clothes before displaying them at their shops.
Dr. Qaiser also urged authorities concerned to establish proper system to standardize this industry, which has become the only source to cater to their clothing needs.
However, Usman Farooqi, General Secretary Pakistan Second-hand Clothes Merchant Association (PSCMA) dispelled the impression that the second-hand clothes were creating health hazards for its users, saying that these used clothes, which were being imported from America, Canada, Japan, Korea and other European countries, were fumigated before its exports.
Therefore, there was no health risk for the consumers of these second-hand clothes.
"I have been serving in this industry for over four decades and I have never seen anyone, who suffered any severe skin or other infection because of these second-hand clothes," said Farooqi.
"This is all propaganda against the industry, which is now catering to the needs of almost every segment of society," he maintained.
He said import of second-hand clothes had increased by 30 percent as people from every cluster were now forced to buy second-hand imported garments because of unemployment and high inflation.

According to Dawn Source (Year 2011)
LAHORE, Aug 25: Shops and carts offering used clothes and shoes drew crowds, as turnout of customers at other markets remained much low compared to previous year`s last week of Ramazan.
Lunda Bazaar, empty plots opposite Haji Camp on Empress Road, Ravi Road outside the shrine of Hazrat Pir Makki, Bharat Building near Mayo Hospital and Bund Road near Yateem Khana are `wholesale` markets frequented mostly by lower-middle class to get used clothes and shoes round the year.
Carts and shops offering used clothes for children, followed by shoes and toys attract most customers who arrive at these places at around 10am.
Prices of all kinds of used clothes and shoes have registered an increase of 40 to 60 per cent, making many customers give a second thought before buying any item. “Of course, prices are high here but still affordable. I visited Anarkali, Rang Mahal and Ichhra, but could not get one jeans each for my three children within my range,” said Jameel who was bargaining for a shalwar-kameez at Ravi Road.
Five-year-old Hashaam was happy to have a shopping bag full of toys for himself and his younger sister at a cart at the Lunda Bazaar. “My father has bought these action comic toys and Barbie doll for my younger sister,” he proudly told this reporter at the Empress Road makeshift market where his father, Waseem, was trying a pair of shoes. “Used shoes are economical and durable, compared to the ones made in Pakistan,” Waseem said.
Shameem was happy to find two long skirts for her five-year old daughter. “Look, these are pure cotton, fine stitching and cost me just hundred rupees.”
The situation was not promising for shopkeepers at Anarkali`s Bano Bazaar, Rang Mahal, The Mall, Ichhra, Samanabad`s main market, Allama Iqbal Town`s Moon and Karim Block markets, where almost all shops of clothes, readymade garments and shoes were open but traders said most visitors were `window shoppers`.
“The number of people who buy has been very low compared to last year during the last three days of Ramazan. Most visitors just ask the price and go away. The number of shoppers has been abysmally low this time. There are fewer people out in markets for shopping this year than ever,” says Jamshed, who owns a readymade garments shop in Anarkali.
“Of course, we are busier after Iftar but the crowds seen in the previous years are no longer there,” says trader Imran of Ichhra, a lower-middle class locality.
“People are not afraid of the law and order situation, actually they don`t have enough money to spend on clothing and shoes — two items that sell the most before Eid,” says Raza of Rang Mahal.
Stalls offering bangles, Mehndi and artificial jewellery at these markets attract customers usually after Iftar.

According to Daily News
LAHORE - As chilly weather in full swing the sale of second-hand winter clothes goes up in the capital city.
Various people can be seen bargaining with retailers in markets and bazars where besides woollies, heaps of quilts, bedcovers, blankets and rugs are up for sale. Ubeidullah a second hand clothes dealer said: "our business is going very well these days as the demand for winter clothes has risen,"
There are many other dealers and stall-holders who have heaved a sigh of relief as the cold has sparked frenzied shopping. "Our sale has doubled and we are expecting that in the days ahead it will go up further," the dealer said.
All kind of clothing and accessories, including gloves, woolen hats, mufflers, pullovers, sweat shirts, and jackets can be seen hanging in front of shops and booths of weekly bazars, attracting people. "Customers not only select clothes which are best in quality but also try to get these at nominal rates," said a vendor.
He said that some people even try to bargain at fixed price shops. There are also many who throng weekly bazars to find clothes that are both useful and cheaper. Many customers complained that second-hand clothes were also becoming expensive and shopkeepers are charging more and fleecing the customers.
People said that the prices of used clothes are spiralling every year. However, a second-hand clothes vendor said that they were getting these clothes at exorbitant prices from wholesale dealers in Lahore and Karachi and were forced to sell them accordingly.
A small second hand clothes dealer, Tahir Shah said that the stuff comes from different countries including Korea, Japan, England, and Germany. He said that the main market of Lunda is situated at Karachi where several dealers are supplying the stuff to across country dealers. He said that the dealers used to further re-sale the stuff to small dealers of four provinces including AJK.

As there were no facts and figures available regarding Second hand clothing, it was extremely difficult to get hands on secondary data to conduct this research, so we had to put all our efforts to collect primary data.
3.1 DATA:
Primary data has been used in order to conduct this research & the tools that have been used are QUESTIONNAIRES & INTERVIEWS.
Following are the written contents of the interviews and interpretations of the Questionnaires which were conducted Online & face to face:
Interview # 1: light house (lunda bazaar – vendor)
“People come for the reason because the new clothes are expensive and the old one’s are quite affordable. especially during the winter time. people here are forced to buy used clothes as people’s purchasing power has been shrunk. accordingly to them, a used jacket for children is just for rs. 40 or rs. 50 whereas the new one’s are for around 300 to 400 pkr. in the next couple of years, if the economic situation remains the same, people would start selling their own clothes in pakistan as they would have no option”. Interview # 2: light house (lunda bazaar)
“People from clifton, defence and other parts of karachi come to buy used clothes. the quality of the used clothes are very good and even the price is very cheap. nowadays, the demand for used clothes has increased and the demand for new clothes have reduced. people from elite class, middle class and lower income group come here to buy used clothes very often. due to inflation, people are switching more towards used clothes due to low price, good quality and brand names”.

Interview # 3: Sunday bazaar (vendor)
“Here elite class, middle income, lower income come here a lot to buy used clothes. around 50% people from elite class come here every sunday to buy used clothes. in the upcoming time, every person would prefer to buy used clothes due to inflation and bad economic condition”.

Interview # 4: sunday bazaar
“People have less buying power. here at sunday bazar, the prices are very economical as compared to the new clothes. there are many people who have switched from new clothing to used clothing in last 3-4 years. we are living in less developed countries where buying used clothing is a very good option for people who are unable to afford the new ones”.

Interview # 5: (sunday bazaar – retired lft. colonel)
“With regards to my point of view, in this time of recession, elite, middle & lower income group are effected. in the upcoming time, i can forsee that people will snatch food & clothing from others. people would diver more towards used clothing and i can forsee the upcoming time to be very disastrous”.

Interview # 6: sunday bazaar ( a canadian lady working in an ngo )
“I’m a canadian and living in karachi and i personally think that living in karachi, used clothing are the best option as you are able to find western style clothing, branded ones also as the new one’s here are not much of good quality and high prices. even at zamzama, the quality is not as good as the quality of used clothes in sunday bazar. elite class here in sunday bazar are big in numbers but they are reluctant to tell people about their purchasing of used clothing as they are concerned about their status but i personally think, there is no harm in buying/wearing used clothes”.

Interview # 7: Sunday bazaar ( 2 young females from karsaz)
“It’s actually about variety and also about utilizing of resources. people come here to buy used clothes due to good quality and variety. the used clothes are good in style as they are imported from developed countries where style is upto mark. i don’t think that elite or middle class buy used clothes due to low price, but its actually about variety, style & quality. people in karachi specially do not have more options to choose for from the new clothes”.

Interview # 8: light house ( lunda bazaar ) customer
“Our economic conditions has worsen. upper class people have now become middle class as their purchasing power has been badly effected. people do not have money to fulfill their needs. it is very difficult to buy new clothes due to extremely high prices. people earning 5000 – 6000 have no other option than to buy used clothes”.

PERCENTAGE_OF_AFFECT * AGE Crosstabulation | Count | | | AGE | Total | | | 20-25 | 25-30 | 30 & ABOVE | | PERCENTAGE_OF_AFFECT | .00 | 7 | 0 | 0 | 7 | | 10% - 30% | 22 | 3 | 4 | 29 | | 30% - 50% | 3 | 6 | 4 | 13 | | 50% & ABOVE | 3 | 0 | 1 | 4 | Total | 35 | 9 | 9 | 53 |

From the above table, it could be defined that there were 7 people that were not affected from the economic recession whereas 29 people in different age group were affected 10-30%, there were 13 people affected in between 30-50% whereas only 4 people were affected 50% & above.

PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES * AGE Crosstabulation | Count | | | AGE | Total | | | 20-25 | 25-30 | 30 & ABOVE | | PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES | NO | 23 | 8 | 7 | 38 | | YES | 12 | 1 | 2 | 15 | Total | 35 | 9 | 9 | 53 |

There were in total 38 people from different age group that did not prefer to buy used clothing whereas there were 15 people noticed that would prefer to buy used clothing for themselves.

PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES * AGE Crosstabulation | | | | AGE | Total | | | | 20-25 | 25-30 | 30 & ABOVE | | PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES | NO | Count | 23 | 8 | 7 | 38 | | | Expected Count | 25.1 | 6.5 | 6.5 | 38.0 | | YES | Count | 12 | 1 | 2 | 15 | | | Expected Count | 9.9 | 2.5 | 2.5 | 15.0 | Total | Count | 35 | 9 | 9 | 53 | | Expected Count | 35.0 | 9.0 | 9.0 | 53.0 |

Chi-Square Tests | | Value | df | Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | Pearson Chi-Square | 2.092a | 2 | .351 | Likelihood Ratio | 2.335 | 2 | .311 | Linear-by-Linear Association | 1.080 | 1 | .299 | N of Valid Cases | 53 | | | a. 2 cells (33.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.55. |

Symmetric Measures | | | Value | Approx. Sig. | Nominal by Nominal | Contingency Coefficient | .195 | .351 | N of Valid Cases | 53 | |

The results from the Chi-Square test shows that there is no association between the Age and Preference of Buying and therefore the data is insignificant.

PERCENTAGE_OF_AFFECT * GENDER Crosstabulation | Count | | | GENDER | Total | | | MALE | FEMALE | | PERCENTAGE_OF_AFFECT | .00 | 5 | 2 | 7 | | 10% - 30% | 18 | 11 | 29 | | 30% - 50% | 6 | 7 | 13 | | 50% & ABOVE | 4 | 0 | 4 | Total | 33 | 20 | 53 |

From the above, it is shown that from 10-30%, there were 11 females & 18 males that were affected. However, from 30-50%, there were 7 females & 6 males that had an affect of the recession whereas from 50 % & above, there were only 4 males that were affected and there was no female that in that category.

PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES * GENDER Crosstabulation | Count | | | GENDER | Total | | | MALE | FEMALE | | PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES | NO | 21 | 17 | 38 | | YES | 12 | 3 | 15 | Total | 33 | 20 | 53 |

Out of 53 people, there were 38 people who did not prefer to buy used clothing whereas there were 15 people noticed who preferred to buy used clothing for themselves.

PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES * GENDER Crosstabulation | | | | GENDER | Total | | | | MALE | FEMALE | | PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES | NO | Count | 21 | 17 | 38 | | | Expected Count | 23.7 | 14.3 | 38.0 | | YES | Count | 12 | 3 | 15 | | | Expected Count | 9.3 | 5.7 | 15.0 | Total | Count | 33 | 20 | 53 | | Expected Count | 33.0 | 20.0 | 53.0 |

Chi-Square Tests | | Value | df | Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | Exact Sig. (2-sided) | Exact Sig. (1-sided) | Pearson Chi-Square | 2.801a | 1 | .094 | | | Continuity Correctionb | 1.847 | 1 | .174 | | | Likelihood Ratio | 2.983 | 1 | .084 | | | Fisher's Exact Test | | | | .123 | .085 | Linear-by-Linear Association | 2.748 | 1 | .097 | | | N of Valid Cases | 53 | | | | | a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.66. | b. Computed only for a 2x2 table |

Symmetric Measures | | | Value | Approx. Sig. | Nominal by Nominal | Contingency Coefficient | .224 | .094 | N of Valid Cases | 53 | |

From the Chi-Square test taken above, it was noticed that there was no association between the Gender & Preference of Buying and therefore that data is insignificant.

PERCENTAGE_OF_AFFECT * INCOME_STATUS Crosstabulation | Count | | | INCOME_STATUS | Total | | | 50000-100000 | 100000 & ABOVE | | PERCENTAGE_OF_AFFECT | .00 | 5 | 2 | 7 | | 10% - 30% | 22 | 7 | 29 | | 30% - 50% | 8 | 5 | 13 | | 50% & ABOVE | 3 | 1 | 4 | Total | 38 | 15 | 53 |

It is observed from the above table that income group of 50000-100000 and 100000 & above are mostly affected 10%-30%.

PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES * INCOME_STATUS Crosstabulation | Count | | | INCOME_STATUS | Total | | | 50000-100000 | 100000 & ABOVE | | PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES | NO | 29 | 9 | 38 | | YES | 9 | 6 | 15 | Total | 38 | 15 | 53 |

From the above table, it is noticed 54% from 50000-100000 do not prefer to buy second hand clothing, almost 17% from 100000 & above income group do not prefer to buy used clothing.

PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES * INCOME_STATUS Crosstabulation | | | | INCOME_STATUS | Total | | | | 50000-100000 | 100000 & ABOVE | | PREFERENCE_OF_BUYING_USED_CLOTHES | NO | Count | 29 | 9 | 38 | | | Expected Count | 27.2 | 10.8 | 38.0 | | YES | Count | 9 | 6 | 15 | | | Expected Count | 10.8 | 4.2 | 15.0 | Total | Count | 38 | 15 | 53 | | Expected Count | 38.0 | 15.0 | 53.0 |

Chi-Square Tests | | Value | df | Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) | Exact Sig. (2-sided) | Exact Sig. (1-sided) | Pearson Chi-Square | 1.411a | 1 | .235 | | | Continuity Correctionb | .721 | 1 | .396 | | | Likelihood Ratio | 1.359 | 1 | .244 | | | Fisher's Exact Test | | | | .313 | .196 | Linear-by-Linear Association | 1.384 | 1 | .239 | | | N of Valid Cases | 53 | | | | | a. 1 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 4.25. | b. Computed only for a 2x2 table |

Symmetric Measures | | | Value | Approx. Sig. | Nominal by Nominal | Contingency Coefficient | .161 | .235 | N of Valid Cases | 53 | |

From the Chi-Square test, it is noticed that there is no association between Income group and Preference of buying of second hand clothing. Hence, the data is insignificant.


The above graphic represents the age group who were covered in this research.

3.2 SAMPLE & SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: Sampling techniques: Two sampling techniques were used as follows:
Places which were convenient to conduct research were visited by the researchers such as Greenwich University & Online.
We carried out research by conducting interviews and by making Questionnaires filled out by people & discussed with people at the places which were directly related to this research. In this case we visited SUNDAY BAZAR & KARACHI’S BIGGEST SECOND HAND CLOTHES & ARTICLES MARKET IN LIGHT HOUSE AREA ( LUNDA BAZAR )
After analyzing all the data in totality it was observed that there was a high percentage of people that were reluctant to provide information through interviews & questionnaires. Due to this reason, we could only conduct 8-10 interviews and around 77 questionnaires.
As it could be noticed that the question which asked people if they know any one who buys second hand clothing, so most of them selected friends as an option which proofs that people hesitate to accept the fact that their relatives & family members are also the buyers of second hand clothing. This we analyzed that they themselves were affected by the economic recession.
Due to these reasons, we assumed that the data provided by the people is not 100 % authentic / reliable so accordingly to the data our conclusion is that even though people have been affected by recession but yet would not prefer to buy used clothing for themselves.

Author: Muhammad Ali (Year 2011) DAWN NEWS
DAILY TIMES:\04\25\story_25-4- 2007_pg5_1
Author: Jayne O'Donnell and Elaine Hughes THE NATION:

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