Premium Essay

Shona-Ndebele Relations


Submitted By madondo42
Words 8161
Pages 33

By Innocent Pikirayi
The decline of Great Zimbabwe is poorly known due to limited archaeological data and vague historical sources. Environmental data indicates that Great Zimbabwe declined when climatic conditions were favourable, which may have prompted the ruling elite to make decisions that impacted on the immediate surroundings of the settlement and beyond. The shifting character of the Zimbabwe Culture1 since the 12th century was a human response to the vagaries of the savanna environment, as well as the changing patterns of trade in the western Indian Ocean involving eastern Africa and the auriferous Zimbabwean plateau hinterland. It is within this context that the demise of Great Zimbabwe as the urban centre of a powerful political system must be understood.

introduction Great Zimbabwe (ad 1270–1550) emerged in the southern plateau regions of Zimbabwe from an Iron Age agricultural community.2 By the 14th century it was at the helm of a political hierarchy controlling territory and a community equivalent to a state.3 Its rulers accumulated considerable wealth and power from the large cattle herds4 they managed and from gold and ivory traded with the east African coast.5 It was the cultural and political successor to Mapungubwe (ad 1220–90), based in the middle Shashe-Limpopo valley. Mapungubwe developed into the political and cultural centre of a community living in the area and founded by communities identified archaeologically with Zhizo and Leopard’s Kopje cultures.6 It controlled society at state level in the area. The reasons for its demise are probably environmental.7 Its environment became too dry to sustain both human and animal populations leading to segmentation and migrations towards ecologically more sustainable places.8 Great Zimbabwe only became important after the

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Shona Ndebele Relations

...CURRICULUM VITAE FOR MDUDUZI FREDERICK DUBE 1.0 Personal Details Surname: Dube Name: Mduduzi Frederick Cell No: +263 717 456367 Telephone: +2369485822 Email: Address: 12093 Nkulumane, Bulawayo National ID No: 06-2001837A19 Nationality: Zimbabwean Birth place: Binga 1.1 Personal Attributes A dynamic self starter capable of working with minimum supervision as well as working efficiently in a team. 2.0 Academic Qualifications 2.1Tertiary Education (NUST 2013) (a) Part I Examinations Course Grade Electrical and Electronic Engineering I 1 Ergonomics and Industrial Safety 1 Applied Mechanics 1 Workshop Technology II 1 Introduction to Computer Science I 2.1 Workshop Technology I 2.1 Introduction to Industrial Engineering 2.1 Electrical And Electronic Engineering II 2.1 Introduction to Computer Science II 2.1 Engineering Mathematics IB 2.1 Engineering Drawing II 2.1 Ergonomics And Industrial Safety II 2.1 Engineering Mathematics IA 2.2 Engineering Drawing I 2.2 Engineering Communication Skills 2.2 Overall Classification2.1 (b) Part II Examinations Dynamics I ...

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Free Essay


...NATIONAL AND STRATEGIC STUDIES MODULE 1 ZIMBABWEAN HISTORY, NATIONAL INTERESTS, AND HERITAGE, Contents: TOPIC ……….. ……. PAGE 1. Introduction……………………………………………………..01 2. History of Zimbabwe……………………………………………02 2.1. The Great Zimbabwe State…………………………………03 2. The Mutapa State…………………………………………..04 2.3. The Rozvi State…………………………………………….07 2.4. The Ndebele State…………………………………………..07 2.5. White Settler Occupation of Zimbabwe……………………10 2.6. Crimes Against Humanity; -- Colonization and Slavery …..15 7. Consolidation of Settler-Colonialism in Zimbabwe ………21 8. African Nationalism And Organized Resistance To colonialism ……….. .. 30 4. Cultural heritage……………………………………………. 5. Political Heritage 6. Economic heritage 7. Civic responsibilities 8. Acknowledgements 1: INTRODUCTION NASS- The background There is no educational system that is silent on the values that are accepted and cherished by that society. Education is about values in other word behavior change in all the domains of education that is the psychomotor, the cognitive and the affective. A skilled artisan or accountant with no sense of his position in society at the family level or at work or society in general is a social misfit and a...

Words: 14926 - Pages: 60

Free Essay

First Chimurenga

..."CHII"IURENGA II 1896 - 1897: A REVISIONIST STUDY THESIS Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS of Rhodes University I by MARK PHILLIP MALCOLM HORN January 1986 The following typog~aphical co~~ections attention since submission of this thesis. have come to my p.i line 8, "Phillip" should ~ead Philip., 11, "Risings" should ~ead Rising. p.Vll, line 12, "~esponce" should ~ead ~esponse. p.3, line 17, "wa~f-io~" should read warriors. p.5, line 4, "96" should read 1896. p .. 8, line 3, IILomangLlndi should read LomagLlndi. p.9, line 2, " (inve~ted comma) missing after "role". p.19, line 9, "triatises" should read treatises. p.28, line 18, "analysis" should ~ead analyses. p.30, line 10, "the and" should ~ead "and the". p.42, line 28, "Histo~ians" should ~ead Histo~ian's. p.47, line 13, "Lomangundi" should ~ead Lomagundi. p.48, line 12, ~ sign missing befo~e the figu~e of 121 000. p.52, line 5, 1. ~5ign missing before the figure of 3. p.55, line 1, ~ sign missing befo~e the figu~es 10 to 60. p.55, line 3, -£ sign missing befo~e the figu~e of 100. p.56, lines 7 - 10, quote to be indented. p.b2, 1tJ, "dela" should be separated out to read "de la". p.tI4, line 4, "assisthim" should be sepa~ated out to ~ead "assist him"~· p.b"?, line 11, "inte~nicine" should t-ead intet-necine. p.83, line 17, "Ma~ch 1895" should ~ead Ma~ch 1894. p.89, line 5, "faction" should ~ead fl~action. p.95, line 29, fn. 12, "lNA" should ~ead NAZ...

Words: 104376 - Pages: 418

Free Essay

The African Prince

...THE AFRICAN PRINCE Justifying African State Leaders’ Decisions Through Machiavellian Realism Safir Jamal Copyright 2008 – All Rights Reserved THE AFRICAN PRINCE Safir Jamal Ambrose Bierce defined politics as “the conduct of public affairs for private advantage” (Jansson 468). When this nineteenth century American journalist expressed such a sardonic view about the art of governance, he alluded to the inseparability of politics and self-interest. This inseparability forms the foundation of classical realism, a prominent international relations theory that attests that human nature is self-serving, sinful and wicked. Such traits ultimately help to explain why all actors endeavour to satisfy their individual intentions (Sens 14). While principles of self-interest are central to the classical realist theory, it is the importance of power that has become widely synonymous with the realist perspective. Defined as the ability to make other actors do what they would not otherwise do, the pursuit of power is an instinctive desire of all individuals (Singer 81). One individual in particular, Niccolo Machiavelli, had arguably the most profound understanding in history of the importance of power (Kuper 1). In his acclaimed treatise The Prince, Machiavelli, a 15th century Florentine diplomat, advised state leaders – or princes – on effective approaches to statecraft. As an extension of classical realism, Machiavellian views have proven to be timeless and universal, as they have...

Words: 2674 - Pages: 11

Free Essay


...LECTURE 1 THE KHOISAN AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT Introduction: Khoisan are historically the earliest inhabitants of Southern Africa. They dominated Southern Africa for hundreds of years before the arrival of the Bantu groups. Archaeological evidence obtained from sites on the West Coast such as Kasteelberg show occupation by herders between 1600 and 1800 years ago, ie around 200-400AD They owed to a great extent their livelihood to the natural environment conditions which obtained. This is demonstrated by the fact that they derived the three basic fundamentals of life; food, shelter and clothing from the flora and fauna of the region. The San They were referred to as hunter-gatherers. [Bushmen by whites; Twa by Xhosa, Roa by Sotho and San by Khoikhoi] They occupied the mountainous, plateau and coastal areas of Southern Africa as evidenced by their paintings on rocks and cave walls throughout the sub-continent. They were neither herders nor agriculturalists, so they depended on hunting and gathering. [ie they survived on what the environment provided] Archaeological evidence has proven that the San might have made meat an important part of their diet before the invention of projectile weapons. How was this possible without weapons? The San killed newly born or sick animals Ran down animals Scavenging They drove large animals over cliffs or into swamps and then slaughtered them. Meat was thus an important part of their diet from time immemorial. As their Stone Age technology improved...

Words: 10566 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Legal Status of Women in Africa

...MAGAYA v MAGAYA 1999 (1) ZLR 100 (S) Division: Supreme Court, Harare Judges: Gubbay CJ, McNally JA, Ebrahim JA, Muchechetere JA Subject Area: Civil Appeal Date: 2 November 1998 & 16 February 1999 Judgment Number: S-210-98 Constitutional law — Constitution of Zimbabwe 1980 — Declaration of Rights — s 23 — protection against discrimination — discrimination on grounds of sex — exemption of customary law from prohibition of discrimination Customary law — succession — heir at customary law — whether female able to inherit late father’s estate Human rights — women’s rights — discrimination on the grounds of sex — whether Legal Age of Majority Act had created positive rights or had only removed legal disabilities The deceased died intestate. His estate consisted of a house and some cattle. He had entered into marriages with two wives, both marriages being according to African law and custom. The appellant, a female, had been born 1941 and was the child of the deceased’s first wife. The respondent, a male, had been born in 1946 and was the child of the deceased’s second wife. The appellant was thus the eldest child of the deceased. The respondent was not the eldest male child of the deceased, but the eldest male child had declined the heirship. A community court had originally appointed the appellant as heir to the estate, but on application from the respondent to the community court, the appointment of the appellant had been set aside and, after a hearing at which all...

Words: 8530 - Pages: 35

Free Essay


...BECOMING ZIMBABWE TEACHING HISTORY IN CONTEXT IN ZIMBABWE Miles Tendi Published by the Institute for Justice and Reconcilation Wynberg Mews, Ground Floor, House Vincent, 10 Brodie Road, Wynberg 7800, South Africa © 2009 Institute for Justice and Reconciliation First Published 2009 All rights reserved. ISBN 978-1-920219-18-5 Produced by Compress.dsl CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 CHAPTER 1: Using history 5 The uses of liberation history in Zimbabwean politics • Historical context • ZANU PF’s ‘Patriotic History’ • Patriotic History’s detractors • What is Patriotic History? • The opposition’s use of history 5 5 6 6 8 CHAPTER 2: History in secondary and higher education 11 History curriculum development in Zimbabwe’s secondary schools and higher education institutions, and the implications for reconciliation, national healing and transitional justice • The growth in education since independence • History in secondary schools • History in higher education • A review of the NASS syllabus 11 11 14 17 CHAPTER 3: Teaching history 23 Challenges of teaching history in Zimbabwe, points of contention and consensus, and future prospects • Repression in tertiary institutions • Decline in secondary schools • National youth training service centres • Reasons for optimism 23 25 25 26 CHAPTER 4: Supporting history teaching 29 Supporting secondary and higher educators, and proposals towards learning sessions, modules and activities for history...

Words: 16487 - Pages: 66

Premium Essay

Cim Marketing Plan

...SESSION : MARCH 2012 UNIT TITLE : MPP CANDIDATE REG. NUMBER : 13443734 WORD COUNT : 2963 ‘I confirm that in forwarding this assignment for making, I understand and have applied the CIM policies relating to word count, plagiarism and collusion for all tasks. This assignment is a result of my own independent work/ investigation except where otherwise stated. Other sources are acknowledged in the body of the text and/or a bibliography is appended. The work that I have submitted has not previously been accepted in substance for any other award. I further confirm that I have not shared my work with other candidates’ Prepared for : Zimbabwe Newspapers Prepared by : Marketing Manager Date : January 2012 Subject :Medium – term Marketing planning to address threats in the external environment of Zimbabwe Newspapers TABLE OF CONTENTS Content Page Executive Summary 4 Corporate Mission 5 Summary of audit findings 5 SWOT Analysis 6 Marketing objectives 6 - 7 Marketing Strategies 7 - 10 Marketing mix decisions 11 - 12 Budgets 12 Implementation 12 Evaluation and Control 13 APPENDICES Appendix 1 : Organizational background Appendix 2 : Audit Findings Appendix 3 : Gabriel’s credibility Matrix Appendix 4 : Implementation...

Words: 9666 - Pages: 39

Free Essay

The Development of Conservation in Theory and Practice

...The Development of Conservation in Theory and Practice In considering the issue of wildlife conservation, a link to development rises quickly to the surface. After all, the animals seemingly considered the most prized by the collective popular consciousness, such as primates, occur predominantly in tropical areas of the world considered by most to be “underdeveloped.” According to the United Nations Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the rate of growth in developed countries, mostly those located in Europe and America, between 2005 and 2050 is expected to remain relatively minimal, while the population of the developing world is projected to substantially increase, from 5.3 billion to 7.8 billion, over the same period of time (United Nations Population Division 2005, vi). This includes a more drastic increase in the world’s 50 least developed country (mostly located in Africa and Asia), where the number of inhabitants is projected to swell from 0.8 billion to 1.7 billion over the same period. As such, in putting together a theory for development more broadly and conservation more specifically, it is crucial that the link between societal growth and natural resource and wildlife degradation be explored. In the following discussion, I hope to accomplish a few things. First, I will consider development theory broadly, looking at its evolution through time and some popular contemporary critiques. Though development theory (as it stands...

Words: 3948 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

War of Struggle

...INTRODUCTION Much of the literature about the liberation struggle in the South-East Lowveld has documented different counter strategies by the RSF but propaganda as one of the strategy has been partially covered. The study focuses on Rhodesia Front government’s propaganda as a counter insurgency strategy to the guerrilla activities. Propaganda is the control of public opinion. There are three types of propaganda that is white, grey and black propaganda. White propaganda is the dissemination of the truth to someone’s advantage, grey propaganda is the mixture of lies and truth and black propaganda consists of largely but not total lies. All these types were exploited upon implementation of propaganda at different levels through different tactics. Psychological operations which were executed as forms of propaganda involved planned use of communication through words, symbols and actions to influence the behaviour of the targeted audiences and achieve set objectives. The government’s use of propaganda warfare was prompted by a number of reasons which ranged from economic, political, social and military factors. It is worth noting here that, the tempo and conduct of the war varied from one locality to the other depending on the terrain and proximity to strategical areas like borders, transport networks and close to government’s administrative offices. The study is presented in three chapters. The first chapter outlines the reasons for the introduction of propaganda warfare in Chilonga...

Words: 26951 - Pages: 108

Premium Essay

Widows and Widowhood Inheritance

...CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1.1 Introduction Stripping widows of property is a huge social problem in Zimbabwe especially with the escalating death toll due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Customary laws have been unable to address the problem which suggests that extra- legal interventions might be necessary. Social work intervention is necessary to preserve the widow’s worth and dignity as a human being, which is the principal value of social work. A widow is a woman who has lost a husband by death and has not remarried, according to The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary. Property stripping refers to depriving someone of acquired or inherited movable or immovable possessions that rightfully and legally belong to that person (The South African Concise Oxford Dic tionary; Kuenyehia 2003). This study uses stripping and grabbing interchangeably as refer ring to the same act. Basing their studies in Ikot Idem in Nigeria, Okunmadewa, Aina, Ayoola, Mamman, Nweze, Odebiyi, Shedu and Zacha (2002:106) maintain: [W]omen’s wellbeing often deteriorates quickly after the loss of their husbands, when they suffer threats of both their physical security and property. A widow often loses her husband’s property to the in-laws in accordance with family traditional rules. This study proposes to explore the widows’ experiences of property inheritance in the Binga District, in the North West of Zimbabwe...

Words: 67340 - Pages: 270

Premium Essay

Religion, Fundamentalism and Ethnicity a Global Perspective

...political context is crucial. The Institute attempts to provide governments, development agencies, grassroots organizations and scholars with a better understanding of how development policies and processes of economic, social and environmental change affect different social groups. Working through an extensive network of national research centres, UNRISD aims to promote original research and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. Current research themes include: Crisis, Adjustment and Social Change; Socio-Economic and Political Consequences of the International Trade in Illicit Drugs; Environment, Sustainable Development and Social Change; Integrating Gender into Development Policy; Participation and Changes in Property Relations in Communist and Post-Communist Societies; and Political Violence and Social Movements. UNRISD research projects focused on the 1995 World Summit for Social Development included Rethinking Social Development in the 1990s; Economic Restructuring and Social Policy; Ethnic Diversity and Public Policies; Social Integration at the Grassroots: The Urban Dimension; and The Challenge of Rebuilding War-torn Societies. A list of UNRISD’s free and priced publications may be...

Words: 19278 - Pages: 78

Premium Essay

Religion and Ethics in Our Modern Society

...Notes for the Course: Religion and Ethics in our Modern Society, 2012 By Dr H Ndlovu Definition and Nature of Christian Ethics Ethics is derived from the Greek word “ethos” that is also comes from another word “ethika.” Ethika means norms, conventions, values, customs the society. Thus ethics is a discipline that examines one’s moral standards or the moral of a society. These are absorbed from family, church and friends. Why Study Ethics There are nine reasons why human beings have to study ethics. 1. Human beings are capable of reasoning from cause to effect with the understanding that everything done has effect. 2. Human beings are capable of making choices after comparing the alternatives, that is, internal and external. People have two cells namely: a. Real – what we have now b. Ideal – what we are aiming at 3. Human beings are self – conscious. This means we can study ourselves by being a subject and be the object at the same time. 4. Human beings are finite or limited not knowing what will happen from the next moment or next door. Thus, we must have principles to apply when situations comes. 5. Human life is an active dynamic phenomenon – We do something as if we do nothing. 6. People also can be taught to be good (Isaiah 1 :18) 7. Human beings are capable of filing an obligation 8. Human beings are also capable of understanding what moral terms like freedom, dignity and so on affects other people. 9. Finally, human beings need to survive. Human civilization...

Words: 39235 - Pages: 157

Free Essay

State of the World

...Barbados Barbados is a North American sovereign island country located in the Caribbean. The capital of this state is Bridgetown. This state raised its head as an independent state in 1966 after being a Colony of the British Empire for almost 350 years. Category | Fact | Category | Fact | 1.Size | 439 Square km | 4.Religion | Christianity | 2.Population | 277,821 | 5.Currency | Barbadian Dollar | 3.Language | Barbadian | 6.GDP Rate | $16,653 | The main resources of Barbados are Petroleum, Fish, Natural gas, Sugarcane etc. The national symbols of Barbados are Neptune's trident, pelican, and Red Bird of Paradise flower (also known as Pride of Barbados). In Barbados Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the State and represented locally by Governor General which is at present Elliott Belgrave. These two heads are advised by the Prime Minister of Barbados who is also the Head of the Government on matters of Barbadian state. The current Prime Minister of Barbados is Freundel Stuart. ...

Words: 64439 - Pages: 258

Premium Essay

International Business Overview

...UNIT – I INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS – AN OVERVIEW Content Outline          Introduction Definition and meaning of international business Scope of international business Special difficulties in international business Benefits of international business Understanding of international business environment Framework for analyzing the international business environment Summary Review Questions INTRODUCTION One of the most dramatic and significant world trends in the past two decades has been the rapid, sustained growth of international business. Markets have become truly global for most goods, many services, and especially for financial instruments of all types. World product trade has expanded by more than 6 percent a year since 1950, which is more than 50 percent faster than growth of output the most dramatic increase in globalization, has occurred in financial markets. In the global forex markets, billions of dollars are transacted each day, of which more than 90 percent represent financial transactions unrelated to trade or investment. Much of this activity takes place in the so-called Euromarkets, markets outside the country whose currency is used. This pervasive growth in market interpenetration makes it increasingly difficult for any country to avoid substantial external impacts on its economy. In particular massive capital flows can push exchange rates away from levels that accurately reflect competitive relationships among nations...

Words: 80869 - Pages: 324