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Smes Access to Finance

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Hawrre
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‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ‬

‫‪‬א‪‬א‪‬‬ ‫א‪‬א‪‬א‪ ‬‬

‫اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر ﻣﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮ اﻟﻌﺎم ﻟﻼﺣﺼﺎء‬ ‫واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬

‫ﺑـــﺪر ﻏﻴﻼن - ﺧﺒﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﻳﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻼﺣﺼﺎء واﻻﺑﺤﺎث‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﻤﺮآﺰي اﻟﻌﺮاﻗﻲ‬

‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ اﻻول ـ ٣٠٠٢‬
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‫ﻣﻘــﺪﻣــــــــﺔ‬ ‫"""""""""‬
‫ﺘﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ) ‪ (Micro Enterprises‬ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻏﻠـﺏ ﺒﻠـﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ ،‬ ‫ﻭﻻﺴﻴﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ ﻻﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁـﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻜﻭﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻴﺔ، ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻴﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﻅـﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻴﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺭﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴـﺭﺓ ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﺩﺭﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﺍﻟﻤﻁـﺭﺩ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺭﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺠﺫﺭﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴـﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺎﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺍﺭﺒﺎﺤﻬﻡ ﻤﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻘﻬﻡ ٠ ﻭﻫـﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﻠﻘﻭﻥ ﻓﺭﺹ ﻋﻤل ﻟﻌﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻭﻴﺨﺭﺠﻭﻥ ﺤﺭﻓﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻬﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﺠﺩﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺍﻡ ،‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻨﻬﻡ ﺒﻤﻘﺘﻀﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺒﻁ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻴﻌﻴﻠـﻭﻥ ﺍﺴـﺭﺍ ﻤﻤﺘـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫،ﺘﺸﻤل ، ﻋـﺩﺍ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺒﻨﺎﺀ ، ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗـﺎﺭﺏ ، ﻭﻜـﺫﻟﻙ ﻓـﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻴﻥ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﺍﺌﺢ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼـﺎﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴـﺔ٠‬ ‫ﻭﺘـﺩل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴـﺔ ﺘﺴـﺎﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴـﺔ ٠ ﻤﺜـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩ ﻭﻜﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻨﻐﻼﺩﻴﺵ ، ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻴﻁﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﻡ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻻﺴﺭﻴﺔ ﻋـﺎﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻤﺸﺎﻏل ﺍﻟﺫﻫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠـﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠـﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﺭﻴـﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﺠـﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺯﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺜﺎﺙ ﻭﺍﻻﺤﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺒﺱ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﺘﻠـﻙ ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﻨﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐـﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌـﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻗﺴﺎﻡ : ﻨﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻻﻭل ﻋﻥ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻬﺎ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺭﻓﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ٠ ﻭﻨﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ٠ ﻭﻨﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻁﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ ٠ ﻭﻨﺨﺘﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ٠‬

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‫اﻟﻘﺴﻢ اﻻول‬ ‫،،،،،،،،،،،،‬
‫ﺍﻭﻻ : ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﺘﻔﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ٠ ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻋﻁﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻤﺴﻴﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎ ﻓﻲ )٥٧( ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ، ﻭﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻤـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻐـﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ٠‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﻌـﺎﺭﻴﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﺼـﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﺒﻨﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ، ﺍﻭ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ، ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ، ﺍﻻ ﺍﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺒــﻪ ﻭﻫـﻭ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﻫﻭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﺍﻭ ﻴﺩﻴﺭﻩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺍﻭ ﺍﺜﻨﺎﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﻴﻥ ٠ ﻭﺘﺘﺨﺫ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒﻠﻬﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﺩ ﻵﺨﺭ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ، ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻨﻨـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﺩ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭﺍ ﻴﺴﺘﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺤﺠﻤﻪ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻴﺘﺴـﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺴـﺎﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﺍﻤـﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻟﻐﺎﻴـﺔ ٢٨٩١ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﺸﺨﺎﺹ ٠ ﺍﻻ ﺍﻨـﻪ ﺍﺒﺘﺩﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺎﻡ ٣٨٩١ ﺍﻋﺘﺒـﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﻘـل‬ ‫ﻋﻥ )٠٠١( ﺍﻟﻑ ﺩﻴﻨﺎﺭ ٠‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻘـﺩ ﺍﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﺭﺕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟـﺩﻭل ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻥ ﺘﻬﻴﺄ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ، ﻭﺍﻋﻁﺕ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻘـﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻤﻨﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻻﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺅﻜﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻭﺍﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁﻭﺭ ٠‬

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‫ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻨﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ، ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻑ ﺍﻤﺎﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ ، ﻭﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﺫﻜﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠـﻲ :‬ ‫١ - ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻨﺤﺔ ﻟﻼﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ٠‬ ‫٢ - ﻀﻌﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺭﻋﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻤﻊ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻭ ﻀﻌﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ ﻭﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﻤﻴﻡ ٠‬ ‫٣ - ﻀﻌﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸـﺭﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﻴﺔ٠‬ ‫٤ - ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻨﻌـﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻭ ﻗﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓـﻕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻔﻘﺩﻫﺎ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﺔ ٠‬ ‫٥ - ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺤﻬـﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻻﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ٠‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ: ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﻴﻬﻲ ﺍﻥ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﺴـﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺜﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸـﻜل ﺭﺃﺴـﻤﺎل ﺍﻭ ﻗـﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﺌﺘﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺨﺭﻯ ٠ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺍﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺒﺘـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ٠ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﺒــﻪ ﺍﺼـﻼ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺎﺭﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﺨﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻗﺼـﻭﻯ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻫﻤﻬﺎ: ﻗﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺩﺨﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻴﺒﻌﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻤﺄﻨﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ٠ ﺍﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﻌﻅﻴﻡ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻀﻁﻼﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﻭﻻﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺜﺭ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺼﺨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻭﺍﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘـﻡ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺨـﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬـﺎ ﻋـﻥ ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺽ ﻤﻌـﺎ ٠‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫١ - ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﺘﺩﺒﻴﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻬﻡ ﺘﻌﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺼﺤﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﺤﻕ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ٠ ﻭﻴﺘﺨﺫ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﺎﻨـﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻌﻴﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﺍﻟـﻰ ﺍﺼـﺤﺎﺒﻪ ﻁﺎﻟﻤـﺎ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻨﺸﻰﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠﻠﻬﺎ ٠‬

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‫٢ - ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓـﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﺠﺎﻻ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺎ ﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﻫﻴﺎﻜل ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴـل ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ، ﺒﺎﻻﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ٠ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻨـﻭﻋﻴﻥ : ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ ٠ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻴﻭﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻁﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ٠ ﻭﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺠﺎل ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻗﺴـﺎﻡ ﻫـﻲ :-‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺠل : ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜـل ﻓـﻲ ﺸـﻜل ﺘﺴـﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﻗـﺭﻭﺽ ﻟﻠﻭﻓـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻟﺘﺯﺍﻤـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺠﻠﺔ ٠ ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺘﺩ ﺁﺠﺎﻟﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ )٠٣‬ ‫٠٨١( ﻴﻭﻤﺎ ، ﺜـﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺭﻓﻴﺔ ،‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻗﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺠل‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻀﻴﻼ ﻭﺍﻜﺒﺭﻫﺎ ﺤﺠﻤﺎ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ٠ ﻭﺍﺨﻴـﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﺏ - ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻷﺠل :‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻤـﻥ )١ -‬ ‫٥( ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ، ﻭﺘﻀﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺴـﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺌﻤﺔ ، ﺜـﻡ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴـﻊ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻘﺴـﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺭﺓ ﻭﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﻨﻘل ٠‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﺒﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺒﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺠﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻤﺜل ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺼﻭل ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻨﻅﻴﺭ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻴﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﺠﺭ ٠‬ ‫٣ - ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺠل : ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ :‬ ‫ﺃ - ﻗﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺒﺎﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺠﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ ﻋـﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭﻫـﺎ ٠ ﺒﺎﻻﻀـﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ٠‬ ‫ﺏ - ﺴﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ : ﻭﺘﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻁﻭﻴل ﺍﻷﺠل ، ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﺒﺭﻫﻥ ﺍﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﻬﻡ ﻭﺴﻨﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻭﻴل ٠ ﺍﻻ ﺍﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﺴﻭﺍﻕ ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻁـﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻔﺘﻘـﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ٠‬
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‫ﺭﺍﺒﻌﺎ: ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸـﺭﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴـل ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴـﻭﻕ ٠‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﻴﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻫﻡ ﺍﺭﺼـﺩﺘﻬﺎ ٠ ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﻔﻌﻴل ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ٠‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻤﺜﻼ ﺘﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻭﻤﺅﺜﺭﺍ، ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻤل ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ، ﻭﺘﺤﺘل ﻤﺭﻜﺯﺍ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺎ ﺩﺍﺨـل ﻗﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ٠ ﻭﻴﻤﺜل ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻨﺸﺂﺘﻬﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ٦٩% ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻋـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ٠ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ )ﻤﺼﺭﻑ ﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ( ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ ﺘﺄﺴـﺱ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﻠﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻭل ﻤﺼﺭﻑ ﻴﺴﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﻡ ﻗـﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻟﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻋﺒﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻻﺼﺤﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﻥ ﻴﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻻﻴﺴﺘﻬﺎﻥ ﺒـﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﻭﻴـل‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﺄﺴﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٧٨٩١ ﺍﻭل ﻤﺼـﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻫﺩﻓﻪ ﺘﺩﻋﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻋﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻫﺏ٠ ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻲ ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﺨﺫ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ ٣٦٩١ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤـﺎ ﺠﺩﻴـﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺼﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺤـﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﺠـﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﺌﺘﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺄﺴـﺱ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ٦٦٩١ ﻤﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻲ ﻜﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ )ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺌﺩ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺭﻯ( ﻭﻴﺩﻋﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻤﺎﺌﻲ )‪ (UNDP‬ﻟﻠﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭ ، ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺘﻁﺒﻴـﻕ ﺜﻼﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ ﻫﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤـﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ٠‬
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‫ﺍﻤـﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻋﻤﺩ ﺍﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﺘﻁـﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎل ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨـﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﺴﻤﺎﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻫﻠﻴـﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴـل ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ( ﻫﺩﻓﻬﺎ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺸـﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻭﺸﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﺴﺒﺎﺕ ٠‬ ‫ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ )ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ( ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺸﻁﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺴﻌﻰ ﻻﻥ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺘﻬﺎ ٠٣% ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻁﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭ ٠٧% ﻤﻥ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭﺓ ٠‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴـﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫١ - ﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﺍﺜﺭ ﺼﺩﻭﺭ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋـﺎﻡ ٤٦٩١ ، ﻭﻤﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻋﺎﻓﻴﺘﻪ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫، ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻁ ﻓـﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫٣٧٩١ ٠ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘـﻡ ﺍﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﻘﻁـﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ، ﺜـﻡ ﺠﺎﺀﺕ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ ٨٧٩١‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺕ ﺒﻴﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﺭﺴﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺭ٠ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺎﻜـل ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻪ ٠ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﺨﺭﻫـﺎ ﻗـﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻁ ﺭﻗـﻡ )٠٢( ﻟﺴﻨـﺔ ٨٩٩١ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺍﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺴﺎﻫﻤﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸـﺂﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻀﺎﻋﻔﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ ﺍﻻﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺭﻏﻡ ﻅـﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﺭ ، ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﻊ ﻋﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ )٨٩٣٠٤( ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ١٩٩١ ﺍﻟﻰ )٦٠٠٣٨(‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٠٠٠٢ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻭﺍﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺴـﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺜﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﺠﻤـﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﻏﺯﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ ٠٩٩١ ٠‬ ‫ﺍﻻ ﺍﻨـﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺁﺨـﺭ ﻨﺠـﺩ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘـﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺸـﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴـﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻗـﺩ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺴﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻅﻴـﻑ ﻭﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻴﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﻤﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺒﺤﺘﺔ ، ﺍﻭ ﺘﻌﺭﻀـﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺒﻁﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺘﺸﺘﺕ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻤــﺎ ﺍﻓﺭﺯﺘـﻪ‬
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‫ﻗﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺨﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻀﻁﺭﺍﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩ ﻁﻴﻠﺔ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻋﺎﻤـﺎ ٠‬ ‫٢ - ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺩﻱ ﻟﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﺴـﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻤـﻭﻡ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ ﻭﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻻﻨﺤﺭﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺼﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ ، ﻻﺒﺩ ﺍﻥ ﻴﻀـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﻨﺄﻯ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴـﻤﻰ ﺒـﺎﻻﻗﺘﺭﺍﺏ ﻤـﻥ ﺤﺎﻓـﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺤـﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺨﻔﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴل ﺍﻷﺠل ، ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﺁﻨﻔﺎ ﻗـﺩ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻌﺔ )ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻴـﺔ( ﻟﻠﻨﻬـﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺹ ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺘﺒﺴـﻴﻁﻪ ﺍﻻﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺨﻠـﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨـﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺌـﻡ ٠‬ ‫ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﻴﻥ ٥٠١ ﻭ ٦٠١ ﻟﺴـﻨﺔ ٠٠٠٢ ﺒﺸـﺄﻥ ﻤـﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﻔ ـﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀ ـﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻤﺘﻴ ـﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺸ ـﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺸ ـﻤﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺭﻨ ـﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻬﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺫﻴﻥ ﺘـﻡ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﺸﻜﻴل )ﺼـﻨﺩﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﻅـﻴﻡ ﻓـﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘﺄﺴﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺒﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎل ﻗﺩﺭﻩ )٠٥( ﻤﻠﻴﺎﺭ ﺩﻴﻨـﺎﺭ ﻭ)٠٥(‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ ﻴﻭﺭﻭ ، ﻭﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﻤﻭﺍل ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻘـﺩﻡ ﺨـﻼل ﻋـﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫٠٠٠٢ ﻭ ١٠٠٢ )٨٣١( ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﻌﺯﺯﺍ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭﻯ ٠ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ )١٣(‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎ ﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ٠ ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺤﺼﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻨـﻪ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ )٥٢( ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﺸـﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺸﻜﻠﺕ ﺍﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺤﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ، ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭ ﺍﻥ ﺘـﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﻭﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻌﻁﻴل ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻤـﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﺘﻜﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻴﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻁﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ ﻟﺘﻌﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻓﺎﻫﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﻻﺤـﺩﺍﺙ ﻤﻌـﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺃﺴﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ ﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ ﻭﻁﻨـﻲ )ﺘﻜﻤﻴﻠـﻲ(‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺼﺹ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻭﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻏل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒـﺔ(‬ ‫ﺤﺼﺭﺍ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻴﺘﺴﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺩﻴـﺔ ،‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺤﺸﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴـﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺹ )ﺍﻟﺒﻭﻟﻭﺘﻜﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ( ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻀـﻴﺎﻉ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻟـﻪ ﻟﻼﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ،‬
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‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﻔﻌﻴل ﻤﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺹ ٠ ﻭﻓـﻲ ﺍﻁـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ )ﺘﻭﺴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ( ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺎﺱ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﻫﺎﺩﻓﺔ ﺍﻟـﻰ ﺘﻁـﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ )ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ( ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﻪ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍل ﻭﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ )ﺤـﺭﻑ( ﺍﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ، ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻭﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ، ﻓﻀﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺏ ﻻﺤﺘﻀـﺎﻥ ﺘﻠـﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺭﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺩﺓ ﻻﻨﻁﻼﻗﻬﺎ ٠‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟـﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻁﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺸﻙ ﺍﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﺁﻨﻔﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﻭﺘﺄﻁﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺤـﻭل ﻜﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ )‪ (Venture Capital‬ﻭﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﻓﻴـﻪ ﻨﺤـﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻴﺎﺘﻪ٠ ﺍﺫ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺒﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻔﺘﻘﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﻨﺼﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤـﺞ ﺍﻻﻗـﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌـــــﻲ )‪ (Micro – loan program‬ﺍﺫ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺤﻴﺎﻥ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸـﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ )ﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ( ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺒﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻭﺍﻭﻀﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﻨﺴﺠﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻪ ﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻨﻘﺹ ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟـﻨﻘﺹ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺘﻌﺒﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ٠‬ ‫١ - ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﻲ :‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻀـﻤﻥ ﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺴﻑ ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﺤﻴﺎﻨـﺎ ﻋـﻥ ﺘﻌـﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺸﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻗﺎﺒﻴـﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺒﺭﻫﻨـﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﻁﻴل ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻭﻡ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ٠ ﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻥ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﺸﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ،‬ ‫ﻜﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل ، ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺒﺎﺴــﻡ ) ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ( ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﺼﻁـﻼﺡ ) ‪SBA – Small‬‬ ‫‪ (Business Administration‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﺠﺎﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻭﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻗﺒل ﺍﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻨﺢ ﻟﻼﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋـﻥ ﺘـﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺘﺘﻭﻻﻫـﺎ‬
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‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ٠ ﻜﺎﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴـﻴﻕ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬـﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻌـﺩ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﻋﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺠﻲ ﻭﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻠﺯﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻭﻴﻕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ٠‬ ‫ﺏ - ﺍﻻﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺌﻲ :‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻻ : ﻴﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻐل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﺠﺎﺯﺓ ﺘﺄﺴـﻴﺱ ) ﻀـﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻋﻼﻩ ( ﻟﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤـﻥ ﺤﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ ٠ ﻭﻟـﻪ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺠـﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺹ ، ﻭﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻻﺘﻘل ﻋـﻥ ﺨﻤـﺱ ﺴـﻨﻭﺍﺕ ٠ ﻭﻴﺤـﻕ ﻟﺤﻤﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻋﺩﺍﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺠﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻤﻤﻥ ﻟﻬـﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﻻﺘﻘل ﻋﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺁﻨﻔـﺎ ٠‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻭﻥ ﺍﻴﻀﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ) ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﺒﻤﺯﺍﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ( ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓـﻲ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻋـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺤﻴﺎﺌـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻻﺠﻴﺎل ﻓﻴﻪ ٠‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺎ: ﺍﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﺎ ٠ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ ) ﺩﻟﻴـل ﺨﻁـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ) ‪ (Small Business Plan Guide‬ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﺭﻯ ﺍﻥ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺜـﺎل ﻜﺠﻬـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯﻴﺔ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ٠ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ ﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺩﻟﻴل ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺴﺠﻡ ﻭﺍﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻭﻏﺎﻴﺎﺘﻪ ٠‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻟﺜﺎ : ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﺠﺎﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻴﺱ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺸـﺒﺎﺏ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺒﻐﻴﺔ ﺘﻜـﻭﻴﻥ ﻗﺎﻋـﺩﺓ ﻓﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻊ ﻓـﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺘﺸـﻐﻴل‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﺒﺩﺍ )ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ( ﻭﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺘﺴـﺘﻘﻁﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ٠‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ) ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﻠﻲ ( ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺘﺭﻜﺎ ، ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺘﻘـﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﻬﻴﺌﺔ ﻗﺭﺽ ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻌـﻲ ) ‪(Syndicated Loan‬‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺼﺹ ﻻﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ٠‬
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‫ﻭﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻌﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺴﻨﺩ ﺒﺎﺴـﻡ )ﻗـﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻌـﻲ ﻭﻓﺎﺌﺩﺘـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻁﻔﺎﺌﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ) ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ(‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻁﺎﺭ ﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻐﻁﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻴـﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ٠ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻥ ﺘﻌـﺩل ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺴـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻊ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﺍﺯﻱ ﺘﻐﻁﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻕ ﻤﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﺡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻭﺏ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻌﻲ ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻋﻼﻩ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺫﻟـﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ :‬ ‫ﺃ - ﻴﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﻗﺭﻀﺎ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺎ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺭﺍﺱ ﻤﺎﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺴﻘﻑ ﺍﻗﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﺩﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻬـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ٠‬ ‫ﺏ - ﻴﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ )ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ – ﻓﺭﺩﺍ ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ( ﻤـﺩﺓ ﺍﻤﻬﺎل ﺍﻤـﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺘﺎﻥ )ﻗﺒل ﺘﺴﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ( ﻭﻴﺴﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ ﺒﺎﻗﺴﺎﻁ ﺴﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﺴـﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻲ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤـﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻤﻬﺎل ٠‬ ‫ﺝ - ﺘﻌـﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﻭﻀﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻀﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺴـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﻓﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﺤﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺴـﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤـﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭﺒﻀـﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﻫﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ ٠‬ ‫٣ - ﺍﻻﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺃ - ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻏل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻤﺘﻴﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﻔﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻨﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺘﻪ ، ﺍﻭ ﻏﻴﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺫﺓ ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭ )ﻟﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﺎﻨﺸـﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ( ٠‬ ‫ﺏ - ﺘﺨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ ﻟﻤﻔﻬـﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻻﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ٠‬

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‫ﺝ - ﺘﺤﻅﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻠﺯﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻴـﺔ ﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﺨـﺭﻯ ٠‬ ‫٤ - ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ، ﻭﻴﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﻭﺴﻴﺎﺴﺎﺘﻪ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺘﻪ ﻁﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻨﻔﻴـﺫ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ٠‬ ‫٥ - ﺍﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻋـﻼﻩ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻌـﺎﺭﺽ ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺸـﺎﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻏل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﺘﻘـﻊ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻘﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻁﻼﻗـﺎ ٠‬

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‫اﻟﺨﺎﺗﻤﺔ واﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎت‬ ‫"""""""""""""""""""‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﻭﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺎﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺁﻓـﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟﺔ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﻭﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺸﺎﻋﺕ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻥ ﺘﺸﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ ﻤﺸـﺎﻜل ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟـﺔ ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﻌﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺭﺵ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ ٠ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻤﺭ ﻴﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﻭﺍل ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻋﻤﺎل ) ﺍﻟﺸﻐﻴﻠﺔ ( ﻟﻜﻭﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺍﻤـﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ٠ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻋﻨﺼـﺭ ﻭﺤـﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ، ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﺤﺭﺍﺯ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ٠ ﻭﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻋﺎﻤل ﺘﻭﺴﻊ ﻗﻭﻱ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺌﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻔﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻤﻨــﻪ ٠‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻫﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻟـﻰ ﺘﺄﺴـﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴـﺔ ﻭﻤـﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠ ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺘـﻡ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻨـﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜـﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻗﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﻤﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺎﺤﺕ ﻟﻌﻤﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻤﺯﺍﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺭﺍﻀﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻱ ، ﻭﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺎﻥ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﺒﺭﻨـﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺼﺹ ﻟﻠﻨﻬﻭﺽ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﻏل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻴﺘﺴﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻴﺴـﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻅﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺤﺸﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻀـﻴﺎﻉ ﻭﻭﻀـﻌﻬﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻟﻼﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ، ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻬﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺯﻭﺍل ٠ ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺏ‬ ‫ﻻﺤﺘﻀﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻭﺩ ﺍﻻﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻻﻗﺎﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ٠‬

‫اﻟﻘﺴﻢ اﻟﺮاﺑـﻊ‬

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‫ﻭﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻥ ﻨﺨﺘﺘﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴـﺔ :-‬ ‫١ - ﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴـﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ٠‬ ‫٢ - ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻻﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫٣ - ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻨﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺠﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ٠‬ ‫٤ - ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻼﻤﻲ ﺍﻭ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺼﺭﻑ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻔﺘﺢ ﻨﻭﺍﻓﺫ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﺴـﻼﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻷﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﺤﺭﺠﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤـل‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ٠‬ ‫٥ - ﺍﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺁﺠـﺎل ﺍﻟﺴـﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ٠‬ ‫٦ - ﺍﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻓﻀﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﻠﻔﺔ ٠‬ ‫٧ - ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺘﺄﺴـﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫٨ - ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺴـﻴﺱ ﺸـﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻁﻨﻴـﺔ ﺨﺎﺼـﺔ ﻻﻗﺎﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ٠‬ ‫٩ - ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺤﻤـل ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺘﻜـﺎﻟﻴﻑ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ ٠‬ ‫٠١ - ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺘﺤـﺕ ﺘﺼـﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺠل ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻷﺠل ﻭﺒﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻗـل ﻭﻤـﺩﺓ ﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺍﻁﻭل ٠‬ ‫١١ - ﺩﻋـﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻻﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﻜﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﺴﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﻌﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﻴﺎﻑ ٠‬ ‫٢١ - ﻗﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻨﻴـﺔ ﺒﻬـﺩﻑ ﺘـﺫﻟﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺜﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻓﺭﺼﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل٠‬ ‫٣١- ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺠﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ٠‬

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‫٤١- ﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﺠـل ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺍﻓﺯ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴـﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺘﻤﻜﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌـﺎﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺭ ٠‬

‫١ - ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺼﺎﻟﺢ – ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل : ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺘﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺍﻕ – ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬ ‫– ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ – ﺤﺯﻴﺭﺍﻥ ١٠٠٢ ٠‬ ‫٢ - ﺒـﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﻼﻥ – ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ ، ﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ – ﺒﺤﺙ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭ – ﺁﺫﺍﺭ‬ ‫– ٣٠٠٢ ٠‬ ‫٣ - ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﺍﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ – ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ – ﺒﺤـﺙ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺏ: ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ – ﺍﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺼـﺎﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ٧٨٩١ ٠‬ ‫٤ - ﻤﻔﻠﺢ ﻋﻘل – ﺍﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ ﻭﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺭﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ ٠ ﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ : ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻻﺴﻜﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ – ﺍﺘﺤـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ – ﻨﻴﺴﺎﻥ ٦٨٩١ ٠‬ ‫٥ - ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ – ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ٤٩٩١ – ٥٩٩١ ٠‬ ‫٦ - ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ – ﺍﻻﻤﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺠﻴـﺔ –‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻤﺎﻡ ٩٨٩١ ٠‬ ‫٧ - ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﻭل ﻏﺭﺏ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ – ﻨﻴﻭﻴﻭﺭﻙ – ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ –‬ ‫٨٩٩١ ٠‬ ‫٨ - ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺒﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ – ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻻﻭل – ﺭﺒﻴﻊ ﻋـﺎﻡ ٠٠٠٢ ٠‬ ‫٩ - ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺁﻓﺎﻕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ – ﺍﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﻏﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ – ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭل ٠٨٩١ ٠‬ ‫٠١ - ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل ﺍﻹﺴﻼﻤﻴﺔ – ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ )٨( ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ )١( ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ٧٨٩١ ٠‬ ‫١١ - )4991( ‪Wilson – A and etal‬‬
‫: ‪Financing Small Business Enterprises‬‬ ‫‪Sources of Information . Business Reference Services Library of‬‬ ‫‪Congress Washington‬‬

‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ ‫"""""""""‬

‫ﻧـﻮال//‬

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...distribution SMEs are very crucial. In addition to developing countries SMEs are important to almost all economies in the world. In many countries, SMEs are the key actors in generating well-brought-up employment in most developing countries involves the expansion of this sector fast enough to absorb people previously unemployed (a few) or engaged in low productivity informal sector jobs and the majority of jobs are provided by SMEs, In low-income countries, especially where the informal sector is large, but it is still significant. The SME sector’s contribution to GDP also confirms its economic importance. In high-income countries,...

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Nbfi in Microeconomic Development in Bangladesh

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Sme Sector

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Financial Support for Msme in Bangladesh

...for MSME in Bangladesh The SMEs worldwide are recognized as the most effective vehicle for sustainable economic growth. In Bangladesh , a sustainable level of development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs ) is highly needed to reach the targets set by The United Nations (UN) in the millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to alleviate poverty . This urgency is reflected in the Government’s pro-poor policies, especially in the poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP) . Small and Medium Enterprises in Bangladesh have recently been considered as an important vehicles of poverty reduction strategy. For the first time, the comprehensive Industrial Policy 2005 highlighted SME development as a flagship policy area for balanced and sustainable industrial development in Bangladesh. Availability of finance is thought to be a major constraint to formation and growth of SMEs in Bangladesh. Banks are reluctant to expand their SME credit portfolio because they do not consider SME lending an attractive and profitable undertaking. This is so because SMEs are regarded as high risk borrowers because of their low capitalization, insufficient assets and their inability to comply with collateral requirements of the banks. Administrative costs are also higher because close monitoring and supervision the SME operation becomes necessary. Despite all these facts banks and financial institutions have been providing finance to the SME sector and the volume of finance is showing an increasing trend...

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Financing Option

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Effects of Micro-Financing on Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises in Mombasa County

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Uasin Gishu

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Delima Case

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Access to Credit for Smes: a Study on Chitwan Based Enterprises of Nepal

...Access to Credit for SMEs: A study on Chitwan Based Enterprises Kapil Deb Subedi, HOD, Department of Management Saptagandaki Multiple Campus, TU Abstract Access to credit is crucial for the growth and survival of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Thus policy makers attempt to pursue financial sector policies to propel financial intermediaries to extend more credit to SMEs. Access to credit still remains a challenge to SMEs especially those in developing economies and continues to dominate discussions both within business circles and policy makers. In Nepal, for instance, a survey by Ferrari et al (2006) entitled to “Access to financial services in Nepal” indicated that lack of adequate access to credit topped factors hampering the growth of small businesses in Nepal. The general objective of this study is to explore the situation of access to finance of SMEs for their innovation and entrepreneurship. It also examines the firm specific attributes of access to bank credit in Nepal by focusing on SMEs in the Chitwan District. The study employed the quantitative approach to research in which the convenience sampling criteria was employed to select seventy-two small firms from the Bharatpur Municipality of Chitwan district. The major findings for the study indicated that there exist significantly, positive relations between certain attributes of a firm and access to credits. There are also, some firm specific attributes such as industry sector, size, collateral...

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The Effect of Micro Credit on the Development of Smes in Ghana

...something on the responsibility of large firms. In “The Theory of Economic Development” Schumpeter (1934) emphasizes the role of entrepreneur, as a prime cause of economic development, which is development achieved through innovation. Taking this into consideration if the entrepreneur has an important role for development, then this role is achieved through the “institution” that he/she represents. SME activities that would help to propel development and promote the wellbeing of the citizenry most governments are now playing various facilitation roles in collaboration with NGOs and other stakeholders to enable the private sector provide diverse goods and services, including job creation for the people. Many developing countries have shifted their strategic economic focus to embrace the development of an entrepreneural middle-class with the private sector as the engine for attaining sustained economic growth. In Ghana, the private sector is also considered as the engine of growth of the economy and mostly of micro, small and medium size enterprises, generally called the SMEs. The SMEs Sector in Ghana is estimated to be made up of 70% of all industrial establishments. They contribute about 22% to GDP and account for about 92% of...

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Financial Problem for Chinese Small to Medium Sized Companies

...companies (SMEs) play an important role in most countries over the world. It has been a vital policy issue for governments to deal with these companies to increase development of economy. The financial difficulties faced by SMEs have restricted SMEs’ survival and development. SMEs exist a series of financial problems. This article focus on how to obtain effective financial source and dealing with the difficulties in raising finance for Chinese SMEs. Key words: Small and medium-sized Companies (SMEs); Financing. Introduction SMEs are the necessary power for economy growth. As Beck and Demirguc-Kunt (2005, p2932) said that there was robust partial connection between the importance of SMEs in manufacturing and economic development. According to Ayyagari (2007), formal SMEs contribute to 50% of GDP on average in developing countries and World Bank views SMEs as a core element in developing economy and employment. In China, the number of registered SMEs exceeds 40 million, accounting for more than 99 per cent of enterprises. As a private sector, SME has become a driving force since the economy began to recover in 1978 (Fan, 2007). And it makes up more than 70 percept of the GDP. According to Brookfield, SMEs can be regarded as unquoted small businesses and a medium for self-employment of the owners that are organized by few individuals, typically a family group and 
act as a medium for self-employment of the owners. In China, the government gives a definition about SMEs in the SME Promotion...

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Smse

...other hand, the State will be a producer of public goods, play a regulatory role to level the playing field and create conducive environment for the private sector to take the lead in driving economic growth. This philosophy is evident in almost all policy statements made since 1986 and in particular after 1996. The private sector has started playing an ever- increasing role in creating incomes and employment. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) account for a large share of the enterprises active in Tanzania. In fact Small and Medium Enterprises are the emerging private sector and do form the base for private sector-led growth. 3. SMEs, important as they are to the economy, have been facing a number of problems despite the on-going reform programmes. This is due to a number of factors, one of which is a persistent culture that has not recognised the value of entrepreneurial initiative in improving the lives of the people. Other factors include complex, bureaucratic and costly legal, regulatory and administrative environment where SMEs are at a greater disadvantage than their counterparts that are larger in size. The high cost of compliance to...

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Biomedical Engineer

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