Free Essay

Social Issues


Submitted By nadz123
Words 3234
Pages 13
What is diaspora?
- To scatter
- Bringing together old ideas – about diaspora - with new notions of ‘transnationalism’, ‘hybridity’ and ‘integration’
- And language.
- What are the ‘traditional types’ of diaspora – victim, labour and imperial, trade and business, deterritorialised diasporas
- what other (newer) forms are there? Economic, political (EU border issues). More modern notions that might not ‘fit’ traditional ideas of ‘diaspora’. Even the word seems rather outdated now?
- Diaspora/transnational communities – relationships in the ‘hostland’, relationships with the ‘homeland’ – transnationalism and integration in the homeland

Labour Imperial Trade Deterritorialised New ideas Characteristics of diaspora: key features they have in common
- Dispersal:
- Or – Expansion
- Memory of homeland – idealisation of home.
- Idealisation of the ancestral homeland –
- Development of a return movement to the homeland – transnationalism.
- A strong ethnic group consciousness – based on distinctiveness, common history, common cultural and religious heritage
- ‘troubled’ relationship with host societies – integration – suggesting a lack of acceptance: Mazzucato research below.
- empathy with co-ethnic members in other countries of settlement. Aided by electronic communication, Skype, email, facebook, cheap phone calls, cheap flights.
- possibility of a distinctive, enriching life in host countries – integration – those with a tolerance for pluralism, anyway.


Emerging from diaspora/transnational communities. New forms being researched/written about:

1. Rampton: Crossing.
2. Translanguaging – Blackledge & Creese (2010),

3. Preece – posh and slang in HE, her book/phd thesis looking at this issue.

4. Scott Kiesling (2005) - New Australian English (NAusE) – the way English is spoken in Australia by Greek Australians and Lebanese Australians

TRANSNATIONALISM AND INTEGRATION - the folly of ‘common sense’ pronouncements
- the dangers of making policy by ideology: examples
- so what is this to do with transnationalism and integration of diaspora communities?
- Mazzucato, V. (2008) – is the relationship between transnationalism and integration a mutually exclusive one?

1. Migrants’ contribution to their home country begs the question of whether this somehow impedes their ability to participate in Dutch society.

2. Dutch politicians have argued that migrants are oriented towards their home country and therefore invest little in their lives and their surroundings in the Netherlands.

3. But does it have to be an either/or situation in which migrants’ involvement in their home country necessarily excludes them being interested in conditions in the Netherlands?

4. While most studies on migration follow either migrants’ remittance-sending behaviour or their participation in the receiving country’s economy and society, the transnational perspective of this study allowed both to be studied at the same time.

5. The researchers investigated the question posed above by linking remittance spending from the previous section with spending patterns in the Netherlands. What follows is an analysis of Ghanaian migrants’ objectives and the resulting spending patterns in the Netherlands.

6. Migrants’ simultaneous engagement in both their home and host country makes development and integration highly related matters.

7. Ghanaian migrants contribute to Dutch society in a variety of ways, even when some of their objectives are oriented towards Ghana.

8. Policies that impede migrants from legally participating in Dutch society are creating the largest barrier for migrants to integrate, and at the same time they hamper migrants’ possibilities to invest in their home country.

9. Policy towards migration and integration should be based on the reality that migrants are doubly engaged and aim at creating room for juggling between their multiple loyalties. Such policies would create space for more investment in their home country while facilitating a more active participation in the host country with fewer resources being absorbed by the informal economy.

What is Britishness? * Gordon Brown (2007) - If this had become a reality, then we might have seen more crossing boundaries – ie teachers learning about the‘new’ communities their pupils come from, and vice versa. * Alibhai Brown, Y. (2000) After Multiculturalism. Foreign Policy Centre: London. * Cantle suggests at pg 161, that the nature of working with the public – teaching, community work, healthcare, social care - sometimes reinforces difference rather than work across boundaries.
Questions to consider * How should transnational communities be national? * How much British and how much of ‘home’? Is it possible to be a little of both? * ‘Duality of identity’

A brief history of multiculturalism
What do we mean by the term ‘multiculturalism’? * Is it a goal, a concept, an attitude, a strategy, a value? * We know that when people mention multiculturalism, they are referring to all or some of the following:- race, socio-economic class, gender, language, culture, sexual preference or disability. * Mostly used in reference to ethnicity (or ‘race’). But also extended to other categories of diversity. * How has it come about? * Forcing us to question the degree to which we are in reality an open and democratic society. * Stephen Lawrence 1993 * Kincheloe, V & Steinberg, S (1997) Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press: Buckingham & Philadelphia. * How it is responded to is determined by our definition of the social world that corresponds to particular social political and economic interests. Thus, power relations play an important role in helping to shape the way people, organisations, groups and institutions react to the reality of multiculturalism. * What do we mean by power relations? * Do we embrace diversity and make it a strength (Olympic bid – diversity a strength), or fear it, and insist that everyone become the same (otherness)? * Melting pot or salad bowl? * Adopting a critical perspective is essential – basically: what are your views and on what evidence are they based? Anecdotal stereotypes? Personal experiences? Measured and reviewed information? News reports? We know that these can be any of the above, but be aware of what you basing your views on. Evaluate those views in terms of their weight and reliability. * The most important thing is to be critical and self-aware in your thinking.

Adopting a critical perspective * Understand how power relations shape human interactions in the workplace, schools and everyday life. * Promote a consciousness of self – understand how and why your political opinions, socio-economic class, role, religious beliefs, gender role and ‘racial’ self image are shaped by dominant perspectives * Promote self-reflection – thinking about how your opinions are formed, the underlying reasoning * Looking beneath the surface of appearances – think: why is what is being said, said? What are likely to be the speaker’s motives? Do you agree with what these are? Why not/why so? Have a rationale for your response – always.


Ted Cantle’s critique (2002) & (2011): Multiculturalism as a catch-all term to mean many different circs – to the extent that it no longer means anything anymore.

Kenan Malik: Multiculturalism as an ideology and a lived experience

Sondhi (2009): on Multiculturalism: ‘the right to be equal was overshadowed by the right to be different’

Multiculturalism: an valuation of the concept * Cantle (2002 & 2011) segregation and separateness in a number of spheres in multicultural societies – divisions based on social class, ethnicity, faith. * ‘parallel lives’ – in which physical separation of different communities was compounded by a complete separation in education, employment and in other spheres. * Separation and segregation proliferates * ‘layers of separation’ Cantle pg 72 – segregation + separation mean that people don’t know about other cultures and rely on myths and stereotypes to define that relationship. Influences how each community views each other and is a denial of any multicultural reality. * degree of difference Cantle pg 78 Which domains of difference should be narrowed and which should be maintained? Languages (but not at the expense of the home language), participating in economic and political activity. Re the others, maintain, as long as understand others and their perspectives * Cantle writes about inequality of treatment to achieve fairness. Ie Sikhs can wear turbans instead of motorcycle helmets * Burial certificates for the dead can be expedited within 24 hours to enable swift burial of certain ethnic groups – Muslims and Hindus. * Incitement to religious hatred, new offence created. An extension of racial hatred. What do we think?

Origins: Created in this country in response to the riots in the northern towns of England (Bradford, Burnley and Oldham) in 2001. Appears to have Canadian origins, growing out of the concept of ‘social cohesion’
Intended purpose: Adopted in the British context based on ethnicity and faith: remember this – it is significant. Underlines the necessity to develop shared values across ethnic divisions, as a response to community conflict and unrest.
What is it? Reflects divisions based upon identifiable communities, generally on the basis of faith or ethnic distinctions. It is also complemented by social capital theory of ‘bridging’ between communities. Undermined by disadvantage, discrimination and disaffection experienced by the community as a whole.
A cohesive community is one where: * there is a common vision and a sense of belonging for all communities * the diversity of people’s different background and circumstances are appreciated and positively valued * those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities * strong and positive relationships are being developed between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and within neighbourhoods.
Source: Local Government Association, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, Home Office, Commission for Racial Equality, Guidance on Community Cohesion 2002

1. Introduction & historical perspective * Until WW2, immigrant population in Britain was ltd. Post-war, their labour was needed to fuel the post-war re-building and expansion plans. Easiest to draw on ex colonies – education, language made it easier for them to be put to work here. * If you want to look further back in history, there is a good account in Cantle chapter 2 * the ‘immigration problem’ was on the agenda almost from the time the Empire Windrush docked in summer 1948 with over 400 Jamaicans. Black people were subject to abuse and assaults with race riots up and down the country – Liverpool 1948, Deptford 1949, Camden 1954, Notting Hill 1958. * Andrea Levy – Small island: did you read this during the vacation? * In this hostile atmosphere, the supporting immigrants and helping them to integrate and develop positive interactions with the host community v difficult * 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act passed to control numbers of immigrants entering Britain. * General election 1964 – racist in tone – public seemed to prefer the prejudice of one candidate rather than the comparatively liberal views of his opponent. * Galvanised Govt into action RRA 1965 – estd Race Relations Board, to tackle discrimination and take up individual cases. Made in unlawful to discriminate on grounds of race or colour in areas such as housing, places of entertainment and employment. Also created a new criminal office of incitement to racial hatred. Now extended to religious hatred. * RRA 1968 extended and strengthened earlier measures * Despite this, continuing doubt about their effectiveness. Acknowledged in 1973 report by RRB, still a long way to go. * Early integration measures started as early as 1962 with setting up of the Commonwealth Immigrants Advisory Council (CIAC), two years later National Advisory Council for Commonwealth Immigrants (NACCI), 1965 both superseded by National Committee for Commonwealth Immigrants (NCCI). * At this stage there was a recognition that Britain had become a multicultural community and as a consequence, the host community and minority communities had to establish a rapport – get along with one another. The expectation was for the immigrant to integrate into the host community rather than an acceptance of, and respect for, separate cultures. * More detail in Cantle, suffices to say that at this time, govt and agencies were groping towards ad hoc solutions and policies. Patchy and poorly resourced. Focussed on ‘immigrant welfare’ and ‘trying to allay public fears about immigrants taking jobs and making demands on limited housing’ * Compared to mainland Europe, Britain made an early and more positive response to integration. Netherlands adopted measures in 1981, but US was much earlier – in 1940s and 1950s. * By 1970s diaspora communities in Britain putting down roots, marrying and having children who would only know this country. * 1976 RRA – tougher than predecessors – introduced and defined concepts like direct and indirect discrimination. Abolished RRB, set up CRE – present to this day. More extensive powers, a good legal advice service for those who experience racism at work. More prepared to address underlying causes of prejudice, as well as the discrimination and inequalities that result. Under the chairmanship of Trevor Phillips – whom I am now less bitter about him not winning the Mayoral election (bec Red Ken is not doing too bad a job) CRE is enjoying an enhanced public profile. Trevor Phillips controversial – BMEs should be integrating better, learning English, multiculturalism is dead. Mouth piece for Govt policies? * 2007 CRE merging with the Govt’s new Commission for Equality and Human Rights. * Cultural shift of the Act - recognition that ethnic monitoring and positive action programmes were a legitimate means of ensuring fair play for the BMEs – contrast with French, where monitoring illegal. Focus on the ‘rights agenda’. Focus in the employment field, different performance of black and white communities was most clearly apparent. Ethnic monitoring, a good thing, although need to follow through and use stats to define measures to redress balance. * 1980, 1981 riots in Bristol, Liverpool and Brixton. Scarman Inquiry Report. For the first time, linked the unrest to youth unemployment, also recognising the feeling of hopelessness and powerlessness in the black community. Poor relations bet police and black community. Recommended police training to address this. * Report thin on practical recommendations, so position did not improve. * Riots 1985 B’ham, Nottingham. Reports again refer to deprivation and inner city decay, but attention focussed on policing and poor relations bet police and black community. * 1993 Stephen Lawrence murdered. Report wide ranging but most important is establishing a commitment to tackling ‘institutional racism’. 2000 Amendment Act – duty to promote good race relations. * Significant event: 2001 riots in Bradford Burnley and Oldham involved Asian community. Different character from previous events of unrest:- * largely Pakistani and Bangladeshi Muslims involved * second generation British born, might have been expected to be more able to claim a stake in British society than their parents * beneficiaries of over 40 years of anti-discrimination and equal opps legislation * latter 2 issues no impact. Riots seen as a product of segregation over many years, lack of meaningful contact between White and Asian communities, and absence of any real stake in their communities * Ouseley (cited in Cantle pg 46) warned about this immediately before the riots. * Focus on equal rights had not been matched by serious attempts to break down barriers between communities, develop better understanding, leading to tolerance and trust. Authorities concentrated on one thing and failed to look at the other. * Failure to promote an open dialogue alongside equalities initiatives has led to disengagement of some sections of white communities. * Lack of justification for actions that promote the legitimate aims of minority communities to have equal opps, have meant that the mainstream/majority communities’ attitudes and values have not been challenged * Joint understanding has not been developed between communities. * Acceptance of new diversity brought by minority communities has been delayed as a result * Some mainstream communities have seen diversity as a challenge to their culture, that is somehow being eroded and diminished, rather than being.

2. Definition and clarification * Cantle (2011) A cohesive community is one where: * there is a common vision and a sense of belonging for all communities * the diversity of people’s different background and circumstances are appreciated and positively valued * those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities * strong and positive relationships are being developed between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and within neighbourhoods. * But what about the equality programme? * 2005 Govt’s final strategy – Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society. Brought together for the first time race equality and community cohesion approaches into one strategy built around 4 themes:- * tackling inequalities and opening opportunities for all * promoting inclusive notions of citizenship, identity and belonging * eradicating racism and extremism * building community cohesion

3. What did Community Cohesion seek to achieve? * To tackle the ‘fear of difference’ more generally and to enable people to be more comfortable with all areas of difference, including those based on sexual orientation, disability, social class and age. Closing gap in areas of difference also.

* It relies on every one speaking a common language. * What does this mean for transnational communities * Has community cohesion been applied elsewhere? 4. Social Capital * Social capital instrumental in the thinking behind community cohesion – what is it? Used widely in the development of social policy. * Used to describe the extent and nature of community relationships, based on the belief that where social capital is strong, community cohesion will be reinforced. * So what actually constitutes social capital? * Social capital may contribute to a range of beneficial economic and social outcomes including : high levels of and growth in GDP; more efficiently functioning labour markets; higher educational attainment; lower levels of crime; better health; and more effective institutions of government; * Bolstering social capital is seen as fundamental to the success of community cohesion

5. Analysis * Arun Kundnani (2002) – community cohesion is about networks, identity and discourse. Ignores poverty, inequality and power relations – the underlying reason for the riots in 2001. This has not been addressed. * What do you think? * Cantle’s solutions include: cross-cultural contact, inter-faith dialogue, twinning of schools, fostering understanding and respect. Kundnani calls this ‘reconciliation without remedial action’. * Cantle laments the decline of civic pride but offers these towns nothing to take pride in – no hope of economic development or revival of local democracy, just more ‘neighbourliness’. * Where does religion fit with this notion of Britishness? Inconsistencies with govt policy that encourages faith schools. Community cohesion encourages the narrowing of the domains of ‘difference’ between communities. To what extent (if at any) do faith schools potentially undermine this? Kundnani: dangerous breeding grounds for separatism. * What do you think? * Secular education not without its concerns: the powers of self-determination afforded to city academies and free schools.

* The successor to Community Cohesion – acknowledges the changes in transnational communities since 2001 and proposes a new way of engaging with diversity and difference. * The notion of ‘multiculturalism’ as being unsuccessful and not supported by communities and govts. * Presents an opportunity to consider the development of ‘interculturalism’, which is not defined by ‘race’ and embraces all areas of difference. * Recognises that cultures are more fluid than ever before and the interconnectedness. * Recognises ‘superdiversity’ (Vertovec, 2007) of the world, supports interaction between and within cultures to build trust and understanding, and promotes cultural navigational skills to enable us all to accept and endorse the change process.
Key elements 1. Super/hyperdiversity in the population acknowledged
2. Recognition of the power of transnational/global communities that potentially transcend sovereign govt ctrl
3. Identifies the ‘paradox of diversity’
4. The ‘bowling alone’ hypothesis
5. super/hyper diversity in the rhetoric, but not in the ways of examining the data
6. ‘failure’ of multiculturalism
So, what is it? * goes beyond equal opportunities and respect for existing cultural differences to the pluralist transformation of public space, institutions and civic culture. * Cultural boundaries as fluid but in a state of flux and remaking. An intercultural approach aims to facilitate dialogue, exchange and reciprocal understanding between people of different backgrounds. * The key feature of interculturality, and what differentiates it from multiculturality, is its sense of openness, dialogue and interaction between cultures leading to long term change. * Much more than ‘intercultural dialogue’. In terms of policy development, however, we have not yet seen the full potential * Sondhi (2009) So what then is different about the new concept of interculturality


RP apr13

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Male vs Female : Social Issues Nowadays, social issues in our country become widely and it’s out of our control. The globalization makes our world become smaller and all the information could be easily to get by computers or which means emerge as internet. Social problems become more serious because bad things from other countries enter to ours. There are also has a good cultures however it also have bad things cultures that can influence to ours especially among teenagers. Most young generations cannot identify and also can’t analyze what are the different between good and bad things. They’re thinking speculation is far away from what adults do. The bad things that affect them could be eliminate the moral values for young generation. However, it’s not just among teenagers which means opposite sex such as male and female but almost many stage of people have this kind problem of social issues. To begin with, social issues are considered to affect the people of the society either directly or indirectly. The main things is, some people thought that it is from male carriage this kind of issues. For an example, a gay among of teenagers. Gay is the relationship within the same sex that involves man with man relation. When talking about same-sex relation, what comes in people’s mind is abnormal relationship. The first factor that caused this problem is biological influence. Therefore, natural biological is one of the reason why they get involve in gay. However, everyone knows that...

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Issue

...A social issue (also called a social problem or a social ill) is an issue that relates to society's perception of people's personal lives. Different societies have different perceptions and what may be "normal" behaviour in one society may be a significant social issue in another society. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues. Some issues have both social and economic aspects, such asimmigration. There are also issues that don't fall into either category, such as wars. Thomas Paine, in Rights of Man and Common Sense, addresses man's duty to "allow the same rights to others as we allow ourselves". The failure to do so causes the birth of a social issue. Personal issues versus social issues[edit] Personal issues are those that individuals deal with themselves and within a small range of their peers and relationships.[1] On the other hand, social issues threaten values cherished by widespread society.[1] For example, the unemployment rate of 7.8 percent[2] in the U.S. as of October 2012 is a social issue. The line between a personal issue and a public issue may be subjective, however, when a large enough sector of society is affected by an issue, it becomes a social issue. Although one person fired is not a social issue, the repercussions of 13 million people being fired is likely to generate social issues. Caste system[edit] Caste system in India resulted in most oppressed Untouchables on earth for the past 3000 years . UK recently banned caste system[1] and US is...

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Research on Social Issues

...A social issue (also called a social problem or a social ill) is an issue that relates to society's perception of people's personal lives. Different societies have different perceptions and what may be "normal" behaviour in one society may be a significant social issue in another society. Social issues are distinguished from economic issues. Some issues have both social and economic aspects, such asimmigration. There are also issues that don't fall into either category, such as wars. Thomas Paine, in Rights of Man and Common Sense, addresses man's duty to "allow the same rights to others as we allow ourselves". The failure to do so causes the birth of a social issue. Personal issues versus social issues[edit] Personal issues are those that individuals deal with themselves and within a small range of their peers and relationships.[1] On the other hand, social issues threaten values cherished by widespread society.[1] For example, the unemployment rate of 7.8 percent[2] in the U.S. as of October 2012 is a social issue. The line between a personal issue and a public issue may be subjective, however, when a large enough sector of society is affected by an issue, it becomes a social issue. Although one person fired is not a social issue, the repercussions of 13 million people being fired is likely to generate social issues. Caste system[edit] Caste system in India resulted in most oppressed Untouchables on earth for the past 3000 years . UK recently banned caste system[1] and US is...

Words: 789 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Dimensions of Social Inequality Julie McElwain Park University Abstract Social inequality is how different categories of individuals are prescribed by the society. The society uses basic characteristics such as gender, sex, education, and ethnicity among other factors in order to categorize an individual. The social inequalities determine the access to limited goods such as market labor force, education, health care facilities, and other forms of participation in the society. Different forms of social inequalities are constructs of geographical distribution, and status within the country, however, cultural aspects, mostly integrated with cultural identities, of society are perceived to be the major contributor of social inequality. Discourses have, therefore, been raised on whether the poor deserve to be poor or not and whether the rich deserve to be rich or not. In order to address this question, I examined different dimensions of social inequalities in my life such as social class, educational level, and race among other factors. In this paper, I will also try to bring out understanding of different theories in attempt to explain social stratification. A comparison will be done between different perspectives through interviews and my own perspective of social inequalities. In essence all factors discussed in this paper show a link between social inequalities and different factors such as economic and political system. Trends such as widening inequalities...

Words: 3161 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...always been and will be the subject of heated discussions among economists, sociologists and political scientists. This issue is not only an ideological one, but also of significant importance for the state functioning. It is undisputable that the implementation of particular tasks by the state turns out indispensable for the functioning of society, however, in terms of market existence the underlying advantages, to be discussed below, are much less favorable. The classification of social regulations In the course of the recent 50 years the decrease of economic regulations is quite noticeable while the social ones present an increasing tendency and have been gaining significance after the Second World War. New government institutions have been established and keep preparing an increasing number of regulations referring to social issues. This trend is present both in USA and in the EU countries. As opposed to economic regulations, which refer to market and economic variables, social regulations are focused on the influence of companies and the market on workers, clients and citizens. These regulations are mainly related to the following spheres: * employment, i.e. the protection of employees against discrimination, ensuring labor safety, proper working conditions, possibilities for promotion, appropriate remuneration for work, social security costs, social benefits, annuities and pensions (e.g. in USA OSHA, EEOC). * consumer protection against the threats resulting from...

Words: 1736 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...IS IT ETHICAL FOR EARNING MONEY FROM SELLING CUSTOMER’S INFORMATION? Social networks on the Internet are becoming powerful in our life due to a huge number of users. One of the reason for that success is the fact that those networks sell information of their customers for other companies such as: advertising firms, sale enterprises, etc. However, this issue has raised arguments about users’ privacy. Some people claim that it is not ethical for making profit from personal information while others state that it is not privacy detection when social networks give individual data, which users provide on public websites (e.g.: Facebook, Twitter, etc.), to business companies. The author of this essay believe that selling personal information is unethical business because of the following reasons that utilize Facebook as an circumstance to illustrate the author’s view. To begin with, it is possible that social networks such as Facebook has earned a great amount of money from its user’s data. Founded in 2004, Facebook is one of the biggest social networks providing a connection among people, and where a person can aware what is happening or share his/her own feelings. This network has achieved outstanding success by attracting a huge number of customers. In addition, it earned 7,872,000 in 2013 and there were 864 million daily active users on average for September 2014. One part of this success is proved to come from selling Facebook users’ information for the companies that want to...

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Social stratification exists in America because the wealth and power belongs to a small portion of the population. Wealthy people possess an enormous amount of power over the political system and are held in high esteem by our society. There is a general feeling that those who are wealthy and powerful are superior to the average person. Social stratification involves not only socio-economic inequality, but the belief system held by people in America. A stratified society exists when there is an unequal distribution of wealth, power and prestige. In American society, political power and wealth are not distributed equally (Johnson, 1996). Paul Krugman is an economist and author of the book, 'The Spiral of Inequality' (1996). Krugman believes corporate greed, the decline of organized labor and changes in the way goods are produced are the causes of the growing social and economic inequality in the United States (Anderson, 2003). There is an unspoken general agreement in America that certain occupations deserve higher wages and more respect. Professions, such as physicians, lawyers, athletes and actors, are held in high esteem, whereas custodians, waitresses and trash collectors are considered professions that are not worthy of respect or praise and require minimal skill or intelligence. America most definitely needs skilled physicians and lawyers, but it also needs custodians, trash collectors and others who perform much needed tasks in order for society to thrive and function...

Words: 3589 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Social Issues

...Social issues Social trend: The use of media as a marketing strategy to influence consumer behaviour Social factors have great influence and importance to businesses as it relates to changes in social structures, consumer lifestyles and behaviours. (100, 2013) Opinions of consumers play an essential role in the growth of a business. As such, businesses often make use of positive reviews from customers to attract new diners. (Solution, 2013) For instance, engaging reputable online personalities like Lady Iron Chef to review your dishes is a form of advertisement. Through positive blog reviews, it employs the influence of the blogger to market the name of the eatery in an appealing way to his/her followers. Fig 1.1: Blogger's webpage featuring eateries Fig 1.2: Updates on daily specials (Ladyironchef, 2013) (Twelve Cupcakes, 2013) It is evident from the figures above that the use of media is a common marketing strategy. With the surge in social networking sites like Facebook and twitter, businesses are seizing the opportunity to publicize their products. (Fig 1.2) Moreover, the use of review websites (Fig 1.1) is also an effective method employed to advertise. Fig 1.3: Twelve Cupcakes featured on The Walker (TwelveCupcakes, 2013) Social media creates opportunities for the F&B industry to prosper. Being an efficient and effective tool, sharing of information online can create opportunities for a business. One such company which benefitted from social media is Twelve Cupcakes...

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Social Issue

...Social Learning Theory : The social learning approach to motivation focuses on the patterns of behaviour the individual learns in coping with environment. Within this viewpoint, individual differences in behaviour result from variations in the conditions of learning that the person encounters in the course of growing up. Some behaviour patterns are learned through direct experience; the individual behaves in a certain manner and is rewarded or punished. But responses can also be acquired without direct reinforcement. Because we can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store our observations in memory, we can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. Thus, for social learning theorists, reinforcement is not necessary for learning, although it may facilitate learning by focusing attention. Much of human learning is observational or vicarious. Reinforcement may not be necessary for learning, but it is crucial for the performance of learned behaviour. One of social learning theory's main assumptions is that people behave in ways likely to produce reinforcement. A person's repertoire of learned behaviours is extensive; the particular action chosen for a specific situation depends on the expected outcome. Most adolescent girls know how to fight, having watched their male classmates or TV characters agrees by kicking, hitting with the fists, and so on. But since this kind of behaviour is seldom reinforced...

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Social Issues in Bangladesh

...Social problems of Bangladesh Introduction Social problem is an unexpected situation which hinders to lead normal life in a society. Social problem is a multidimensional problem. Social problem are created by various reasons. Definition Sociologists usually consider a social problem to be an alleged situation that is incompatible with the values of a significant number of people who agree that action is needed to alter the situation. Social problems of Bangladesh and its remedies Bangladesh is attacked by various social problems. The main problems are over population, poverty, unemployment, crime, juvenile delinquency, corruption, lack of nutrition, prostitution, beggary and vagabond problem, dowry and women repression, lack of proper distribution of wealth, divorce, mental illness, mentally disability problem, lack of security, drug addition, lack of sound health, etc. we will briefly discuss these problems. 1) Population problems Overpopulation is not simply a function of the number or density o the individuals but rather the number of individuals compared to the resources (i.e. food production ) they need to survive. In other words, it is the ratio of population divided by resources. If a given environment has a population of ten, but there is food and drinking water enough for only nine, then that environment is overpopulated while if the population is 100 individuals but there are food and water enough for 900, it is not overpopulation. Remedies: To solve...

Words: 1172 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Startification Social Issues

...High Income Inequality Helped Early Societies Spread, Study Finds This relates to class structure as well as stratification Huff Post BUISNESS March 20, 2014 There has been much written lately about income and wealth inequality. As the administration tries to grapple with a debt crisis, sociologists have much to consider about the widening gap between the haves and have not’s. Why do cultures have a class structure, rich, poor and middle – instead of being egalitarian with resources shared equally by everyone? With the information surfacing around income inequality, a new study indicates that unequal access to resources brings about stratification, (Rich v. Poor, Haves v. Have not’s), and causes migration, displacing egalitarian societies. Researchers at Stanford used computer simulation to compare migration for egalitarian and stratified societies. (1) The researchers determined that when resources were consistently scarce, egalitarian societies – shared resources – remained more stable than stratified societies. Unequal sharing in the stratified societies gave those societies more incentive to migrate. Therefore, during periods of shortage, stratified societies were able to migrate, and egalitarian societies were not able to adapt to changing conditions as quickly. Stratified societies push egalitarian societies away from resources. Today stratified societies vastly out number egalitarian...

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Investigating a Social Issue - Social Mobility

...Describe how society defines the social issue. So, what is Social Mobility? First, let’s go to its technical or dictionary definition. Social mobility is the movement of people from one social class or economic level to another (“Social Mobility”, Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd Edition). This term is widely used both in Sociology and Economics. It usually refers to vertical movement or moving up or down in rank. For example, if a soldier becomes a sergeant from a corporal, that would be vertical movement. However, it may also refer to horizontal movement or moving from one rank to another of the same social level. Example of this would be a principal who resigns from one school to become the principal of another school. With this definition in mind, we can see that Social Mobility is “movement”. The technical definition doesn’t restrict about the direction – whether you move up or down or just within what’s mentioned before as horizontal movement. Social Mobility is a term used in the objective comparison of economic or social states. Looking at the events around us, we can see that people care more about upward movement. When people talk about Social Mobility, they are likely referring to progress or development. Everyone wants to move up. Like what we commonly see in families. Almost everyone gives importance to good education. Parents keep reminding their children to be good in their studies so they can have good jobs. People want the opportunity to move up. People...

Words: 1311 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Networking Issues

...of mentality and of course intellectuality, moreover when it comes to International Islamic University in Malaysia (IIUM), a university that is well-known focuses on Islamic values and ethics to be instilled in one’s life. By today we are well aware about social networking sites like Friendster, MySpace and mostly Facebook have become a trend between teenagers to at least have an account among them. By the middle of the year of 2009, from 1.1 billion users accessing the Internet in May 2009, 734.2 million or 65% of them, visit at least one social networking site. (Siti Ezaleila Mustafa and Azizah Hamzah, 2011) As I’m pursuing my degree in IT, I am exposed to the fact of privacy is one of the biggest issue in social networking referring to a research done by Gross and Acquisti after 4000 Carnegie Mellon University students Facebook profiles were analyzed, only 1.2% changed their default privacy preferences. (Das, Sahoo, 2011) From here, it shows that, there are only a few people who are aware of the issue of privacy and the importance of it at the same time being exposed by the threats like hacking and cyber bullying. The public on the other hand has been putting the blame on Facebook. They said that the social networking does not enough secure when it comes to privacy. However, Simon Mainwaring wrote in his blog stating his opinion that he does not think it is fair to put all the blame to Mark Zuckerberg. Nevertheless, managing privacy is a delicate balancing act. (Mainwaring...

Words: 1300 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Contemporary Issues on Social Work

...CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN SOCIAL WORK By Student's Name Course Code and Name Professor’s Name University Name City, State Date of Submission Q1. The effect of globalization has resulted in complex economic and social networking among people of the world. One of the main elements of globalization is the movement of people from one area to another area for various reasons. In most cases, people move to more industrialized and peaceful countries in search of better opportunities and safe environments. The 21st century has seen the increased migration of citizens of one state to another, a period termed as the age of Diasporas (Helman, 2007). The research will focus on immigrants, mainly asylum seekers and refugees with particular emphasis on the 72 asylum seekers from Lebanon who perished off the coast of Indonesia while heading to Australia. The research will address the plight of asylum seekers as one the most vulnerable populations. Migration to another country may be voluntary or voluntary. The involuntary migrants include asylum seekers, refugees, returnees ad internally displaced persons (IDPs). The primary cause of this category of people changing their location could be political upheavals, wars, natural disasters and poor states of the economy. The voluntary migrants migrate to other countries in search of employment and new ventures for personal growth. However, the involuntary migrants have multiple psychological, physical and social vulnerabilities due to their experience...

Words: 2294 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Controversial Issues In Social Media

...Social media opens up a new world to learn and communicate with others. However, as human service professionals, we have to be cautious. For instance, social media post with you and friends drinking at a bar may not be the best picture to upload on your timeline. In addition, posting things about race, politics, and other controversial topics could influence one’s therapeutic relationship. Moreover, things like confidentiality and issues of privacy have to be taken into account when pertaining to social media. Not to say that Human service professional cant have a social media account; we just need to take the extra precautions to protect ourselves and the client. 2. What are the potential issues that could arise from the scenario? Considering this scenario multiple issues can be in effect. To start, racy comments are extremely inappropriate and could ultimately harm the client. Regardless if the coworker gets approval from their followers, topics like that should not be posted and certainly not public. To explain, if a client sees their racy comments and takes offense this could lead to them not getting the proper treatment. In addition, if someone gets offended by the post, they...

Words: 610 - Pages: 3