Free Essay

Social Vices in Higher Institutions in Nigeria

In: Social Issues

Submitted By jointheir
Words 4392
Pages 18
Chapter one
1.0 Introduction

Just a casual look at Nigerian universities these days will suffice to realise that so many social vices have become the order of the day. Chief among these are the twin evils of cultism and indecent dressing.
Interestingly, these vices are commoner among the males and females respectively. What probably began as pacification to desires for companionship, protection and security; an innocent imitation of westerners has grown to bedevil sanity and progress on our university today.
In this paper, cultism, indecent dressing and some other related social vices will be dealt with in light of their causes, consequences and possible remedial steps.
1.1 Definition of Basic Terms * Social vices * Cultism * Secret cult * Secret societies * Indecent dressing Social vices:
Social vices are forms of evil, wicked and criminal actions or behaviours in the society. These are social problems and have been thought of as social situations that a large number of observers feel are inappropriate and need remedying. Social vices are those acts and conditions that violate societal norms and values.

Cultism:
The Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary defined cult as a small group of people who have extreme religious beliefs and who are not part of any established religion.
Secret Cult:
Ogunade (2002) defined a secret cult as an enclosed organized association or group devoted to the same cause. It is an enclosed group having an exclusive sacred ideology and a series of rites centred on their sacred symbols.
Secret cult is a terminology coined by a former Military Head of State- Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida between 1983 -1984. Before this period, these gangs had always been referred to as fraternities.
The members of the cult, according to Ogunade (2002) commit themselves to oath and allegiance, which serves as their strong bond. This group of people are always violent when defending their course. Secret Societies:
Maquet (1971) defined secret societies as close associations, guilds, and cult groups with closed membership. These societies are 'fraternities' established by a conjunction of purposeful intentions with a view to achieving specific ends. They are branded 'secret ' partly because only few people with a special knowledge or interest can understand them.
Indecent Dressing:
The terms-decency and indecency-have so much to do with the morality of the individual person and as judged by others. A dress is therefore, said to be indecent when it has provocative or stimulating influence on almost all those that happen to view it on the user.
Egwim (2010) referred to indecent dressing in a more specific term as the attitude of someone, male or female that dresses to show off parts of the body such as the breasts, buttocks or even the underwear particularly those of the ladies that need to be covered.

1.2 Brief Overview
There is no gainsaying the fact that our higher institutions have been bedevilled by indecent dressing, cultism and other related social vices. In fact, if a stranger were to walk into an environment and see young people indecently dressed; he would be right ninety per cent of the time if they guessed that they were in a higher institution.
The truth remains that our higher institutions remain the birthing ground of future leaders and professionals that would determine the destiny of our nation in the near future. One can then imagine the kind of nation these ones would build.
Something must be done; and done urgently if we will salvage this nation from impending disaster. This term paper examines these critical issues as well as suggestions well thought to nip this evil cycle in the bud.

Chapter Two
The Menace of Indecent Dressing and related Social Vices in our Higher Institutions.
Tertiary institutions of learning in Nigeria have been bedevilled with obscene dressing particularly by female students. Most girls go bare, display their navels and boobs and wearing what are just ample cleavages on display, depicting size and shape of the private parts with minis that barely skim the bottom.
It appears now that to be fashionable, one has to become half nude, dressed in sleeveless/see-through tops without bra. According to Irtwange (2004), this constitutes Weapons of Mass Distraction (WMD) and sexual harassment.
2.1 Forms of Indecent Dressing
Every culture/community according to Articlesbase.com (2011) has its dressing code that may vary according to cultures. Despite this variation, one thing is certain and that is that every culture/community has an acceptable dress code. So every dress code that deviates from the one acceptable to the community especially as it affects the set moral standard or judgment of the community is termed indecent.
In a typical higher institution in our environment, the following dressing patterns may be regarded as indecent:
Females:
Sleeveless tops, Spaghetti top, Body hugs, tight trousers and dresses, Short Knickers, Mini Skirt, Transparent clothes, Off shoulders, Bogus fashion jewelleries , Wicket Straps, Mono Straps, Dress and Skirt with slit above the knees, T-Shirts and jean which carry immoral messages, Eye Shadow, Excessive Lipsticks, Rastafarian hairstyles, Nail attachments, Rosy Chicks, etc. Clothes that expose sensitive parts of the body such as the burst, chest, belly, upper arms and buttocks.
Males:
Shirts or any wear revealing the armpit, Short Knickers above the when not, required, Head ties, Earrings-Shirts and jeans which carry immoral
Messages, Kaftans without trousers, Long and busy hairs and beards, Braiding, Permed hairs, Jerry curls, Plaited hairs, Dreadlocks, etc.

2.2 Causes of Indecent Dressing
This behavior is of a hydra-headed origin. It is not just a behaviour that developed overnight, but an accumulated behavioural pattern that could be attributed to the following reasons: * Poor Parenting * Peer Pressure * Fading Cultural Values * Negative Societal influences * Wrong use of the Internet etc.

2.3 Effects of Indecent Dressing
Indecent dressing could lead to the following:
Sexual Harassment
There is the likelihood that ladies who dress indecently or provocatively could be prone to sexual harassment and or rape. These forms of dresses suggest that such ladies need attention and that they are irresponsible and so there are always irresponsible men to dialogue, lure or force them to bed for sex. HIV/AIDS
This is another risk factor that immodestly dressed ladies could be prone to. When such ladies are forced into sex against their will they may be exposed to venereal diseases because of lack of protection. One of such killer diseases is HIV/AIDS.

Campus Prostitution
Skimpy, transparent and or body exposing dresses are known in ancient Africa to be the dress pattern of prostitutes or whores. Most ladies found in such dresses are always negotiated for sex or social intimacy because they are most times thought to be without husbands. Apart from this notion, most campus ladies that dress this way engage in prostitution and commercial sex to be able to sponsor and sustain these forms of dresses. Ritual Killing
This is another consequence that indecently dressed youths particularly the female ones are amenable. Many of them based on their mode of dressing had been invited for a supposed sex only to be murdered by ritual killers. Tendency to Steal
In attempt to look modern and be like others, many of these youths had taken to stealing and armed robbery. The boys for instance, under financial pressure from their girlfriends could resort to armed robbery to square up to this demand to impress and keep their “babes”. Lying
The home background of some of these students may not allow for prostitution, stealing or armed robbery but to keep afloat and up-to-date with what is in vogue, they may resort to lying “the lesser sin”, to obtain the money they need from their parents. Poor Performance in School Work
Most students in this form of dresses tend to have little or no serious time for their academic work. Their concern is mostly how to look good and appear in the latest stuff. Several of them battle with carry over courses with the consequences of staying longer in the school than is normal to graduate, graduate with very weak grades and some may not even graduate at all having outlived their studentship in the college and not being able to pass some prescribed courses.

2.4 Possible Solutions to Indecent Dressing
The problem of indecent dressing requires an integrated approach because of its multifaceted causes. The following suggestions are discussed:
Parents are to serve as role models
Children watch their parents and copy their ways of behavior. The behavior of parents impresses on their children more greatly than what they tell them either to do or not to do.
Parents are to be obligated to their children by bringing them up properly and in the fear of God. They are to teach them the fundamental things they need to learn about correct values, attitudes and beliefs cherished by the society by being exemplary.
Apart from being moral exemplars, parents should have time for their children. Children need the attention and love of their parents more than gifts they think they can buy for them as substitutes. A child with proper parental upbringing will not so quickly succumb to pressure from peers. Dress code
Some colleges and universities in Nigeria have variously introduced dress codes for their students. The problem is not just in making the rules but in their enforcements. For these rules to be enforced, lecturers should be made to collaborate with the college or university management staff and their security personnel. Lecturers are to be empowered to prevent indecently dressed students from attending their lectures, refuse to attend to such students in their areas of needs. The administrative staff should disallow such students from their offices while the security staff should serve as watchdogs
The mass media
The mass media is one strong agent of socialization. Radio houses, televisions, newspapers and magazines should confront rather than support indecent dressing. The display of some indecently dressed young girls for adverts and attraction should be discouraged.
Radios and television jingles that promote moral values and the sanctity of sex should always be aired and relayed. Programs that sample opinions of Nigerians on indecent dressing should be regularly put in place in addition to debates on the issue by youths in institutions of learning as means of effective sensitization

Formation of campus brigade
This brigade or club is to stand against indecent dressing by sensitizing and promoting good moral values particularly, the modest African dress patterns.
Members of this brigade or club should be empowered by the college or university authority to advise or counsel, and insist that decent dresses are won. Membership of this club is to be limited to students and should be made voluntary.
The ceremony for its formal inauguration is however, to be performed by the college or university authority. The office of the Student Affairs is to monitor and supervise the operations of this brigade.

2.5 Related Social Vices
Sexual Promiscuity
Sexual promiscuity among students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria is another serious vice that calls for serious concern. Most of the students who for the first time gain some social freedom from their parents’ watchful eyes and guidance easily fall prey to the temptation of tasting the forbidden fruit.
Some of them become so wild on the illicit lovemaking that they give most of their time and attention to it to the detriment of their studies. They become so much engaged in nocturnal activities that they sleep throughout the daytime in hostels or during lectures for those who would want to register their presence in classes. Some other ones completely abandon their lectures to keep appointments with boy-friends or “sugar daddies”.
Sexual promiscuity could lead to unwanted pregnancy, babies or even pre-mature death. In an attempt to get rid of an unwanted pregnancy, complications may result which may lead to hospitalization and absence from lectures for those who may survive. How can such students meet the required educational standards? Some of the students are so morally bankrupt that they rely absolutely on their womanhood to “pass” their examinations. They seduce fellow male students or examiners to assist them write their examinations or award them pass marks as the case may be.
The general increase in the social vices among students of higher institutions in Nigeria might be responsible for the general decline in the quality of the graduates being turned out by these institutions as the trends are moving in opposite direction.
None the less, the responsibility of preventing or curbing general students vices in our tertiary institutions should be a collective one resting on parents, teachers, religious leaders, authorities of the institutions as well as government.

Chapter Three
Cultism in Higher institutions and Related Social Vices
Cultism, like gangsterism, is a global social problem. In 1999, Britain witnessed the upsurge in the activities of satanic group members who were said to be having horrific fun in killing cats. More than 100 cats were killed and mutilated by the group members in the sickening wave of ritual attacks. The cats killed had their heads, tails, and hind legs removed with cleaver (Sunday Champion, 1999).
3.1 Historical Development of Cultism in Higher Institutions in Nigeria
The origin of the phenomenon of cultism in Nigerian tertiary institution is traceable to the formation of pirate confraternity at the University of Ibadan in 1952 by Wole Soyinka and members of his group mainly as a lobby group of students in order to score even with the university authorities.
Besides, one of the objectives of the group was to inspire patriotic sentiments and to check the neo-colonialist mentality spreading among the nation’s educated class due to western education.
At that time, violence was not said to have manifested in their conduct. Nevertheless, this initially peaceful group later snowballed into an esoteric gang whose members were highly steeped in ritualism and voodooism.
From there, with its inherently contagious effect the phenomenon of cultism has virtually spread to almost all the tertiary institutions in the country and fast spreading to the secondary schools. Secret cult groups are now dreaded on the campuses. Because of their secret activities and ascribed mysticism and power, members enjoy an aura of fearsomeness especially from non- members.
According to Nwadike (2003), there are about 45 secret cults in Nigerian institutions of learning and are all equipped with an elaborate hierarchy, insignia and distinct attire. Some of the most notable of these secret cult groups include the Sea Dogs, Black Axe, Aiye, Vickings, Amazons, White Angels, Black Brassiers, Buccaneer Confraternity, etc. “Peace on campus initiative” (an organization formed to help control cultism on Nigerian campuses) revealed that as at September, 2003, 5,000 students and lecturers have died on Nigerian campuses as a result of cult-related violent clashes (New Age, 2003). The frequent outbreaks of cult wars in some campuses have generated feelings of fear and social insecurity among students and lecturers. The unhealthy rivalries among secret cult groups often intensify acts of terrorism and hatred among students on campuses. These sometimes result in the closure of tertiary institutions for quite a long time, which has negative effect on implementation of academic programmes.
Generally, the goals and objectives of cult activities in our institutions are not very clear and meaningful. In most cases, youths join cult groups to gain recognition and popularity and to enhance social life on the campus. They easily mobilize or force other students to join riots or demonstrations against constituted authorities or even against other cult groups that oppose their operations.
Whenever their member is expelled from school on grounds of poor academic performance or anti-social behaviour, they generate and cause troubles that usually lead innocent students into riots and destruction of college or university property. They use threats to intimidate girls to befriend them and engage in the taking of dangerous drugs to become bold and authoritative. They use threats to force students to elect them into leadership positions.
3.2 Reasons Why Students Join Cults
Majority of the people who join new-age cults are between 18-22 years old at the time of first contact i.e. the immediate post-high school period. Though persons as young as 14 years have become victims because of various reasons which include:
1. Some young students in cults have experienced very unstable or non-existent family relationship, but they do not constitute the norm.
2. Many students have experienced varying degrees of communication problems with their parents.
3. A number of students have known the pains and deprivation of a single-parent home and perhaps for this reason, some have strongly identified with older students who provide a parental image.
4. Some young people who have problem backgrounds and have experienced varying degrees of "failure". Most of these people come from broken homes or have a history of emotional problems and unresolved personal conflicts.
5. More than anything else, the young people pursuing cults today are involved in search for identity and a quest for spiritual reality that provides clear-cut answers to questions. 6. The chief target of the cults are the children of affluence, these ones may be suffering from identity confusion or identity crisis and they want to be identified with re-known group and so, they are easily carried away by the activities of the cult.
3.3 Menace of Cultism on Higher Institutions
The institutions of higher learning which ought to be ideal places for the training of minds have become war zones where cult groups unleash their terror in the community. Falana (1999) enumerated some of the menace of the secret cults in our institutions of higher learning thus:
1. In 1997, at the University of Benin, the Secretary General of the Students' Union was killed by cult members invited by the school authority when the students gathered to discuss on commercialization and rationalization of courses.
2. The Principal Assistant Registrar of the Delta State University- Peter Otobo was murdered in cold blood by cultists over issues burdening on school administration.
3. Mr Ileoje, the Head of Department at the Institute of Technology (IMT), Enugu was shot in his office by a female cult member early in 1997.
4. Early in 1997, a final year Banking and Finance student at the Ondo State University, Ado Ekiti (OSUA) was killed for deflection. He was murdered in his hostel after renouncing cultism.
5. On July 10, 1999, seven undergraduates of the Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U), Ife, were murdered in cold blood in their sleep by secret cult members from within and outside the campus.
6. At the University of Ibadan, the Chief Security Officer was brutally killed by cult members in the presence of his wife and children.
7. In the past few years, the University-of Ilorin, Ogun State University, University of Calabar, Kwara State Polytechnic, Federal Polytechnics and Colleges of Education nationwide have witnessed serious conflagration as a result of cultism. The Degree of blood bath and level of sophistication is appalling and something must be done to eradicate it. 3.4 How to Eradicate Cultism in Higher Institutions
. Cultism is a social crime and the activities of cultists are sometimes laden with blood. Through the cultist’s activities, many lives have been lost, many people maimed and many students have been rusticated. There is the urgent need to put an end to it. Some people have openly declared that cultism is as worst as armed robbery.
So, in order to curb it, there should be:
1. A definite legislation that will give a death sentence to anybody found guilty of cult activities in the campuses.
2. Moral education should be made compulsory in the primary and secondary schools in the country.
3. Cultism and its consequences should be treated in the General Studies courses in all tertiary institutions in the country.
4. Parents should take time to understand their children; give enough time to listen to them at home and satisfy their emotional, psychological and physical needs.
5. Parents should watch the friends their wards are keeping in the institutions. Take time to watch any misbehaviour put up by their wards and correct immediately. .
6. Aggressive evangelism of wagging war against cultism in all tertiary institutions should be allowed by all religious groups in the country.
3.5 Related Social Vices
Examination Malpractice
Examination malpractice is any act of omission or commission, which compromises the validity and integrity of any examination (Ministry of Education, Benue State, 2001). Malpractice refers to counter practice that is against ethics of examination. It is an act of disrespect to all rules and regulations guiding the good conduct of any examination or any evaluation process.
In recent times, examination malpractice has gone from simple ‘giraffing’ where students occasionally strain their necks to catch glimpse of what they want to copy from other student’s scripts to a variety of sophisticated methods.
There are many causes of examination malpractice in Nigeria but only a few shall be mentioned here for lack of space. One of the major causes of examination malpractice can be attributed to moral decadence in Nigeria. The emphasis on paper qualification or certificate is another cause of examination malpractice. Another major cause of examination malpractice is inadequate teaching and learning facilities such as classrooms, libraries, laboratories and even teachers compared to the population of students. Thus, effective conduct of examination becomes difficult. Other students’ vices such as cultism, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity and truancy are also encouraging examination malpractice on our campuses as students devote more time to them than their studies.
Drug Abuse
Drug abuse refers to the use, especially by self-administration, of any drug in a manner that deviates from an approved medical or social pattern within a given culture (Jaffe, 1975). Government agencies refer to any use of an illicit substance as drug abuse e.g. opioids, heroine, marijuana (Indian hemp).
Generally, there are certain drugs, which users, including adolescents, become easily addicted to and therefore abuse a lot. These are mostly (i) central Nervous system stimulants (ii) Central Nervous system Depressants (iii) Hallucinogens (iv) Narcotic analgesics (v) alcohol and (vi) tobacco. Alcohol, though a social drug, when taken in excess causes undesirable effects on individuals personal judgement and social relationships. The causes of drug abuse among students are not too different from those for adults. Bell (1970) notes that drug abuse has many causes viz: cultural, social, economic, psychological and family pathology. These causes include drug abuse through ignorance; deliberate drug abuse, drug abuse for pleasure; drug abuse from curiosity; incorrect drug dosage; drug habit and addiction; home, school or work environment; personal feeling of inadequacy; and membership of group/peer pressure.
Some of the above causes are of particular interest to the educationist. For instance, it has been shown that most of the students who take drugs to aid them with their studies are those with poor educational records to start with, and sometimes also have a history of instability and family social problems. Similarly, students in particular may engage in drug abuse due to group/peer pressure and the need to belong and be accepted by groups of which they are members.
Although drugs have very important beneficial effects to man, when abused, they lead to a lot of undesirable consequences on the individual as well as on the society. Some of the social effects of drug abuse on students include wastage of money/resource; lack of concentration in studies; violent crimes such as fighting, rape, suicide, murder etc; and physical and psychosomatic disorders/diseases.
Judging from the numerous causes and effects of drug abuse, it is not easy to prescribe exact solutions to the problem especially among adolescents who quickly change a lot in behaviour. However, the fight should be carried out in two main fronts namely (i) the family and (ii) Education and public enlightenment.
3.6 Conclusion
The general increase in the social vices among students of higher institutions in Nigeria might be responsible for the general decline in the quality of the graduates being turned out by these institutions as the trends are moving in opposite direction.
None the less, the responsibility of preventing or curbing general students vices in our tertiary institutions should be a collective one resting on parents, teachers, religious leaders, authorities of the institutions as well as government.

References
Articlesbase.com (2011). Curbing moral decadence in our educational sector. http://www.articlesbase.com/college-and-university-articles/curbing-moral-decadence-in-our-educational-sector-4692398.html
Bell, D. S. 1970. “Drug addiction.” Bulletin on Narcotics. 22(2): 21 – 32.
Denga, D. I. 1991. Nigerian Education: Proposals for a Smooth Voyage to the Year 2000 and Beyond. London: Rapid Education Publishers.
Egwim, C. (2010). Indecent dressing among youths. http://www.es/networld.com/ webpages/features.
Eitzen, D. S. 1980. Social Problems. Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc.
Fadipe, J. O. and E. E. Oluchukwu 1999. Educational Planning and Administration in Nigeria in the 21st Century. A publication of the National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NEPA), Nigeria.
Falana. F. (1999). "The menace of secret cults on campuses". National Concord. Monday, September 20.
Igbokwe, J. M. 1997. “Drug Abuse in a Depressed Economy.” A lecture presented during the physician week held at Abakaliki, Nigeria, October, 24.
Irtwange, S. V. 2004. “Learning, Character and University of Agriculture, Makurdi Degree.” An Internal Memo, Student Affairs Department, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. Ministry of Education, Benue State 2001. “How to excel in examination and be free from cults.” Makurdi, Nigeria: Ministry of Education Publication New Age Newspaper 2003. Tuesday, September 23. Lagos, Nigeria.
Maquet. J. (1971). Power and Society in Africa. New York: McGraw Hill. p. 217.
Nwadike, C. 2003. “The Political Relevance of Cultism.” Beyond Frontiers, 2003/2004 Edition: 45 - 46.
OGUNADE, R. (2002; "Secret societies and-cultic activities in Nigerian tertiary institutions" in Leading Issues in-General Studies, University of Ilorin Press.
Olatunde, A 1979. Self-medication: Benefits, Precautions and Dangers. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Orukpe, T. 1998. “Secret cults and the Law.” National Concord Newspaper, Thursday, December 17, Lagos, Nigeria.
Sunday Champion Newspaper 1999. “British Cultists Swoop on Cats.” January 17, Lagos, Nigeria.
The Scholar 2001. “Employer’s Assessment of Graduates in the market place.” A publication of ASUU, June. “Excerpts from ‘Labour Market Prospects of University Graduates in Nigeria.” (A World Bank/ Nigerian Institute of Social and Economics Research Document).

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Joven

...Students’ Vices and the Effect on Quality of Graduates of Nigerian Tertiary Institutions Oto J. Okwu Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria E-mail: oto079@yahoo.com KEYWORDS Students; vices; education; socialization; society; social problems ABSTRACT One of the most pressing issues in minds of people in Nigeria as far as education is concerned today is that pertaining to the quality or standard of education. Qualitative education should lead to detectable gains in knowledge, skills and values. There are, however, several students’ vices that seem to be militating against realization of the desired qualitative education in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Some of these vices are cultism, drug abuse, examination malpractice, obscene dressing and sexual promiscuity/harassment. Each of these vices and the possible social and academic implications are explained. Major employers of Nigerian graduates have widely agreed on quality decline in higher education in the country, particularly in the areas of communication in oral and written English and technical proficiency. It is recommended that the responsibility of preventing or curbing general students’ vices in Nigerian tertiary institutions be a collective one resting on parents, teachers, religious leaders, authorities of the institutions as well as government. This can be done through appropriate upbringing, counseling and necessary sanctions. INTRODUCTION Vices are......

Words: 3641 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Social Vices

...Business Management Full Length Research Paper Social vices associated with the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in a Private Christian Mission University, Southern Nigeria. Omonijo, Dare Ojo1*, Nnedum, Obiajulu Anthony Ugochukwu2, Fadugba, Akinrole Olumuyiwa3, Uche, Onyekwere Chizaram Oliver4 and Biereenu-Nnabugwu, Makodi5 Department of Student Affairs, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023 Ota, Nigeria. Department of Psychology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria. 3 Department of Business Management, Covenant University, P. M. B. 1023 Ota, Nigeria. 4 Department of Religion and Human Relations, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria. 5 Department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B. 5025, Awka, Nigeria. 2 1 Accepted 6 August, 2013 This study is designed to address social problems associated with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) and implications they portend on studentship in a Private Christian Mission University, Southern Nigeria. It tries to find out how the engagement of ICT devices results in social vices on campus. Drawing from recorded data between 2006 and 2012 academic year, the study reported six ICT tools associated with eight social- ills. Relying on raw data of 900 students disciplined within this period, the study reported that 187 students were expelled while 46 were advised to withdraw due to their involvement in ICT-related vices. Moreover, the study shows that 78......

Words: 9381 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Language Policy

...A P P E N D I X A Two Case Studies: South Africa and Nigeria South Africa’s National Framework Nigeria’s National Framework Appendices South Africa’s National Framework Major Provisions In South Africa, a new national framework for higher education was approved and spelled out in the Education White Paper 3 1 and the Higher Education Act of 1997. Both have broad implications for strategic planning at institutions of higher education nation-wide. The provisions of the Higher Education Act fall into three broad categories: s justice and equality; s responsiveness to the needs of the society; and s co-operative governance. An elaboration on each of these provisions is found below. Justice and equality The new framework is designed to meet the educational needs of South Africa through significantly changed national economic, social and political structures.2 It seeks to guide fundamental changes in higher education to correct, redress and overcome the legacies of apartheid, so that higher education becomes more socially equitable and promotes social justice more generally. The government makes a commitment to ‘equity, justice, and a better life for all’.3 The White Paper stipulates greater efficiency in terms of student throughput and output rates and in terms of the success rates of black students. Social responsiveness The national framework seeks responsiveness to address societal interests and needs by producing graduates who are equipped to......

Words: 2071 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Women Entrepreneurs

...jeteraps.scholarlinkresearch.org Empowering Female Youth for Leadership through Higher Education in Nigeria 1 Adegun Olajire Adeola and 2Akomolafe Comfort Olufunke 2 Institute of Education, University of Ado Ekiti. Department of Educational Foundations and Management, University of Ado Ekiti. 1 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract The contributions of females in the home, workplace, community participation, community management cannot be overlooked. Despite these, female’s access to Leadership position has been observed to be limited in the political arena, economy, employment and policy positions due to low level of education. This situation calls for higher education for females due to possible direct relationship between female youth’s educational levels and their participation in the labour force. The Nigerian society cannot afford not to have females in leadership positions. The activities of females in management positions in the country presently has convinced all that if more Nigerian female youths are given the right type of education, greater participation among females will emerge in the future. It is in this context that this paper discussed how higher education can empower female youth for future leadership in the nation. The paper highlighted the status of female education in Nigeria, the role of higher education in leadership development as well as the strategies that......

Words: 3870 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Religious Conflict and Politics in Nigeria: Implication for National Development

...The notion of religion suggests an attempt by man common thread to all the above perspectives, however, is to work out a relationship between humans and a super- that they all link religion to man’s physical and social ordinate or supernatural being. It was borne out of man’s environment. To this extent, it could be argued that, there endeavour to understand the supernatural in the context is largely an interaction between religion and the society of the world he lives in. The need for political stability in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. Indeed, all segments of the Nigerian society are interested in the political future of the nation. However, this interest is approached from various dimensions. A major interest in the Nigerian polity is the relationship between religion and politics. The Nigerian society is religiously pluralized and this significantly influences political decisions and policies of the nation. On the other hand, there are people who hold the strong opinion that this relationship should not be stressed and that religion and politics should be allowed to operate separately without one interfering with the other. Those who hold this view argued essentially from the position that religion mixed politics is mostly like to imbibe various vices associated with politics. Also that politics may not be properly and dispassionately played if mixed with religion. 1.2. DEFINITION OF TERMS For a better appreciation of the objectives of this paper, it is......

Words: 2838 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Students’ Perception Towards Odl Compared to Conventional Mode of Learning

...promising and practical strategy than being a stagnant and theoretical strategy especially in the developing world. The more research ODL is given, the more the success attained in addressing the challenges of widening access to education. Consequently, it has most of the time increased participation in especially higher education. The inexistence of structured face-to-face contacts between the students and teachers is the main difference between ODL and ordinary conventional educational delivery methods. Study centres, counselling services and self directed learner-centred instructional materials are some of the main features of ODL, though there is some distinction between open learning and distance education. The main interest here however, is the mode of education where the learner and the tutor are at a distance from each other for most of the time. Just like any other mode of learning, ODL has definitely got both challenges and successes especially emanating from its setting, the learner’s perception or attitude and any struggle made to fulfil the aims and objectives of an ODL institution thereafter. Any Open and Distance learning Institution world over has been...

Words: 4413 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Hebb's

...the duty of all personnel in a setting to identify the needs of individuals so that programme activities can be designed to meet such needs; (3) Guidance and Counseling must be provided in a way that ensures human dignity and worth. The full and adequate development of the individual must be given preference. It should be seen as encouraging individuals to attain maximum satisfaction, to realize their potentials and to be aware to self. No one who has gone through counseling should feel inadequate; (4) Guidance and Counseling is a sequential, continuous and developmental process, which starts from birth to death. This means that guidance and counseling runs from the nursery school through primary, secondary to the tertiary institutions. It is not a once-and-for-all event but a process which is an integral part of the total educational programme throughout the school life of an individual; (5) There is a close relationship between counseling activities and the instructional process, each contributing to the other. Counseling can help make the instructional activities to be more relevant and meaningful to the needs of students, while the instructional activities can help to give necessary information and directives to a student in planning his/her life goals; (6) All guidance activities must emphasize the will...

Words: 2502 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Lithospere

...Socially, employment promotes social healing and improves social welfare. This essay focuses on how we can create and expand employment opportunities in Nigeria in order to solve Nigeria’s security challenges. This essay starts by giving an overview of the Nigerian employment landscape since Independence, it then adapts Joachim Von Braun’s Employment generation chain to schematically explain the economic impact of employment creation, and finally it proffers solution on how Nigeria can create jobs for its population in order to live in a safer Nigeria. The Nigerian Employment Landscape Employment generation is a primary economic development goal of every industrializing nation. More jobs generally mean more economic activities, more tax revenues for the government, and less idle time. Job growth permits the expansion and improvement of public goods and services, leading to an improved quality of life and enhanced prospects for future employment growth. In addition, a vibrant job market provides an incentive for citizens to continue their education since the rewards for such are evident in better employment opportunities. While an expanding job market encourages workers to upgrade their skills in order to qualify for available higher wage jobs, sustained job growth stimulates improvements in the education and skills of the labour force, making the nation a more attractive location for businesses in the future. The present employment situation in Nigeria has its roots in the......

Words: 3033 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Management

...practical steps towards alleviating unemployment. Despite the frantic efforts towards the eradication of this phenomenon, it is sad to know that Nigerian economy continues to experience increase in unemployment rate. Lack of employment opportunities in Nigeria has resulted in poverty, in turn poverty needs to alienation of poor people from political-economic function of the society. The population of Anambra State according 2006 census is 4,055,048. Out of this figure, 2,500,000 are unemployed amounting to 45% unemployment rate in Anambra State. Lack of employable skills is no doubt, a major contributing factor to the problem of unemployment world over and especially in Nigeria. This is so because, the educational system operated at post-independence era in the country placed emphasis on liberal education rather than acquisition of vocational skills, which prepare the individual for better employment opportunities. In other words, the then system focused on and produced school levers graduates without vocational skills that could enable them to be self-reliant. The subsequent increase in population, as Adebayo {2006) observed, necessitates establishment of more schools and higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. This in turn produces school leavers and graduates, whose numbers are always on...

Words: 6543 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Female Education

...GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION IN AFRICA BY PROFESSOR GRACE CHIBIKO OFFORMA DEAN, FACULTY OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA KEYNOTE ADDRESS PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE OF THE FEDERATION OF THE UNIVERSITY WOMWNE OF AFRICA HELD IN LAGOS-NIGERIA ON 16TH – 19TH JULY, 2009. Introduction In this presentation, we will first of all try to explain the key concepts in the title, namely, girl-child and education. Then we will present and discuss the issues/factors in the girlchild education, citing examples from some African countries. Such issues include: access, equity, enrollment, retention/drop-out, and achievement in school subjects. Solutions of the constraints raised will be proffered. This conference is timely and apt. On Monday July 20, 2009, the President of Nigeria, President Musa Umaru Yar’Adua, GCFR, will flag off the National Campaign on access, while the Federal Minister of Education will launch the Roadmap for the Nigerian Education sector, which includes:  Access and Equity  Standards and Quality Assurance  Technical and Vocational Education and Training, and  Funding and Resource Utilization. In the course of this conference, we are going to discuss some of these and proffer recommendations which will be useful to the Federal Ministry of Education for effective implementation of the Minister’s roadmap. The Girl-Child The girl-child is a biological female offspring from birth to eighteen (18) years of age. This is the age before one becomes young adult. This......

Words: 4919 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Internship Report on Marketing Services of the Private Universities in Bangladesh -a Case Study on Southern University Bangladesh

...Marketing Services of The Private Universities in Bangladesh -A Case Study On Southern University Bangladesh [pic] BBA Program FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH |Submitted By |Under the Guidance of | | | | |Muhammad Mahmud Hossain Mamun |Prof. A. J. M. Nuruddin Chowdhury, | |ID Number: 111-24-18 |Former Vice- Chancellor, | |BBA Program |University of Chittagong | |Faculty of Business Administration |& | |Southern University Bangladesh. |Southern University Bangladesh. | Table of Contents |Particulars |Page No. | |Letter Of......

Words: 23493 - Pages: 94

Premium Essay

Financial Intermediation

...uses. In line with the assumption that banking sector plays an important role in financing the investment projects, successive governments in Nigeria have carried out reforms and institutional innovations in the banking sector. The overall intention of these reforms has been to ensure financial stability so as to influence the growth of the economy and also enhance banks to play a critical role of financial intermediation in Nigeria. However, despite the fact that Nigerian banks have undergone series of restructuring/reforms aimed at strengthening the banks’ ability to efficient service delivery and fund the real sector, problems such as; inefficiency in allocating funds to the real sector, lack of long-dated funding, neglect of the core private sector in terms of credit extension, weak capacity of the banks to fund the real sector, low-level activities of banks, and illiquidity still lingers. This study therefore, examines empirically the impact of financial intermediation on the development of the Nigerian economy with the aim of determining the importance of financial intermediaries and its influence. This study found out that the financial intermediaries (banks) in Nigeria exhibit inefficiency and weak capacity in the allocation of funds to finance the some sectors. On the overall therefore, the study found that the economy Nigeria rely heavily on the banking sector to finance its activities even though the desired expectation is not met by the banks. The study therefore...

Words: 9809 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Term Paper

...E-ISSN 2281-4612 ISSN 2281-3993 Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies Published by MCSER-CEMAS-Sapienza University of Rome Vol 2 No 5 July 2013 Challenges and Prospects of Entrepreneurship in Nigeria Okezie A. Ihugba Alex Odii Asoluka C. Njoku Department of Economics, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri-Imo State, Nigeria Doi:10.5901/ajis.2012.v2n5p25 Abtsract The success of generating income for majority of rural and urban dwellers with no formal paid employment highly depends on Entrepreneurship. They are the backbone of economic development all over the world and play important role for employment, income and societal changes, particularly in transition economies like Nigeria. This paper is concerned with the nature and the extent to which entrepreneurship in Nigeria has been developed so far, and outlines the initiative by government and also the main current and future challenges and perspectives for the development of entrepreneurship. The study revealed that such initiatives by government failed abysmally due to over bearing bureaucracies, corruption, inadequate and inefficient infrastructural facilities and maladministration. The paper concludes that entrepreneurship miracle in other country is an engine for job creation; innovation and diversity and Nigeria’s entrepreneurs have a long way to go before they can effectively drive changes in the economy and recommends that Government (policy makers) should genuine recognize the essence of......

Words: 6725 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Challenges and Prospect of Entrepreneur in Nigeria

...Challenges and Prospects of Entrepreneurship in Nigeria Abtsract The success of generating income for majority of rural and urban dwellers with no formal paid employment highly depends on Entrepreneurship. They are the backbone of economic development all over the world and play important role for employment, Income and societal changes, particularly in transition economies like Nigeria. This paper is concerned with the nature and the extent to which entrepreneurship in Nigeria has been developed so far, and outlines the initiative by government and also the main current and future challenges and perspectives for the development of entrepreneurship. The study revealed that such initiatives by government failed abysmally due to over bearing bureaucracies, corruption, inadequate and inefficient infrastructural facilities and maladministration. The paper concludes that entrepreneurship miracle in other country is an engine for job creation; innovation and diversity and Nigeria’s entrepreneurs have a long way to go before they can effectively drive changes in the economy and recommends that Government (policy makers) should genuine recognize the essence of entrepreneurship to economic development by providing the enabling environment for private sector led investment for economic development and also provide adequate infra-structural facilities (water, electricity, road network, communications etc.) Introduction A nation's ability to generate a steady stream of business......

Words: 5924 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

African Gobalisation

...1997). There was an increasing importance of an integrated economic platform in this new era. Nigeria made significant progress since it was first introduced into the globalisation process with Structural Adjustment Program, marking with a shift from protectionist policies to promoting free trade and economic growth. This essay will illustrate the pros of GDP growth and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) manifested in economic globalisation of Nigeria, but evaluation will be made on the societal impact into the economy, such as income inequalities and labour exploitation. Capital inflows into Nigeria had grown immensely over the last decade in the process of economic liberalisation. It was considered as the 120th freest economy in the 2013 Index (Index of Economic Freedom, 2013). The FDI reached 11billion USD in 2009, ranking Nigeria at 19th to receive the most FDI in the world. Most prominent investors include USA Chevron Texaco and UK Shell penetrating the oil sector. China was becoming an important source of FDI recently, seeking to expand trade relationships, and Chinese investment reported worth 6billion USD. These investments were injections to enhance the capital of Nigeria, bringing about foreign expertise and technology, and also encouraged job creations, raising standard of living. Economic globalisation implied free trade that brought definitive advantages to Nigeria economy, particularly in the aspect of GDP growth. Although Nigeria’s overall...

Words: 2301 - Pages: 10