Premium Essay

Solar Still

In: Science

Submitted By william22
Words 1060
Pages 5


Solar distillation is a relatively simple treatment of brackish (i.e. contain dissolved salts) water supplies. Distillation is one of many processes that can be used for water purification and can use any heating source. Solar energy is a low tech option. In this process, water is evaporated, using the energy of the sun then the vapour condenses as pure water.This process removes salts and other impurities.
Solar distillation is used to produce drinking water or to produce pure water for lead acid batteries, laboratories, hospitals and in producing commercial products such as rose water. It is recommended that drinking water has 100 to 1000 mg/l of salt to maintain electrolyte levels and for taste. Some saline water may need to be added to the distilled water for acceptable drinking water.
Solar water distillation is a very old technology. An early large-scale solar still was built in 1872 to supply a mining community in Chile with drinking water. It has been used for emergency situations including the introduction of inflatable stills for life boats by the navy.

The cover can be either glass or plastic. Glass is more preferable to plastic because most plastic degrades in the long term due to ultra violet light from sunlight and because it is more difficult for water to condense onto it.

Stills with a single sloping cover with the back made from an insulating material do not suffer from a very low angle cover plate at the back reflecting sunlight and thus reducing efficiency. It is important for greater efficiency that the water condenses on the plate as a film rather than as droplets, which tend to drop back into the saline water. For this reason the plate is set at an angle of 10 to 20º. The condensate film is then likely to run down the plate and into the run off channel.


The efficiency

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Moonshine in Appalachia

...Moonshine in Appalachia: A Constant Thread in the Tapestry of Mountain Life My sister recently shared with me a little known fact of our grandparents’ lives in Kentucky as young parents. They were involved in the illegal manufacture and sale of alcoholic spirits, also known as moonshining (Brown). Having known our grandparents to be very peaceful, law abiding citizens in their elder years, I find this revelation of illegal activity oddly fascinating. I want to understand how and why our grandparents got involved in moonshining which is a key element of our family’s heritage as Scottish immigrants to the United States. The production of illicit whiskey has been an integral part of American history since the early days of our country. Stiff taxation of alcohol and ingredients for the manufacture of alcohol by the British government angered colonists who were seeking economic freedom (Carr 16). Having then gained their freedom from taxation without representation from the British government, US citizens were furious when the fledging government imposed a tax on home distilled spirits (Carr 20, Abramson and Haskell 413). This began a long term battle between the United States government and her citizens over the manufacture, transportation and sale of alcohol (Carr 20). In order to understand how my grandparents came to be involved in this battle over the home production of liquor, we must examine the history, culture and economy of Appalachia as it pertains to moonshine. Some...

Words: 2910 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Analyzing Art

...Analyzing Art For this module assignment I chose to do my paper on "Vincent van Gogh, Still Life of Oranges and Lemons with Blue Gloves, 1889". I chose this painting because I am rather familiar with it. In elementary school my teacher had us try to draw a painting by Van Gogh and this is the one I chose (didn't come out too pretty). My grandmother also has a imitation of the painting in her dining room. Today, Vincent van Gogh is widely regarded as one of history's greatest painters and an important contributor to the foundations of modern art. The completion date of this post-impressionism still life, was in the year of 1889. The place of creation was Arles, Bouches-du-Rhône, France. Vincent van Gogh painted this picture soon after his release from the hospital, where he was recovering from the disastrous final days of Paul Gauguin’s stay with him in Arles. In a long letter to his brother Theo posted January 23, 1889, he mentions creating this painting alongside several other issues, including the need to make money through picture sales. He likely had the market in mind in painting this still life. Van Gogh was clearly attracted to the shapes and hues of the citrus fruit arrayed in the wicker basket, and the way their varied orb shapes play against the weave of the dried sticks, the whole set off by the prickly needles of the cypress branches. Van Gogh refers in his letter to an “air of chic” in this picture, prompted perhaps by the inclusion of blue garden gloves. The...

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...yeah If my eyes light up with I say your name And it's written all over my face Tell me does it make me crazy Well, maybe I got somethin' that I can't explain And the beauty of it never changes It's got me wrapped up I'm all caught up I can't help but say I'm a God girl that's who I'll be From the top of my head to the soles of my feet No I can't deny it, wouldn't even try I'm your girl in a crazy world I'm a God girl that's who I'll be From the top of my head to the soles of my feet I can't deny it, wouldn't even try I'm your girl for the whole wide world to see (See, See, See) And when my ears start hearin' what people say Hurry up find love cause times tickin' away Well, I'm not bein' lazy I'm just waiting for Still waiting for the right boy Cause I only want to listen to your voice So I'll be listenin' Always listenin' to you everyday Cause I'm a God girl that's who I'll be From the top of my head to the soles of my feet No I can't deny it, wouldn't even try I'm your girl in a crazy world I'm a God girl that's who I'll be From the top of my head to the soles of my feet I can't deny it, wouldn't even try I'm your girl for the whole wide world to see Your name in lights My biggest dream My all in all You're all I need Hand in hand with the master of all creativity And I won't stop until I know All my facebook friends and foes Look at me and only see one thing I'm a God girl that's who I'll be From the top of my head to the soles...

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Physical Impossibility Of Death In The Mind Of Someone Living

...provided by Charles Saatchi, the owner of a contemporary art gallery in London where the artwork was first exhibited in 1992. Due to poor preservation the shark began to decay and the formaldehyde began to turn murky. Saatchi gallery removed and gutted the shark in 1993, stretching the skin over fiberglass in an attempt to recreate the work; the result Hirst explained ‘didn’t look as frightening’ and ‘you could tell it wasn’t real’. In 2004 the artwork was being sold by Saatchi to Steven A Cohen, founder of SAC Capital Advisors for approximately $8 million dollars. Hirst chose to replace the shark due to its state of deterioration, this sparked controversy over whether the artwork could still be considered the ‘same’ piece to which Hirst stated that as it was a conceptual piece and the intentions where still the same, he believed it was the same artwork. The artwork was subject to more scrutiny in 2003 when the Stuckism International Gallery displayed a shark under the of title ‘A Dead Shark Isn’t Art’ and again in 2004 when art critic Robert Hughes alluded to Hirt’s artwork whilst giving a speech on the ‘cultural obscenity’ of the international art market at the time. ‘For the love of god’ is a sculpture created by Hirst in 2007, it is a platinum cast of a human skull set with 8,601 diamonds featuring a pear shaped pink diamond located on the forehead. This artwork draws inspiration from the Latin phrase ‘Memento Mori’ as well as Aztec and Mexican cultures, their approach to mortality...

Words: 857 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Still Life; Year 10 Essay Assessment Task

...A still life is a work of art which depicts inanimate objects such as flowers, plants, plants, food, rocks shells; this also includes man made items such as bottles, glasses, books, jewellery, pipes, vases and so on. Origins within the middle ages and ancient Greek and Roman art, still life paintings gave the artists choices in the arrangements and design within a composition then paintings of a landscape or a portrait. Still life paintings before the 17th century mostly contained religious symbolism relating to the objects painted. Some modern still life breaks the 2 dimensional barriers which employ 3 dimensional mixed objects such as photography, computer graphics and video and sound. Various artists include the Dutch in the 17th Century, Picasso, Andy Warhol, Ricky Swallow and Sam Taylor Wood. The Dutch Golden Age The Dutch golden age of painting is a period Dutch history spanning the 17th century. During and after part of 80 years of war (1568-1648). This was the most prosperous nation in Europe and they led European trade, science and art. Dutch painting of the golden age known as the baroque painting, which often shows its characteristics but lacks the idealisation of love and splender which being typical of baroque work. Neighbouring flanders work for the period often reflects traditions of realism from Netherland-ish panting. Distinctive features for this period are genres of paintings with most artists producing the bulk of their work during the golden age. These...

Words: 768 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Summary: Portrait Of Jacob Gerard Koch

...Art 72, American Art History By: Natasha LeBaron Museum Paper February 5, 2015 Portrait of Jacob Gerard Koch Rembrandt Peale Date 1817 Oil on Canvas Jacob Gerard Koch was from Holland who lived in Philadelphia. Being a sharp businessman, Koch became wealthy by importing lines from Germany. With his money, he was able to purchase an estate in which seemed to be in a prominent part of Philadelphia. Not only was he a smart business man, he was also a patriot. When the war of 1812 broke out, he donated $5000 (about $89, 285.00 in today’s money) to help build a frigate that would help the American government win the war. The marriage to Jane Griffith Koch was pretty much frowned upon and bringing up some controversy. At the time when the epidemic of the Yellow fever broke out killing many in Philadelphia, Jane was just his laundry maid. She told Koch that she would nurse him back to life if he promised to marry her in return. It was said that Jane was a ‘“Poor, ignorant, ill-tempered, and very homely Irish girl.”’ As you look at both of their portraits’ it seems as both were content with their marriage. Although Koch was an obese man, weighing more than 30lbs, he seemed rather happy and content. Koch and his wife moved to Paris and there in Paris, Jacob Gerard Koch passed away in 1830. His estate was estimated to be worth more than a million dollars at the time of his death. As you look upon...

Words: 1106 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

The Birth of American Genre Painting

...The birth of American genre painting Koso-ogly Saliya , Osh state University, senior instructor of the chair of Lexicology and Stylistics, the Department of Foreign Languages The creations of American genre painters have become the object of my research. Teaching any language is impossible without teaching culture, which unites various issues. Pictorial art, painting, in particular is one of them. Topic “Painting” at our department is being studied in two courses: in the third and in the fifth. The 3rd year students will get acquainted with the most significant representatives of American Genre Painting . The students will acquire the information about the most significant painters such as: William Sidney Mount, George Caleb Bingham and Eastman Johnson . Lesson fragment 1 Objectives: 1.students acquire information about The birth of American genre painting. check students comprehension by means of questions. Students read the text “The birth of American genre painting” and discuss the questions. The birth of American genre painting. Being a product...

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Comparing Monticelli's Still Life With Fruit And Wine Jug

...The two works selected from the Art Institute of Chicago were Adolphe-Joseph-Thomas Monticelli’s Still Life with Fruit and Wine Jug (1874) and Paul Gauguin’s Still Life: Wood Tankard and Metal Pitcher (1880). They are both located in the European Painting and Sculpture wing on the second floor of the Institute in Gallery 241. Although both are impressionist oil paintings of still lifes containing various fruits and a vessel on a table, they have key differences in color, mood, lighting, visual weight, and balance. Due to these differences, Monticelli’s piece appears more rich and lively while Gauguin’s piece seems dull and distant. Monticelli’s Still Life with Fruit and Wine Jug is an oil painting created on a 19 x 23 1/2 in. panel. The...

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Personal Narrative: My First Day At State Cheerleading

...our turn to perform. When walking with my team, the nervous silence was deafening. We arrived to the “on-deck” spot in the arena and stood in a circle, holding the clammy hands of our nervous teammates. We all bowed our heads and prayed that our performance would be our best one yet. Following our prayer, it was time to go out into the arena to get ready to run onto the mat. “You can do it, just trust yourselves, love y’all,” my coach told us before we went on the mat. “Let’s hear it for the Grassfield Grizzlies!!” exclaimed the announcer as we began to run on the mat. Hearing our name get called made my heart drop to my feet. The loud screaming of our fans filled my ears and made me unable to hear my nervous thoughts. We stood still waiting for our music to begin playing so we could start our routine. The second it started playing, my mind almost went blank and I felt like an airplane on autopilot because I had done the routine so many times, it was locked inside my mind. After the routine, I felt a sense of relief from finally having it over with. Everyone, including myself, had performed better than we had all season. “I couldn’t be more proud of you guys, you did great!” Coach Harrell told us after our performance. After going back to our designated area in the stands, we nervously watched the screen in the center of the arena, waiting to see our score. Suddenly, the sound of cheers and excitement filled my ears as my teammates and the Grassfield fans saw our...

Words: 1736 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Fuctional Requirments

...Functional Requirements Rqmt. No. Requirement FR-001 A visitor can browse through all paintings for sale at the gallery. FR-002 A visitor can search for paintings by entering an artist's name in a search box. All paintings by that artist will then be displayed. If there are no paintings by that artist, the message "No paintings found" will be displayed. FR-003 A visitor can search for paintings by selecting one of the following genres from a list: Landscape, Still Life, Portrait, Abstract. All paintings in the selected genre will then be displayed. If there are no paintings in that genre, the message "No paintings found" will be displayed. FR-004 By default, any list of paintings when first displayed will be in alphabetical order by the author's name. FR-005 A visitor can elect to sort any list of paintings by one of the following: artist's name; title of painting; date acquired by gallery (oldest first); date acquired by gallery (newest first). FR-006 For each painting, the following will be displayed: a thumbnail image (approximately 100x100 pixels); title; artist; date acquired by the gallery; price; and a "Reserve It" button. FR-007 A visitor can click on the thumbnail for a painting to display a large image (approximately 500x500 pixels). FR-008 A visitor can click the "Reserve It" button beside any painting to place the painting on reserve for seven days. When the visitor clicks the "Reserve It" button, he or she will be required to enter his or her name and driver's...

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Audrey Flack

...During her time at College, Flack worked in the realm Abstract Expressionism in the New York art scene, but as a female she had to act like “one of the boys” to be taken seriously as an artist. During her time at Art College, she became interested in Realism. In 1965 she painted her first portrait from a photograph, which lead to her isolation from a popular art community because at the time it was acceptable to paint a work that was from photograph, but was unheard of to create a work that looked like a photograph. Flack has dedicated her work almost solely to ancient, female or feminine images. Flacks Vanitas’ paintings are part of still life portraits. Vanitas’ is one of her symbolic still life painting where each element of the painting has a meaning. Her work tells us an important story which draws in the viewers to consider what each symbol means. For her paintings, she used a variety of colors, mainly primary course colors; red, blue and yellow. She drew a variety of objects which were very close to each other. The objects she drew, she had her own perspective towards it. She painted her work on canvases using watercolors, acrylic paints and block paints. The reason she did painting got to do with realism was because, she was very much interested in things that had a important meaning and she thought the best way to express this is through paintings. I think her work is extremely beautiful. I like the way she used acrylic paints to paint her work and the different effects...

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose

...Norton Simon Museum "Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose", 1633  My Introduction to Art summer class requires a few visits to local museums.  The first museum we visited as a class was Norton Simon Museum, which is located in the city of Pasadena, CA. We visited the Norton Simon Museum on Saturday July 13, 2013. It was a hot summer day; this was a perfect day to visit a museum.  Most of the class took the same shuttle bus to the museum.  When we arrived at the museum we were allowed to explore / admire the cool art pieces on our own. It was a really beautiful museum and they had a big collection. I think you can’t really have enough with one visit. I plan on making future trips to this museum to explore all the art pieces and learn more about the pieces.  The piece that got my attention was “Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose” by Francisco de Zurbaran.  This piece was painted on an oil canvas and measures 24 ½ X 43 1/8 In.  This is the only still life Zurbaran signed in his life, at the lower right corner. In the painting, we can see a plate with citrons (not lemons), a basket of oranges and another plate with a cup, next to a rose.   The artist used many elements of form in this painting. The elements of form that I noticed were Color, Texture, and Light.  The Artist portraits these objects in a realistic way, these can be noticed in the reflection of the citrons on the silver plate, in the details of the basket, in the soft reflection of this basket...

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Jan Jansz Den Uyl, Breakfast Still Life with Glass and Metalwork

...FA102: Art From the Renaissance to Modern Times Paper #2—Jan Jansz den Uyl, Breakfast Still Life with Glass and Metalwork Breakfast Still Life with Glass and Metalwork is an oil on panel produced by Jan Jansz den Uyl, an artist of the Dutch Baroque period. The painting is dated around 1637-39 and measures 130.5 x 115.5cm. It depicts a disarray of objects—pewter, goblets, plates and unfinished food—strewn across the tabletop on top of a piece of rumpled white linen. Although it may seem like an ordinary still-life painting, the artist attempts to convey a hidden message to the audience through his careful selection and arrangement of the subject matter. This essay will explore how den Uyl achieves this by presenting a formal visual analysis with emphasis placed on the painting’s composition and historical context. Breakfast Still Life with Glass and Metalwork can be organized into two planes. The background consists of a wall with a niche on the right hand side; it is separated approximately down the middle by light and shadow. In the foreground is a table covered with rumpled white linen on the right side, on top of which is a large pewter flagon, a pair of overturned glass and gold goblets, and a piece of ornate Venetian glassware framed by the niche. A gold plate hangs precariously at the side of the table facing the viewer and would have fallen off if it were not balanced by the weight of another plate stacked upon it. A spoon and a pocket watch are placed nearby. There is...

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Picasso Versus Cezzane

...Mashell Chapeyama Topic: Art History Year 2012 Level: Bachelor of Science in Business Administration Key Words: les demoiselles, Bonheur de vivre, Applied African Art Picasso and Cezanne Art evolved over many centuries to come to where it is today. Some artists copied or learned from others. That is what occurred about a century ago. Picasso and Matisse learnt a lot from Cezanne. Therefore there are similarities in the work of Cezanne, Matisse and Picasso. Matisse and Picasso took on cubists forms. This essays looks at how Cezanne influenced the work of Matisse and Picasso. Matisse and Picasso learned a lot from Cezanne. The first thing they learnt from Cezanne was the idea of ignoring geometric formulae in their artistic work. Cezanne was the first one to create art forms that had paintings that could be viewed from different points. He discarded art that could only be viewed from one stand point. Both Picasso and Matisse adopted the same approach. So in Bonheur de vivre Matisse created paintings that could be viewed from different angles or points of view. That was also evident in Les demoiselles. The other thing was that Cezanne used the space around the object as part of the painting. This means that the natural terrain and environment was used as part of a painting. The trees and the landscape were fused into the paintings. People would not clearly separate the two. There was a fusion there. In Bonheur de vivre the landscape was made part of the painting, as...

Words: 583 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Rk Apothecary

...RK Apothecary RK Apothecary is the name of a line of bath and body products that were created in 2008. The line is focused on sumptuous combinations of color, fragrance and packaging that make for perfect gifts. RK Apothecary offers the best in high-end, luxury bath and body products intended as unique gifts for special occasions or as a personal indulgence. Apothecaries, long a fixture of European and early American cities, offer a unique retail experience. RK Apothecary is a spatially efficient and visually engaging retail space. The product is taken off of the shelves and displayed on a series of ‘outre fruit’ tables so the customer can engage with it. The RK Apothecary space before the redesign was small and dense with structural and mechanical elements that could not be altered. The LADG’s (Los Angeles Design Group) design had to respond to the existing interior because the client did not have the luxury of gutting it and beginning fresh. The double-height ceilings required them to develop hanging lighting fixtures to activate the space. Square or rectilinear tables were either too big to allow customers to pass through the store or too small to accommodate the large number groupings of product desired by the client. Given the constraints, The LADG experimented with water filled ice bags – reminiscent of those used by British nurses to sooth the fever of an ailing patient in a 1950′s film. They observed how the bags slumped, folded and wallowed around...

Words: 408 - Pages: 2