Premium Essay

The Development of English

In: English and Literature

Submitted By hotpink563
Words 2176
Pages 9
The Development of English

Throughout time the English language has been subject to an ever-changing evolutionary process, adjusting and adopting to its geographical circumstances, cultural influences and niches. The English language has undergone a series of transitional changes since its origins dating back to c.400 A.D. whilst Britain was under occupation by hosts of Germanic tribes. Detailed throughout the literature that still exists in our modern world, it is possible to trace links between the English language and its development throughout different cultures and historical time periods. The study of the development of the English language has been used to represent the specific ideals and notions that pertain to particular cultures throughout history. Anglo-Saxon poetry express its cultural identity and values that underpin Anglo Saxon society, through ancient texts such as Beowulf exploring notions of heroism and servitude. Middle English literature such as The Millers Tale, unmasks the inner feudal system that deciphers the hierarchal structure within Middle England. The Holkam bible through both visual representation and literature highlights the Biblical understanding at the time and cultural barriers that were associated.

The Miller’s Tale by Geoffrey Chaucer is an example of Middle English poetry that represents the societal structure of the time through language. The Miller’s Tale expresses the hierarchal structure in Middle England through denoting each individual characters social standing within society. The Miller’s Tale entails the story of a carpenter who falls in love with a juvenile/adolescent girl (“Of eighteteene yeer she was of age”); a love triangle develops between three men and a woman, further digressing into a story of humor and irony aimed to satisfy the upper class. Geoffrey Chaucer depicts the carpenter as man who acts above...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Development of the English Literary Language

...A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LITERARY (STANDARD) LANGUAGE ( From: I.R.Galperin. Stylistics. Moscow: Higher School, 1977. pp. 41-57) Up till now we have done little more than mention the literary (standard) language, which is one of the most important notions in stylistics and general linguistics. It is now necessary to elucidate this linguistic notion by going a little deeper into what constitutes the concept and to trace the stages in the development of the English standard language. This is necessary in order to avoid occasional confusion of terms differently used in works on the history, literature and style of the English language. Confusion between the terms "literary language" and "language of literature" is frequently to be met. Literary language is a historical category. It exists as a variety of the national language.' "It must be remembered," said A. M. Gorki, "that language is the creation of the people. The division of the language into literary and vernacular only means that there are, as it were, a rough unpolished tongue and one wrought by men-of-letters."1 The literary language is that elaborated form (variety) of the national language which obeys definite morphological, phonetic, syntactical, lexical, phraseological and stylistic norms2 recognized as standard and therefore acceptable in all kinds and types of discourse. It allows modifications but within the frame work of the system of established norms. It casts out......

Words: 8269 - Pages: 34

Premium Essay

The Development of Modern English Novel

...One could be forgiven for believing that the words ‘fiction’ and ‘novel’ mean one and the same thing. The main reason for this confusion is that both of them have a common denominator; they both tell a story. In the novel, we have the theatre of life and for over two centuries it has been the most effective agent of the moral imagination. Though it has never really achieved perfection in form and its shortcomings are numerable, nevertheless one experiences from it not only the extent of human variety, but also the value of this variety. Fiction existed right from the first time man told a story and thus it is in this respect only, that it is similar to the forerunner of the novel as we know it today, which is any work of fiction in England written before 1670. Novelists express their conscious conclusions about life as they experience it and these manifest themselves not only in the characters they create and their interaction with each other, but also in the way they make them react or respond to the various situations in which they find themselves and in what they say within these situations. They are relatively free to choose their material, but their conclusions about life and the nature of their novels are dependent on their innate personality, as this affects not only the way in which they present their characters, but also our own understanding and response to their inherent values and behaviour. In this sense, novelists can be seen as mediators between their......

Words: 1931 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Development Og English Literature

...Из расхода на подбородок и на нос: ✔ 0.5 ч.л. желатина; ✔ 1 ч.л. молока (воды); ✔ 0.5 таблетки активированного угля; Цени свою подругу. ведь кто, как не она, будет матерится с тобой на твоего парня, ржать в автобусах. Кто как не она будет разговаривать с тобой пока не дойдет домой или опозорит на всю улицу, ведь она такая любимая идиотка у тебя. Подружки должны быть такими, чтобы потом еще ваши дочки дружили. Судьба — это не дело случая, а результат выбора. Судьбу не ожидают, ее создают. Выдавите немного зубной пасты в небольшую емкость, добавьте 1 ч.л. пищевой соды, 1 ч.л. перекиси водорода и 0,5 ч.л. воды. Тщательно смешайте ингредиенты и нанесите на зубную щетку, чистите зубы 2 минуты 1 раз в неделю. Использовать данный рецепт можно несколько раз в год, по 1-1,5 месяца, затем нужно делать перерыв. Есть люди, как наркотик — знаешь, что нельзя, а тянет… А есть люди, как торт — сладко, вкусно, но уже тошнит… (с) Сказать хочу Спасибо, БОГУ! За жизнь подаренную мне, Что за грехи судил не строго, Благодарю его вдвойне! Спасибо за друзей и близких; За милых, самых дорогих; За то, что бережёшь от Низких, Ничтожных, Мелочных и Злых!!! Лучшая вещь в жизни - это, когда тебя любит человек, который знает все твои недостатки, ошибки и слабости...и продолжает думать, что ты всё равно самая лучшая на свете... Важные люди у меня в мыслях. Любимые - в сердце. Дорогие - в молитвах... А кому-то повезло трижды. — Ну, девочка моя, что с тобой сегодня? — Ничего ...

Words: 736 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Origins and Development of the English Language (Textbook)

...THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE This page intentionally left blank THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SIXTH EDITION ± ± John Algeo ± ± ± ± ± Based on the original work of ± ± ± ± ± Thomas Pyles Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States The Origins and Development of the English Language: Sixth Edition John Algeo Publisher: Michael Rosenberg Development Editor: Joan Flaherty Assistant Editor: Megan Garvey Editorial Assistant: Rebekah Matthews Senior Media Editor: Cara Douglass-Graff Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Communications Manager: Beth Rodio Content Project Manager: Corinna Dibble Senior Art Director: Cate Rickard Barr Production Technology Analyst: Jamie MacLachlan Senior Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Rights Acquisitions Manager Text: Tim Sisler Production Service: Pre-Press PMG Rights Acquisitions Manager Image: Mandy Groszko Cover Designer: Susan Shapiro Cover Image: Kobal Collection Art Archive collection Dagli Orti Prayer with illuminated border, from c. 1480 Flemish manuscript Book of Hours of Philippe de Conrault, The Art Archive/ Bodleian Library Oxford © 2010, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including...

Words: 164520 - Pages: 659

Premium Essay

English Through Drama for Oral Skills Development

...1) What is the aim of the study? The aim of the study is using drama in classes to improve classes and motivate students. It is not a traditional way so teacher used this way. 2) How would reflection help learning? Reflection includes tapping into feelings and re-evaluating the experience.Sharing observations and attitudes, and comparing them to those of their classmates would help learning. 3)What are the advantages of using drama in a language class to promote learning? Using drama in a language class can change students' attitudes to target language. They can feel less insecure, more self confidence. It can improve their English so they can understand it more easily.They can speak in front of a lot of people easily. It can also teach students to how to speak, to talk, to walk, to be another person. It improves in different ways.It has a lot of advantages. 4)What is the best way to promote reflection? Describing their classroom experiences is the best way to promote reflection. 5)What is portfolio? What is its role in reflection? Portfolio is a record of best performances or productions. Portfolios are good way to practice. You can show your best performances.You can share your own ideas. 6)What are the stages used in the study? What is the aim of each stage and how are they organized? There are three stages; 1- Preliminary Stage The aims are; getting to know each other relaxing and laughing while doing......

Words: 411 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Englishes

...The Development of the Theory of World Englishes In our modern world there are more non-native speakers of English than native speakers. This is because there is a growing necessity of people to acquire English as a second language for different purposes. As a result of this growing spread of English, new English varieties have risen all over the world. These are commonly called ‘World Englishes’ which suggests the several variations of English spoken in different countries (Seargeant, 2012) As new ‘Englishes’ develop new theories about their formation, similarities and differences arise around the world. English is no longer seen as a unique structure but as a multicultural and plural concept. Hence, the Theory of World Englishes has been developed. According to Seargeant (2012: 6) the theory of World Englishes is “…used to refer to the general discipline that examines the nature and use of English worldwide or of English in globalised contexts”. Thus, it is vital to consider the cultural issues that influence the contexts of those who want to acquire English as a second language. This helps to understand English variations and improves communication in the world. Therefore, this assignment will firstly explain the development of the Theory of World Englishes, then describe its present and future applications and finally evaluate the cultural impacts on speakers of world Englishes. Firstly, it is relevant to provide a clear explanation of the development of the theory......

Words: 2172 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Bilingual Educatio

...language is beneficial for the child’s first language and English development “Language constitutes us, it gives us meaning and allows us to make meaning, and it develops and abolishes spaces.” (Benjamin, 2002). Critiques of bilingual education continually claim that children can only learn one language at a time after which they are taught a second language (Krashen, 2000). They assert that bilingual education cause confusion among children and limit their intelligence capabilities; they argue that real bilinguals cannot combine their language. Advocates of bilingual education present arguments on its benefits, they suggest that, for many children the process of being literate and studying a new language simultaneously is overwhelming and that the bilingual process assist them to develop their native language first which results to a smooth transition to English. The main aim of the bilingual program was to promote the prominent language to issue instructions and at the same time enhance the development of the second language. Some define it in aspects of its capability to enhance cognitive and effective development while others view that it should focus on cultural enrichment and linguistic development. However, in some bilingual programs, instructions are issued through the use of the second language especially in cases where the first language erodes over time. (Baez, 2002) As the child proficiency in English increases he or she loses grasp of the native language,......

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Language

...LANGUAGE AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSIGNMENT Examine the socio-cultural and political and religious implications of English as a national language in a multi lingual society like Nigeria. What is Language? Hornby (2001:667) defines language as the system of communication in speech and writing that is used by a people of a particular country. Oderinde (2005) sees language as a “system and vehicle of communication. Language is a symbol used by members of a given society, both in written and oral form. What is a Nation and a National Language? According to the Oxford Learners Dictionary, a nation is also considered as a group of people with the same language, culture and history who live in a particular area under one government. Countries like Cameroun, France, Thailand, Switzerland, United States of America etc. are nation states . A national language is a language or language dialect that has some connection with a people and the territory they occupy. It can be described as a dominant language in a multilingual environment used for regional and nation-wide communication. French is used as a mother tongue and national language in France, Thai in Thailand, Urdu in Pakistan, English in the United Kingdom and English in Nigeria but some scholars have argued that Nigeria cannot be called a nation exactly because of the presence of various ethnic groups which have their own languages, Hausa, Yoruba and Ibo......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Unique Assessment Purposes

...Assessing English Learners: Unique Assessment Purposes Françoise Halliday Concordia University Assessing English Learners: Unique Assessment Purposes I am a French teacher at Golden Valley High School (GVHS), Santa Clarita, California. “California requires all parents to complete a home language survey when they register their students for school” (Peterson Henry, 2014, p. 1.). The survey asks parents the following questions: * “What language did this student learn when first beginning to talk?” (Peterson Henry, 2014, p. 1) * “What language do you use most frequently to speak to this student?” (Peterson Henry, 2014, p. 1) * “What language does this student most frequently use at home?” (Peterson Henry, 2014, p. 1) * “What language is most often spoken by the adults at home?” (Peterson Henry, 2014, p. 1) If the parent indicates that the student speaks a language other than English or if the parent indicates that the language spoken at home is not English, the student is labeled English Language Learner (ELL). Thereafter, at GVHS the student is given the California English language development test (CELDT) and a placement test in English and Math (Peterson Henry, 2014, p.1). The result of this test will determine if the student is an “English learner” or “fluent in English proficiency (FEP)” (Peterson Henry, 2014, p.1). The purpose of the CELDT is “to identify students who are limited English proficiency (LEP) (Torlakson, 2014, p.5). In......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Problems with the Bilingual Program

...States there is an increasing number of students who do not speak English. According to the Brain.org , indicates about “1 in 5 United States citizens spoke another language other than English in their homes. Even though the findings that do not imply to these people that do not speak English too, the census also revealed that about 10 percent speaks English less fluently or not at all”. Thanks to this increase, school districts have implemented bilingual programs that help to improve the skills of students in English language development. These programs have been so well received that other programs were created to meet the same academic level in English, such as Spanish. In this way, the Spanish language is maintained and improved. “We could talk about bilingual education, which often turns out to be monolingual education and in the wrong tongue.” (Kennedy et al. 505) Multiple studies show the benefits of bilingual education, but bilingual programs do not receive the support required to carry out an adequate bilingual education. These problems are; lack of management support and lack of qualified personnel. These are the main challenges that bilingual education faces at this time. Lack of language development opportunity complicates the situation of the bilingual program. Bilingual education is the implementation of two languages; this is an educational response to the problems of students with limited English proficiency. Bilingual education is the use of the native......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

English Profeciency

...English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Nation: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PRACTICE Edited by Jamal Abedi U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A , D AV I S • S C H O O L O F E D U C A T I O N Copyright © 2007 The Regents of the University of California The work reported herein was supported in part by the National Research and Development Centers, PR/Award Number R305A050004, as administered by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES). The findings and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the Institute of Education Sciences, or the U.S. Department of Education. T his study required the participation of all fifty states, their assessment directors, particularly those involved with the NCLB Title III assessments. Their cooperation and patience is much appreciated, and their dedication to educating young people is greatly admired. We cannot thank the states enough for their collaboration with this project. Many people generously contributed to the development of this report. We are especially indebted to the chapter authors for their invaluable contributions and for their patience throughout this process. Sue Rigney from the U.S. Department of Education contributed greatly to the quality of this work by providing excellent comments and suggestions. We are so grateful for her support, advice and contribution to this report. Kathleen Leos of the U.S...

Words: 115272 - Pages: 462

Premium Essay

New Venture Creation

...Conclusion 6 5.0 Reference 7 1.0 Introduction This essay is going to discuss my thought about creating a new venture in Hangzhou, China. From a personal point of view, a successful business should be well planned for a long period of time, since we are still novel to the complex society. In order to maximise the possibility of turning my business concept into reality, there are a number of elements needed to take into consideration seriously. This essay will mainly focus on stating my business idea, analysing the business market, showing my business concerns, adopting a business strategy, and finding funding for the business operation. 2.0 Business concept statement My business concept is about teaching children English in a more enjoyable way. This English training will be operated in a playground and the target market is children from 3-6 years old. The business will be located in Hangzhou, China which is a home city of mine. Some more details will be discussed in the following part of the essay. 2.1 Reasons for operating business in Hangzhou, China In terms of the bigger part of the business operation location, we are going to run our business in Hangzhou, China. Not surprisingly, many people want to run their business in a place they have got the most resources. Mostly, their hometowns should be one of the places. Personally, there are three major reasons to operate the business in this city. 1. Hangzhou is one of the riches cities in mainland......

Words: 2831 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Importance Of English In Business

...Economic globalization has made communication more and more frequent, and English as a global language has become more and more important. In the process of globalization, countries will exchange information, services, technology, labors, products, knowledge and money. With The Belt and Road policy of our country, we are more familiar with other countries, more convenient to travel overseas, and the economic exchange is more popular. The exchange and circulation of products between countries are proceeding rapidly. This trend is increasing and irreversible. Therefore, English is becoming more and more important in international communication and business programs. the impact of development internet on business English The Internet has created an entire business function commonly referred to as e-business or e-commerce which allowing these companies to establish their...

Words: 1383 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Characteristic of English Language

...Characteristics of English Language   Among the different languages of the world, English is the most widely spoken and written languages of the world. Today, English occupies the prestigious place of an International language. It is utilized by the largest number of the people of many nations in all the five continents in the world.   The reason, which comes to our notice is that, it is not due to the qualities of its own but there are important historical, political and economical reasons for its worldwide popularity. The other obvious reason is that English speaking nations, like England and America have made it prominent. However, no language can become so important, unless it has some outstanding and special characteristics for its phenomenal growth and popularity. The main characteristics for this stride of English language are as under: * Receptiveness * Heterogeneousness * Simplicity of Inflexion * Fixed Word Order * Use of Periphrasis * Growth of Intonation.   * Receptiveness   The first outstanding characteristic of English language is receptiveness. This is regarded as extra-ordinary feature of the language. It has accepted and adopted words from Asian, European, African, Indian, Japanese, Chinese and other languages. English has kept open-door policy of accepting words from classical languages like Latin, Greek and Sanskrit.   *  Heterogeneousness   Heterogeneousness means mixed form or the lack of purity. English......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Difference Between K-12 and Non K-12

...mentions curriculum as an idea that has its roots in the Latin word ‘race-course’. He also explained “The Curriculum” as the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow up into adults and get going for success in the society. A curriculum is more than putting together a set of academically required subjects. It must consider all aspects of the student life, the learning needs of students, the time available for the sessions and the teachers’ idea, capability and workload. At high school levels, teenagers can take their own liberty in choosing their path. Though complete autonomy does not rest with a student, a level of choice is very evident. This helps in the development of the teenager, with added importance of being given the field of his own choice. At this stage, the development is more focused and rampant, enhanced through a proper curriculum. Without an effective curriculum, a student would not be able to understand or meet the challenges of the society. In 1995, consultations about the Philippine...

Words: 1492 - Pages: 6