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THE

DISCOURSES

OF

EPICTETUS.
WITH
THE

ENCHEIRIDION

AND

FRAGMENTS.

TRANSLATED,
AND
A

WITH VIEW

NOTES,
OF HIS

A

LIFE

OF

EPICTETUS,

PUILO80PUY.

By

GEOKGE

long,

M.A.

NEW

YORK:

A.

L.

BURT,

PUBLISHER,

EPICTETUS.

Very that he

little was a

is known* native of and

of

the

life

of in

Epictetus. Phrygia, the in Maeander the a it

is

saia

Hierapolis, a town

tween be-

the the to Mgeander

branch

of

named of Paul it in the of

Lyons. the Hierapolis of Colossi that time

is mentioned

epistle from people

(Coloss. there of the was iv. a 13);

which church date of fact his master has

been

concluded at Christian The

Hierapolis birth of

the

apostie.
The

Epictetus life is that

is unknown. he a was a

only
Rome,

recorded and of broke the

his was early

slave

in

Epaphroditus,
There is a profligate that the

freedman master to on emperor his slave's dence evi-

Nero,

story

leg by torturing of or

him;

but the that

it is

better

trust

to

the

Simplicins, who an

commentator

the weak how

Encheiridion in he

Manual, from but

says

Epictetus
It is not in

was

body became that found

and a lame

early

age.

said modern

slave; parents

it has the this

been child.

asserted I have

times

the any

sold for be for

not,

however,

authority
It may

statement.

supposed his master

that sent the or young

slave him

showed to ligence, intelthe

permitted an attend

lectures

of It

C, may have

Musonius seem Rufus, strange slave that made

eminent a Stoic

pher. philosohave but

such into surles

master a should

wished

to

his of

philosopher;

Garnier,

the this

author matter a

Memoire very well says:

ouvrages a d'Epictete, to at

explains

in
"

communication born

Schweighaeuser.

Garnier

Epictetus,

Hie-

iv

SPICTETU8.

of rapolis Phrygia for the was of poor of a parents, was education the of

indebted to the

apparently which the under

advantages at good the whim,

coramoii

the

end

Republic

and

first emperors, their and these and which poor as among slaves

numerous

to reckon great of Rome among Grammarians, Poets, Rhetoricians, same Philosophers,in later ages numerous the been

way

as

rich a financiers cost in rich one as a

have

led to form This

at

great the libraries.

is supposition a only how can

explain to was us,

how a wretched

child, born and of the that

Irus, had

received

good education, cannot rigid Stoic of the

the slave of For

Epaphroditus,one we officers it was imperialguard. for through predilection use, suspect and the

Stoic doctrine the minister to possess

for his

own

that

the would

confidant have assume can

and

of the debaucheries such a of ^ero Some his

desired that find no slave."

writers

Epictetus was evidence when the for he Nero aided

manumitted this statement.

by
Rome

master; but I his Epaphroditus accompanied before fled from

enemies, and

he

miserable

tyrant in

himself. Domitian killing (Sueton. Domit. 14) afterward We put Epaphroditus to death for this service to Nero. that Epictetus in some conclude obtained his may way freedom, and that he begaii to teach at Rome; but after the expulsionof the philosophers from Rome by Domitian A.D. 89, he retired to Nicopolisin Epirus, a city built by the victory at Actium. Augustus to commemorate tetus Epicwhere at Nicopolls, opened a school or lecture-room he taught till he was old man. The time of his death an is unknown. learn married, as we never Epictetus was from Lucian ii. ed. Hemsterh. (Demonax, c. 55, Tom. Epictetuswas findingfault with Demonax p. 393).* When and advising him wife and to take a beget children, for this also,as Epictetus said, was a philosopher's duty, to
*

Lucian's

"Life

of the

Philosopher Demonax."

EPlCTETU8i^ leave in refuted V

place of the himself

another

in the

universe,Demonax

then, Epicby answering, Give me daughters. Simpliciussays (Comment, tetus, one of your own c. 46, p. 432, ed. Schweigh.) that Epictetus lived At last he took a woman into his house alone a long time. of Epictetus'friends for a child, which one a nurse was as of his poverty, but Epictetus going to expose on account took the child and brought it up. Epictetuswrote nothing; and all that we have under his written ward name was by an affectionate pupil,Arrian, afterthe historian us, took

doctrine

of Alexander

the

Great, who,

as

he tells

discourses writing the philosopher's (the courses disto Lucius Gellius,p. 1). These Epistle of Arrian formed eightbooks, but only four are extant under the title of 'EjciHnjrov dzarpifiai. Simplicius, in his commentary down on in

the

^Eyx"pi^iov

or

Manual,

states

that

this from

work the

also

was

put togetiierby Arrian, who of most

selected to discourses

Epictetuswhat necessary, and

he considered most be most to move

useful, and men's the same adapted and minds. Encheiridion words a Simplicius also says that the found are nearly together various on

contents

of the

in

in work

parts of the death Discourses. of

Arrian

Epictetus. The of the philosopher's studious life were events probably not nor remarkable; but we should have been glad if this many work had been preserved, which told, as Simpliciussays, what kind of man Epictetuswas. Photius works Arrian's (Biblioth. 58) mentions among Conversations with Epictetus, "OniXiai ^Emxi^rov in twelve books. Upton thinks that this work is only another name for the of the of

also wrote

the life and

Discourses, and the Yet and

that

Photius to has a made

the mistake work from

taking the Conversations Photius twelve

be

different

Discourses. Discourses

has

eimmerated of

eight books i^ot seen

books

tlie Conversations. had

observes Schweighaeuser

that

Photius

thesQ

vi

FPICTETU8.

works brief

of Arrian notice does

on

foi* Epictetus, so works

he

concludes The

from

the

of these not by he Photius. had read

fact

is that as Photius

say that he is

these books,

he he we does generally enumerates are when

speaking of
The
a was

the

books, which is that

in his Bibliotheca. that of there

conclusion of

not

certain

work

Arrian,

entitled

the

Conversations Discourses

The

Fragments were lady Mrs. Elizabeth Carter; the age of eighty-nine. The the translator's last additions Introduction view

Epictetus. of Epictetuswith the Encheiridion and translated into English by the learned who fourth and is said to have

lived

to

edition

(1807) contains
There
a

alterations. which contains purpose of

is

an

to this translation

summary

of the Stoic

philosophyfor the are explaining
The

Epictetus;and editor and notes also there

notes

to the

translation.

of this fourth of the

edition

says

that

"the of

Introduction in

Christian

translator

Epictetus are, the the estimation of the work:"

of most and he

readers, not the least valuable adds "this was parts

also

the late

Archbishop Seeker, who though he considered highly of the Philosophy of Epictetus, and any the mistake world." notes as

opinion of thought very the to

troductio In-

admirably well as

calculated to amend

prevent instruct as concerning it,

and

The

Introduction errors. is

u certainly seful, though think them that the notes it is not are free from

I do used some not

valuable. and

I have I have I

of and

without some any

marks; reon

used

others

made

remarks mistaken matters. them her where

opinion of

thought that Mrs. Carter was the original text, or on other of Mrs. time Carter would is have

in

The

translation

good; made Mrs. I

and a perhaps no better lation. trans-

Englishman
I and had revised to at that

intended correct at first to revise

Carter's

tion, translaI not any

errors

that

might

discover. I a was

about

half of it,when

I found

that

satisfied with

my

workj and

I

was

advised

by

learned

EPICTETUS.

vii
Tliis
now

friend

to translate

the an wliole

myself. who is

was

rather

a

great undertaking for six. as

old man,

past seventygreat my care,

I have as however

done I have and way

the work

with

and

well

I could.

alwayscompared with of man translation I think as with that

the Latin this

version best

Mrs.

and Carter's; such

is the

avoiding errors who has not does which not any

translator translate a make. A may Latin Greek or

attempted to know the difficulty

author That

of the when

undertaking. often becomes

he reads

plain may appear he tries to very difficult when that manner

language. It is true express it in another is generallyintelligible; the styleor but author, or we

Epictetus of the duce protinual con-

may

say of

Arrian, who made to answers what use he of

heard,is sometimes and questions

attempted to obscure by the them, and

for other

reasons.

Upton these remarks

that which

"there are are

many

passages

in

fused ambiguous or rather conof the small account on questions,and because the matter is not expanded by oratorical copiousness, not to mention The of Epicother causes.'' discourses tetus, it is supposed,were spoken extempore, and so one would into the thoughts of come thing after another the speaker (Wolf). Schweighaeuser also observes in a course note (ii.36 of his edition) that the connection of the dis3

dissertations

is sometimes words which are obscure

through

the

omission

of

some

thoughts. understand The

necessary to indicate the connection reader then will find that he cannot he does not of the

always very must

Epictetus,if some read once. him He

and carefully, also think not must

and

than more passages or reflect, he will miss the is worth But all this I should

say that the book for jutlge

meaning. trouble. Every not I do man himself. not have

translated

the

book, if I had

that all books are of this

thought it worth study; and I think kind require if careful reading, they

worth readingat all,

viii

EPICTETVS.

The

text

of

Epictetus a is

sometimes

corrupted,
However,
to cause or

and these

this culties diffimuch This

corruption are causes

few

difficulties.

not

numerous

enough in the

to

admit text. variety remark the

or

diversity explain nearly 1 order did not translations

of of

the

will

why the same

many as parts
Mrs.

my

translation When

are

same

or

Carter's. to this tion translahers. I

happened, in made Carter's made

think it

it

necessary not alter

my as that

might and be

the

same

my

translation and the Latin

first,

then I

compared hope that that I

it I

with have

Mrs. not version.
I

many

blunders.

do

not

suppose

have

made

none.

The

last and This

and the edition

best

edition is

of

the

Discourses,

the

Encheiin
6

ridion,
8vo. the

fragments contains and These and few

by the J.

Schweighaeuser commentary of of useful from

vols.

Simplicius notes on

on

Encheiridion,

two

volumes selected

the

Discourses.

notes

are

those but

of

Wolf,

Upton, part are

a

from

other

commentators; himself, man. a

large

by and and I

Schweighaeuser a who I of have the

was

an

cellent ex-

scholar

very used

sensible them.

read notes all to these the

notes, translation have

Many

are

my

own.

THE

PHILOSOPHY

OF

EPICTETUS.

I

HAVE

made who every has passage

a

large

Index

to

this

book; may which thus he

and find the may

any in it

person, almost of a the

necessary in the are industry, in and

Discourses

ions opinquire ac-

the

philosopher notion few this

stated; the will

general
But for

of readers

philosophical have the time

system and of the to Epictetus. inclination do the I have work

labor,

and

therefore

I shall

attempt

for

them. two found

expositions
Ritter

of in

the his 1839.

system
Geschichte The of

of

Epictetus. der osophic Philis

One

is

by

Dr.

Heinrich

alter Professor are Zeit,

Vierter A. and is I

Theil,
Brandis.* have used nor other these not by

Christian

Both them. will the same same

tions exposithink I shall as useful; of my nor I do mine

that not either make

them

complete, exactly it in

be. form

exposition shall I

in the

cither

of

them;
Ritter

begin a way. C. the the Musonius

has

prefixed to short

sketch

of of

Rnfus, of a

Roman

Stoic,
Rufus

his

exposition at system emperor tetus. EpicKero,

taught from and

Rome but tlie

under Rufus times of

who

drove

him

Rome; lived to

returned

after and

the his but wo tyrant's death, son Vespasian as a

Titus. is no lie

acquired that great he wrote

reputation

teacher, all that

there

evidence

anything, of and

*

Article

Epictetus

in

the

"

Dictionary
William

Greek

and

Romaa

ography," Bi-

etc.,

edited

by

Doctor

SmitUr

X

EPICTETU8.

know which

of his doctrines was is from

a

work of

of

Pollio

in

Greek,

written

after the Of

model

Xenophon's are bilia Memora-

of Socrates. Rufus

this work

there

many

fragments.* that a

taught

a

practicalphilosophy,one of and life, for the hindered

was

ful use-

for the purposes who was life of

pher philoso-

not

from occupations of mankind others to philosophize, He f and even because out withto the study of philosophy, women, be virtuous and do his duty. philosophy no person can the scholar from hinders He asks, what working with his him time teacher and at the same thing somelearning from moderation and and enabout durance? {6oL)(ppo6vvTj) justice in the His belief of philosophy over power men's a by following the common philosophizingand aidiug men urged young especially

minds

was

strong, and the this

he

was

convinced

that He

it

was

perfect cure firmness for of

corruptionof conviction on

mankind. an showed which is to the

occasion

recorded mediate

by and Tacitus the army

between the

Rome, that the of

(Hist. iii. 81). He endeavored were partisansof Vitellius who before of Vespasian, which was
His behavior was in the like

gates: but he failed in his attempt. a modern

Christian, who of peace arms a

should on attempt who hands. and

to enforce

Christian

doctrines another with

men

are

arrayed
Such
a

against one
Christian
was

in

their now; would a be called

fanatic

Tacitus, who of Rufus in bis ncjtes himself
*

philosopher, gives to from the cited behavior by
Hitter he

See

the

'

Fragments
p. 204).

Stobseus," notice of

(Vierter Theil,
Suidas,
Musonius Rome p. 550. in is not

The

IIooXiGov, as of is named,

in

satisfactory.
Polio time or It

speaks yet the

of ^AitojuvT/fiovevjuara

by the Pollio; of and

it states

that See

Pollio

taught

at

Pompeius

Magnus.

Clinton, Fasti,

iii.

] earth "

It would a be man a

strange from thing

indeed

if the

cultivation to of

the

hindered

or philosophizing aidingothers

phize." philoso-

Stobseus,

EPICTETU8.

xi

the The was unseasonable." ''intempestivam" or judgment of Tacitus was right:the behavior of Rufus unseasonable,as the result proved: but the attempt of mild term

of

**

Eufus Rufus

was

the act of did not

a

good

man. or

Logic so highly as the old Stoics;but he did not undervalue it, and he taught learn how should to deal with sophistical that a man ments, argulearn from we as Epictetus(I.c. 7 at the end). the general In his teaching about the Gods he follows Stoic practiceof maintaining the popular religion. He to the Gods: as Socrates taught that nothing wasunl"nown knew i. c. 1)taught that the Gods (Xenophon, Mem. thing, everyvalue Dialectic what was said, what

was

done, men and

what

men

thought. Gods; but must He as considered

the souls of

to be akin

to the

mingled with the body, the soul they were gent partake of the impuritiesof the body. The intelliis principle sion) (compul{Sidvoia) free from all necessity self-sufficient {avvEzovdioi). and We jecture can only conthat or Rufus

did

not

busy

himself

about

either

lectic Dia-

was philosophizing nothing else than an able inquiryabout what is becoming and conformto duty; an inquirywhich is conducted by reason, and the result is exhibited in practice. The old Stoics considered virtue to be the property only of the wise man; and doubted whether such a they even

Physic;

for he said that

man

could

be found. such as a man

But to man

Rufus

said

that we it

was

not

possible im-

for such the men exist,for possesses cannot

conceive than from

virtues

a

wise human

otherwise

examples of such as

nature

itself and named

those doctrine

who that so are man

by meeting with divine and godlike. live as

Tho nature Stoical is not

should

pressed on a

hard

by

Rufus

according to Stoics, by some to nature as and not he looks very life which he

is conformable that those in

but difficult; been

admits

who

attempt

philosophy have

trained

from

youth

great qorrup-

xii

EPICTETU8.

they seek cordingly after virtue they requiremore or discipline practice. Ache views m philosophy as a spiritualedicine, and or weight to the practice exercise of virtue than gives more The the older Stoics did. knowledge and the teaching of tion and

filled with

wickedness, and

so

when

what

is

good, that he says, should

come

but first; Good was Ruf

us

did not

believe without

the

knowledge

of the

strong enough

to practice(discipline) lead to moral conduct, and consequentlybe believed that practicehas greater efficacy kinds of exercise, first, two than teaching.* He makes a the exercise of the soul in thinking, in reflectingnd in stamping on the mind sound rules of life: and second, in the enduring of bodily labors or pain, in which act of endurance the soul and the body act together.
"

The

sum

of his several

rules of

life,"says Ritter,may

be thus Nature
*

briefly expressed:in his opinion a life according to contented results in a social,philanthropic and followed of the act I have

the Greek

exposition of Ritter is still better:

here.

Perhaps which a

eral lit-

translation how comes we

"Reason reason teaches

should in order

co-operates custom to

with

practice,and

(or teaching) it is not

before

(habit) or practice: for if a

possible

to

become reason habituated

anything good power person habit

is not

habituated

by

(by teaching); in over man

indeed

the

has the (practice) efficacious in advantage leading meaning we a

teaching,for to act

habit

(practice)is reason can.

more

(properly) than as is."

I have our given the tion educa-

of the

Greek

accurately as I

In

modern

begin with we and or there

the habit are teaching general rules, or principles or beliefs; The result is what might be expected. Practice stop. of doing what ers we ought to do is neglected. The teachof words and no more.

teachers

They

are

the

men

whom

have committed to memory note) describes: "You Epictetus (iii.21, the words the words are only, and you say. Sacred by themselves." See
p.

273,

note.

It is

one

of the is

greatest

merits

of

Rufus

that

he

laid down demerit

the of and

which principle our expended above; and teachers it is the

est great-

system most of

teaching that the principle is generally who neglected:

particularly by those

proclaim

thftt give a ostentatiously they^

educa,tioxi. religious

EPIGTETUS.

xiii

simple satisfaction of our his social and philanthropic position disWe wants. see necessary all selfishness (selbstsucht), in this that he opposes that he views marriage not only as the sole right and but also as the natural satisfaction of the sexual feelings, of the continuation foundation of family,of a state, and and of the human accordingly he declares himself race; practice; against the exposure of children as an unnatural state of

mind, joined to

the

most

and

he often

recommends a beneficence." tliisnoble in the Roman

Epictetuswas name occurs

pupilof times whose teacher,
Ritter
jectures con-

several

Discourses.

that

Epictetus also
It has a heard

highly commends. is named he is not as been that

Stoic,and
Stoic. He

he Euphrates, whom said,though Epicjustly tetus his principles are Stoical, from other teachers

purely a the He

learned

example and the example of Diogenes the of Socrates continually, he mentions more frequentlythan Cynic, both of whom of the Stoic philosophy. He also valued Zeno the founder of his principles, Plato, who acceptedfrom Socrates many So Epictetus learned and developedand expanded them. that the beginning of philosophy is man's knowledge of himself {yvwBt dsavrov),and the acknowledgment of his He teaches (i. c. own 17; ii. c. ignorance and weakness. of names, the understanding 14; ii. c. 10) that the examination of the notion, of the conceptionof a thing,is the he consistentlyeaches t that we beginning of education: ought to pitythose who do wrong, for they err in ignorance c. (i. 18; ii. c. 22, p. 202); and, as Plato says, every mind is deprived of truth unwillingly. Epictetus strongly poses opthe doctrines of Epicurus, of the newer Academics, and of Pyrrho, the great leader of the Skeptical school (i. He has no cussions taste for the subtle disc. 5, c. 23; ii. c. 20). of these men. He says (p.89), Let the followers of Pyrrho and the Academics and make their obcome as "

well

Stoic.

quotes the teaching and

xiv

EPIGTETirS.

jections.For I, as to my part, have no leisure for these the defense of common I able to undertake nor am disputes, consent (opinion)." How indeed perceptionis effected, whether through the whole body or any part, perhaps I But that cannot explain;for both opinions perplex me. I know with perfectcertainty. you and I are not the same, it? When I intend to swallow How do you know anything,
"

1

never

carry

it to your

mouth, otherwise? but

to my

own.

And

you of

who yourselves (thePyrrhonists), the senses, he intended do you act a

take

away

the evidence you,

Who went among into a when He

to enter

bath,

ever

mill?"

which true c. are (ii. 20) that "the propositions used even and evident are of necessity dict by those who contramight perhaps consider it to be the them; and a man to greatestproof of a thing being evident that it is found also says be necessary at the same even

for him For

who

denies a it to make man use

of

it

time.

instance, if

should

deny

that

t anything is universallyrue, it is plain that the contradictorynegation, that nothing true." he must is

make

universally

Logic, and the solution and called Sophistical of what are Hyi^othetical c. arguments (i. 7); but he considered the handling of all such to arguments as a thing relating the duties of life, and as a means toward Ethic, or the practiceof morals. not or

Epictetusdid

undervalue

Dialectic

Rufus to him

said, "for

a

man

to

use

the

appearances

presented

and not to underand foolishly and carelessly, stand rashly nor argument nor demonstration sophism, nor, in a ent word, to see in questioningand answering what is consistwith there no that which error our

we

have

granted

oris not

consistent:

is

in this?" but it life,

objectof true Accordingly Dialectic is not the is a means for distinguishing tween beand for

and

false appearances,

ascertaining the

of in validity evidence, and it givesus security our judgments. It is the application of these things to the pur-

EPICTETUS.

XV

poses

of

life which So he is

the

first and

necessary

part
"The
use

of

philosophy. first and theorems the it is second most says in the Encheiridiou

(LL): the must

necessary

place in philosophy is we of lie: is

for (precepts), instance, That is that that we not

of

denronstration,for instance. How not two to lie: the

proved

ought these third

is that

which

confirmatory of is this is in a and

How tus demonstration?"

only the way of live,accordingto his nature. ing, Epictetusaccordinglyviews that part of the Stoic teachdinate named Physic or the Nature of things,also as suborWe is purely Ethical. to his philosophy, which to ought to live ijccording Nature, and therefore we must inquirewhat the Law of Nature is. The contemplationof this the order of things is the duty of man, and to observe fact for example. explanatory, The philosophyof Epicteliving as a man ought to

wonderful of the live a system

of which

man

is

a

part; live. all

but

the

purpose we contemplationand life such
"

the observation

is that He says

may

as

we

ought
I
care

to

(Frag. posed com-

CLXXV.), is it not and evil, the

What or do

whether

things are earth? and the

of atoms

of similar to know

parts,or nature of fire and of

for the also

enough the the

good

measures

of the

desires and and from

aversions, and

movements as toward

things the them; us? and

using not to

these

rules to ourselves

administer about

the

affairs of

life, but
For human to be

trouble

things are and if any

things above perhaps incomprehensibleto the man these mind: in the

should

even

suppose

them then

what highestdegree comprehensible, them, if they are comprehended? that as is the must we

profitof not And who

say

those

men

have to a

necessary not value no did

the

these things assign discourse? philosopher's Epictetusthen o or inquiriesf the Physical philosophers, needless trouble them. What His

he had and taste

for

Philosophy life? was

Ethical,

his

inquirywas.

is the rule of

xvi
''With
are some BPICTETU8.

c. respectto gods," says Epictetns(i. 12),"there

who it

say that

a

divine

being does

not

exist: others takes

say that no but it is inactive and exists,

and careless,

forethought about anything; a third class say such a but only about great being exists and exercises forethought, things and heavenly things, and about nothing on the thought earth; a fourth class say that a divine being exercises forethe earth and both about heavenly things on things, but in a general way only, and not about things rates Ulyssesand Socseverally. There is a fifth class to whom I move without edge not thy knowlbelong, who say, X. Epictetus (Iliad, 278). After a few remarks then ing ''The wise and after considerconcludes: good man submits his own mind who all these things, to him the whole, as good citizens do to the law of the administers
'
'

"

state."
The which foundation of the Ethic

the Stoic Cleanthes
"

(God), of From we thee must our

Epictetusis the docrine proclaimed in his hymn to Zeus comes." race Epictetusspeaks of and make in men of

Gods, whom

venerate we offerings to; and an God,

from

whom is the

all

are

sprung both of us ner." manespecial

"God This mean father

and no "

of

Gods."

great descent

ought

to teach

to have says,

ignoble or
Since these

thoughts

about

ourselves. in the

He

two common thingsare with with

mingled the the and

generation reason of man,

animals, and

and

common

Gods,

many and

incline to this some body in i intelligencen which kinship, that of which is Providence and his

is miserable divine and

mortal; to few

to

c. happy" (i. 3).

In

a

chapter

c. (i. 6) he attempts

prove

the existence

of God

which is or happens; by everything but in order to understand these proofs, man, he says, a must have the faculty of seeingwhat belongs and happens to "all and things, and a gratefuldisposition" persons i (also,. c. IG). He argues from the very structure of

government

of the world

xviii be afraid you have of God

BPIGTETU8.

anything which for your us happens sorrows among

men?

"

when

maker, and from is a father, and and fears?" of address bonds to guardian, Epictetus

shall not In this to this release

those

chapter also people who on of to

supposed of life intend kinsmen/' He

account

the

of the them

body off, says,

and
*'and

the troubles to this

throw

depart wait you for

their

Epictetus shall "Friends, and for the

God:

when

give go to

the

release

from

this

then service, in this

signal Him; but
He has He has

present endure
"

to dwell not

place where a put

you

^wait

then, do

depart without said reason." if God it. in in have

gives the example of Socrates, who put us in any place,we ought not that Epictetus did not recommend though would for he not that

to desert

I think any case, suicide cases admitted condemn

that

there a man

were

which

he sons rea-

it; but

ought

to

good

leaving his post. The teaching of Epictetus,briefly expressed, is, that for all things, and to God man ought to be thankful always content with that which happens, for what God what is better than choose chooses men can (iv.c. 7). Our is what This to Bishop Butler says, resignation the when will is lost will of God may be said to be perfect our
"

and

resolved as on

end,

we up into his; when being itself most justand

rest

in

his will

as

our

rightand good." in which existence. of the

mon (Ser-

the

Love

of

God.) any passage of God's

1 have

not

discovered

Epictetus
He universe is much as givesany opinion of
God itself. His as the mode maker and

tinguish dis-

the

governor of this

belief in the existence any Christian's could

great power and very

strong

be;

the belief of many who call themselves stronger than "1 declare lieve beChristians, and who solemnly and publicly in and God the Father

Almighty, teaches us

Maker what our of

heaven

earth."

Epictetus

duty

is

^PIGTSTVS.

xk he toward what or

he at a

Grod; and taught,as try to of his

there a is

no

doubt and

that man practiced should do suppose

sincere

honest We

least man do with

all his of

might.

must

that did your

temper renewed of other

mind, and

his

great abilities
"Let your you could that than

what

he recommends be

cxix. ): (Fragments, cxviii., every more talk of God and I
"

day

rather

food;" breathe." come

Think see no

God

frequently than that sucli a man

conclusion

to than

this, that God

exists without

doubt, and

man as incomprehensible to such feeble creatures who lives in so feeble a body. See p. 31, note. God has given to His what We must see means now ing children for doing their duty. Epictetus begins by showand what has put in our what things God power, which is c. things he has not (i. 1; Encheir. 1). ''That best of all and all is the only thing which over supreme the gods have placed in our the right use of appearances; power, but all other things they have not placed in our of this limitation of man's power;" and the reason power

He

is

is,

"

that and

as

we

exist such

on

the

earth

and

are

bound

to such

a

it possible for us companions, how was to be hindered He not to these things by externals?" as in our are things some says again (Encheirid. 1): "Of and others In our not. are are opinion, power, power toward movement a thing, desire, aversion (turning from

body

to

a

thing); and our in are a

word, whatever the are

our

own

acts:

not

in

jwwer

offices body, property, reputation, are (magisterial power), and in a word, whatever And the thingsin our power acts. own are by not not

our

nature

free,

subject to our restraint are nor

hindrance:

but

the

tilingsnot freedom. c. (i. 17):

in

power

weak, slavish,subject to restraint,in the
This all his is his notion of He man's says

power On
*'

of others." notion had

this if God

system

rest?.

made and

that gave

part to of

himself, which such a

he as took to be

fi'oni himself

us, of

nature

XX

EPICTETUS.

hindered won as

or

compelled then be God

either nor by

himself he be

Id not he He

would

by another, he taking care of us or ought," c. 1; says (i. of appearances in our iii. c.

3; and

use

is the and to use

elsewhere) that the right only thing that the gods have it is the business of the to placed
"wise nature." names power; man *'that

and

good
For

appearances a man

conformably what this

purpose

has

Epictetus

he gives a definition or ruling faculty,of which description(iv.c. 7). It is that faculty which uses all tries them, and selects and rejects:" other faculties and a reflect and we judge and determine, a faculty by which other animal no has, a faculty which, as faculty which it marks of Bishop Butler "plainly bears upon says, all the rest, and claims the absolute tion direcauthorityover a "

of

them the

all,to allow

or

forbid

their

gratification" by Epictetus;

(Prefaceto
These and the word

Sermons). are appearances

named
"

(pavrcx6iai animi
"

is translated

Visa

clxxx.). This perceived by on Phantasy the is not the means eyes, but

the eyes, and the senses; it generally and as by Gellius (Frag, is only the thing which impression which is made any impression received power of the mind to are

by

also if

it is the were represent things

they

present, though they

and This are really absent. only present in the mind of Phantasy exists also in animals in various degrees power animals make of use according to their several capacities: but man the use of appearonly understands appearances, ances If a man does not make cannot a right c. or (i. 6).*
*I
an

suppose animal

that this will can be

generally them ants

allowed

to

be

true.

ever What-

do,

we

shall uses as

hardly admit as a man

that can. he

understands However very the

use

of appearances, of some

and

the

powers and

animals,

such

for are example, not are

ful; wonderof

it

maybe

contended

that

they

irrational

in many

their acts, but

quite rational.

EPIGTETU8,

;

xxi

use

of appearances,

he he

approaches the is not what God

nature made

of him an

tional irra-

animal; of and

capable

being.
The
nature nature

of the of not Good

is in

the

use

of appearances,

and

the

evil admit

likewise;and either the

things independent nature of the

will do

of

evil

or

of

c. good (ii. 1). The good and the bad are in man's will, and in nothing external. The rational power therefore leads us to acknowledge as good only that which is conformable and- to recognize is bad that which to reason, as

not

conformable man to

reason.

The

matter

on

which

the

good of the

labors

is his rational

faculty:that

is the business

who wishes to be c. philosopher(iii. 3). A man he is by nature, by his constitution, adapted for bewhat coming, must c. struggle againstappearances" (ii. 18). This is not an easy thing,but it is the only way of obtaining of true freedom, tranquillity mind, and the dominion over the movements is of the soul, in a word which happiness,
"

the

true

end

and

purpose

of

man's

existence

on

earth.

carries in him his own whoni he must Every man enemy, watch carefully (Ench. xlviii).There is danger that appearance which powerfully resist reason, will carry you if you there is are conquered twice or even once, away:

danger that a habit Generally, then,
**"

of

yielding would it a to

them

will

be a formed,

if you make do

make

anything not habit, do custom acc. (ii.

it: if you

would

not

habit, do else in

do

it; but

yourselfto

something

place

of it"

18). you As

have

pleasureEpictetus says (Ench. xxxiv.): "If received the impression{(pawadiav) of any pleasure, to let

guard yourselfagainst bei the thing wait for you, and on ng

carried

away

by it; but certain lay de-

allow

a yourself

part. Then think of both times, of the and of the time time when will enjoy the pleasure, you will repent after the enjoyment of the pleasure when you and reproaichyourself. And set against these things how your own

xxii

EPIGTETUS.

you aud you the

will how

if rejoice, you you have

abstained

from But

the if it

jDleasure, seem will commend to undertake

yourself.

to

seasonable charm of

it, and much the

(do) the thing, take care the attraction and f)leasure, set on

that of it

shall not

conquer how

you,

and better

the be

other

side

the that

sideration con-

it is to

conscious

you

have

gained this victory." the rule that a man

Hence in the

must the

be

careful of the

and

cautious on everything which contrary, with jDOwer, he

is in

power

will; but are respect to must externals
"

which

not

in

a

man's then

be

bold.

Confidence

(courage)

ought to be employed against death, and caution do to the contrary, we againstthe fear of death: but now the attempt to escape; and employ against death and to our opinion about it we employ carelessness,rashness and indifference" of c. (ii. 1). For the purification the soul and enabling it to employ its powers must root out a man of himself two (pride) and distrust. things, arrogance nothing (are Arrogance is the opinion that you want deficient in nothing); but distrust is the opinion that you be happy when circumstances surround cannot so many you."* Bad should and be firmly fixed in The notion of Good man's mind. There is in the opinion of Epictetus no difference this matter. He men on c. 11) among says (ii. the beginning of Philosophy: As to good and on evil,and
"

what the an we

ought
"

to

do

and came what into

we

ought world not

to

do, and

like, idea whoever them?"

the

without

having

of

These

or preconceptions, TtpoXijij^Eii, we

he names general notions c. precognitions (ii. 2); and to discipline in order preconception of the rational
"

need

learn and the

how

to

adapt to the the

irrational

*

Ritter, p. 227, lias and lie has

a

wronjT

reading in liis quotation it. of

this

passage,

misunderstood

EPICTETUS.

xxiii

several

thingsconformably to nature." Why then do men differ in their opinions about particular things? The differences arise in the adaptation of the precognitionsto He the is the particularcases. 1): "This says (iv. c. the not being able to adapt of all their evils, to men cause the general preconceptions the several things," It is so to in everything. Greueral often are principles very simple and intelligible; but vk^hen we to the come applicationof the principles, and difference of opinthere arises difficulty ions. is the Education to adapt the learning how natural precognitions to the particular thingsconformably that of things some to nature; and then to distinguish are
"

in

our

power,

but

others we are

not." act The

Great

Law

of

Life "In

c. (i. 26) is that

must

conformably draws the us to nature.

nature

there is

is

nothing which wliicli in

away of man from

following what many must are taught; the more

but

matters

life, then not

the

things
Avith the

distract of

us." real

A

not to

begin

matters

for it is life,

easy is the state begin with

beginning of of his ruling faculty; for he will not

tlien things. "This philosophy,a man's perceptionof the when it on a in an

difficult

knows the

that

it

is

weak, then

employ

things of

est great-

and again (ii.11), "the difficulty;" beginning of i about his own ness weakphilosopliys a man's consciousness and about and furtlier, inability thiiigs:" necessary this is the beginning of philosophy,a perception of the with one another, and an inquiryinto disagreementof men the cause of the disagreement, and condemnation and a distrust of that whicli only 'seems,' and a certain gation investiof that which it seems 'seems,' whether rightly, and a discovery of some have discovered ance bala rule, as we in the determination of weiglits, and a carpenter's rule (orsquare)in the case of straight and crooked things. This is the beginning of philosophy." assenting to or Epictetusurges the fact of a man
" ' '

xxiv

EPIGTETU8.

not

assenting to something (p. 283); "Who which you not a

thing is able

as

a

proof

that free. to man

sesses possays to which is

naturally compel man.

He

to

you And

assent can pel com-

that

appears to

false? to No that

who

assent

which

appears

true?

No

By this then you see that there is something in But to desire or to be averse free. from, or you naturally toward from to move an it,or to prepare objector to move or yourself, to propose to do anything,which of you can do this, unless he has received an impression of the appearance which is profitable of that a or duty? No man. You have then in these things also something which is not man. hindered care and

is free. for

Wretched

men,

work

out

this,take iv. c.

of

this,seek the good

here."

(Compare

1 p.

338.)
Here belief conclude teaches that a man^s philosopher opinion or his be compelled by another, though we cannot may from that A man a

what

we

see

and of

hear

and do believe

is done not as

in the this

world, fact. himself:

larger part cannot even

mankind or know he

think of

chooses if he

if

a

thing

is

capable is a

demonstration, and believe what of more "

understands

demonstration, he
If the

must

is demonstrated.

thing which matter

probableevidence, he probable, if he has

will follow any that

seems

the say

for thinking. I capacity because the intellectual is very with the

any

capacity minds us

"

for thinking, of a power

in the and of

great very our

number weak

of persons

weak; power our

in all of the

often of

compared our necessities

nature, of

desires,of creature or

in passions, man, fact of all that is pure reason in this wonderful or which name is not we pure

understanding named second

whatever

give to

the

powers The

intellectual.

part of

this

last

quotation from and the

Epictetus that he

relates to the ineaaSj

Will, by which the I mean,

I suppose

tUe wish and

intention and

attemptto

do

xxvi
Their
a

EPIGTETU8.

perseverance in

or an is obstinacy irrational the man often

nothinj^more
It and others

than so perseverance so purpose. himself it is a is often

strong and may view

steadythat a a

too

it

as

strong will;and will in certain
"

strong will, if
"

you
'

choose, certain Those

but

it is is a a

wrong

direction. the nature The the

nature

of the Good kind who

Will:

of

Bad

is

a

of Will have

c. (i. 29).

been

fortunate

in

their

parents and

in

acquired good habits, and are not greatlydisturbed by the affects and the passions, may when pass through life calmly and with little danger, even the powers of the will are weak, and hardly ever very exercised. Life with them is fortunately series of habits a This is the condition good, or at least not bad. generally of many and to be women. men They are good or seem good, because they are not tried above their power; but if them when a temptation should suddenly surprise they are not prepared for it, they are conquered and they fall.
Even
a

their education, who

have

man,

who

has and

trained has for when be a himself

to the

exercise

of his

rational

faculties in a long time passeda by who has the enemy

blameless

life,may he moment

his

is vigilance relaxed,when whom he

is off his

guard, about defeated

always carries
The o principlesf

with

him. a difference reason between and

man,

has

within

him from

the a him

who

not, appears violent storm

story told from on.

by

Gellius

(xix. 1): We when a was

were a

h sailing,e

says, came Cassiopa to In the ship

Brundisium there

Stoic

a philosopher,

man

of

his good repute. He who told the story says that he kei)t how he behaved under the eyes on the philosopher to see The circumstances. philosopherdid not weep and bewail like the rest,but his complexion and apparent pertui'batiou did When went not

much the

differ from was those a of

the other

passengers. from

danger to over,

wealthy Greek an Asia,

up

the

Stoic, and

in

manner insulting

said.

EPIGTETUS.

XXV

ii

How were was

is

this,philosopher? when and The to we was a

were

in

danger, you afraid nor

afraid I

grew

pale. not man

pale; but I philosopherafter a neither

little hesitation so said, he sion occa-

If I seemed you are be

little afraid the

in reason violent of it. on a

tempest, like so

worthy a to hear

However a told the was story about

w Aristippus,*ho

like this Greek; questioned by a man philosophergot rid of the impertinent fellow.

and When

the

they

arrived

philosopher the for an philosopher explanation of his fear, which He took out of his bag a work of Epictetus, readilygave. in which the following of his discourses the fifth book was the mind affects of (visa passage (Frag, clxxx. ): The a animi), which philosophers name q)avra6iai, by which of a thing man's mind is struck by the first appearance which belong to the will approaches,are not things which in our but nor by a peculiar force they intrude power, at Brimdisium,

the

narrator

asked

the

themselves

on

men.

But

the of are assents, which

they which name

6vyHaraOE6Eii same affects the reason a

(the assents (visaanimi) are some

the

judgment), by and of men the are known power

determined to from this from

will and when some in the

make. heavens or For or frightfulsound sudden news

in the

fall,or same of

danger moved comes,

thing anyeven

of the the mind of

kind wise that he has

happens, it man is unavoidable

that

the and

must

be grow

somewlnit

and an confounded,

he must

pule, not of any

through danger mind man

opinion which the not which

first conceived

(or and does

evil), but

rapid and inconsiderate anticipate(prevent)the exercise of the
In these and a by

certain

emotions

reason.

short

time

however

the

wise

allow

emotions he sees them, is the
*

(visaanimi) to remain, nothing terrible in them. the fool
The

but

he

jects re-

But man: this

difference between
Or follower of and

the

wise

the

a

Aristippus.

text

is not

certain.

xxviii

^

BPIGTETm.

gerous, fool, as the thingsat the firsts impulse appeared to be dansuch when former with he has he thinks moved them for his to a

be; short but

the

wise

man,

been and

time, recovers he the

state

vigor of

mind, which that always liad are reference

to such

appearances,

they

not

ob-

of by jects fear, but only terrify a false show.* be applied to all the events, Tliis explanation may the and man's

to

alj

thoughts the mind he

and

to all the emotions

which cause disturb or the mind If a reason,

whatever been

be

their

natui-e.

has

long under recover proper

after discipline, and to reflection resume is able to

froai

this disorder been thus A under

his former

state.

If he lias not of reason or are

proper

w disciplinehen do anything however may of the facultyof in order A as his powers

assailed,he sound ercise ex-

foolish the AVill be

bad.

therefore and

cipline, requiresdismaintained.

that

it may

corrected

man

must

exercise

his will and to nature

improve and it

by

labor

so

to make

it conformable the

free.

This

cise exer-

of the will and never the never improvement of it are a labor should begin it as soon ends. A man he can. as must question is asked how a man begin, who been his trained own that If

has fully care-

parent or teacher to observe t conduct, to reflect,o determine, and a by

then some to

act, I cannot many a

tell.

Perhaps would in a a

mere

accident, life, in the as was trifle which

persons

not

notice, may

be

the case beginning of of total was change a man's

Polemon,

who

dissolute

chance drunken so passingthe lecture-room companions burst into by a

youth, and as he of Xenocrates, he the room.

by his was

and

Polemon

affected out the

words man, of the and

excellent

teacher, that
Xenocrates

he

came

different

at last succeeded

ill the habits
*

school then of the

Academy

c. (iii. 1). Folly and

bad and

may

by

reflection of be altered the into wisdom
The

This

is the

general sense

passage.

translation is

^0% easy.

SlPlGTSTtTS.

Xxlx

a

doubtedly thing happens, and unbe said that the origin it has happened, it may the change is not in a man^s will,but in something or external. Granted: a thing external has presented an

course goocl

of

life.

If

such

a

appearance

to

a

man, same as

but in the

the

effect as of we the

appearance that and or would was not

be the same, all men,

presume Polemon a it his

not

the

story is told,in in this use companions. and a

One

man

case

had

temper power be

position disto

capacity to of his

mental It may

and said in

profitby this power is of a the

words or Xenocrates.

that the

temper

and disposition

capacity are is true. various the Bat

not

man's us. Will;
Men say, he

and

this

that

matter as nothing to Epictetus would them have

and, capacities, who power has is the for In

as

they are pleases. in a

gift of God, man tributes disof

One which say

using an and way a appearance has a man

way can good

himself, whatever another then

not.

We been

no

more.

has must must

led to

exercise exercise

his will toward of his will for habit will

good end, an he he

practice the make he may a such

end;

habit then

of it, which have a acquirestrength;and that he will not reasonable

hope
This I collect

often

fail in his of

good he that a purpose. we believe from I

to be the numerous no

meaning passages reader

as Epictetus,

may

the

in which think

speaks

of the will. what I

hope

that as will

I propose

have
I have

said

a

sufficient

explanationof

difficult matter.

only said what I think to be sufficient to explain and I have said what to me to be true. seems Epictetus; nor Epicurus taught that we should not marry beget in publicaffairs, children nor because these things engage disturb our tranquillity. Epictetusand the Stoics taught that a man

should

marry, a should citizen.

beget children, and
In
one

charge discourses dis-

all the

duties of
About
a

of

his best

c. (iii. 22;

what

kind

of person

in he describes Cynisin), which should Cynic (hisideal philosopher)

he, he about wandered where

says

that and are he bad is

a

messenger

from show

God

(Zeus)to that men

good it is is

things, to the it How where say,

them of never they and have evil The man and

seeking to substance

good

not; but is is, they is it and

think.

Cynic like supposed
The that has answer himself, who

houseless

possible that a has nothing, can sent live to happily? show you he

is. See, God

has man you no a

man

it is

possible. he In has

The no has nor city,nor and a

house, yet he nothing; nothing. marry you

wife, a children;

wants

reply to procreate a

question whether children, of to Cynic answers: should
''If
no man and

Epictetus wise the men, grant will perhaps

community readily apply himself me practice." However, he says, prevent him from marrying and wife will be another of like himself.

Cynic if he does, nothing will begetting children, for his
"

But," he adds, that the on "

in

the

present

state

things

which not is like fit that

of

an

army should

placed without of to in any battle

order, is it be Cynic the not

distraction to employed only among men, nor tion ministratied down in the

God, able common go

about of

the

duties of

mankind, if he

entangled and ordinary maintain and if

relations the

life,which of an

neglects,he character The net to

will not man? of the

character

honorable will lose the of God." of God

good

he

observes and spy

them, and a

he herald

messenger,

conclusion

is tliat it is better

for

minister

marry.*

the body in the Epictetus distinguishesthe soul from but chapter (iv.c. 11) about purity (cleanliness); he wisely does not attempt there Farrar

to

define

the

soul.

He in
God

says, man "

"We

pose supthat we that
*Dr.
"

is says something in his of a "

superior after as a

and

Seekers

(Epictetus p. 238), of That

Epictetus approves his views have
I do of on celibacy close and understand will 'counsel

perfection,' to tence; sen-

and

indeed of remarkable the see resemblance

those

St. Paul." the reader a not

first

part second of

this

and true. Epictetus the matter

that

the

part is

not

There

is

note

(pp. 287, 353).

"!PlGTETtTS.

Xxxi since the

firstreceive it from nature are

the Gods: free for

Gods

by

their

so corruption, far as men by reason, so far do they clingto purity approach them of purity/' It is however and to a love (habit) impossible but reason ors endeavto be altogether nature for man's pure; love purity. The first then nature make human to is in the soul; and we and highestpurity is that which say the could discover of impurity. But the same not you impurityof the soul as you could discover that of the body:

pure

and

from

"

but

as

to the

soul, what it the acts else could

you

find in it than which are that her an which

makes Now

in filthy respect to of the soul are the acts movement own?

toward

from it,desire,aversion, preparation, objector movement What then is it which in these a design (purpose),ssent. the soul filthy and impure? acts makes Nothing else than her own bad judgments. Consequently the impurity of the soul is the soul's bad of opinions;and the purification the soul is the planting in it of proper opinions;and the soul is pure which has proper for the soul alone opinions, in her own acts is free from perturbationand pollution." is not "flesh nor Epictetus says (iv.c. 7) that man bones nor sinews, but the the

he

is that

which them

makes and

use

of

these

parts of to be

body or and

governs of

appearances

the

same

nearly the

stands) (underthings." This opinion seems as same c. Bp. Butler's (iv. 7, any distinct are follows

note). the If then he

Epictetus is a man

had

notion

of

soul, and
I think

whose

notions

tinct, generallydis-

opinion of man's body and of man's soul is,that a man's but tlie body is body is not the man, that "finely tempered clay" in which the man dwells, and the body he could without live this earthly life: and not his notion of the soul is that which is stated above c. (iv.
11

that

his

and

c.

7).

As the have

to the

mode and the

and

nature can of

this

tion connec-

between

body

soul, I all only of suppose

that he would

disclaimed

knowledge

it,as

he

xxxii
-

BPICTETUS.

does

of the that nature any

suppose

perception (p. 89); and philosopheror theologian would of soul on of

I

do

not

venture

to say what

this connection which man and

body

is.

In

the

life then

lives

the earth same or

I think

that the same comes as

opinionsof Epictetus are those of Swedenborg; but all men, different. And It is a the after

nearlythe

the

event, which

to

and

which

we

name

Death, the opinionsare the very

what

is Death?
"

going and to the

(p. 257 in place from to chapter on you what

Solitude). to your was which

came,

friends you

kinsmen, to the

elements: to there air

in

of fire goes water of earth fire, no earth; of no air; of tus, nor

to water:

Hades,
'^

to (spirit) Acheron, nor Cocy-

Daemons.'' not Pyriphlegethon, but He says (p. 314): the state

all is death

full is a of

Gods

and

greater change, is not, but

from

which now. now

is to Shall I

that then be

which no to that

which not is not

longer exist? else, of into had of the also the came You which

will

exist, but now you

will

something you the world not has you

need:

for

existence need of

when Death

chose, but resolution when

world

you."

is the

of the matter

body
This
we

into the is

things out of which it is composed (p. 387). distinct and O intelligible.f the soul, which, as seen, have the

he

considers

to

be

in not

some

way

different

from

body during life,he that he means, does means I think like what

if he

speak so distinctly. anything, something no I have

said in p.

387, appears note. to The future we

who philosopher, as existence,

have

belief teaches

in

a

it is a generally understood, life in all our that

thoughts and in all acts as a Christian would teach. He our says (p. 318), Then in the place of all other delightssubstitute this, that of being conscious that you are obeying God, that not in word, but in deed you are performing the acts of a wise He looks for no reward for doing what "nd good man." ought to
"

live such

'

xxxiv strative of

EPIGTETU8.

one,

a

future we are

would life, to live

not

be

a

proof to of

religion.For, with accounted for

that the

hereafter, is just as as oncilable rec-

scheme that

of we atheism, and are now

well

be

by it,as be can more

alive

is; and from as

fore therethat

nothing can scheme that there

absurd no than

to argue

be

future

state.

But

religion state such a impliesa future state,any presumption against is a presumption againstreligion." I conclude that Epictetus, who was a religious man, who believed in the existence not and

of God a and

his administration does he say

of all

did things, it.

deny his future

life;nor

that he believes

I conclude

that he did not

underetand of God

it;that also was.

it

was

beyond

conception,as as a

the nature
'*

His

great merit

teacher nature is that he and in

attempted tion constitulife."* to to show

that there

is in man's reason the

of He knew us thingssufficient well what how we can

for

a living

virtuous

man's secure nature

is,and

he

endeavored

teach

happinessin this life as far as it. we are capableof attaining More might be said;but this is enough. I will only add that the Stoics have been charged with arrogance; and the for it charge is just. Epictetushimself has been blamed who not are even theologians, by modern always free from this fault themselves. arrogance is any in Epictetus, he did not us If there

arrogance teach

or

ent apparhe has will

it,for

warned especially see against

this

as fault,

the

reader

in several passages.
*

I

am

not

sure

that I in understood rightly

the "Let

Apostle Paul, us when

he for wrote

the

note we p. 315.

The said he to

words be a

eat

and a as

drink,
Greek
clusion conmarks, re-

to-morrow

die," are then may
A

quotation as as

from but

writer.

The

words

taken

not

Paul's,
I

the

of foolish is of this and

persons.

friend

who, as imderstand was a

his

opinion, also about adds the that

Paul

learned

man, tainly cer-

knew

something them Greek and philosophers,he would more give may be

credit for better

rational Paul is not

opinions.

This to the true even meaning

of

the words. make a always of easy

understand,

by

those

Avho

specialstudy

his

Epistles.

CONTENTS.

BOOK
Chapter.

I.
Page.

I.

Of

the

things
Power Man

which

are

in

our

Power,

and

not

in

our

3 occasion maintain his 8

II.

How

a

on

every

can

Proper ni. How God a Character Man should the Father

proceed of all

from Men

the to principle the rest

of

heing or 13

IV.

Of

Progress the Improvement

14

V.

Against
Of

Academics

18

VI.

Providence

19

VII.

Of

the

use

of

Sophistical like Arguments

and

Hypothet
24

ical, and
VIII. That the

the

Faculties

are

not

safe

to

the

Uninstructed.

29

IX.

How

from

the

Fact to that the

we

are

akin

to

God

a

Man

may X.

proceed those Consequences eagerly seek Preferment at 31

Against
Rome

who

37

XI.

Of

Natural

Affection

39

XII.

Of

Contentment

44

XIII.

How Gods

Everything

may

be

done

acceptably

to

the 49

XXXVl

BPIGTETUa,

Chapter.

Page.

XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII.

That What Of

the

Deity oversees

All

Things

50 52 54

Philosophy promises

Providence the we That That

Logical Art ought not is necessary to 56 with the Errors 60

be

Angry

of (Faults) XIX. XX. XXI. xxn. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. How About we others behave and who how wish to should Reason

Tyrants contemplates itself be Admired

64 69 71 72 75

it

Against those
Of

to

PrsBCognitions

Against Epicurus
How On What In how Aids we we

should same struggle with

Circumstances

76 79

the

is the many

Law

of ways

Life

84

Appearances

exist, and

wiiat

should not provide against them to be

87 and what Men
.
.

XXVIII.

That are we

ought
Small

Angry with
Great

Men;

the

and

the

Things among

90 94

XXIX. XXX.

On What

Constancy (or Firmness) we ought

to

have

ready

in DiflBcult

stances Circum104

BOOK

II.

I.

That

Confidence

(Courage)

is not

inconsistent

with 107

Caution II.
Of

(Freedom Tranquillity

from

Perturbation)

114

EPIGTETUS,

xxxvii

Chaptkb.

Paob.

III. IV.

To

those a who

recommend who

Persons had once to

Philosophers detected in

117

Against

Person

been

Adultery
V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. How Of How What That

118 is consistent with Care 120 124 to use

Magnanimity
Indifference
we

ought is the

Divination of the Good which the the ter Charac-

128 130

Nature we when of a cannot

fulfill that we assume

Man

promises,

Character 136

of

a

Philosopher we X.

How

may

discover

the

Duties

of

Life

from

Names XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. What
Of

140

the

Beginning or of

Philosophy

is

145 148 151 155

Disputation

Discussion

Of To To

Anxiety (Solicitude)
Naso
or

against have do and we those

who

Persist obstinately

in what

they
XVI.
That we determined not 160 to use our

strive

Opinions

about 163

Good XVII. How

Evil

must

adapt Preconceptions

to

particular
170

Cases

XVIII. XIX.

How

we

should those in struggleagainst Appearances who embrace

176

Against only

Philosophical Opinions
180

Words

XX. XXI. XXII.

Against
Of
Of

the

Epicureans

and

Academics

186 193 196

Inconsistency
Friendship
the Power of SXIH,

On

Speaking

30^

xxxviii

EPIGTETU8.

Chaftbb.

Pagb.

XXrV.

To

a (oragainst) were

Person

who

was

one

of

those

who 209 213

not

valued

(esteemed) by him

XXV. XXVI.

That

Logic is the

is necessary

What

Property

of

Error

214

BOOK

III.

I.
II,

Of

Finery a in Dress Man

217 to be

In what

ought and exercised we who

has the

made Chief 234

Proficiency;

that

neglect

Things
III.
What is the Matter on which we a

Good

Man

should

be ploy em-

employed, and ourselves IV.

in what

to ought chiefly

228 who in a

Against

a

Person way who

showed Theater account his

Partisanship in

an

unseemly
V.

231 of Against those
Home

on

Sicknfess

go

away 233 236

VI. VII.

Miscellaneous To the Administrator of the Free Cities who was an

Epicurean
VIII. How we 237 exercise ourselves

must

ances against Appear243

IX.

To

a

certain a Rhetorician

who

was

going

up

to Rome

on

Suit Manner we 244

X. XL

In what Certain

ought

to

bear

Sickness

247 251

Miscellaneous

Matters

XII.

About

Exercise

,

,

,

,

...

253

EPICTETUS.

xxxix

Chaptbb.

Page.

XIII.

What

Solitude Man is is, and

what

Kind

of

Person

a

tary Soli255

XIV. XV.

Certain That we Miscellaneous

Matters

259 with

ought

to

proceed

Circumspection

to

Everything
XVI. That we 261 with Caution Men to enter into

ought

Familiar 263 265

Intercourse XVII. XVIII. XIX. Of Providence we with

That What and

ought is the

not

to

be

disturbed of a by

any

News.
.

.

267
.

Condition

Common

Kind

of Man 268

of we a

Philosopher derive XX.

That

can

Advantage

from

all

External 269

Things
XXI.

Against

those

who

readily come

to

the

Profession

of

Sophists
XXII. XXIII. About To

272 277 read and discuss for the sake of Ostentation 294

Cynism who those

XXIV.

That

we

ought which not are to

be not moved in our

by

a

Desire

of those

Things
XXV.
To

Power their

300

those those

who who

fall off

f (desist)rom

Purpose

320 322

XXVI.

To

fear Want

BOOK

IV.

I. II. III.

About Of What

Freedom

329 360

Familiar

Intimacy we Things

should

Exchange

for other

Things 361

XL

EPIGTETU8.

Chaptsb.

Page.

IV.

To

those

who

are

desirous

of

passing

Life

in

quillity Tran-

363

V.

Against Against
On

the

Quarrelsome who lament

and

Ferocious

373

VI.

those

over

being

Pitied

378

VII.

Freedom

from

Fear

385

VIII.

Against
Dress

those

who

hastily

rush

into

the

Philosophic
392

IX.

To

a

Person

who

had

been

changed

to

a

Character

of

Shamelessness

399

X.

What

Things we we

ought
Value

to

Despise

and

what

Things
403

ought
Purity

to

XI.

About

(Cleanliness)

408

XII.

On

Attention

414

XIII.

Against
Affairs

or

to

those

who

readily

Tell

their

own

417

The

Encheiridion

or

Manual

431

Fragments

451

Index

493

2

EPICTETU8.

as

possible, to for

the

purpose of

of the

preserving thoughts the them and the

as

rials memo-

myself of such not afterward

freedom

of

speech

Epictetus. as a

Accordingly, would address would

Discourses

are

naturally to man

without write

preparation the do without not view know either of

another,

such them. into the

as

a

man

with
I

others

reading they consent fell

Now, hands being of the But

such,

how

public, it to concerns my if I

or

my

knowledge. incompetent at all when if

me

little it shall

be

considered not write; shall and

cerns con-

Epictetus words; that his he for had at

any

man

despise it the was his

the

time

he

uttered than to them, move plain of courses Dis-

no

other the purpose best this words let

minds these

hearers should

to

things. effect, of those

If,

indeed, will produce the they

have,

I to know not think, have. the But when

result if

which

philosophers who the read hearer

ought them could wished

they

shall

not, delivered that, avoid to

Epictetus affected if effect the in

them, way that

being
But not it

the

Epictetus as him

be. do Discourses this that

themselves, it may be that

they the are

written, is result, the fault

mine,

or,

may

be,

thing

is

unavoidable.

Farewell!

BOOK

I.

CHAPTER

I.

OF

THE

THINGS

WHICH

ARE

IN
POWER.

OUR

POWER,

AND

NOT

IN

OUR

Of

all you

the

faculties find not (except one that

which is I shall of

soon

tion), men-

will

which not capable

ing contemplatof ing approvart a itself; and, or consequently,
How

capable does As and the

either

disapproving. the far

grammatic as possess

contemplating about As what far as power? written about itself? to far

forming
And Does how either But grammar you so judgment far of when will

is

spoken. melody. By no music? them you tell then

judging

contemplate write words

means.

must

something you must

your

friend, but you.

you write music the

what or write; not whether And you or should is with

not, as grammar musical time you. and

will

tell

it

to

sounds;

but the

whether

should

sing music That And is the

at

present not play
What both The have power

on

lute, then all

do

neither, tell you ?

will which what

tell

faculty itself and

will other

contemplates is this

things. for examines this

faculty? that we

rational received it which faculty;* which and what

only

faculty it itself, what
*Tbe
"

is,

and

what that has,

is

the

rational are faculty properties makes

is of of

Antoninus soul: it sees says

(xi. 1): lyzes ana-

These

the and

the such

rational as itself, fruit which

itself,

itself

it

chooses;

the

it

bears,

itself

enjoys."

4

EPICTETU8.

value what

of

this

gift,and which examines tells us

all other that faculties:

for

golden things are Evidently it beautiful,for they do not say so themselves? which is capable of judging of appearances.* is the faculty and the other faculties, else judges of music, grammar, What their uses and points out the occasions for proves Nothing else. using them? else is there As then it over was

fit to be

so, that

which

is best of all and

the gods have only thing which but all placed in our power, the rightuse of appearances; it other things they have Was not placed in our power. I indeed think that, if they because they did not choose? had been able, they would have put these other things also in our but they certainly could not.f For as we power, bound exist on the earth, and to to such a body and are dered such companions, how it possible for us not to be hinwas as to these thingsby externals? I But what Epictetus,if it were possible, says Zeus? have made would both your little body and your little property free and But be not not exposed to hindrance. now supreme
*This Stoics gave the senses, is what the and name all is the

lie lias of just named to the

rational

faculty. The received appearances

all impressions

by

to

all emotions

caused

by external

things. not f Compare the power

Antoninus,

ii. 3.

Epictetus does that the contradictories.

intend of to

limit

of the it

gods,but cannot man

he

means

constitution

things so stituted con-

being

what

is,they

do

They
How

have then

things that they give
(De
to man a

is hindered of not by

externals.

could

power
c.

being hindered
"But
it

by externals said, many to V

eca Sen-

Providentia, which cause

6) says: you answer

maybe hard I have

things
Because
m

happen

sadness, fear, and not save

are

bear. your

(God says) I could against all." This disproved the common

from

them, who armed

inds

is the

to those

imagine that they have of assertion

of

the

omnipotence
This

God,

when

they
He

ask

whether cause He and

can

combine to inherent

contradictions, whether is indeed a surd very ab-

can

two

two

make

five.

way

of

talking.

EPIGTBTU8.

5

ignorantof tempered. have this: this
And

body was is not not yours, able

but

it is for

clayfinely what I

since I
I have

to do

you

given you a small portion of us,* of pursuing an this faculty objectand avoiding it,and the faculty of desire and aversion, and, in a word, the faculty if you will take of things;and of using the appearances consider it your of this faculty and care only possession, with be hindered, never meet impediments; you will never mentioned, you will not any

lament, you

will

not

blame,

you

will

not

ter flat-

person. do these with it is in seem Well,
Be
now

to you then power to small and to matters pray to ? the one I

hope

not. But

content when attach

them our gods.

look

after

thing, and

to

ourselves

it, we to things,and to to slave.

to be bound

prefer to look after many things,to the body and many and to

property, and
Since
them

to brother

friend, and to many

to child

and are then

we

are

bound

things,we
For this

depressedby when torment wind When my not and is not

dragged fit for

down.

reason,

the weather

ourselves, and is w sailing,e sit down continuallylook out to see

and what us blowing. the west or It

is north. blow ?

What When

is

that

to

?

will

wind

it shall
; for

choose,
God has -^olus. can good made man,

when the

it shall

please^olus of you ?

manager make in our the best winds, use but we What

then

We

must are the

that use of cording ac-

the

things which to their

power,

and

the then

rest

nature.

What

is their nature

?

As

God

may

please.
I then alone

Must
*

have

my

head

cut

off ? faculties What, of would and Scbweigliaeuser observes and of desire to that

these

pursuit animals avoidance, appearances, and

aversion, and as even

the man; faculty of using but in not belong are animals

well

as

to

using what appearances

moved in

by passion only, man and

do are understand his trol. con-

they

are

doing, while

these

passions

under

6

EPIGTETUS.

yon

have ?

all Will Rome he

men

lose their not heads out that your him his

you neck to may as be

soled con-

you

stretch Nero

Lateranus* beheaded received ? a did For

at

when had

ordered out be and a when

stretched made him

neck,

feeble

blow, which it out

draw a it in for

moment, he who

he was stretched visited him

again. And by Epaphroditus,f the I cause little

before, when freedman, he I had will

Nero's

asked

about "If

of to offense tell

which

given, he tell your

said,
What

choose

anything,

master.'' then ? what is not is not should What a man

have

in readiness this ? What

ip^ such is me, cumstanc cir-

else than what is

mine, and and I then what die also then and I in in even mine

; and

permitted to die. permitted to me. lamenting ? I must be put lament hinder ? me I must in

Must Must any chains.
Does and which But

I

then man I

must

go

into

exile. smiles secret from ?

going
Tell
me

with the

cheerfulness you I will possess.

contentment

will

not, for this is in my

power. you my

put not you Me

chains. chains Zeus

J: Man,
? You

what

are

may can fetter

talking about? leg, but my will
I will throw cut himself

overpower.

you your, alone

into head not can-

prison. My off. poor then

body, you have These are mean.

I will that my

When be cut
*

I told you the

head

off ?

things was which

philosophers being to gaged en-

Plautius in Piso's

Lateranus, consul-elect,

charged with was without who

He conspiracy against Nero. being allowed to see his children him xv. a was

hurried and

tion execu-

;

though

the tribune said

executed

privy of to

the

plot, Lateranus the master is recorded he was nothing. (Tacit.Ann. f Epaphroditus was
Epictetus. He him: he was 49, 60.) freedman Nero, and
One
for

once

of of

Nero's to kill

secretary.

good this act act

helped Nero is himself, and
c.

killed

by Domitian X This

(Suetonius, Domitian, an 14). in imitation

of

a

passage

the

Bacchae

of

Euripides

(v. 492, "c.), which

is also imitated

by Horace

(Epp.

i.

16).

BPICTETV8.

7 should write

should which meditate

on,

which

they would What

daily,in to-day say to

they
*

should used exercise to say^ I

themselves. rather then the be killed

Thrasea than him how

banished

to-morrow.

did

Kufusf
But

?

If

you

choose the has

death

as

heavier

misfortune,

great is lighter, who

folly of your given you the with that

choice

? ?

if,as you the not choice has Will

study to
What
a

be content then did to was which

been

given to
**

you ?

hindrance his trial turn was

that it may
"

out the take After

not AgrippinusJ say ? He said, I am it was myself.^' When reported to him going on in the Senate, he said, ^'I hope well ; but it is the fifth hour of the day
"

this

time the

when cold he

was
"
"

used let

to us exercise go and

himself take our and

then

bath taken

exercise."

he had been ?

his

one exercise,

comes

and he my

tells him. You or replies,

have death

condemned. banishment. from you.

To

banishment,
What about go

to

To

property

?

It is not

taken

Let

us

to Aricia

then," he said, and
*

dine. a Tlirasea time to

Paetus, put of

Stoic to who pliilosoplier, death was

ordered

in

Nero's was himself

(Tacit.Ann.

xvi.

21-35). of He

the

husband in the time way

Arria, whose

mother

Arria, the wife

Caecina

Psetus, husband of the to Emperor famous Claudius, heroically showed has her

the

die

Letters, iii.16). Martial (Plinius, a talized immor-

the elder
"

Arria

in

epigram (i.14):

W^hen Arria the sword, to her Paetus gave Which her own hand from her chaste bosom drew, 'This wound she said, 'believe gives no pain, me, But that will pain me which will do.' " thy hand
'

f C.

Munsonius

Rufus,
Stoic

a

Tuscan

by birth, iii. of

equestrian

rank,

a

philosopher and

(Tacit.Hist. was 81). in X Paconius charge against head of the

Agrippinus him was

condemned inherited xvi. Nero's

time.

The of the

that

he

his

father's

hatred father of Roman

state to

(Tacit.Ann. under Roman

28). The

pinus Agripc.

had

been

put about death

Tiberius miles

(Suetonius, Tib. from 61).

" Aricia,
Appia.

twenty

Rome,

on

tht" Vip.

8
This
to

EPIGTETUS.

it is to have made

studied

what

a

man

ought
I must

to

study; and If dine die.

have

desire,aversion,free a man

from

hindrance, die. now

free now, frodi all that
I
am

would

avoid. a ready to a man

die.

If, after

short this

time, I
I will

because

it is the

dinner-hour

; after

then

^ow?

Like

who

givesup*

what

belongsto

another.

CHAPTER
H0V7
A

II.
CAN" MAINTAIN
HIS

MAN

Olif

EVEKY
PROPER

OCCASION CHARACTER.

To

THE

rational that which

animal

only

is the

irrational

able; intolerare

but

is rational is tolerable.

Blows

not

How is that ? intolerable. See how the Lacenaturally daemoniansf endure whipping when they have learned that To whipping is consistent with reason. hang yourselfis then you have the opinion that it When not intolerable. is rational, serve, obyou go and hang yourself. In short, if we shall find that the animal is pained by noth we man is irrational ; and, on the as by that which ing so much is to that which as contrary, attracted to nothing so much rational. But the way rational and

the

irrational

appear the For

such and

in

a

different

to different

persons,

justas

good l"arn the

and bad, the profitable

the

unprofitable.

this reason, how to in we particularly, need discipline, order to adapt the preconceptionof the rational and

the irrational the it." occasion

*Epictetus, Enclieiridion, c. 11: "Never

say

on

of

anything, f The
Orthia

'

I have

lost

it,'but to '

say, be

I have

returned at Spartan boys used flowed even a

whipped and the

altai hi Artemis till "

till blood never abundantly, groan sometimes

death; but

they

uttered

Tuscul. (Cicero,

ii. 14

v.

37).

10

EPICTEWS.

ask

me

the

I say life. do not take

question,whether death is preferableor life? Pain or pleasure? I say pleasure. But if I a part in the tragicacting,I shall have my off. head

struck

Go you which

then

and

take

Why? thread Because of those you

consider are care

part, but yourself to be a I will

not. one only then it

in the how has

tunic. should

Well

was

for fitting of men, to take the other which

you no be like the be

rest

just as superiorto the that appear small

thread

design to
I wish makes

threads. is

But

to be

anything purple,* rest part

bright, and

all the

Why then do you tell me graceful and beautiful. to make myself like the many? and if I do, how shall I still be purple? Priscus Helvidiusf also saw this,and acted conformably. him For when to go not Vespasian sent and commanded "It is in your into the senate, he replied, not to power of the senate, but so allow me to be a member long as I am, I must say

go

in." Do

Well, not go

in my

then, says

the

emj)eror, I will be must but

nothing.
But I must

ask your

silent. what death.

ask But did

opinion,and I opinion. And do, I shall that mine: I am say to I think When will do

right. then your

if you I tell you

put

you

immortal?

You

part, and is the worn I will do

it is your on part

*The the

"purple" by

broad

purple

border

the

toga named and some

toga pratexta,

by

certain

Roman certain magistrates

others, and

senators, it is

said, on

days (Cic.Phil. a ii.

43).

\ Helvidius by the are Priscus,

a

Roman

senator as an

and honest

philosopher, is man: "

mended com-

Tacitus

(Hist. iv. 4, 5) considered He

followed which

philosopherswho virtuous, those

those bad which

things only are are

to

be

good he only

to

be

foul; and external in a reckoned as power,

rank, and

all other bad."

things which him too to

to

the mind

neither

good the nor

Vespasian, probably ordered it was fit of to passion,being and provoked revoked c.

by Helvidius, order when

be

put

death,

then

late

(Suetonius, Vespasian us,

15).

BPIGTETU8.

11

to me; kill;it is mine to

mine

to

die, but without did

not sorrow. in

fear:

yours

to banish

depart then only a single person? And what good does the purple do for the toga? Why, what else than this, that it is conspicuous in the toga as purple,and is displayedalso as a fine example to another all other things? But in such circumstances would have replied forbade him to Caesar who to enter the such for sparing me. But a man senate, I thank you have forbidden the not to enter even Vespasian would
What

good

Priscus

do, who

was

senate, for he earthen knew

that if he more. he

would he

either would

sit there say what

like

an

vessel, or, add an even spoke, also Caesar

wished, and
In this way

danger of His dying unless his private parts were amputated. brother and to the came athlete,who was a philosopher, Shall we said. Come, brother, what are you going to do? and return to the amputate this member gymnasium? But the athlete and died. persistedin his resolution asked he did this,as an When some one Epictetus,How athlete or a philosopher? As a man, Epictetus replied, and a man who had been proclaimed among the athletes at the Olympic games had in them, a man and contended who had been familiar with such a place,and not merely was athlete

acted

who

in

anointed even in Baton's

school.*

Another

would have which

have lived is so allowed without

his head

to be cut

off,if he could to character to

it. those

Such who and

is that have

regard been strong

in

accustomed other

introduce into it of themselves their erations. delib-

conjoined with

things

Come,
*

then, Epictetus,shave was f yourself. gymnasiarcli of M. Aurelius or If

I

am

a

Baton

elected in or

for two

years

superintendent
Antoninus. See

of

a

gymnasium

about

tlie time

note. Scliweigliaeuser's

"*-This

is

supposed,

as

Casaubon

says,

to

refer

to

Domitian'a

12

EPICTETUS.

philosopher, I will take it off. person

answer,

I

will If

not

shave will do

myself. you any

But

1

off jour

head?

that

good,

take

Some us asked. How is bull powers herd? suitable

then to shall his

every

man

among

perceive his the

what the own character? the lion has

How,

he

replied,does discover of the

alone, when and attacked, in fense de-

put

himself that

forward with the

whole of

It is them of a us

plain is powers

perception of man;

having

immediately such powers made

conjoined; will not

and, therefore, whoever

has

be nor ignorant a them. but summer Now we bull

is not

suddenly, in brave

must

discipline ourselves and not

the upon

winter that

for which

the

campaign, concern us.

rashly run

does

not at

Only for a no

consider other sum. what at price for which and

you

sell your you own

will;

if

reason,

least

this, that is sell it not

for

small

But to that

great and as are a superior perhaps him. belongs then, if of us we

Socrates

such are like very all

Why become are

naturally such,
Is it true are am

not

great number horses like that

him? all

then

that in

swift,
What,
reason,

dogs
I

skilled

tracking footprints? shall then, take to

since no naturally dull,
I

I,

for is this I

this not pains? but for I shall nor hope if never

not.

Epictetus inferior, and

superior enough not not

Socrates; me; he

is be

not a is do

for

Milo,

yet yet

neglect my neglect after my

body;

shall nor, I be in we a

a

Croesus, and word, do we I do

property;

neglect the "

looking

anything

because

-despairof reaching

highest degree. order to to

the

philosophers profession take to

go

into

exile; and shaved some

of

them, beards. in

order

conceal

their not of

philosophy, beard. their

tetus Epic-

would

oil his

EPICTETU8.

13

CHAPTER
HOW
GOD A

III.
FROM
OF ALL MEN THE

MAN BEING

SHOULD
THE

PROCEED
FATHER

PRINCIPLE TO
THE

OF REST.

If

a

man

should we be

able

to assent

to this doctrine God* both in of an as

he

ought, that manner, are

all sprung God is the

from father

especial and of

and

that

men

that he would have any ignobleor never gods, I suppose But if Caesar (theEmperor) mean thoughtsabout himself. could endure should adopt you, no one your arrogance; and if you know Yet in that we you do

are

the so; son

of

Zeus, will you these two

not

be elated? are not

but

since man, things

mingled the the

the

generation of reason with with

animals, and

gods, many mortal; incline and some body in in and intelligence to this kinship,which few of the to common

common

is miserable is divine

and and uses that

which

happy. Since then it is everything according to it,those, the few, who and fidelity no mean or

necessitythat

every he

man

about for have with What

think

opinion which that they are

has

formed

the am many

of appearances use modesty and a sure ignoble thoughts about themselves; but it is quite the contrary. For they say. poor, miserable man, I?

A

with

my

wretched

bit of flesh. better that this?

Wretched, indeed; but you your is bit of flesh.

possess do

something you than

Why do you

then

neglect

which

better,and

why the attach

yourself to us Through to this

kinshipwith

some flesh,

of

inclining and to

it become
*

like

wolves, faithless of and

treacherous
Also the was Epictetus speaks people and

God

and

tlie

gods. under his
God

conformably name the practice of the people, lie The

speaks many, says

of God but

of Zeus. one. gods of the of "

were

perhaps

"Father

men

gods,"

Homer

of Zeus;

and

Virgil says

of

Jupitpr,

Father

of

gods and king of

inen,"

14

EPICTETU8.

mischievous: but the

some

become us like

lions, savage foxes and and slanderer more and

untamed; worse greater part of
For
a

become is a other a animals. man what or else some malignant and not meaner than

fox,

other take

wretched that you do

animal? some one

See*

then

and

care

become

of these miserable

thiug"

CHAPTEE

IV.
OR

OF

PROGEESS

IMPROVEMENT.

ophers philosthe that desire means desire of good things,and bad aversion aversion from means things;having learned too that happiuessf and are tranquillity not attainable by otherwise than by not failing obtain what he desires, to man he would and not avoid; such a fallinginto that which takes from himself desire altogether and defers it, | man he employs his aversion but pendent deare only on things which his will. For if he attempts to avoid anything on he will independent of his will,he knows that sometimes progress, fall in with will
*

He

who

is

making

having

learned

from

something
Now

which

he

wishes

to

avoid, and

he

be

unhappy. compares if virtue xvi. promises good remarks of

fortune many pressions ex-

Upton in Matthew are 6 and the

that

Epictetus in not

unlike in style

the

Gospels, which was were

written

the

same

period to "

which New

Epictetus

teaching.

Schweighaeuser f The it: "

also refers is that of

Wetstein's

Testament. Seneca plains (Epp. 120) ex-

notion beata

flowing easily,"as defluens is: in "in

vita, secundo translation cursu." futurura I The
Wolf says: tironem Latin
"

tempus dictum est:

rejicit." phise philosoex-

i Significatd, quod non Enchiridio

nimiura

tribuere

sibi, sed

quasi addubitantem

pectare dum

confirmetur

judicium."

EPICTETUS.

15

and

and tranquillity virtue

also happiness,certainly toward each of

the these

progress

toward For

is progress

things.

always true that to whatever is an of anything leads us, progress point. it is How and then do we point the perfecting approach toward this is such as admit in

that virtue other

I have

said,

yet seek
What

progress is the

product of has read many makes Is it he who then improvement? books But does virtue consist in having of Chrysippus?* understood Chrysippus? If this is so, progress is clearly nothing else than knowing a great deal of Chrysippus. But now admit that virtue produces one we thing,and wc declare that approaching near to it is another ly, thing,nameSuch a says one, is progress or improvement. person, Indeed, sir, already able to read Chrysippus by himself. kind of progress? What making great progress. you are But why do you mock the man? Why do you draw him AVill from the perception of his own misfortunes? away of it? you where where and your would no things and make a display virtue? Tranquillity.Wlio

not to show look

him for

the

effect of

virtue Seek

that it

he

may

learn

imjirovement? lies. And you may where may not there, wretch, work? In sire de-

your in

work

is your not aversion, that that your you

be

disappointed in which you

desire, and

fall into that

avoid; in error; in

mit pursuit and avoiding,that you comand assent suspensionof assent, that you

be are not

deceived. which I

The have

first things,and named, not the

most

necessary,

those

f

But

if Avith that

trembling which you

and

lamentation me you how you

seek are to fall into

avoid, tell
*

improving. that He

Diogenes Laertius seven (Chrysippus. lib. vii.)states five books, in B.C. or Chrysippus was wrote

hundred at and

treatises. as born

at on Soli, in

Cilicia,or
Athens he

Tarsus, a 280, the it is

reckoned, and

going

to

became

pupil of

Stoic Cleanthes.

c. f Compare iii. 2,

16

EPICTETUS.

Do

you If

then I were show

me

your to an

improvement he in

these say. are

things?
Show
my me talking and to see athlete, I should

your

shoulders; and
You wish Take your the

then

might
*

say. Here to Halteres.

Halteres effect of on look

that.

I

should when see reply,I you say: I have

the

Halteres. powers, So, and the

treatise
I

the

active

reply.Slave, I am not inquiring exercise about ance, this,but how pursuit and avoidyou desire and aversion, how design and purpose your whether and or yourself, conformably to nature prepare If conformably, give me evidence of it,and I will not. making progress: but if not conformably, say that you are be gone, and not only expound your books, but write such books and what will you gain by it? Do you not yourself; book that the whole costs Does know only five denarii? how then the

studied

it.

expounder
Never progress then is then

seem

to

be

worth matter more

than

five one denarii?

look

for

the

itself in

place,and
Where himself and to toward

it in another. If any to as

progress? by labor, so learned not

of own you,

withdrawing it to

from

externals,turns it his

will to exercise it conformable

improve and to make

nature, elevated, free, unrestrained, unimpeded, faithful,

modest; the if he has are that

he

who can desires neither

or

avoids ful faiththem and of the
;

things which nor in his power must as

be

free, but tossed of

he necessity with them

change in a

with

and

be

about

tempest, who or

necessity must power *

subject or himself what

to

others

have

to procure
Halteres

prevent

he desires

would

avoid

are

gymnastic xiv. instruments vi. (Galen, 420, and i.

De

Sanitate Scholiast.

tiienda;

Martial,
Halteres have The been

49; a Juvenal, word,

the

Upton). said to

is

Greek of literally"leapers." for exercise a They in are

masses

lead, used in and

making known jumps. to effects of such

weights
A

taking

jump

is well

used them. boys wljp JiiftYp

of couple

bricks

will BPfY^

tUe pur-

18

V

EPICTETUS.

know ness that comes these and how make

things are not false,from a tranquillityrises. Take true me

which my

liappiare

books, and the you

will learn

and

conformable

to nature

things which good fortune way and him ! To

perturbations. 0 great ! 0 the great benefactor who pointsout the have erected Triptolemus all men temples he gave truth us free from

'

altars,because who discovered it to

food

by cultivation it to which shows for this a ; but

to

and

brought of you has Because

lightand us reason

municated com-

not all,

the

truth

how

to

live,but built who an how

to live a well, who

has or altar, or

temple, or for this ? we dedicated the
:

statue, have worships God or gods but fruit

given

the vine, have wheat,

sacrifice to them human us because

they which produced in the they designed to show shall we

mind truth

that

by

the

which

relates to

ness, happi-

not

thank

God

for this ?

CHAPTER
AGAINST
THE

V. ACADEMICS.* evident we If not a

man,

said

Epictetus, opposes by which

truths,it make either
; for from

is

easy

to find

arguments

shall arise

him

change the the

his

man's man, opinion. But this does strength or the teacher's he has we not

weakness

when like a though shall ? are been be

confuted, is hardened able to

stone, how

then

deal

with

him

by

argument
Now

there the

two

kinds of the to New

of sense hardening,one of is manifest
Levin's

of the a standing, underman

other to shame, when nor is desist

resolved
*See
to

not
Lecture

assent V.,
The

what

to

Academy,

Lectures

tory Introduc-

the

of PUilosopliical Cambridge, Writinjjs Cicero,

187L

EPICTETUS.

19

from

contradictions. of the

Most would care of

us

are

afraid all the means of

tion mortificato

body, indeed as

and we contrive not avoid

such

a

thing,but
And
state not

about

soul's

tion. mortificaman

with to such at a

regard to the soul, if a apprehend anything, or is in a be

in

understand but if the

all,we of think shame

that and

he

bad

condition

:

call modesty are deadened, this we even (orstrength). power Do you comprehend that you are awake ? I do not, the for in my man replies, I do not even comprehend when Does this appearance awake. sleepI imagine that I am differ from the other ? then Not not at all,he replies. sense Shall I still argue iron shall I ? He the does

with to this him

man

? make

And him he dead a what feel

fire

or

what he is he

apply
He is

to

that

deadened does not not. see does even but perceive, worse :

pretends man. that

than he

a

He

does

contradiction see is in

bad and

condition. makes no Another

it,but

he

is not

moved,

in a worse condition. improvement : he is even his sense and of shame modesty is extirpated, ; and rational faculty has not been cut off from him, but brutalized. Shall I we His the it is tainly Cer-

name

this also name strength in of

mind in

?

not, unless

it such

catamites, comes through

which

they do

and

say

public

whatever

into their head.

CHAPTER
OF

VI.

PROVIDENCE.

is or everythingwhich happens in the world, it is easy to praiseProvidence, if a man two possesses these the of qualities, faculty seeingwhat belongs and happens to all persons and things, and a grateful If disposition. he

From

20

EPICTETUS.

does the not use possess of

these

two

one qualities, are

man

will

not

see

things which for made what other not and even which if he not happen; does know the use?

another

will not If God

be thankful had

them, have them.

colors, but would had

made their made as facultyof
None
at

seeing them, all. been

On

the had

hand, if He made case

had

the

facultyof the use

vision,but of it?

objectssuch also would suppose In

to fall under

what faculty, None but have had

in at that all.

have

been

the

Well,

that that is it

He case, had

made

both, would not

made of and to no

light? use. also, they who been that

Who to case

then who

has

fitted this to has Is fitted it no that the

this? and And the the case is it that knife? of the one?

knife

to the

And, have that that

indeed, from their is the work not very

structure

things

which to attained

show

tomed completion, we are accusthe act of some certainly

a artificer,nd purpose. Does and

it has each

been

constructed

without

a

then do

of these

things and And each

demonstrate the the for are the

workman,

not

visible

things
Him?
of

faculty of existence of

seeingand male and do let and the not us light demonstrate female, and the of

desire

conjunction, constructed, power even using declare the

the the

parts which workman? of our these

consider to constitution we according we which, when

meet

with

they do not, understanding sensible objects,

If

simply receive impressions from them, but we also select* something from them, and subtract something, of them these things or and add, and compound by means to other things which, those, and, in fact, pass from some do not

in to a move

manner, some resemble men, them: to is not them

even

this not to to us sufficient the foi'get what it is

and so, induce them

workman? that
*

If

not

let

explain how makes

each

several

thing, or

it is

possiblethat man Cicero, De Off. j. c. 4, on

the difference between

and beast,

JSPlCTETtS.

'Zi

thingsso wonderful and exist by chance
What, indeed, with and from these of

like the contrivances their own of

art

should

proper in us motion?

then, in us

are

things which will Do For

done the find

only. Many, animal to

only, but rational many then one common

had us peculiarlyneed; irrational is done?

you

animals. means. they use understand

what standing underanimals the

By use no

is

thing, and irrational to understand

is another: to use

God

had

need but of

of us make

of

appearances,

of appearances. and to eat

the whom

other He

to enough for them and to do all drink, and to sleepand to copulate, But do. for us, to things which they severally has given also the intellectual faculty,these

It is therefore

in a proper for unless act we things are not sufficient; and and and orderlymanner, conformably to the nature constitution of each attain our true thing, we shall never where the constitutions end. of living beings are For

different,there
In
to

also

the

acts

and

the

ends is

are

different.

those use, use

animals

then

whose

constitution but in an alone is power exercise

enough: of of the

animal the use, adapted only (man), which unless will there never has be

also the the due

understanding
Well then to understanding, he
God
serve

attain

his proper one end.

constitutes for for some every

animal, another for

to be

eaten, another and agriculture, like use;

to

supply cheese, purposes and what to be able man another is

which

need to a

there

to

understand But and it may it to

appearances has

them? distinguish

God His

introduced
*The

to

be

spectatorof
I refer it to man, to

God* but of be original is should deavrov.

avrov,

which refers of

God; and biguous. am-

Schweighaeuser that man

explains to mean

be

a

spectator

himself, according man as can

the

maxim,

Tv(^Ot himself man can

It is true faculties as that well in

a

manner

contemplate as an

and be his an external man, so a

objects; and man every

object he to

every

other his

may reflects

be on object his own

to himself

when

examines

faculties

and

22

BPICTETUS.

works;
For where where and in not a

and

not

only a spectatorof them, it is shameful animals for man but

this

reason

to

irrational

do, but

rather

interpreter. begin and to end he ought to begin an they begin, and to end where ends in contemplationand nature way of life conformable to been

nature

ends

in

us;

understanding,and
Take
care

nature.

then

to die without

having a spectatorsof to see

these the

things. work of

But

you

take

journey to Olympia think it a Phidias,* and

all of you

misfortune

out to die withneed the and you

such things. But when there is no having seen to take a journey,and where man a is,there he has works (ofGod) before him, will you not desire to see them? Will you not perceiveeither what understand are, or

what

you

were

born

for,

or

what

this is for which But you may say,

you there And Are

have are are

received some the

facultyof sight? Olympia?
Are Are you of

things disagreeableand none troublesome you you not not not wet

in life. scorched? without when it

there not in

you

comfortable rains? Have

pressed by a crowd? of bathing? Are means you not abundance

noise, clamor, and be a

acts.

Scliweighaeuser asks so how

can

a

man

spectator of God,
It is not and

except he far

as

lie is

a

spectator and of God's

works?

enough, man says, to

reply that God are the

universe, whom Stoics; of for

which

contemplates, universe the

same

thing and to the

Epictetus always universe from

God distinguishes itself.

the maker But here

governor

the

the is an lies the

difficulty. The we can

universe way

all-comprehensive term: conceive as

it is all that it may

in any

perceive and God, of the not as

existing; and distinct form of from

therefore but as

comprehend

something
This
of the

the

universe, is an

being the universe the self. himness weakof

expression of acknowledgment man's human

faculties,and
God
is

contains

implicit assertion

Locke etc. that the notion ii. c.

beyond

understanding (Essay,

17). work was

*This

the

colossal was statue chrj-selephantine

of

Zens work

(Jupiter)by Phidias, which is described

at

Olympia.

This

wonderful

by Pausanias

(Eliaca,A, 11).

BPIGTETV8.

23

other these you

that settingall disagreeable hings? But I suppose t things off againstthe magnificence of the spectacle, and endure. which you

bear

Well

then

and

have

you

not

received

faculties Have you

by

will be able

to bear

all that Have

happens? you not

not

received

greatness of soul?
Have you not received And

manliness? do I trouble

received

endurance? that can why or myself about soul? or

anything
What

pen hapmy use if I possess mind the disturb for

greatness of me, shall Shall

distract I not

appear

painful? what power

the

purposes over for which

I received

it,and

shall I

grieveand nose lament runs.*

happens? purpose may there

Yes, but my have you hands? Is it then of to For that

what you that

then, slave, your be nose? ning run-

Is it not with

wipe much consistent noses reason

should

in the nose world? to find been

Nay,

how

better do not it is think such

wipe

your

than

fault. if there

What had

you been

that a Hercules

would

have

lion, and bestial hydra, and men, stag, and
Hercules would the he kind? up

boar, and used have Is and to certain drive

unjust and if there he the

and

whom what of

away

clear out? had would first he and of been have

And

been it not have a doing

nothing he plain that

wrapped away himself not slept? luxury and

In

place then dreaming if he and other even would

have

been

Hercules, when ease; use

was

all his life in such one use

had

been the

what of his

would arms, have and of

been the

the

him?

what

strength and noble roused for lion

of the

parts of him? means

his

body, and and then

his endurance occasions must a man

i spirit,f and

such

circumstances Well of

had

not

exercised such

provide a himself from This and
*

exercise,and

seek to introduce and a some

would were place into his country, be folly and madness: useful found, they were ii. 16, 13.

boar as and

a

hydra? exist, Iler-

but for

they did showing what

Compare

S4 cules and for

EPICTBTUS.

was

having you now, means observed

him. exercising these things look you have

Come to then the do

you

also

faculties say:

which

have, and
0

when

looked thou

at

them,

Bring

that Zeus, any difficulty

given to me by thee and powers do not through the things which happen. You so; but trembling for fear that some things will happen, you sit still, and weeping, and lamenting, and groaning for what does happen: and then you is blame the gods. For what the consequence of such of spirit but meanness impiety? And has not only given us these faculties; by yet God which shall be able to bear everything that happens we without being depressed or broken by it; but, like a good king and a true father, He has given us these faculties free from hindrance, subjectto no compulsion,unimpeded, and in has without own even entirely our put them power, of hindering or impeding. having reserved to Himself any power
You,
your have to own, use for I have pleasest, for honoring myself

who

have not:

received you

these do not some powers even free and see as

them

what

you

received,and

from even whom;

of

you

being blinded

the

and to giver,and not others,through to you

and fault-finding

acknowledging your benefactor, of spirit, meanness betakingyourselves I Yet making charges against God. have but powers what and means will show

that you

for you show

ness greatfor

of soul and

manliness:

powers you

have me. findingfault

and

making accusations, do

CHAPTER
OF THE USE OF SOPHISTICAL
AND

VII.
ARGUMENTS
THE

AND

THETICAL HYPO-

LIKE.

The

handling and of

and sophistical which derive

hypothetical arguments, conclusions of those

their

from

26

^PICTBTUB.

in the power of demon-' skillfully reasoning, himself the several things which he has proposed, strating of of and the power understanding the demonstrations others,and of not being deceived by sophists, if they as were demonstrating. Therefore there has arisen among the practice and exercise of conclusive us arguments* and a figures,nd it has been shown to be necessary. But in fact in some have cases we properlygranted the them premises or assumptions, and there results from the less it something; and though it is not true, yet none then ought I to do? does result. What Ought I to admit And how is that possible? Well, should I the falsehood? properlygrant that which we agreed say that I did not this. Shall I upon? But you are not allowed to do even then say that the consequence does not arise through what duct

himself

has been must conceded?

But

neither

is it allowed. if it is not a man

What this: a then as be done borrowed

in this case? is not

Consider to make

to

have but owe

enough that the

still he

debtor, to to this must

be added and

the

fact

that

continues

the money

debt

is not

paid, so

it is not

the inference that enough to compel you to admit you have granted the premises, but you must abide by what you have to the granted. Indeed, if the premises continue such end solutely as they were granted, it is abthey were when have granted, for us to abide by what we necessary but if the premises must and we accept their consequences: do not remain f such as they were when they were granted,
*

These has

are

syllogisms and conclusion. a case

modes figures,

by which

the

gism syllo-

its proper is

f This, then, virtue of which is

of

(chap. vii. 1) where in there or has

been

a

or sophistical dishonest

change it is A est: not

the

premises to in

some

term,

by

change there assented. appears a be

a

just conclusion, which, derived is from

however, to false; and we conclusion

the premises

which "Mus

ridiculous nuis example caseam given by Seneca, syllaba ergo

Ep. 48:

syllaba

autem

rodit:

"JPICTETU8.

ay also to

it is what follow

absolutely necessary we granted, and from For the words the inference our we

for from in is

us

withdraw what does

from not were

accepting our our

which now we

concessions nor inference,

made.

not

does the

it result with

assent, since

have

withdrawn

from

premises which

amine granted. We ought then both to exsuch tion such kind of premises,and change and variaof them (from one meaning to another),by which in the course of questioning or answering, or in making the the such c syllogisticonclusion, or in any other way, premisesundergo variations,and give occasion to the foolish conclusions to be confounded, if they do not see what sequence (conFor what reason are. ought we to examine?

caseum

rodit."

Seneca

laughs est: at

this

absurdity, and be a

says

perhaps of mus

the ness: caseum

following syllogism (coUectio) may
"Mus
non

better non example rodit: acute-

syllaba rodit. "

syllaba autem is as

caseum as

ergo that

One

good we the where

other. the

We error know is.

neither says conclusion

is true, and the Stoics he

see

Menage of Marcus Marcus

that

though

particularly cultivated observes says

logic, some and them

despised it,and did not

mentions

Seneca, Epictetus, that Antoninus.

Upton, however, it for their

Epictetus about been
B

and

Antoninus

despise logic (he own nothing

Seneca), but that if a employed man answer

purposes. every A is

It has

observed is also in

is asked

whether,
But

if

B, every

A, he might this material

that it is.

if you is an put is the

conversion

form: he

"Every
"

goose

animal," he immediately perceives that a cannot

say,

Every

animal

It shows

that the man's not does this show? goose." What comprehension of the proposition, every A is it to mean B,

was

true, and person B were that he took who

something question. we

different

from

what that
A

the and intended

put
A

the

He

understood

co-extensive. no Whether man call this

reasoning

or

something else, makes sound cannot

matter.

whose wrong; may understanding but be A where, some-

is

in

the matter nature on of

things reason he reasons

his understanding

of and

the he

which to wrong man may

not

be able

discover show

where. him who

has is been

trained

in the to logical art it is not true. may

that his conclusion and just according employed, but his

understandingof

the terms

the

propositions

yet

28
In order that BPICTETUS,

we

may nor not

in this matter a be

employed in

an

improper manner
And the same in

confused

way.

in

for it is necessary some and hypotheticalrguments; hypotheses a sometimes the granting of to demand a hypothesisas follows. Must not we

kind we of

passage allow one? if a to

the

argument

which is

then every And

every And man hypothesisthat if not has every allowed one, an or

proposed,or should allow

which

allow?

must hypothesis, must

he in every withdraw

case

abide

by allowingit? admit the but

he sometimes and not from

it,but

quences conse-

admit

contradictions? admit to sense an

Yes;

suppose a that

a

man

says, If you draw a man

I will person and what shall avoid other and

you of

hypothesis of With impossibility. the into with can a

bility, possisuch a refuse to enter conversation of sense contest,
But

discussion man and the in man him?

than

use

tion argumenta-

is skillful

of incapable being cheated And shall he enter he shall into engage

questioning and answering,and and deceived by false reasoning? contest, and

the in

yet not how take

care

whether

argument not not care,

rashly and can not

carelessly?And such such a man as we

if he does conceive

take to be?

he some a

be

him

But he Let

witiiout

exercise and

can preparation, consistent argument?

and

maintain them show

tinuous con-

this; are and absurd

all these and man. speculations become with our

inconsistent

and superfluous, notion of a good

and

serious

Why are we and why do we being watchful make a

still indolent seek in

and for

negligentand not sluggish, and not

pretences matters laboring
If then have in have

our cultivating

reason? may a I shall

mistake

in these was I not father then

killed my matter father? that ^ou

Slave, where could kill that was there What

this you

him?

done?

The you

only fault have here possible This is the

is the

fault which which I

committed.

very

remark

EPIGTETUS.

-,.

_

29

made

covered having disin a certain the one syllogism:I thing omitted I said,that I have burnt the Capitol. Slave, he suppose, here the thing omitted the Capitol? Or are was replied, the Capitol and to kill your these the only crimes, to burn the appearances Bat for a man father? to use presented and to not to him rashly and foolishlyand carelessly, understand demonstration, nor sophism, argument, nor and answering what in a word, to seen in questioning nor, have is consistent with that which we granted or is not to Rufus*

when

he

blamed

me

for

not

consistent;is there

no

error

in this?

CHAPTER
THAT

VIII.

THE

FACULTIESf

ARE

NOT

SAFE

TO

THE

UNIN-

STRUCTED.

In"

as

many

ways

as

we

can

change thingsj which so are can

equivalent to one change the forms
This
not

another, in just of is

many

ways

we

arguments an and

enthymernes have have do not to a in argumentation. and

instance: the money:

if you you you

borrowed not owe no man

repaid, you you have To
Rufus

owe

me

borrowed me and

not

money.
*

do

repaid; then this skillfully is
Rufus mentioned

the more suitable
To
kill

is Musonius

(i.1). as father

and

to

burn

the

Rouian

Capitol
20.

are

instances Amicit.

of the greatest crimes.

Comp.

Horace,
c.

Epode,

iii;Cicero, De

11;

Plutarch, Tib.

Gracchus,

f The who have

faculties,as as Wolf also

says, says, are

the

faculties men of

speaking and and careless gance "arro-

arguing, which, no he

make

arrogant to solid

knowledge, a according to "

Bion's

maxim,
See

is (self-conceit)

hindrance

improvement."
"

viii. 8,

\ Things

means

"

propositionsand

termsj."

30

EPICTETUS.

perfect philosopher;for if the enthymeme is an imit cised syllogism, is plain that he who has been exerbe equallyexpert in the in the perfect must syllogism imperfectalso. Why then do we not exercise ourselves and one another in this manner? Because, I reply,at present, though we in these not exercised are things and not distracted from make the study of morality,by me at least, still we no than to the

progress should not more in add

virtue. this an What

then

must

we

expect

if

we

only be and necessary

? as occupation and particularly this would occupationwhich would withdi*aw us from also be a cause of selfthings,but would and and no conceit the arrogance, of

small

cause.

For

great

is

power

arguing

the

and facultyof persuasion,

if. particularly it should additional every ornament

be much from

exercised,and and so

also receive

language:

universally, weak elated

and faculty acquired by the uninstructed brings with it the danger of these persons being

and a inflated man by

it.

For excels

by in what these
*

means

could

one

persuade he young

who an matters, that them, but he not to

ought them on

not an to become

appendage himself strut man to

make

appendage reasons, to

?

Does us trample and and remind

all

such

and any

before should

elated him he

inflated,not him aside ? turned I

enduring of what What was that nas reprove to what a he

neglected and was has

philosopher?f not Hippocrates a physician? but you see speaks. Does Hippocrates then speak not man, as then

Plato

and reply, how crates Hippothus in or re-

*A art Wolf

explains it,should excellence. He

not

make

oratory, use the off

of

speaking, his chief which was

should

it to

set

something f Plato for not

is superior.

eloquent, and the adversary asks, him was

if that

is

a

reason

allowing

to a be

a

philosopher.

To

which

the but rejoinder is as a

that

Hippocrates

and eloquent too, physician,

not

phy

sician.

EPICTETU8.

31

spect of being which And have if Plato and

a

been was do physician? Why united accidentally handsome and

you in

mingle things the same men ?

strong, ought handsome a

I also to set

to work

endeavor for

to become

or

strong, as

if

this

was was

necessary

Will what them

you men in

opher philosand time handsome a at the same philosopher ? in respect to to see and to distinguish not choose and what become things belong to philosophers, if I were other a philosopher, respects ? And philosophy,because also to

certain

ought take means

you away

be

made

lame

?* you

What

then ? of I

?

Do

I

these

faculties do I take

which away possess

; for neither

the

faculty of man, a By no seeing. cannot position dis-

But

if you

ask

me

what

is the else than

good that mention

to you

anything

it is

certain

of the will with

respect to appearances,

f

CHAPTER
HOW FROM
MAY

IX.
WE THE ARE

THE

FACT
PROCEED

THAT TO

AKIN"

TO

GOD

A

MAN

CON'SEQUENCES.
"

If the about things are the kinship for men

true

which God what

are

said and

by man, the

philosophers else Never mains re-

between than

wbat did ?

to do

Socrates

in that

replyto
*

the

to question, was what

country you

belong, say

Epictetus
i.
use

lame. tlie

f In a 20, 15, Epictetus defines of appearances;

being

or

nature i. 29, of how

of

good the to

be

proper

and of lie also says, the nature 1, tliat evil is the a ure nat-

of tlie will. man" But can good be is

a

kind

will, and cannot kind

of of

Schweighaeuser
"a

understand

"good and certain

will

with

regard
' '

to

appearances;" will which

he

suggests that Arrian use may

have

written,

a

certain

makes

of

appearances."

32

EPICTETU8.

you

are

an

Athenian

or

a

Corinthian, but

that

you you

are are an a

citizen of the world.*

For

why

do

you

say that

why do you not say that you belong to the small nook cast at only into which body was your poor Athenian birth ? Is it not plainthat you call yourselfan from the place which has a greaterauthority Corinthian or and comprises not only that small nook itself and all your the whole country from which the stock family,but even of your down He to you ? then progenitorsis derived who has observed t of with intelligencehe administration
Athenian,
and the and

world,

and

has

learned

that the

greatest and is that from that my

supreme which God is have

the most of the

comprehensive community men composed descended but

and seeds not God,

and to only

father

and

father, grand-

beings which are generated on the earth and are produced, and particularly rational beings for to these only are by their nature formed communion to have of reason with God, being by means conjoined with him f citizen of call himself a why should not such a man the world, why not a son of God, J and why should he be to all
"

"

*

Cicero, Tuscul. se esse

v.

37, lias the
"

same:

"Socrates Totius

cum

rogaretur, mundi se

cujatem iucolam diceret, Mundanum arbitrabatur. inquit. (Upton.) be says,

enim

et civem

f It

is the

possession of God; it is not

reason,

by

which or man

has

munion com-

with
A
our

by

any

external

means,

monial. religiouscerereason

modern are as were

expositor of

Epictetus and says. up

"Through with the

souls

closelyconnected part of him from "

mixed

deityas
In
are

though they the (Epictet.i. 14, 6;
1, (ii. 4)

ii.

8, 11, 17, 33).
"

Epistle named to us

Peter and

it is written:

Whereby by these given
V.

3) ye

exceeding great might be partakers in the

precious promises nature, lust." art that

(see the of the divine

having escaped

corruption that is
So :J: Acts not world

through which Jesus

said, "Our that the unknown

Father where

in

heaven."

Compare
It is been it has

of the true Apostles, xvii. 28,
"

Paul of a quotes these

words.

then

conception before the

parental deity,"as

asserted,was

teachingof Jesus, and, after the

34

EPICTETUS.

I

indeed not think

that how

the

old

man

*

ought no to

be

here, nor care

to contrive

you

may

have

mean

sitting thoughts to mean

and there

ignoble talk be not among have

about us b yourselves,ut young men take a that

any

of

such

mind, God, mean, that and and

when we they are that its

fettered

recognized their kinship to by these bonds, the body, I whatever else and on and possessions, to us

account

of of

them

is necessary

for

the economy

commerce

life,they should were intend

to throw

off these

burdens

a and j^ainfulnd intolerable, But this is the to be

thingsas if they to depart to their teacher were really

kinsmen.

labor

that

your if he

and

structo inwhat

ought he should be. can no

employed should come

upon,

You

to him

and

say,

"

Epicte-

to this poor longer endure being bound body, and feeding it and giving it drink, and rest, and cleaningit,and for the sake of the body complying with the wishes of these and of those, f Are not these things indifferent and nothing to us, and is not death no evil?

tus,

we

And not are come we

we

not

in him?

a

manner

kinsmen us of

God, the and

did

we

from came; Allow us to

depart to at place from these which bonds there those some allow we are

to

be released and and

last from down. of that and

by are which robbers are bound thieves

weighed courts Here

and

a justice,nd

who power named us us

tyrants,and by means think

they no "

have

over

of the them my that

body

its possessions. power

Permit over to

show I on they have

any for
*

man."

And when is as

wait

God; old means, man He

shall

Friends, part would say, J give the signal and release

The He

Epictetus. says, of "on more f

Wolf

account

of

the necessities

of

the

body seeking

the

favor

the

pliances." compowerful by disagreeable

X Upton nium refers

to

Cicero, Tuscul. (De Republica, not i. 30; iv.

Cato

Major, c. 30; purport of

Som-

Scipionis, c. is that wq

3

15); the

which

passages

must

depart from

life without

the command

EPICTETU8.

35

you

from

this

service, then in this of so go

to

Him;

but

for the

present short bear what those

endure indeed for

to dwell

is this time who what thus are He has put you: place where your dwelling here, and easy to

those

disposed: of for

what

tyrant

or

thief, or who and have the

courts

considered the of possessions a formidable are justice, as things of no value body? Wait then, do

to the not body depart to without

reason/' to be

Something like this ought ingenuous youths. But now is a

said

by

the

teacher

what

happens? bodies. and

The

teacher you about

lifeless been morrow, body, how and

you

are

lifeless sit down

When lament

have the

well

filled you

to-day, you shall will have The

get something

to eat.

Wretch, do if you will

have

it,you

it; if door is any

you

have

it not, you

depart from life. grieve? where does there where envy is there occasion

open.* room Why for shall

you and man remain for a tears? one or

flattery? why man another?

why

should

admire very to the and

rich of

the

if they be both powerful, even temper? for what will they do for that which

strong
We
we

violent care us? what

shall do care not

they do. can

do; did in what

and

for, that

they

cannot

How

Socrates other behave way 5;
v.

with a respect to man these matters? of God. man Why,

than

ought shall a

See

Marcus

Antoninus,

ii.

17;

iii.

33.

But

how

know
*

the

signal for departure, referred i.
c.

of which of

Epictetus speaks? Epictetus ii. in which

Upton
De

has is to

the

passages
i.

this to expression
Seneca,
there

used,

24, 20;

25, 18; to 1, 19,
Fin.

and iii. esse manere

others;

Provid.

6, Ep. 91;
"

Cicero, De et 18, where

is this conclusion:

e

quo

apparet beatus sapientis et aliquando in officium quum excedere sit miser."

e

vita,

quum

sit; vi. or.

stultj

vita no Compare
What
we

Matthew we 31: What

"Therefore

take drink? do thought, saying.
Wherewithal
Gentiles

shall be eat?

shall all these that

we

or,

shall

clothed?

(For

after

things ye have

the

seek:) for

your
"

heavenly Father

knoweth

neecl

of all these

things, etc,

36

EPIGTETU8.

to

do

who

was

convinced

that

he

was

a

kinsman Socrates that

of the to you his no now," gods? "If you say to me judges,*''we will acquityou on the longer discourse in the way in which nor said

condition you have or hitherto old

coursed, disI

trouble you of our either

our

young

our

men,

sliall answer,

make

that, if

one

post, it is my to die a yourselvesridiculous by thinking commanders has appointed me to a certain it,and to resolve duty to keep and maintain times rather way man thousand us than of

desert

it; but

if

God

has

put

in any

desert

it."

Socrates

place and speaks like a we life,we is who

ought to a man really kinsif we of the were gods.

But and

think

about

ourselves, as shameful only stomachs, desire;we asked most me

and intestines, are parts;we

fear, we these A

flatter those who we able to

help us a man

in

matters, and man fear them to write

also. to Eome

about

him, had who,

as

people thought, had man been and

unfortunate, for been his behalf the

a formerly he was strippedof all,and

of

rank

rich,but
I wrote on was

livinghere. but and

in

a

submissive it back

manner; to me when
"

he had I wished to me." to

read

letter,

he gave not said,

for your

help, to your

pity:no also and

evil has

happened you Thus say: when This I

Musonius this will

Rufus, in order befall were

try me,

used

from

your

master; and

that replied course these human

thingswhich affairs. happen obtain in the

ordinary should of him for

Why
I
can

then, said he, it from

I ask

anything when a man

you?

For, in fact, what

has from

from

himself, it is
Shall I soul or and superfluous

foolish to receive able to receive from

another?

then, who and a

am

myself greatness of and be so receive from you land spirit, I hope not: I will not office? a magisterial about possessions.But when a man my own generous *

money

is the ignorant cowardly as This

passage

is founded

on

and

is in substapce

same

that

\u

Plato's

Apology, c. 17,

BPICTETXTS.

37 for him Please than to and mean, letters the For as what you of a a

else must about person

be done a to write

would certain

corpse.* and a

grant

us

body such sextarius and

of poor a blood.

person

is,in fact, a

carcass

sextarius
But
man

(a

quantity)of blood, and nothing more. were anything more, he would know that one of another. miserable through the means certain if he is not

CHAPTEK
AGAINST THOSE WHO EAGERLY
ROME.

X.
SEEK PREFERMENT AT

If old

we

appliedourselves at Home

as

busilyto matters our

own

work

as

the

men

do

to those

employed, perhaps we also I am acquainted with a man of superintendent cornf at Eome, when he he he as came

they are might accomplish something. older than myself who is now and back of I remember from the time what how and exile, and life,

about

which

here

on

his way events

said

he related that with after

the

his former

declared

respectto

the future

after his return

he would his life in
*

look

quietand defeated nothing else than passing the rest of he For how littleof life, tranquillity.
Schweigbaeuser
a man as a

The a meaning

is obscure. enemy

tbinks tbe mere tbat tbe conqueror carcass

sion alluto
.

is to

asking permission and or

from

bury tbe dead.

Epictetus considers in externals

wbo

places bis bappiness fA at "

in tbe

favor

of otbers. of corn a

Prsefectus

Annonae,"

superintendent of tbe supply conferred Cn.

Rome,

is first mentioned At a by Livy (iv. 12) as this office was c.

appointed during on scarcity. for a

later

time

Pompeius to five years. Prsefectus

Maecenas Annonse He or (Dion. 52, permanent thus would

24) advised over Augustus corn make and

officer

tbe

market

all other

markets.

have

tbe office

formerly exercised

by the sediles.

38

SPICTETU8.

but as replied, you will not do it, soon as Eome, you will forgetall that you have you smell is allowed into the imperial said; and if admission even palace,he* will gladlythrust himself in and thank God. If you find me, Epictetus, he answered, settingeven one foot within the palace, think what please. Well, you what then did he do? Before he entered the cityhe was me. said, remains

for

I

met

by

letters from

and Caesar, ever as

soon

as

he received

them

he

and forgotall,

after has

added now one

pieceof

business remind and to to another.

I wish he

that I

were

him

of what how then

said when better I say a he

was

by his side to passingthis way, am tell him Well

much do

seer man

I

than an he is. animal made for

that

is

doing nothing?! active? J (We are as soon day comes,
I
to must

read

over

But not Certainly not. why are we active.) For example, as to myself,as in a few words I remind myself of what to my I say pupils; then forthwith " is it to me myself,
*

But

what

how

a

certain here person instead of

I cannot

explain why the third
See

person

is used

the

second.

Schweig.'snote. taught that to a even man

He in a

f The ought lazy Stoics not is

adapted by his from humun

nature

for action.

therefore

withdraw

and affairs, and viii. indulge

life,not

life of to contemplation
v.

ances religious observ-

only.
Fin.
V.

Upton

refers

Antoninus,

1,

19,

and

Cicero, De

20. proposes a

X Schweighaeuser but we

small When do alteration

in the says, Greek
' '

text, are I do not not

think He

it necessary. means. to

Epictetus some are

Why are active?"
?

Why say that are say

that

we

not

active

And

he some intends

We I

active, but therefore not

in the

way

in which

people to active.

have

added

in

(

) what

is necessary passage over make

the text

intelligible.
The word as " This
The
of

is rather for the

obscure. of

used a it signifies, teacher may is

said, to read

purpose

explaining to do.

pupil also would

read

something it. So

the

teacher

for says,

the
"

purpose

showing

if he etc.

understood

Epictetus also

But

what

is it to me."

EPIGTETUS.

39 is to

shall read? indeed do you what and

the

first

thing

for

me

sleep. other And sons per-

resemblance what we

is there

between observe else do

what what

do?
And

If you what will

understand. make take up

they do, they do all day themselves, long than give and a accounts, inquire among about kind some advice

bit

of

land, and

such a of

quantityof grain, profits? Is it then the

small

same

you one thing to to permit to this

what it the and

is the

and to read in it: I entreat petition and to export* a small quantity of corn; me effect: I entreat Chrysippus you to learn from of the world, and what administration place in
"

receive

rational is the

animal nature holds; of your

consider

also who

you

are,

what

things like the other, do Well then are equallybase to neglectthese and those? the only persons who are lazy and love sleep? No; much we see Are good and bad. they requireequal care, and

these is it we but

rather young

you men young

men

are.

For

we are old

men

when to amusing if I saw themselves active to

eager

play

"with more them; should and

you

and you

zealous, much in your

I be eager

myseK

join

serious

pursuits."

CHAPTER
OF NATURAL

XI.
AFFECTION.

When tus he

was

visited him and about a by

one

of

inquiredof children several The

he had and

wife.

Epictemagistrates, if and asked particulars, man repliedthat he had; the how he felt under Then marry the said. do not Epictetus inquired further,
Miserable,the
respect, for to men man

circumstances.

asked. In what
*

Epictetus and beget grain. A

plain allusion

restraints

put

on

the exportation of

40 children But in order man EPICTETU8.

to

be

wretched, but so rather about

to be

happy. posed sup-

1, the

am replied,

wretched

my

children was that

when lately, my little daughter was to be in danger, I could not endure I left home Well till a person sent me news

sick and to stay with her, she had covered. re-

but

that

do Epictetus, you think that you acted right? I acted naturally,the man replied. But of this that you convince me acted a naturally,nd I will that everythingwhich convince ing takes place accordyou to natui'e takes place rightly. This is the case, said the man, with all or at least most fathers. I do not deny the about which that: but matter we are inquiring is whether such behavior is right;for in respect to this also come for the good of must matter we say that tumors the body, because must we they do come; and generally say that least most your rather not then,

said

to

do of us wrong do

is wrong.

natural,because
Do
I you show

nearly all me or

at

then do

how you is

behavior show me is natural.

cannot, he said; but

how

it is not

accordingto nature,

and

done. rightly if Well, said Epictetus, criterion The hard we we

were we

black, what between and

should

about white and inquiring employ for distinguishing said. And if about The hot

them?

he sight,

cold, and

and are soft, what

criterion?

touch. are Well

then, since

inquiring about

things which

done are or according to nature, and those which rightly what of criterion do you think that we kind not rightly, should employ? I do not know, he said. And yet not to know is the criterion of colors and

smells,and if a man

also of tastes, not perhaps no of and

great harm;

but

do

know

the to a

criterion nature small me, good
The

and to bad, and harm to

of

things according this seem

contrary

nature, does

to

you

harm? do all

greatest

(I think). some Come to be

tell

and

seem things which becoming rightly appear

persons and at good to such;

present as

42

EPICTETUS.

Ought then she also to have left her? By no means. the pedagogue,* does he not love her? He does love Ought then he also to have deserted her? and so should child have been left alone and without help on account the And her. the of

great affection of you the parents and of those about she have died in the hands of those who her, or should neither this have loved her and nor cared

for her? not not. Certainly to Now who to is unfair

unreasonable, with do because

allow what have

those you think

equal

affection

yourself to were do

be proper is absurd. your

for

to yourself

you

affection. you

It wish

Come

then, if you so sick, would all the deserted and so relations and

to be

and affectionate, you wish alone to dren rest,chil? your

wife, as
And

to leave

By

no

means.

would

you

be

loved you

by

own

that

through if it were their excessive or affection this reason would would

always be you rather and your

left alone pray,

in sickness?

for be

t possible,o

loved

by

your

enemies

deserted behavior Well you it

by was them? not was

But at all an if this is so, it results that affectionate act. you and

then, be it

nothing which and how kind while of the head when sponges

moved is that

induced But at to desert

your

child?

possible? a man

might to something up his and

which a moved was Eome

wrap

horse to which horse he won, favored; he What

contrary to recover

running expectationthe from his ing faintThe moved? to required then of

fit. exact is the this does

discussion

thing which not belong enough to

the

present of occasion

perhaps; what the

but

it is

be

convinced

philosopherssay is true, that we must it is one not look for it anywhere without, but in all cases of our and the same doing or not thing which is the cause doing something, of saying or not saying something, of this, if
*
"

When to we see

are on

children

our

parents put that we

us no

in the

hands
"

of

a

pedagogue

all occasions

take

harm."

Epicte-

tus. Frag. 97.

EPICTETU8.

43

being to elated

or

the very you, to to me you of other

and

depressed,of avoiding anything or pursuing: and the cause to me thing which is now and of coming to me sittingand hearing, what is this? saying what I do say. And than our

Is it any if we will to

do

so? else to

No

other. we But have then of the to had

willed than

otherwise, what that which we should do? the thus he

been was doing the cause

willed

This

of Achilles^ man lamentation, does but it the not was

not

death on Petroclus; for another death do so. behave because cause of

his

companion; to you

chose

And

this you

was

very

of your on then other reason running side,if will be you will exile not nor

away,

that

chose

to do

so;

and

the

you the

should same. (hereafter) stay
And
now

with

her, the

you should in a are

choose; and go thither.

if you And

going to Kome change your mind, neither is the death cause cause beyou nor our

word,

pain nor anything of the kind doing anything or not doing; but our own
Do I convince then as of

opinionsand do such

our

wills. you causes of this are we are

or

not?

You case, convince also are

me.

Such

the

in each

the

effects. from

When

then we this

day

shall we doing anything not rightly, impute it to nothing else than to have away out

the will from we which

done and of

it: and to it is that

wliich than in like of the

shall endeavor tumors we

to take

more extirpate

the manner and shall we abscesses

the

body. of the no And cause things which causes give the same do right; and

account we shall or of any

evil to us, either

slave if to we

children,being persuaded, that to longer allegeas neighbor,or wife or do not think things we be what follow

we

do from

think such our them

be, not do to not

the

acts not

which

and opinions; power and we as

thinking or inquireinto

thinking, that so, he said.

is in

in externals.

It is and

examine

day nothing else,what

From

this

then its

shall

is, equality or

its state.

44

EPICTETUS.

neither land than become you

nor

slaves
I

nor so.

horses
You

nor see

dogs, nothing else then that all of one opinions. a hope to you

must

an Scholasticus,*

animal an whom

if ridicule, your or own

reallyintend that know

make

examination of

opinions: and you this is not

the work

hour

day,

yourself.

CHAPTER
OF coif
TENTM

XII.
E

NT.

"WiTHTCspect to gods, there are divine being does not exist: others inactive a

some

who it say

that

a

say that

but exists,

is

and third

careless,and

takes such

no

class say that

but only about forethought, things, and about nothing on the earth; a fourth class say that a divine being exercises forethoughtboth about things the earth and on heavenly things,but in a general way only, and not about thingsseverally.There is a fifth class 1 move to whom Ulysses and Socrates belong, who say: not without x. thy knowledge f (Iliad, 278).
" "

forethoughtabout anything; and a being exists cises exergreat thingsand heavenly

*A

Scholasticus

is

one

who not frequents engage the the

schools; business a

studious of active

and life.

literary i)erson,

who

does

in

f The child I even line is frclm who

the

prayer

of

Ulysses always done Nat.
i. and

to

Athena:

"

Hear

me

of

Zeus, thou without standest

by and me

in all said

dangers, nor that the

do

move

thy knowledge." is said

Socrates

gods
Dr. the may about more know

everything, what
i. 1,

thought (Zenophon,
i.

Mem.

19). Compare on Cicero, De the Deonim,

1, 2; and

Price's Dissertation various consult

Providence,

sect.

Epictetus enumerates times. opinions the notes modem not seem

about in gods

in ancient

The

reader

Schweighaeuser's nations, who to are

edition.

The

opinions are so

God or among

called as civilized,and

less, do

be

so

varied

in ancient

times; but

the

con-

EPICTETU8.

45

Before about or

all other of these For

things

then

it is necessary it is

each

opinions, whether if there them? this
* are no

inquire affirmed truly to is it our not

truly. end of

gods, if how

proper no care

to follow

And case they exist,but will it be look from so take

anything, in
But

also how

right after them

to follow

them?

if indeed

they do even man own

exist and

things,still if to men, nor there is nothing communicated fact The to

in

myself,how and is it

right(to sidering con-

follow

them)? all these the He

wise

good his then mind

after to him

things,submits whole, as

who of

administers the state.

who with

is

good citizens do to the law instruction receiving onght to come intention. How shall how I be can to be instructed

this

shall I follow with For his

the the he

gods divine is free and

in

all

things, how

contented

administration, and to I become

free?

whom no man

everythinghappens accordingto can will, not whom

hinder.

What and then

is freedom do

madness? consist. as are

not: Certainly

for madness have

freedom

But,

you

say, I would way you

everything result just
You
are

I

like,and beside and

in whatever Do

I like. not mad, you is a

yourself. valuable know

that freedom

to inconsiderately thing? But for me I inconsideratelyike, this wish for things to happen as l For to be not only not noble, but even base. most appears how do we of writing? Do I wish proceed in the matter

noble

towrite

the

name

of

Dion it as as

I choose?

No, but

1

am

taught how to choose

to write

it In

ought the to be written. manner. And And

with

respect

to music?

same

trasts

in modem denial not opinions of a

are

striking. the These

modern of opinions vary who between

God, though the number

those about deny and is

perhaps and are

large, and of and

superstitious are notions

God

His

administration

the workl, which exercise a

taught by teadiers, over learned who

ignorant, unable or

great power exercise the

minds reason. of those

do not

dare

to

the

faculty of

^"To

follow God,"

is

a

Stoical

expression. Antoninus,

x.

11.

46

EPICTETUS.

what
If it

in universally were every

art

or

science? no Just to the know

same.

not

so, it would were be of

value every is the I am thing, anywhim.

if Is it then the will is chief

knowledge in this

adapted

to

man's

alone, in this which mean greatest and

thing, I

freedom, that no permitted be to

inconsiderately?By to wish

means;

but

to

instructed

everything may happen as it how do thingshappen? As the disposerhas does.* And he has appointed summer And and winter, disposedthem? and virtue and and vice, and all and abundance scarcity, for the harmony of the whole; f and to each sugh opposites of us he has given a body, and parts of the body, and and companions. possessions,
*

this, to learn

that

This that

means

that in to

we

ought with to

learn will

to

be

satisfied with This appear is in a thing every-

happens,

fact

the

of

God. not part of our education, according terns "

Epictetus. plainly with me as

But it does

it does here. is sys

of

education

so

Antoninus to (iv. 23): thee, O is in due

Everything for thee."

harmonizes for

me,

which

harmonious

universe. time

Nothing

is too

early nor

too

late, which

Upton "f mentioned. of

has One on collected passage

the is in

passages
Gellius

in which

this doctrine the is was

(vi. 1),from "nothing that that and the

fourth more book

Chrysippus the Providence,

who

says:

foolish existed

than

without more opinions of those who evil." Schweighaeuser on think wishes

good

could

have had

Epictetus

discussed He refers fully the question the commentary 13 of the

nature on origin of
Encheiridion
of

Evil. of to
c.

Simplicius that "

Epictetus, for the in the Good

(8),and of 34

(27), for his says treatment as a

this is not

subject. Epictetus set (Encheiridion,c. 27) missing is mark nature up

pose purverse." uniis

it. so

neither

does

the

of evil

exist

Simplicius observes that (p. 278, each Bad is the

ed.

Schweig.): "The nature, wherein

which its accordingto the which

thing's the each

thing is has ure perfection: but

dispositioncontrary bad, by which nature, to its nat

of the

thing as contains is

disposition it the deprived of that which if the

according
Good
were

to a namely also be

good. and For of Bad

well

as

the

and disjiosition

perfection

the not form then

in which

it is, the bad

itself would

good

would

be called Bad."

EPIGTETUS.

47

Kemembering to go to be

then

this

instructed, not
"

of disposition things,we that we change the may have have us ought tution consti-

of is it better

things that we

for

we

not

the

power power "

to do

it,nor in order

should

the what

but and

that, as the thingsaround exist,we the may maintain

are our

they in are

by

ure nat-

minds

harmony

with

things which happen. For can we escape from men? and how is it possible? And if we associate with them, can then AVho we change them? gives us the power? What is discovered of holding commerce remains, or what method with do

them? seems Is there

such

a

method we by

which

they are are

shall a what

fit to them, is conformable and are and to not

the less shall be in But and men, mood

which

nature?

you

willing un-

to endure

discontented: if you you are if you you with

alone,

you

call it and

and solitude;

with

call them your own knaves

robbers; and children, and

find

fault and

parents you name

and

brothers

ought Avlien you are alone to call this and of tranquillity freedom, and to gods; and when nor neighbors. But condition by the think yourself you like to the not you

are

with

many,

ought

to call it

crowd,

trouble, nor

val uneasiness, but festi-

and What It is to

assembly,and so accept all contentedly. then is the punishment of those who do not accept? be what Is any person dissatisfied with they are. let him let him be be a being his alone?

alone. bad

Is son, a

man

dissatisfied lament.

with

parents? with into

and be a satisfie Is he disfather. Cast

his children? AVhat

let him

bad he man was

him he

prison.

prison?

AVhere a is there

againsthis will; and there where Socrates my of one will,there he is in prison. So for he was already,for is against his in prison, not is be lamed? find fault it for you not willingly. Must then on

leg then poor Wretch, with the the

do

you

account

leg

world? Will

Will you it to not you

not

willinglysurrender from it? it? And Will

whole?

withdraw gave

gladlypart with

w liiiriho

will you

bo

48

EPIGTETU8.

vexed which

and

discontented the he with

spinning the order? with to thread you I

Know the

whole.

thingsestablished by Zeus, Moirae (fates)wiio Avere present and defined and put in of your generation, small a part you are how not compared with mean respect to the body, for as with the not intelligence you

are

inferior to the

gods

nor

less;for

i intelligences not measured by length nor yet by height, but by thoughts. choose to place your good in that in Will you not then which are equal to the gods? AVretch that I am to you the

magnitude

of

have

such

a

father to come

and

mother.

What

then,

was

it permitted Let such I may

to you a man

forth and unite not

to select and

to say:

at this moment

with

such

a

woman

that was a

be

produced?
Of what

It

was

permitted,but then it

necessity ten. begotedy rem-

for your

parents to kind exist of

a first,nd

for you as to be

Well

then, since they are

parents? Of such such as they are, is if you did not they were. no there

given purpose to

you? possess Now the

know

for

what be fortunate un-

you and

facultyof vision,you if you but closed your in that you every event would

wretched before eyes when possess that are colors

were

brought and them; not greatness may you

of soul and

of f nobility spiritor know that you

pen, hapnot

you

possess

them,

more

unfortunate you which but time Do you are and

wretched?

Things are the power most brought which close you

to

proportionateto away you not power

possess, the turn

this

at particularly

very

when you to be

ought these have

to maintain

it open that

and

cerning. dis-

rather

thank

the

gods

they have have not

allowed

you

above and

things which made you

they

placed in for those

your which

power; are accountable

only

power? As to your parents, the gods have left you free from and responsibility; so with respect to your brothers, and your body, and possessions, have death and life. For what then and they made you in your

For responsible?

that

which

alone

is in

your

power,

the

50

EPICTETU8.

that

it is toward the laws

these of the

wretched

laws are of

dead

men

?* but

toward

gods

you

not

looking.

CHAPTER
THAT
THE DEITY

XIV.
OVEESEES
ALL

THINGS.

Wheit that a

person actions

asked him are how

a

man

could

be convinced

inspectionof God, he united in answered. Do you not think that all things are one ?f I do, the person replied. Well, do you not think natural that earthlythings have a agreement and union And how else so with heavenly things? I do. regularly when He bids the plantsto flower, if by God's command, as do do

all his

under

the

they

flower

? when

He He

bids

them

to

send

forth

shoots, fruit to

they shoot ? when else do they produce ripen,does it ripen ? the to

bids them

to

produce fruit, how bids bids them the up have he

fruit ? when when else do

He He cast the them down

to cast

again

down when

fruits,how shed the

leaves, do to they they

? and

shed

leaves ? and to when
*

He

bids them he fold

themselves

and

remain

I suppose to means

liuman he the

laws, which
"

made may one mean

man

a

slave

another; and as when with

says

dead or men,"

tal mor-

men,

contrasted

gods

God, who

has

made

all

men

brothers.

f Things they human are

appear
"

to

be this

separate, but that we

there

is

a

bond

by which and united. are All

you are see,

wherein of things divine one a

contained,
"

is One:

members a large body" mutual order are (Seneca, Ep. 95). of The a universe

is either

confusion,

volution in-

things and
"

dispersion; or
10): also the any vii. is

it is

unity and

and

providence with (Antoninus, one vi.

9,

"all

things there also See

cated impli-

another, and with De

bond other

holy; and

is

hardly
De

anything
Nat.

unconnected ii. 7; and

thing."

Cicero,

Deorum,

Oratore, iii. 5,

EPIGTETUS.

51

quiet and rest, how
And how else at the and at the

else

do

they and remain wane quiet of the are so

and moon, rest

?

growth recession the

and an approach and But with our of the

sun,

great in bound

alteration

things and more as

?*

change to the are plantsand the souls and

contrary our are

seen so earthly up much God God own bodies not our

united ? and

whole, and so souls with not bound

up

and

in contact
; and as parts of

Him

portions of of himself these ?

Him

does

perceive every motion of the and moved senses motion with

parts
Now
are

being you his

connate

able to think

divine administration, and same about human

all

things divine, to at the

time thousand

also about

and affairs,

be

by and ten

in your from

and

to dissent your

time in your things at the same to some, understanding,and to assent others, and again as to some things to and do you retain in your soul

suspend so judgment;

and various things,and impressionsfrom so many being moved by them, do you fall upon notions similar to those first impressed, and do you retain arts numerous and the memories of ten thousand things ; and is not God able to oversee all things,and to be present with all,and many to receive sun from

all

a

certain so communication of

? the

And

is the to cupied ocsun

able to illuminate so large a part
; and

All, and is the

leave

little not

illuminated, that part only which shadow He a by itself and

the makes with

earth's it go the the But Zeus?

who

made

round, being cannot small

part

of liimself

compared
But

whole, man He

perceive all things? all these have that has you

I cannot, at once.

may

reply,comprehend he things power man a who

tells you

equal every lie has

with

Nevertheless every man's

placed by to whom

guardian,

Demon,

f

*

Compare

Swedenborg, Angelic Wisdom,
v.

349-356.
And
own

f Antoninus, with the

27:

"Live

with to the

gods.

he

does soul

live is sat-

gods who

constantly shows

tliem

that his

52

EPICTETUa.

committed

the

care

of

the

man,

a

guardian better who and

never more deceived. is sleeps, never careful guardian could When then you have never For He

to what

have the

intrusted doors you your and are each made

of

us?

shut

darkness

within, remember are to say

that

alone, for you is not; but what To

God

is have

within, and

Demon see an are

within, you are

and

need

they you of

light to to swear

what oath hired all

doing? the swear

this God do

ought
But

just as for pay

soldiers to to Caesar.

they
Caesar

who

regard have not

the

safetyof so or

before such

things; and will you not you

who

received

many you what

and

great favors, swear? Never

will you abide to be

swear,

when And

have shall an}'

sworn,

by

your

oath?

you

disobedient, never

to make

fault with to anything do or

that

to

suffer

to find charges,never he has given,and lingly unwilnever Is anything that is necessary.

this oath

like the soldier's oath? man The

soldiers men swear

not

to

preferany themselves to Cssar:

in this oath

swear

to honor

before all.

CHAPTER
WHAT PHILOSOPHY

XV.
PROMISES.

When

a

man

Avas

his brother

to

consulting him cease being angry does not

how with to he

should

suade per-

him, Epictetus secure replied.Philosophy any external

propose

for

a

man

thing. is If it did

(or,if to it

were

not, as I say), it does

isfied with Demon and

that which

assigned hath to

him, and

that man all that the

wishes, which a Zeus

given
And

every

for his man's
"

guardian god who ye

guide, and portion
St. Paul of of himself.

this is every names ing understandthe not reason."

Antoninus

5 (iii.)
i.

this Demon says, "

is in thee." 9X^

(1

Cor.

3, 16)

Know

ye

that

the

temple

of God, and that the spirit God

dwelleth

in

youV"

BPIGTETUS.

63

philosophy within its and art would

be

allowing
For
as

something the is

which

is

not

province. that of the is

carpenter's copper, life. to so

material the matter then is but

is of my with like a wood, the statuary each man's

of

living
That

What own brother's?

again it is

belongs one his

art;

respect

to

yours, like of

of

the

external But

things,

piece

of

land, none health, these. like In

reputation. every circumstance conformable I am, to be But

Philosophy
I will to she tain, mainnature.

promises she says,

the

governing part? my and his who even part in whom

Whose How

governing then him to His

says. with me?

shall to me brother I

cease

angry I have

Bring to will anger. was

tell

him.

nothing

say When

you the

about man, consulting my brother in a him, is state is not said,

I

seek

to to to

know me, this. How, shall I

if

reconciled

maintain

myself great, said grape a conformable

nature?

Nothing since not

Epictetus, or produced is. to If you you

denly, sudsay that

even

the want the

fig answer to

me

now

that time:

you let Is and man's

fig,

I

will

it and

requires then it

flower* the one first, then fruit of and a a

put

forth not fruit, fected per-

ripen.

then in mind

fig-tree you and

suddenly the Do fruit not hour, in I so would time

possess so of

a

short you. that are

easily?

expect
The

it,

even

if

tell

*

"

philosopher
The

had

forgot of a

fig-trees inside the

do

not

blossom"

(Mrs. which Carter). becomes flowers fruit. fig

fleshy

receptacle

the

54

EPICTETUB.

CHAPTER
OF

XVI.

PROVIDENCE.

Do are NOT

wonder for if for other the

animals

than food shoes

man

all

things rials, mate-

provided also,and nor

body, no we

not

only of and nor drink, but bed additional

beds

they have clothing; but animals was

need

require all being what made to be

these

things. for other take asses, For

not

for

themselves, but so as

it service,

not

fitfor them consider

made

to need us things. care For

it would

be

for

to

not

only of ourselves, but should and be

also about how

cattle and how for

how

they eat clothed, and
Now
as

shod, and are they should their be a drink.

soldiers armed:

ready round commander, hard or

shod, clothed the chiliarch men; and

but go

it would and

thing for which to (tribune) so shoe the

clothe

his thousand are also nature

has formed pared, pre-

animals and

made

for

service, all ready, care. requiring no stick drives we, same own further the of cattle.

So

one

little

boy

with But not only a now instead care being and thankful as that

we

need

take God the

the on our

of animals

of

ourselves,complain the name

of and

account; one yet, in

of

Zeus

exist would thing of those which be enough to make a man perceivethe providence of God, who is modest and at least a man grateful. And speak of the great things,but only of this, that not to me now cheese milk is produced from from milk, and grass, and wool skins. Who made these from things or devised

gods,

any

them?

No

one,

you

say.

Oh, amazing shamelessness of nature Is and

and

stupidity!
Well, let her smaller than useful us omit

the works

acts. (subordinate)

there What

contemplate anything less then, has not the

hair

on

the

chin?

SP1CTETU8.

65

nature

used

this hair
Has does a also

in it

the

most

suitable

manner

possible? the female?

she not not

by

the distinguished of every a male

and

the

nature am man

forthwith

proclaim from me, as

distance,I me; man;

as

such

approach

speak to signs? Again, in the something of hair softer in the

such

nothing else;see the of women, she has mingled case as voice,so she has also deprived them look for You say, not so: (on the chin). to have us the human of

animal

ought each man.

been

left without have been the

marks

distinction,and

of

should how

But

is not how much more a obliged to proclaim,I am sign beautiful and becoming

and

venerable? much

more

beautiful

than

the

cock's

comb, how
For
has this

reason

given, we as becoming than the lion's mane? we ought to preserve the signs which God to connor found, ought not to throw them away, as we

much the are can,

the distinctions of

of the

sexes.

Are what

these words

only works sufficient to

providence in them and set praise
For both if we us? them

And forth

according ought to we

to their worth?

had

understanding,

to do

anything else and bless the when this

sing hymns

and who

Ought we not eating to sing has t and severallyhan jointly and to tell of his benefits? deity, we are digging and plowing to hymn

God? with has

"

Great we is

God, shall given

us

such

implements who which

given us hands, the power of swallowing, a stomach, imperceptible growth, and the power of breathingwhile we sleep." This is what we ought to sing on every occasion, and to sing the greatest and most divine hymn for giving us the facultyof comprehending Well these things and using a proper way. of you have become then, since most blind, ought there not to to be some man

cultivate

the earth:

great is God

to

fill this For

and oflftce, what else

on can

behalf I I was of all a sing the hymn to God? old man, than sing hymns
I would do the

do, a lame

to God?

If then of a part

ingale, nightnightingale: if I

56
I would

BPIGTETm.

were a

a

swan,

do

like I

a

swan.

But

now

I this am

rational

creature, and
I do to

ought

to

praise you to

God:

is

my am same

work; allowed song.

it,nor

will I desert I exhort

this

post, so

keep it;and

long as I join in this

CHAPTER
THAT
THE LOGICAL AKT

XVII.
IS

'

NECESSARY.

Since the reason

is the it

faculty which itself not for it is to be

analyzesand perfects unanalyzed, by this what be should

rest, and it be either

ought

should done

analyzed?

plain that

this other to who reason; shall

then thing. Either by itself or by another thing also is reason, or something else superior is impossible. But if it is reason, which again For if that reason does analyze that reason? reason this for

our itself,

also

can

do

it. go on But to we

shall

quire re-

something else,the thing will have Yes: no end.* it is more Reason

therefore to cure but
*Tliisis

urgent
The in

and infinity is analyzed by itself. (our opinions\) and the
"Reason it is

obscure.
"

conclusion,

therefore

is

lyzed ana-

by itself haeuser are

is

not

Epictetus;
So

but

implied,
1,

as

Schweig"These itself." says

(p. 197, notes). rational Antoninus,

xi.

writes:

the

properties of the our soul; another reason

it

sees rea-son

itself, analyzes to If

reason, reason so on

reason,

requires

analyze it, that reason; other and must will to require another
If
reason

to our on

analyze that other reason, can

infinity. of then,
The
notes

be

analyzed, who it

be

analyzed by edition itself.

the be first part of this read

ter chapare

in the

Schweighaeuser is may

by those

inclined.

f "Our

opinions." There
"The
is not

some

defect

in the

text,

as

Wolf

marks. re-

opponent," he says, "disparages necessary to

a Logic (Dialectic)s

a

thing which

make

men

good, and him, that a he man prefers who moral

teaching to Logic:

but

Epictetus informs

58

EPICTETU8.

thing to understand great and wondrous What then is or interpretChrysippus? Who says this? the will of nature. the wondrous thing? To understand Well then do you apprehend it yourself power? by your own this then the and men what err more

have

you

need you

of? have But

For

if it is true

that

all

and involuntarily, must act

learned in truth tells

the truth, of
I do us necessityyou the will

right.
Who

not

hend appreit is?

of

nature.

then I

what I

They what say that this

it is

Chrysippus. nature proceed, and
I

inquire

stand begin not to underwhat he says: I seek an interpreterof Chrysippus. said in the Well, consider how this is said, justas if it were of Eoman tongue.* What then is this superciliousness the There is no superciliousness which can justly interpreter?! t be charged even to Chrysippus, if he only interpretshe

interpreterof

says.

will of more nature, but so does his his own not

follow

it

himself; we and no we

much need may

is this

with

interpreter. sake, but do we

For

have that

of

Chrysippus for nature. in order a understand on Nor

need we diviner think

his we own

account, but know When is done in some because future and

(sacrificer) that through the learn of

him what the

shall means. the

understand

signs what it

cliildren learn

words, they should word. to some thing can even

is which be

signifiedby the imperfectly degree; is in as In

the

case

children be this done

only

words, be word

but or it may

then

and

it must

done,

the

word

nothing, signifies
All
some

or,

what

equally bad, the of many

is misunderstood.

of

us

pass us some

our

lives

ingorance than words but which us we

use;

of to in

greater ignorance

others,

all of

in

rance igno-

degree. supposed and does

*The
"

the a Roman

interpreter says tongue," perhaps he means not this.

Epictetus says that the supposed opponent

When

is

Roman

know

Greek a well. man f Encheiridion, because If

c.

49.

"When and

gives himself to great airs

he

can

understand had not

expound the rest.

Chrysippus, say man yourself, have had

Chrysippns to written

obscurely, this

would

nothing

be

proud of."

See

EPICTETUS:

59

given by for the own gods; do we

nor

do

we

need

the viscera

of

animals

their

sake, but

because wonder

through on them crow signs are or given; nor but on

look with

the

raven,

through them givessigns?* I go then to the interpreterf these things and the sacrio and I say. Inspect the viscera for me, and tell me ficer, what takes the viscera, opens signs they give. The man t them, and interpretshem : Man, he says, you have a will free by nature hindrance from and compulsion; this is written matter

God, who

here

in the viscera. Can man I will show man you you man this first in the from

of assent. No

any can. hinder Can any

to the truth?

assenting compel you to that in this

receive what matter is false? have the

No

man

can.

You

see

of faculty the will free from hindrance, free from ter compulsion, unimpeded. Well then in the matof desire and pursuitof an object, it otherwise? is And what can overcome pursuit except another pursuit? And what desire and aversion can overcome {eHuXtdtr) xcept e you another desire me and

placebefore it is not what

But, you object: "If the fear of death, you do compel me."

aversion?

you

No, your In that

is

placed

before to do

you so that and so compels, but than to

opinion that this matter

it is better then it is your

die.
:

opinion that compelled you if God
i.

is, will compelled will.f For
*

had

made

that

part of

Compare
This

Xenoplion, Mem.
If you

1, 3. a man

f threat he may or is true.

place before of death.

the fear man of

death, to you

threaten and

him

with

the

fear

The

may to make

yield him the or do what

it is the to object of the him so

threat to do;

make

resistance to who take

attempts for enforce

the

threat;

he may a man

refuse

yield,and of the consequence so of his refusal.

If

yields to the threat, he does freedom case.

the

reason

which

Epicof will or tetus

gives, and exists choice, and
Roman

consequently freedom law of did not really

in this

The the

allow

contracts

agreements reason made

under

influence was threats the want that

to be

valid;

and

the

for

declaring them

invalid

not

of free will are in him

who

yieldedto

the threat, but

the

fact

threats

condirectly

60

BPICTBTU8,

himself, which sucli or a he as took

from

himself or and

gave either nor to

us,

of

nature

to be hindered

compelled then be God

by would self himhe

by another, care he us would as not

be

taking to of

he

ought. are This, says the diviner,

I find in the you.

victims: If you no one:

these

the

things which are are

fied signichoose,
All will mind

choose, you you will

free; if no one.

you

you

will

blame same charge your be at the of God. and

time the

accordingto

mind

and

the

For

sake

of this divination

I go to this diviner

to the

but

for this interprenot admiring him philosopher, tation, admiring the things which he interprets.

CHAPTER
THAT WE

XVIII.
BE

OUGHT

NOT

TO

ANGRY OTHERS.

WITH

THE

EREORS

(faults) of
If what

philosophers say is true, that of assent the as principle, in the case thing is so, and in the in a case

all

men

have

one a a

of dissent case the

persuasion that persuasionthat of thing is uncertain, so also in the case toward of a movement anything the persuasion tliat a to thing is for a man's advantage, and it is impossible think tliat one thing is advantageous and to desire another, toward and to judge one thing to be proper and to move with the are we another, why then many?* angry trary to the

thing is not so, and the persuasionthat

the

of

a

suspense

judgment

purpose

of all

law, which in purpose

is to

secure

the law. pendent inde-

action matter of every

person

all

things allowed
Romische

by

This

is discussed
"

by Savigny, Das metus etc.

heut. in the

Recht, iii." 114.
2.

See

the title

Quod

causa,"

Digest,4,

Compare

also

Epictetus, iv. 1, 68,
*

Epictetus says

that

men

will

do

as

they do,

so

long

as

they

EPICTETU8.

61

They mean are

thieves thieves

aod and

robbers, you robbers? may

say. are What mistaken

do

you

by

They

about

good and evil. Ought we then to be angry with them, or their error, But show them and you will see to pity them? how If they do not see they desist from their errors. their errors, they have nothing superior to their present opinion. stroyed? Ought not then this robber and this adulterer to be deBy no means speak rather in this say so, but way: about This the man who

has

been

mistaken

and

deceived

important things,and blinded, not in the white and black, but facultyof vision which distinguishes in the facultywhich good and bad, should distinguishes If you speak thus, you will see how not destroyhim? we most thinlc which mend and as

they think. men He

only says man

traces

to we their

origin the pity them if he sees bad and the

acts

bad them. direct and

do; and
Now the of bad do

he best acts

that

should

try

to

in the may

world,

origin punish legal is to

cause

in men, He

pity them and for

their will be

ness, wicked-

he

will

right. of will

pity,

still he

severely, if the but he will not

interests

society require he would not the

guilty to that His to punished: about punish
I
assume

in anger.

Epictetus

says say

nothing the penalties; and this effect,as the errors that

penalties are with always unjust, if I understand the title tells us, the we are

his that of to

principles. we discourse be the who
He

ought toward not

angry

of others:

matter

the

discourse

is

feeling and do wrong,

disposition which
"because
discuss than

ought mistaken of

have

those evil." they the about

good of and

does

not

question men the a origin that error

these act men's

mistakes

further and it is

this:

think them to that

thing or one is

advantageous; is impossible desire us

for

think Their

thing their will

advantageous
Then their

and he to

another show them here

thing.

is in

opinion. desist from

tells

to

their error,

and way

they of errors.

He

is not

examining that the means showing

them of their their them

error; error. by
He their

which seems I suppose to he

convincing them be not

admit

that
"

it may if

not

possible to convince see of

errors;

for he

says,

they do

their

errors,

they

have

nothing

superiorto their present opinion,"

62

EPICTETUS.

inhuman would man?

this is which say, But

you not say, and to that it is

justas and if you deaf the

Ought if the

we

destroythis harm is the

blind

greatest the as are of privation every man man

greatestthings,and will of you the or greatest thing in be, and angry a

is the

choice

such

it ought to you also

is him?

deprived
Man,

this

will, why

with

ought not to be affected contrary to bad things of another.* Pity him rather: to nature

by this words lows." feland Is it men drop odious once?

readiness which the

be

offended utter: "

and these

to

hate, and and wise we these

many have so accursed so How ho*v are you

been

made

at

you we because rob not value Do not peevish? Why then are much the things of so admire the your

angry? these you then the

which

us?

clothes, and
Do
not

will

be angry

with you thief are thief. not an

admire with have

beauty of

your Learn

wife, and that a

will and

be

angry

the adulterer. no adulterer but in in your as as

things others these you angry

which

yours, are those power.

which If

placein the belong to you dismiss are and

which

not

things and still angry? with

consider But so them

nothing, with value these with thus: you have not whom

long

you

be things, the fine you

yourself rather
Consider the has The

than matter not:

the

thief and have

adulterer.

you a clothes;your wish man's to air the

neighbor clothes. window; know thief

does that which them

wherein in having think. you

but good consists, fine

he thinks

it consists you also When

clothes, the then come

very and

thing take and

Must show do

he not a away?

cake to

greedy persons, them do not to

swallow it from do

it all you ? not yourself,
Do
not

you

expect them: I also

snatch a provoke clothes. of my

not

have an window:

air your the side ran latelyhad

iron

lamp placed by noise had at the

household found down, and
*Here

gods: hearing a that the lamp

door, I

been

carried

off.

I

the text, 9, 10, 11 is defective.

EPICTETU8.

63

reflected that

he who

had then? for

taken

the

lamp
I

had

done

ing nothwill he you any we strange. What find has. had a an

To-morrow, a man

said, you that is Have which that you for

earthen I have

lamp: lost my I have

only loses
The my are garment.

reason

pain in Why then pain in your horns? have only lose those things,we things which we possess.* garment. But away not the
"

head. you

troubled? about

only pains the those

the

tyrant the will chain neck. will.

"

what? then is

leg. the we

He

will take chain and

what?

What This

will he not

take

away?

the

why

ancients

taught cise exer-

maxim, ourselves Know

thyself, f greater.
I have not I

Therefore

in small the

J things,and have in

to not

proceed to say, And but I

ought to beginning with pain in the head. ear. are

them Do say, to alas! do

pain say, the you

Do not not

alas! groan, that

allowed

inwardly; and if your slave is in bringing a bandage, do not cry out and torment slow and say, yourself, Everybody hates me:" for who would For the future, relying on these such a man? not hate about upright, free; not trusting to the opinions,walk size of your body, as an athlete, for a man ought not to be invincible in the way that an ass is." do not groan
" *

The in conclusion

explains what he if he

precedes. none. A

man

can

tave be says not no

pain about his horns, because loss of a has does

A possess man

cannot

vexed that lost a the

thing to not

it. you

Upton have Epictetiisalludes thing, horns" when you the

foolish you quibble: not "If

have

it: but

have

lost

horns; therefore do not

you a have

(Seneca, Ep. 45). Epictetus says, "You you have it not."

lose

thing

f Compare
Know

what

is said

in

Xenophon,

Mem.

iv.

2, 24,

on

the

pression ex-

thyself. to X This

ought is be

the as method this

in animal then

teaching children. is " That very obstinate,
The

generally;

and

sometimes says: "a,

obstinate.

meaning

is,

as

Sweighaeuser

64

EPICTETU8.

Who

then

is the invincible? which are It is he

whom the

none

of

the

things disturb examining one case independent of after another come will.

Then

circumstance has to I

observe, as in the in the first what be at if tliei-e

of

an

athlete; he then, as

oft' victorious

contest: should And money

well be the

second?

and

great heat? same and in

what, if it should this case:

Olympia? throw you

the in a I say way,

if you

should suppose

his

he will his way,

despise it. what then? be be a Well, and little

put

young

girlin what what, if it is or reputation,

in the dark?*

if it should

abuse; should and

what, if it should
He is able to what

praise;and all. the and

what

if it then what he if be lete. ath-

be death?

overcome

What

if it be in he be in a heat, and

if it is in

rain, and what if

melancholy (mad) mood, will still conquer. This

asleep?

He

is my

invincible

CHAPTER
HOW
WE

XIX.
BEHAVE

SHOULD

TO

TYEANTS.

"

If

a

man

possesses he does

any

or superiority, a thinks is

that

he

does, when will of the do man not, such up master

man,

if he it. And

uninstructed,
For what shall

be necessity puffed **I am through of all?" desire a instance, can tyrant says, for me? should and be

you no Can

you

give me with himself

which

have

invincible, not in kind like

of an stupid obstinacy or ass, ness lazibe

slowness

moving reason, but

he

should

invincible
"

through the reflection, meditation,

study, and

gence. dili-

*"

From a rustics

came

the old

proverb, for when a man

they with mend com-

man's

and goodness they say he is fidelity with the

whom

you

may

play the game

fingersUx the dwk,"

Cicero, De

iii. 19. Officiis,

66

EPICTETTTS.

care? You that But

I do cannot not do

care.

I will show Zeus allow of my no you me son

that free:
*

I do

am

master. you think ?

that. to has his

set own he you

intended are to

be

enslaved you

master

carcass:

take to me

it.

So when but approach regard to

me,

you

have

regard wish that

me?

No, the I have gard re-

myself; and
I have to my

if you

to say that same I have

to you

also, I tell you

I have

regard

to

you

pipkin. This is not a perverse for stituted self-regard, the animal is conFor even the sun to do all things for itself. so as all things for itself; does But Zeus himself. even nay, when he chooses the to that

be

the of

Giver

of and and

rain men, and you

the see Giver that

of he

fruits,and cannot not nature

Father these man; gods

obtain to functions

these

names,

if he is made the obtain not tribute conner man-

useful of

and,

he universally, such that has

the of its

rational own animal

it cannot

any

one

proper to the common interests, if it does interest, for a something and for that And a man

f do In this to do

sense

it is not sake

unsociable For

man

thing every-

the

of himself.

what his and

you

expect? interest? should in that

neglect case can

himself be

and one own

how

there

the

same

in all to themselves? What

of attachment animals, the principle

ciple prin(regard)

then? of our when

absurd

notions were about and of

will, as if they of our

good must pendent things inde(or)bad, lie

at

the

bottom

opinions,we

necessitypay

*Comp. f This

i.

c.

3. misunderstood a man

has

been

by Wolf.
"

Schweighaeuser,
Epictetus
as a means as a use

who
'

always writes like proper of

sense,

says: to by of our

interests,' the interests this so

proper

man,

man,

rational our or

being; and powers, interest far from

or

good consists being repugnant

in

the to proper

and

common

interest

it utility,

contains

within

itself the notion

of

and general utility

can-

uot be

from separated

iti

EPICTETV8.

67

regard to to

tyrants; for the him man I wish also

that to men

would bedchamber once pay

regard men.* tyrants only, and is it that has made

not

the

How Caesar

becomes

all at

wise, when

superintendent of the close stool? Felicion How is it that we bly spoke sensisay immediately, I wish he were to me." ejectedfrom the bedchamber, that he might again appear to you to be a fool. whom he sold because Epaphroditus f had a shoemaker he was good for nothing. This fellow by some good luck of Caesar's men, and became Caesar's was bought by one what shoemaker. You should have seen respect Epaphroditus the good Felicion does do, I paid to him: "How is master Then if any of What us asked, pray?" ''He is consulting (Epaphroditus)doing?" the answer was, Had he sold the not about something with Felicion." then made him wise all man as good for nothing? Who of valuing something else This is an instance at once? than the things which depend on the will. Has been exalted to the man a tribuneship? All who kisses his eyes, him offer their congratulations; meet one slaves kiss his hands. | the neck, and the He another lighted. He ascends goes to his house, he finds torches the occasion. the Capitol:he offers a sacrifice on Now who sacrificed for having had good desires? for having ever
" "

*

A

lord of the

bedchamber,

as

we

might the say. of of an Seneca, De the the

Con-

stantia

Sapientis, c. of 14, speaks name), the of

"of the

pride

nomenclator

(the man." announcer

the

arrogance was bedchamber person. Even

the to cleric of carry close-stool

important on a

Slaves Horat.

used

this

useful

domestic

vessel

journey.

Sat. i. 6, 109 Once the master

(Upton). of f

Epictetus (i.1, 20). times of

X Hand-kissing was not in those

tyranny the duty

of men a

slave, called of

a

free

man.

This

servile

practice still exists among

free.

68

EPIGTETU8.

acted

conformably for person those was to

nature? in which to me

For we in

fact our we

thank

the

gods
A of you
"

things

place

good.* the the But

talking
I say to to-day
*'

about let

priesthood alone :

Augustus.! will Those you

him no :

Man,

thing he my and

spend who then

much draw stand
*'

for up

purpose." will read name replies, name." say to agreements those I whose who

write

Do such And Avill Write

by is be you and you

them, is written

persons, if you it you do on can

It now there what T'

present are on

all

such name occasions, will But come, when a dead it will there

?

My

remain. what ?

stone, of remain. be If

remembrance But at more will of roses beyond you it on, Nicopolis a crown

I

shall take

wear

a

crown

gold. and desire for it

all,

a

crown

of

put

will

be

elegant
*

in

appearance. 21,
'

Matthew be also." vi.

for

where

your show

treasure

is, there

will

your it heart for So are these thankful.

people

by

thanking

God,

what

is

which

they

f Casaubon, us in

a

learned honors after note

on

Suetonius,

Augustus, Augustus
The the in to at

C.

18,

forms in-

that he at divine founded were

paid victory at to

Nicopolis, priesthood gave to

which of town

the a Actium.

Augustus to Nicopolis that in in

was

high it was

office, intended related

and

priest

his fix in

name

the

year;

is, when

any

writing matters, the

year,

either used

any

writing

which the

public the most

or

instruments

private was afFairs, also the

name

of

priest
Greek

of

tus Augus-

was

used,

and

this

practice

in

cities.

BPICTETU8.

69

CHAPTER
ABOUT

XX.

REASON, art and

HOW

IT

CONTEMPLATES

ITSELF.* certain kind Every

faculty contemplates then it
:

things with especially.When the objects which itself also cannot it is itself of

the must an

same

it contemplates, but when For but
:

of

template connecessity

it is of

unlike

kind,

it

art from

is

contemplate itself. employed on skins, the material itself. of skins

instance,the itself is this

shoemaker's

entirely distinct it does not

for

reason

ployed Again, the grammarian's art is emlate articulate speech ; is then the art also articuabout For this reason it is not able speech ? By no means. Now has for what to contemplate itself. reason, purpose it been of appeargiven by nature ? For the right use ances. A system (combination)of What is it then itself? So by its nature it has the facultyof certain appearances. for the contemplating itself also. Again, sound sense, contemplationof what things does it belong to us ? Good and evil,and things which neither. What is it then are

contemplate

itself ? Do both chief you

Good. see And that

want

of

sense,

what

is

it ?

Evil.

contemplates good sense necessarily the opposite? itself and For this reason it is the and the first work of a philosopher to examine pearance apand to distinguishthem, and to admit none examination. our

then

without in which how we You appears an

see

even

in the

matter

of

coin, the interest invented to to

be

somewhat how many

concerned, means have uses art, and of assayer the

try the

value

coin, the
He the but

the touch, sight, throws the he coin

smell, and

the lastly

hearing.

(denarius)down, and observes with its sounding once, content
*

sound, and

is not at-

through help to

his

great

A

comparison

of lib. i.

chap. 1, will
17.

explain this chapter.

Compare

also lib. i.

chap.

70 tention think

EPIGTETUB,

he becomes that to be

a

musician. and not

In like manner, to where make we a mistaken we be

mistaken

there great difference, the apply great attention in and the

to discovering

deceive. But can things which miserable our ruling faculty,yawning admit for carelessly every appearance,

matter

of

we sleeping,

the

harm

is not

noticed.
When then you would

know

how how careless active

you

are

with to respect to good

and

evil,and

with

respect

serve ob(neither good nor evil), how respect to being deprived of the you feel with sightof the eyes, and how with respect to being deceived, and you will discover that you are far from feeling as you ought to do in relation to good and evil. But this is a which much matter and much labor requires preparation, and study. Well then do you expect to acquire the are things which

indifferent

greatest of doctrine read words of

arts

with

small

labor

?

And

yet

the

chief

is philosophers very brief. If you would know, Zeno's* For how few writings and you will see. it requires end to say that man's (or object) is to that But what of was

followf the gods, and use the if you

nature

of

good is is

a

proper what is

of appearances. and a say. What what of God, is appearance,
*

is

and particular in universal^ is said rest to

Zeno, come native

Citium, young the

island

Cyprus, he He

have a when in he the

to

Athens, where of spent the

of

long life of study and
He
wrote

teaching a man

Philosophy. respected for was

the

founder and

the

Stoic

sect, and

his

ability was high character.

many

philosophical works.

Zeno

succeeded

in his school

by Cleanthes.

t Follow.

See have

i. 12, 5. what now never

J
I do and too "

I

now

the

universal wills me nature to to

wills M. what do.

me

to

have, and
v.

what xi. 5.

my

nature

do." say

Antoninus,
God But is. man

25, was Epictetus attempt it, and to attempts what man

He does

wise to to

do

cannot

tempt at-

do

only shows also. the

folly of his attempts, and, I

think, his presumption

EPIGTETUS,

71

nature

? then

indeed

many

words

are

necessary. the

If

then be in

and Epicurus should come say, also many the body ; in this case is and we be taught what must and the fundamental and the a man

that

good become must

words the

necessary, us, in leadingprinciple
; and as substantial snail is in

it is not it

probable that the good of probable that the good of a yourself,Epicurus, possess
What is that in you which examines

the

shell, is
? But than

is in the

body better you this. which

something

deliberates,what

is that

what is that which forms a judgment everything, about the body itself, that it is the principal part ? and why do you lightyour lamp and labor for us, and write so many* books ? is it that we may not be ignorant of the

truth, who Thus the we

are,

and

what

we

are

with words.

respect

to

you

?

discussion

requires many

CHAPTER
AGAINST
THOSE WHO WISH

XXI.
TO BE

ADMIRED.

When gape after to a

man

holds

his proper it.

station

in

he life, do and you

does wish

not to formably con-

things beyond

Man,

what

happen from an

you? to I

am

satisfied if I desire movements formed then more avoid toward

nature, if I employ am and pose purbefore person, and
*

object as I design and is said

by

nature

to

do, and strut other

assent. to Why written do you than any

Epicurus as have

as was

many his

three in hundred this

volumes For

(HvXtvSpoi, rolls). Chrysippus if as

rival

respect. him in

Epicurus and read not wrote

anything, reason Chrysippus often vied

with

writing he much;

for over this

he had his

repeated himself, he left his

because

did

what

he of written, and

writings uncorrected
x.
"

in consequence

hurry.

Diogenes Laertius,

Upton.

See

i. 4.

72 if you that had

BPICTETU8.

us

as

swallowed who meet me a

spit? My should admire the to wish me, has and always those been who

those me follow are should whom whom

exclaim. Oh, you you wish are great philosopher. be to

Who

they by those of

admired? say, that

Are

they are not

used to they men? mad-

mad?

Well

then

do

you

wish

be

admired

by

CHAPTER
ON

XXII.

PKECOGNITIONS.

Precognitions is not

are

common

to

all men,

and

tion precogniof us to contradictory precognition. For who does not assume that Good is useful and eligible, and that we circumstances ought to follow and pursue it?

in all And coming? beIt

who

of

us

does

not

assume

that does the

Justice

is beautiful

and

When arises in the cases. then

the

contradiction

arise? the

adaptationof
When and one man

to precognitions

lar particua

says. He says, "Not

has

done

well: he is he has This the acted

brave

man,
"

another

so; but

Egyptians holiness should be preferred and the Romans; not whether should be pursued, but all things and in all cases to will whether it is holy to eat pig's flesh or not holy. You and Achilles; find this dispute also between Agamemnon forth. What do you say, Agamemnon? for call them ought is proper and right? Certainly. not that to be done which
Well, what what do you say, Achilles? do you not men. foolishly;then the disputesarise among disputeamong the Jews and the Syriansand

is the

admit

that

I do most certainly. ought to be done? Here t Adapt your precognitionshen to the present matter. the disputebegins. Agamemnon says, I ought not to give Achilles says. You ought. It up Chryseisto her father.

is good

74 of how

EPICTETU8.

wars,

civil commotions, to shall I be still able

for if I sustain me; damage is he to I am?

and me tyrannies,conspiracies. And maintain duty toward Zeus? my am unlucky, he takes no care of if he I now and in

what which

allows

me

to be

in the him. to dition con-

begin to set as

hate

Why
Zeus,
how as then well Zeus of

do as we

build evil

temples, why demons, how truth in such the if

up to statues

to

Fever;*

and

is

the

Savior, and
And

fruits? such

giver of rain, and we place the nature
This labor, is the

the of

giver
Good

in any What true things, all we this follows. then? is in

should

do who nor inquiry of
I do mad? not the see philosopher the suppose which will come f
Am

Now I not

what But

Good that

is I

the

Bad.

Yes.

things
There
on

the place the good somewhere among depend on the will: all will laugh at me. some gold rings gray-head wearing many his head should also: and say.

his

my you

and he will shake fingers, It is right that you child.

Hear,

philosophize;but that you are ought is to have

some

brains the

all this

doing but silly. know then

You how do

learn to you

act

syllogismfrom philosophers; better than philosophers do. me, Man,

why page you

blame

if I know?

What

shall

*See

65, refers note.

f Upton where man's

to

a

passage

in

the

Theaetetus to (p. 150, Steph.), whether a a

Socrates mind is

professes that giving birth and like to it is his art an discover

young to idol and in

and (an unreality) he says

or falsity,

something associate productive him are

true; women (p. 151) that than to

those are who

with

childbirth, for they more in labor

and art full of trouble has the power nights of conclusion to and

days much up women, rest

and labor his of dent stu-

stirring in and

putting

this

childbirth. is The

the

chapter some is not

clear. man, The who

supposed know idle talk note. be to addressed say; by the rich old way a really of does and

not

what is and

best

of

getting rid
See

him

his

by dismissing him

with

joke.

Schweig-

haeuser's

SP1GTETU8.

75
I must

I say to this slave?

If

I

am

he silent, will burst. me, as

speak
I
am

in this way: my own Excuse master:

you

would

excuse

lovers:

not

I

am

mad.

CHAPTER
AGAINST

XXITI.
EPICURUS.

Epicurus perceivesthat we but having once good in placed our longer able to say anything else. For
Even

are

by

nature
*

social, he is no the on husk

the other not to

hand

he nor strongly maintains to this, that which we

ought

admire nature accept anything and he is

is detached

from this.

the How

of are our

good; we rightin maintaining have advise you no then to to

if [suspicious],! we children? Why do you Why are up children? into trouble? the care mouse

natural the wise that

affection man not

bring fall of he to afraid

he

may on thus account For

does

he fall into in the house

trouble house? makes

which a is nurtured mouse What

does

if

little

in

the

lamentation

is born, it a child Epicurus knows that if once it. about not to love it nor is no longer in our care power has any For who this reason, Epicurus says, that a man he also does in political matters not sense ; for engage knows what do who is engaged in such things; must a man him? But

for, indeed, if you
*

intend body; see to
i.

behave 20, 17.

among

men

as

you ginning be-

That of is in

the

Compare

ii.

20,

at

the

the word
"

chapter. is not

f should that we The

read,

how not intelligible. Schweighaeuser suggests that it have for others':'" Epicurus taught we care any marry nor

should

beget children our nor

engage

in

public

because alTairs,

these

things disturb

tranquillity.

% do EPICTETU8.

among who

a

swarm

of

w flies,hat

hinders to you

? we Bnt

rus, Epicunot own knows

this,ventures
But
a a

say does a that not man as should

bring up children. nor offspring, yet
What
not

sheep should their

desert desert

its

wolf; that desert do we and

shall

his child?

do even you do

mean?

they not even

as silly sheep? but as or as offspring: savage

be

wolves, but who after even wolves

desert

their saw young.

Well, weeping that would

follow

your the

advice, if he
For father you

his child

fallingon if your you

ground? and say your

my

part

I think told

mother would

had have been

by

an

oracle,that not what

said, they would

have

cast you

away.

CHAPTER
HOW WE SHOULD STRUGGLE

XXIV.
WITH

CIRCUMSTANCES.

It is circumstances are.* that with a Therefore

when a show what which men (difficulties) falls upon a difficulty ber you, rememtrainer of

God,

like

wrestlers, has

matched

you

For what man. rough young purpose? you may an Olympic conqueror; Why that you may become say. but it is not accomplished without In my sweat. opinion than you has had a more have no man difficulty profitable

had, if you deal with to a

choose young but no to

make

use

of

it are as now

an

athlete

would a antagonist. man We

sending

scout

Rome; \
*

sends

a

cowardly scout, who,

if he

So

Ovid
"

says,

Trist. iv. 3, 79: cessat non

Quae latet inque bonis Apparet virtus cognita rebus,

arguiturque

malis." were f In
Rome

the

time

of

Domitian,

philosophers Epictetus, as

banished

from
c.

and
c.

Dion, 67,

Italy by a 13),and at

Senatusconsultum that time (Sueton. Domitian,
Gellius
says

10;

(xv. 11),

EPICTETU8.

77

only hears back hand. the So state a

noise and and sees

a

shadow

anywhere, the enemy and

comes

ning run-

in terror now reports that should come

is close

at

if you affairs is at tell us, Fearful is

is

of

Rome,

terrible

death, terrible is

exile; terrible friends; the for

calumny; is near

terrible
"

is shall

poverty; fly, answer. my

enemy

we

Begone, fault, made prophesy that we

yourself;we such a

have

committed

only one you, is no sent

scout. sent as a

Diogenes,* who different neither noise about naked bare of

was us. scout that fame this

before death a

report to is it base:

He says says that has

evil,for

he And

of madmen. and pleasure, is better than

what

(reputation)is the pain, spy said about says that to to

about any

poverty? He purple robe, and bed; his and own be

ground is the each thing that his of his

softest he

he

sleepon the gives as a proof his tranquillity, and he pactness com-

affirms the

courage,

freedom, and
How

healthy appearance no is peace.

body. There is so, Diogenes? been a

enemy

near,

says; all I am See, he if I to be.

if replies, fled from you you struck, if man. I have

wounded, scout have But Will you

any to This and tell and

is what us one

ought

come

us

thing see after

another. when

not

go

back, fear? went

you

will

clearer

have

laid

aside

from may gone

Rome

to

Nicopolis

in

Epirus, where speaking to lie of opened some a

school. who We

suppose from

that

Epictetus is here tyrant Domitian. to person state had there

Nicopolis to Rome cruel inquire about

the

of affairs

under
*

the

(Schweighaeuser.) after the battle of Chseassen-

Diogenes as a

was

brought

king Philip in the states ronea

spy

22, 24). (iii.

Plutarch

treatise, Quomodo

tator

ab

amico was dignoscatur, c, 30, a that when
I
am

Philip a asked

enes Diog-

if he your any want spy,

he

replied. Certainly of your

spy, you

Philip, of without in one of

judgment to and the

folly,which kingdom

lead and

necessity to put

hazard

your

your

Hfp

singlehour.

78

EPICTETU8.

What a then
Do you

shall I do? you take take away

What the

do

you

do or when the you

leave
What your is

ship? do and own, helm what

oars? own, then bottle your

away? never You

take now is your think

your you

wallet; and will if you what

of what to claim

belongs aside aside you

others.

The

emperor on See, I put
I have naked. poor my

(Domitian) says. Lay the angusticlave. Lay my laticlave.*

this ajso. am See, now only
But

toga. Lay aside you still raise at a your envy.

toga. See, I
Take
I can my

then

all my away

body; when, poor body, do a man's

command, not throw

I still fear him? will leave I to me

But

certain

person What mine.

the succession not one

to his estate.

then ? had How in the the will you

forgottenthat do we

of

these Just

things was as we

then inn.

call them the

mine?

call the bed leaves you

If then all

innkeeper he at his death

beds; have well; but if you you

leaves seek them another on to

another, he bed. If then

them, and find one,

will will snore, shall not a sleep and the

ground: only sleepwith that remember and

tragedies have

good will and their place among

the rich

fills a part in the kings and tyrants,but no poor man mence Kings indeed comtragedy,except as one of the Chorus. with '^ornament the palaceswith prosperity: lands," garthen
"

about

the

third

or

fourth

act

they

call out,

0

Cithaeron,fwhy the crowns, at didst thou the you you

receive ?

me?" The

Slave, where thee are

where then that

diadem

guards help

not

all.

When this

remember not man approach any of these pei-sons, are approaching a tragedian, himself. about But with the the actor, but is
*

CEdipus he walks the you many,

say, such and was a

happy; senator; the

for

I also the The of was a

garment dress with

broad with border, the narrow

laticlave,

dress

the garment of a man

border, the angusticlave,

of the equestrian order. of

f The
V.

exclamation

of

CEdipus in the (Edipus Tyrannus

cles, Sopho-

1390.

EPIGTETVS.

79

place myself with
In
sum

the many this: the

and door as walk is

about

with be not many. more remember than little

open;*

timid does

children, but
"

I will pleasethem, of when to you things seem longer play, and begone: but not they say, when the thing play no longer,"so do you, a such

kind, say

I will not no

if you

stay, do

plain. com-

CHAPTER
ON
THE

XXV.

SAME.

If these not man

things are true, and when acting hypocritically is in the not if we we

are

not

a silly,nd the

are

say

that that

good

of

will, and concern the us, evil

too, and which else does are we

still afraid? are The

why are we things about and not the care still

everything disturbed, why we have

been are busied the in of

no

man's

power: we things which
AVhat

in of

power have

others, still? for.

kind

trouble But

we

give me has not

directions. Zeus

Why you should

I

give

you

tions? direche not given

directions?

Has

free from hindrance and free given to you what is your own is not from own impediment, and what subject to your hindrance and What directions then, what impediment? did you bring when kind of orders liini? from came you what is your own; do not desire what Keep by every means virtuis belongs to others. Fidelity(integrity) your own,
*Tliis The
c. means

"you

can

die you

when

you

please." by amid Comp.

i.

c.

9. ii. power

of best

dying when thing that God

please given

is named to man

Plinius all the

(X.

H.

7) the

has
"

sufferings

of life.

Horace, Epp.
"

ii. 2, 213 si recte

Vivere Lusisti

nescis, decode satis atque

peritis: bibisti;

satis, edisti abire tibi."

Tempus

80

EPICTETU8.

ous

shame

from

you? your who then can is your own; take these things who else than yourself will hinder you from But you how lose and me? of do you act?

using them? not own,

wiien is your

you own. seek

what

is

that

which

Having kind do am such you I do

promptings still ask from

commands Am I

from more Zeus, if you

what than

powerful
Well, but
Produce

he, has more

worthy want these

confidence? others

But

observe he

these, not you

any

besides? will say. of

given you orders, you the your

tions, precogniwhat said you

produce have often

proofs and you what and

heard,

yourself,produce have meditated from on; philosophers,produce produce what you have have read, produce what will then then see you How

that

all these observe

things are
*The
it is what

God.*
"

long will then

is it fit to

conclusion

and

you The and see,"

is not

in the

text, but
If
we

Epictetus existence we men

means.

argument that he is

is complete. our mit ad-

the

of from God, him father, which roused

as we

Epictetus possess; to

teaches, and and those are have

the

intellectual powers powers

in whom

these no have

been

activity, that in not cised, exera

exercised, require of other powers instructor. are a

It is true and are large part or mankind are these

inactive very of if

they or exercised,

it is in

imperfect way. the human race, But

those

who

contemplate the if not powers improvement a hope to that all men, exercise made powers other more all men, which to great number that will

be roused

the be of the

they have, and
Nature, that need will not

human man life will

conformable he who

is, that advice will

use

the from can which men, has, and

and and

direction that

professing that incapable or they often are

wise

they that true

teach, prove are by their teaching and are by their
This

example is they for not can-

not

wise, and who may

of

teaching.

equally he does

those

deny man doubt

about

the existence powers of God

They their deny that and want

has

the intellectual the man which will can possess; own they

are

certainly not powers. and in we man

persons

who and

proclaim exercise of these

If

has not them

them, of the these

fact is sufficient: powers which are need

dispute about

the

source

Naturally,that

is, according to the

tution consti-

of bis Nature.

82

EPIGTETU8.

are

sour

and man of

bad

temper,
"

and

they

say,

"

I cannot

sup

with

obligedto hear him telling dailyhow I told you, brother, how he fought in Mysia:" I ascended the hill: then I began to be besiegedagain." But another I preferto get my supper and to hear him talk as says,
"

this

to be

much

as

he

likes."

And do as do

you

compare

these

estimates

(judgments):only as no one man afflicted, nor

nothing in a thinking that
Has

depressed mood, nor you are in misery,for in the ber? chamsive, exces-

compels
I go out: you

to that.

it smoked

If the smoke for

is

moderate, I will stay; if it is must you

always
I will

remember

this you

and

hold me. it Do

fast,that the door not is open.

Well, but not say to Nor I

live in I will

Nicopolis. not live there. Nor I in Kome.

in Athens. will not

live in Athens. Live in

live in Rome.

Gyarus.*

will

live in

like a great smoke to Gyarus, but it seems I depart to the place where and man no is from living,for that dwelling-place open to the

live in will to no

Gyarus; me as

hinder

all;and one last over garment, me that

is the this.

poor This

body, was has

any

power

beyond to the me reason

why death, on on

Demteriusf but nature

said

Nero, "You

threaten

with

you." If I set my admiration poor body, I have given myself up to be a slave: if I little possessions, also make myself a slave: for I it plain with what make I may be caught; as threatens the my

diately immeif the

snake
*

draws

in or his a head, I tell you wretched the island

to strike

that sea, part of to Gyarus were Gyara sent was
"

in the

^gean whom man, was: which
i. 73.

criminals

under a empire

of Borne.

Juvenal, Sat.
Seneca
even
"

f Demetrius
Benef.
is more Cynic was philosopher, of my (De if he

vii.

1) says:

He

in

opinion of his

a

great

compared with

the

greatest." One few sayings if you The

You

gain them not

by possessing a use "

precepts

of

philosophy,

if you

have them in the

ready and hand. is also Socratee

them, than often to

by learning many,
Demetrius.

have

at

Seneca attributed mentions

saying

text to

Anaxagoras (Life by Diogenes Laertius) and 27). by Xenophon (Apologia,

EPICTETUS.

83

him

ever guards; and do you be assured that whatwill part you choose to guard, that part your master will you still flatter or attack. Kemembering this whom

which

he

fear? But you see I should that you

like are to

sit where

the

Senators

sit.*

Do are putting yourselfin straits, you

shall I see well in any then squeezing yourself. How other way in the amphitheater? Man, do not be a spectator will not be squeezed. Why do you at all;and you the Or wait when a little,and give yourself trouble? is in spectacle over, seat yourself the place reserved for the this general Senators and sun yourself. For remember

truth, that in us

it is

we

who is our squeeze

ourselves, who us put and selves our-

that straits; For

opinions squeeze be reviled? you will

put

in straits. and

what

is it to what

Stand

by

a a

stone man revile a it; and

gain?

If then

is profit there to the reviler? But if the reviler has as a stepping-stone (or ladder)the weakness is reviled, then of him who he accomplishes What do mean something. Strip him. by him? you Lay hold of his garment, strip it off. I have insulted Much good may it do you. you. This the practiceof Socrates: this was the reason was face. But we choose to practice why he always had one and study anything rather than the means by which we shall be unimpeded and free. You talk say. Philosophers f paradoxes, But are there no paradoxes in the other arts?

listens like

stone, what

*

At

Rome,

and

probably classes in

other men towns, at the

tliere

were

seats

served re-

for the

different

of

public spectacles. are f Paradoxes,

"things contrary

to

opinion,"
"

contrasted

with says Cicero paralogies, "things contrary to reason (iv. 1,173). (Proemium to his Paradoxes), that paradoxes are something
"

which

cause

surprise says and

contradict Romans The

common

opinion; the of name "

and
"

in another
"

place to he

that

the

gave

of is

admirabilia

the aract. cat-

Stoic

paradoxes.

puncture

the eye

the

operation for

84

EPICTETU8.

and

what

is that more

paradoxicalthan see? If any

to one puncture said he not a

man's to a

eye man in order

he may

this

ignorant of the surgicalart, would then speaker? "Where is the wonder things which are true appear many

ridicule

the

if in

philosophy also paradoxical to the

inexperienced?

CHAPTER
WHAT

XXVI.
LAW OF

IS

THE

LIFE,

reading hypotheticalarguments, Epictetus said. This also is an hypotheticallaw that we must accept what follows from the hypothesis. But much a When

person

was

before

this to we

law

is the

law For

of

that life, every is

we

must

act

formably con-

nature.

if in what to matter

and

stance circum-

wish

to observe

natural,it is plain that it our

in

everythingwe which admit us *

ought

make

aim us, that that

neither we that not is the in is a

consequent

shall

escape

and

do

ercise excontradictory. First then philosophers which is theory* (contemplation of things),

This

profound

and

useful

remark and

of

Epictetus.
The for example, true General

principlesare in the

most

easily understood is law us accepted. easy, are as

i difficultys than
?
"

What applicationof them. understand general principlesof in more

to

which

and

good are But mersed im-

practicecases in matter;

are
"

presented and to

which,

Bacon makes

says, the

it is this

matter

which

difficulty study of of an applying the

principles, and

requires the

ability and

the

It is easy, and it is right,to teach the young experiencedman. of plying general principles of the rules of life; but the difficulty apthem is that in which virtue

the can young be

and

the old answer too

often

fail.

So if you rules rnles ask a whether

taught, the the is that

the

for

virtuous

life

can

be delivered; but of application of the well, are

is the are as difficulty, teachers

religionand not morality know this )f they

fit to

teach.

If

they

do

know

truth, they

BPIGTETUS.

85

easier;and

difficult they lead us to the more there is nothing which draws us things;for in theory, away from followingwhat is taught; but in the matters of life, distract us. He is ridiculous the thingswhich are many next then real who says that he wishes to then

to

begin with

the more an

matters

of

life,for it is not easy we things;and to those

ought
I

to are begin with the employ this fact as vexed at

difficult

argument

parents who is suitable be learned

their

children

learning do I not

Am philosophy: know can doing wrong to nor me then, my and father,and blame what neither can becoming? taught,why do you and that you if you

If indeed me? me this but to

if it learn For

be from

taught,teach those do you who

me;

cannot, allow know that how I

say do the the

they suppose I

to teach.

what

think? miss voluntarily

fall into evil and be so. good? cause What
Do

is then you not of my then

hope that it may not rance. doing wrong? IgnoI should anger

choose was that

get the means

rid of art my a ignorance? pilotor music? anger Who Do

ever

taught by then He

of of

you the

think

that

by

your to I shall learn in this way

art of life?

only is an allowed

speak if a

who

has

shown

such

intention.*

But and

man

to show

reads

at only intending to make a display a banquet that he is acquainted with hypothetical ments arguthem and attends the philosophers,hat other w

objecthas sits he

than may

that

some

man

of there

senatorian

rank

who the here

by

him

admire?

really great neither them their

materials the (at Rome) are and the riches (opportunities), to For

fit to teach

rules, nor which lead

the

way

to

the

practice of is by the only method own is

possible; and example whom mean

this those

method who

by the example, assisted of Such

by the

of

direct live. of education
*
' '

youth, and an son

of those
"

with to young
"

persons

intention alone

'

appears can the intention

ing." learnson

"The studies

say

this of to

his

father, when

the not philosophy for the of display." the purpose
"

purpose

living a good life,and

for

Wolf.

86

EPIGTETU8.

(atNicopolis)appear why it is difficult for where the

to be triflesthere. a man

This of the

is the the reason

to

be

master

ances, appear-

judgment are certain who a complained, as he great. I know person the knees of Epaphroditus, that he had only one embraced times ten thousand hundred and fifty denarii * remaining. What then did Epaphroditus do? Did he laugh at him, slaves of Epaphroditus did? as No, but he cried out we with Poor how then did amazement, keep man, you
"

things

which

disturb

how silence,

did

you

endure

it?"

the person who Epictetus had reproved (called) was reading the hypothetical arguments, and the teacher who had suggested the reading was laughing at the reader, Epictetussaid to the teacher, You are laughing at yourself:
"

When

you

did not he are prepare was the young

manner

did you these

tain ascer-

whether

able to understand

matters; but

Well only employing him as a reader." if has not ability then, said Epictetus, a man enough to understand do a complex (syllogism), we trust him in giving do praise, we trust him in giving blame, do we allow that he is able to form a judgment about good or bad? and

perhaps you

if such blame? in such

a

man

blames if he

any

one,

does one, the

man man

care

for

the

and

praises any as an

is the

elated, when

hypotheticalsyllogismhe who cannot what is consequent on the hypothesis? see praises This then is the beginning of philosophy, a man's f ception perof the state of his rulingfaculty; for when a man knows that it is weak, then he will not employ it on things of tlie greatestdifficulty. But cannot at present, if meti swallow and tempt ateven a morsel, they buy whole volumes this is the reason them to devour why they ; and matters *

small

This

was

a

large sum. denarii. "

He In

is

speaking

of

drachmae, the amount or or

of

the

Roman be
"

equivalents

Roman

language millia would

briefly expressed by sexagies." sexagies centena

H. S.,"

simply by

f See

ii. c 11.

EPIGTETU8.

87 and then

vomit

them

up

or

suffer

: indigestion

come

Such men sider defluxes,and fevers.* ought to congripings, In theory it is easy to convince what their ability is. an ignorant person ; but in the affairs of real life no one offers himself has convinced to be us. convinced,
But Socrates

and

we

hate us the not

man

who

advised

to

live

a

life which

is not

subjectedto

examination,

f

CHAPTER

XXVII.
EXIST,
AGAINST AND
THEM. WHAT

IN

HOW

MANY AIDS WE

WAYS SHOULD

APPEAEANCES
PKOVIDE

Appearances appear as are

to

us

in four

ways

:

for do to either not even or

things pear ap-

to be are they are ; or they are not, and do not appear ; or they are, and yet appear to be ;

they cases not, and a be.

Further, the it

in all these is the that

to form an rightjudgment (to hit man. mark) is office of annoys

educated

But

whatever

(troubles) to that we ought to apply a remedy. If the us, what are sophisms of PyrrhoJ and of the Academics annoys If it is we (troubles), must apply the remedy to them. the persuasionof appearances, some things apby which
*

Seneca,

De

Tranquillitate animi, and tables

c.

9,

"

says: owner What

is tlie

use

of

countless

books life the not libraries, when of contents'?

the The

scarcely reads only to

in a his whole

number better

confuses

learner, does to a

instruct

him. wander It is much

give yourself

up

few

authors Plato's was than

to

through many."
28; and Antoninus, iii. 5.

f

See

Apology, a c.

X Pyrrho to native

of

Elis, in the Peloponnesus. the time of Great of in He

is said

have

accompanied

Alexander ix. his Asiatic is not

expedition stated, but

(Diogenes Laertius, it is said that he

61).

The

his birth

lived

ir "'*^ age

ninety.

88

EPICTETU8.

pear to be

good, when aid ?

they are

not

good, let annoys aid then You is dead:

us we

seek must a

remedy try for this.

If it is habit

which What

us, can to seek

against habit.
The unfortunate

we

find

againsthabit say: "

contrary habit. person hear

the

rant ignoby an That

his father and cut off Hear these the

overpowered with sorrow; he was untimely death and in a foreign land." yourselffrom way of speaking: Tear are mother

trary con-

sions: expres-

oppose oppose reason, to

one

habit the

the

contrary habit; to sophistry and of discipline reason ; we against persuasive ought to have (deceitful) appearances manifest precognitions,cleared of all impurities and ready to hand. death appears When an evil,we ought to have this rule in readiness, that it is fit to avoid and that evil things, shall I do, and death is a necessary thing. For what shall I escape it ? where Suppose that I am not Sarpedon, I able to speak in this noble the son of Zeus, nor way: resolved either to behave will go and I am bravely myself the opportunity of doing so ; if I to give to another or I in doing anything myself, will not grudge succeed cannot another the doing of something noble. Suppose that it is above reason our

and

exercise

power ?

to act

thus where me ; is it

not

in

our

power

to

thus me Tell

me

I

can men escape

death:

discover go,

for whom

the

country, does show not the

to whom

I must me death

visit. not Discover one, to

a

charm me against death. do ? I cannot the fear from

If I have escape of

what

do you

wish not to

from

death. shall I

Shall die I

escape

lamenting and trembling ? For the originof perturbationis this,to wish fore not for something, and that this should happen. Theredeath, but if I am able

to

change
; but

externals I

according am to to

my tear wish, I change them out man

if I cannot,

ready the For hinders the eyes of him who me. is not to endure to be deprived of the

nature

of not

good, and

90

EPICTETU8.

your

mouth, never but

to

ray of And the

own. a When

I but I

intend

to

take

bread, I bread as

lay hold a broom, you to

mark. away

always go to the yourselves(the Pyrrhoof the he senses, w nists),ho otherwise?

take

evidence you, when

do you

act a Who went among into a intended

to enter

bath,
What

ever

mill?

then?

to this

also, the ourselves against it? he to

Who

to hold Ought we not with all our power fying maintaining of generalopinion,and fortidirected are against the arguments which denies that we ought to do this? Well,

should him

do who

it who trembles

is

able, who and is must has

leisure

for

it; but

as

broken

in heart

he (spirit),

perturbed and is inwardly employ his time better on

something

else.

CHAPTER
THAT
WE WHAT OUGHT AEE NOT THE TO BE

XXVIII.
ANGRY AND
THE WITH GREAT

MEN

;

AND

SMALL AMONG

THINGS

MEN.* fact to What that assent

is the

cause

of be

it appears to that

to

assenting to anything? The It is not true. possiblethen appears of the not to

which nature be

true.

Why?

Because to the

this is the

understanding, the and false, is the

to incline

true, to be dissatisfied with to withhold

in matters of this?

uncertain

assent.

What

proof

if Imagine (persuade yourself), you can, that it is now that night. It is not possible. Take away your persuasion it is day. It is not yourself or take possible. Persuade in number, persuasion that the stars are even f away your
*

See We

c.

18 of this book. conceive t odd. cannot

that the

number

of stars

is either

even

or

EPJCTETU8.

91

It

is

impossible. is When

then that is he

any did

man

assents intend

to

that

which to it as false,be assured every not

to assent

false,for as soul but

unwillingly deprived s falsityeemed we of to as

the be we truth, true. Plato in

says; acts or

the have

to

him

Well, here what

of We

the have

like kind the

have not truth

falsehood

?

fit and the

the

fit (duty and that which whatever

not

and duty),the profitable to a

able, unprofitwhich is think He not. can-

is suitable is like

person Can not and then choose

that a not, and that a

these. and

man

thing is
How

useful

to him
"

it?

says Medea?*

"

'Tis true But

I know

what

evil

I shall do, counsel."

passion overpowers

the better

She

thought on that

to

indulge was her

passion and was take to ance vengespare her so her

husband It she do was more

t profitablehan deceived. will not can her

children.

so;

but

she

Show do

that plainly long as you that else. that which

is

deceived, and show to

she

it; but

not

it,what herself angry

she

follow

except

appears then been are Why she has

you

bewildered a (her opinion)? Nothing with tlie unhappy woman about the most important of a

things,and is become And why not, if it blind and the

is so viperinstead r possible,ather those who are human we creature?

pity,as blinded pity the maimed lame, which and

in the faculties Whoever measure are

supreme? this,that bad: the be if to man

then of the every

remembers clearly act the
"

is the

appearance or (the opinion) good, one

whether fi-om

thing appears if he who

good

he

is free it is and this at blame;

bad, himself another with

suffers can penalty,for person, remembers be vexed

impossiblethat he who suffers be angry
Medea

is deceived person any man, "

whoever will not will not
*

any

The

of

Euripides, 1079.

92

EPIGTETUS.

man,

will not

revile man. or

blame

any

man,

nor

hate

nor

quarrelwith
So
then in origin, the

any

all these

great and

dreadful

deeds

have

this

(opinion)? Yes, this originand other. The Iliad is nothing else than appearance and no the use It appeared* to Alexander of appearances. to carry off the wife of Menelaus: it appeared to Helene to follow If then it had appeared to Menelaus him. to feel that it would have was a gain to be deprived of such a wife, what happened? Not only would the Iliad have been lost,but On the Odyssey also. small matter then did such a so do mean great things depend? But what by such you appearance great things? of many is this? death of Is many or Wars men and and

civil

commotions,
And what what

and

the

structio de-

cities. But many burnt

great matter matter

it

nothing? oxen, great

is the nests and

swallows

storks

being

sheep, and many or destroyed?
Bodies

of

Are men these are things then like those? Very like. and the bodies of oxen and destroyed, of there in men are

of

sheep; the storks. me

ings dwellis

burnt, and or a

the

nests

of show a What

this

great

dreadful? man's house

Or and that

what

is the as difference as between is a stork's

nest, his far little

each

dwelling; except and and tiles and mud. say Are

man

builds the and

houses them like

of beams of sticks

bricks, and a stork a man

builds then much

stork

things? a What

you? no In

body they are a very

alike. Does suppose matters *

man

then

differ in but

respectfrom is no

stork? in Don't these is the

that

I say so; I have

there

difference In mean (which
This
as

mentioned).
It does it. that means what
' '

then that it never is tlie literal version.

not

appeared thought was right," whether Mrs. was Carter

translates wrong. he used pursues All

Alexander

it

right

or

appeared for to

him

the

possessing of Helene, and her, as a

the

getting possession of

dog who

spies and

some

wild

animal.

EPIGTETTJS.

93

difference?

Seek

and matter. you

will See

find

that

there

is

a

ence differa man

in another the

whether

it is not

in

understanding of what he does, see if it is not in social in telligen community, in fidelity, modesty, in steadfastness,in inWhere It is where and remains nor then

is the is.

great good and
If the difference neither

evil in men? is

the difference fenced

preserved

round, and

modesty

is destroyed,

then the man also is intelligence, preserved; but if any of these things is destroyed and stormed then the man and in this like a city, too perishes; consist the great things. Alexander, you say, sustained nor fidelity,

great damage then when they ravaged Troy, and no the when is

Hellenes his

invaded

and

when

brothers

perished. By which is the was means;

for

no

man

not

his own;

but

what

damaged by an action happened at that time was now only

destruction when he

of storks' nests: lost the character to the

ruin

of Alexander

of

modesty, fidelity, regard to
When Not he to was so. and hospitality, W^as it when he

decency. died? Achilles But for it a ruined?

Patroclus

began to be angry, when he forgotthat he was at Troy not fight. These things are the ruin when this is the destruction are wept

happened when girl, to get mistresses, but this is

of men,

of

when cities,

sieged, being berightopinions

when destroyed,

they are are corrupted. carried When made evils?

then

women

off, when are children these

are

and captives, How

when

the that me men

killed,are to not

is it then

you also. these

add

the

facts these do

opinions? Explain but come

this to

I shall are not

that;
Let
us

how

is it that you rules:

say that the we not

evils?

to the

produce
When guess: we we

for precognitions: cannot to we

it is because

this is at what men neglected that do. intend where do not wonder sufficiently judge of weights, we intend to do

not

judge by it is our judge
In

of all

straight and cases crooked,

judge by what guess.

where

interest to know

is true

in any

94

EPICTETUS.

matter,
But
cause

never

will any

man

among on us

do

anything by on guess.

in

thingswhich of depend

the

first and

the

only

doing right or wrong, of happinessor unhapj)!or fortunate, there only we are ness, of being unfortunate There is then inconsiderate and rash. notliinglike scales is pre(balance), othing like a rule: but some n appearance sented, I I then and straightway act according to it. Must that I am so superiorto Achilles or Agamemnon, suppose do and sufferso that they by following appearances many evils: and And of of An what shall not the appearance be sufficient for me?

tragedy has any other beginning? The Atreus The what is it? An Oedipus Euripides, appearance. The Phoenix? Sophocles,what is it? An appearance. The What Hippolytus? An appearance. appearance. of a man

kind

then

do

you And

suppose what

him is the

to be name who

pays

no

regard to

this matter?

of those

who

follow every appearance? They then act at all differently? we

are

called

madmen.

Do

CHAPTER
ON
"

XXIX.

CONSTANCY

(OR FIRMNESS). the The

of being (nature) the Bad is a Good kind the obtain

is of

a

certain
Will.

Will; which or

the

being of are certain for

What

then tlie evil.

externals?

Materials

Will, about its own

will How

being shall *This

conversant

shall

good not it obtain maxim *

the of good?

If it does
i.

admire* note^ is the

Horace, Epp. prope res

6; et and

Macleane's

Nil admirari

est

una.

Numicl, servare Solaque on quae

possit facere maxim beatum;"

which

Upton and remarks

that this

learnedly by Lord

sophically explained very philoShaftesbury(the author of the is vol. CbaraQt^ristics), iii-p- 203,

EPICTETUS.

95

the (overvalue)

materials; distorted for

the

opinions the the would You so: about will will have

the

materials, if the opinions are but God perverse has and fixed this

right,make opinions make
"

good : bad. thing any-

law, and it from

says,

If you

good, receive
I will from have it from

yourself."
Do the not when

say. but

No, but it and.

another.

receive

yourself. you in

Therefore do

tyrant my threatens

calls me,

I say. Whom

you

threaten? threaten off your says, the I

If he

says, I will and my

put

chains, I say. You says, I will head. If cut hands I

feet. threaten

If he my

head, will reply.You you he

throw

into

prison,I
If he Does these at say. You me threaten with threaten

whole

of this poor I say the

body. same. threatens he then not banishment, you me, at

all?

If I feel that all not things then do

not

concern

he does

threaten he

me

all;but

if I fear any do I fear? are of

them, it is I whom master own

threatens. master Whom of

the

of

what?

The

is no such power? There Do I fear the master of things which master. not in are And what these thingsto me? are my power? Do then teach us to despisekings? I philosophers you teaches Who to claim againstthem us hope not. among the power over things which they possess? Take my poor body, take my property, take my reputation,take those who are things which

in my

about

me.

If I advise

any me. persons

to claim

these to things, they command this man? it. not may

your How

truly accuse opinions also. can Yes, who the

but has

I intend

And

given

you

power?
Do

you

conquer to opinion

of another

By applying terror you not

know

I it,he replies, will conquer that opinion conquers and is itself,* But For follows. can

conquered by except *

another? AVill itself.

nothing else this reason

can

conquer the law not Will

the

too does and

This

is

explained by what one Opinion

really

conquer

itself;but

opinion

conquer

another,

nothing

else

can.

96

EPIGTETUS.

of Let are God

for away

which is tliis: powerful and most jiist, the stronger always be superior to the weaker. Ten For what? For putting in chains, stronger than one. for dragging whither killing, they choose, for taking what a man

is most

has.

The

ten therefore In

conquer then

the are one

in this in which ten they are
If the one stronger. possesses can

what

the the

weaker? do

right opinions and the ten were others matter?

not. How not Well is it the

then,

conquer

in

this

possible? heavier draw

If

we

placed

in the

must scales,

down

the scale

in which

it is?
How treated

strange then

that

Socrates

should do you

have

been

so

by the of the

Athenians.

Slave,why been and carried one say Socrates?

Speak of thing as should it is: how

strange that the poor body off and should

Socrates

have

prisonby strongermen, liemlock breathe to out

that any of

dragged to have given it should

the the

poor

body
Do
on

Socrates, and

that

life.

these

things seem of these

strange, do

they seem
God? Where shall we unjust,do
Socrates for him then

you then was or

account no Had

the

things blame for these things? equivalent of Whom nature good?
And what but so listen

to, you and him? can does

Socrates

say? Anytus hurt me:

Melitus*

kill me, it

and

further, he that he

says, "If

they cannot God, so pleases

let it be."

principles him who is superior in principles. You will overpowers show never this, nor come near showing it; for this is the law of nature of God that the superior shall always and me But

show

who

has

the

inferior

overpower

the One

inferior.

In what?

In than

that

in whicii many

it is are superior. a body one: is

stronger is another: than

stronger than thief. *

the

thief

stronger
I also

he who

is not be18;

This two is the chief reason

why of lost my

lamp, f
c.

The

prosecutors

Socrates i.

(Plato, Apology,

Epictetus,ii. 2, 15).

f See

18, 15.

98

EPICTETUS.

retreat,as he did to Socrates, we the as signal,

must

obey things for a

him

who

gives many? if he

were we

a

general.* say such to

Well

then, ought we? to

the to Why

should

Is it not When

enough come man

be

suaded per-

clappingtheir hands do and crying out, To-day is the good Saturnalia,"! we Saturnalia but not are good?" By no means, say, "The are we clap our hands also. Do you also then, when you not able to make a man change his mind, be assured that himself? "

children

he is no a

child, and to do must

choose A man clap your this,keep

hands silent.

with

him,

and

if you

do

keep this in mind; and when he is called such he that the time is to any difficulty, should know For he who for showing if he has been instructed. come is from is come into a difficulty like a young man a school and if any who has practiced the resolution of syllogisms; he says, rather to him an easy syllogism, person proposes to me a complicated syllogismwhich is skillfully propose athletes are isfied dissatexercise myself on it. Even that I may and He lift with cannot slightyoung men, say, ''This me." is a youth of noble disposition."![You do when of trial is come, of you the time not so]; but one
"

must

weep more and

say,

"1

wish

that did

I had not learned these to more."

A in

little
*

of what? was If you

learn

things he this was Socrates to condemned

by the Athenians that a

die, and and content

die, and

thought made and such he

it

was

a as

good thing; he was on

the him reason

why

he

defense

did, which to brought it and

condemnation;

preferred condemnation lamenting, others did.
"

escaping

by

entreating the dicasts things unworthy
29-33.
of

(judges),and himself, 16. as and

saying

doing cc. Plato, Apology,

Compare
i.

Epict.i. 9,

t See

25, 8.
This
appears to X

See

Schweighaeuser's note.
If it is so, what
"

be

the

remark

of

Epictetus.

follows act is not

clear.

Schweighaeuser

explainsit,

But

most

of you

otherwise,"

EPICTETJJ8.

99

order to show
I think that is

them there in is

practice, why one did

you who

learn are them?

some

among in not

you

here, who
"

Oh, that that which my

sufferinglike a woman such a difficulty does has life in come a

labor, and

sitting saying, me present

itself to

as

to corner,

this man; when one oh, that I should
I

be, at a

wasting contest?" might

be crowned to me Olympia.

When

will

any

announce

such

of disposition all of you. Even the gladiators Caesar (the Emperor) there of among who not are some complain grievously that they are and matched, and they offer up prayers brought forward themselves and address to God to their superintendents entreatingthat they might fight.* And will no one among show himself such? I would take a voyage willingly you what athlete is and see [to Rome] for this purpose my doing, how he is studying his subject. I do not choose such a subject, he says. to take Why, is it in your power what There has been subject you choose? given to you such a body as you have, such parents, such brethren, such a country, such a place in your country: then you to me and say. Change my not come subject. Have you abilities wlflch enable you to manage has the subjectwhich ness been given to you? [You ought to say]: It is your busi-

Such

ouglit to

be the

to propose;

it is mine say so, but such

to

exercise say, Do would

myself not well.

ever, Howto me you such
*

do

not

you

propose not

a

but tropic,f
Koman

[as I

choose]: do own urge

The

emperors

kept gladiators for their ii. kind mirmillo

amusement

and

that of
c.

the
"I

people (Lipsius, Saturnalia, have heard a 16). Seneca of says

(De

Provid. time 4),

(a of gladiator)in the
"

of C.

Caesar
"

(Caligula)complaining a the

rarity of gladiatorial

exhibitions: says What
"

glorious period of after life is

wasting."

Virtue," it Seneca, not is eager it may a dangers;
"

and

it considers

only what

seeks,

what

suffer."

Upton. by Stoics, which in f Tropic, translates "

logical term

used

Schweighaeuser

connexa propositio

syllngismo hypothetico." The

100

EPIGTETU8,

objection,but such [as I would There will be a time perhaps when tragic will suppose that they are [only] masks and buskins actors I say, these the long cloak.* and things,man, are your material and subject. Utter something that we may know whether are a tragicactor or a buffoon; for you against me choose]/* an such

both should and actor of you take

have away him

all the the on rest

in

common.

If any buskins and

one

then

tragicactor's the his mask,

introduce

stage as

a

phantom,
If he

is the

tragic

lost,or

does

he

still remain?

has

voice, he

still remains. An Assume kind. example of another of a province." I assume it,and when
*'

the I have
"

ship governorassumed

it, I show laticlave how

an

instructed of

man

behaves.

(the mark come senatorial

rank), and

Lay aside the clothingyourself
What then

in rags,

forward power of

in this character."

have

displayinga good voice (that is, of doing something that I ought to do)? How then do moned (on the stage of life)? As a witness sumyou now appear forward, f you, and bear testimony by God. "Come for me, for you are as a worthy to be brought forward witness is anything external to the will good or by me: bad? do of I not

the

I the you: of hurt whole as we

any

man?
You
are

have do not not I

made like "

every work do

man'i which is

meaning set is this. say.

the to before

you

content

your

duty in
Now
to as quire re-

that state this is as

life unto

which

it shall as please a no man

God in

tx) call

you." such foolish, says Wolf,

for

any

discussion

that his serve *

adversary should own case.

raise

objectionexcept actors may

the man's There business will be

a

time

when think

Tragic and shall

not

know says what

their

is, but be will

that it is all show.

So, will Wolf,

philosophers will their life and

only beard what cloak, and or not

show like

by false morals

they really are; do not

they will a be

monks,

who

only

wear

the cowl, and

show

life of

piety and

sanctity.

\ God

is introduced

as

speaking.
"

Sch

weigh aeusQr.

EPICTETU8.

101

interest

dependent on any man except himself ? What I am in a wretched testimony do you give for God?" condition, Master* (Lord), and I am unfortunate; no man for me, no man cares gives me anything ; all blame me, all Is this the evidence that you are going speak ill of me. who has conferred so to give,and disgrace his summons, much honor on thougiityou worthy of being you, and called But
"

to bear

such that to be

testimony he who

? has the power

suppose you ?

has What

declared, has I

judge

impious been else ?

and

profane." to pened hapand same to you

I have

judged

be

impious if the

profane ? person had

Nothing

Nothing

else.

But

passed judgment on an hypotheticalsyllogism and had made the conclusion a declaration, {dwrjunevov), I that, if it is day, it is light, declare to be false,"what has is happened to the hypothetical syllogism? who ? the hypojudged in this case ? who has been condemned thetical who has been deceived or syllogism, the man by it ? Does he then who has the of jnaking any power declaration know about what is pious or impious ? you
"

Has whom?

he studied Then who

it,and is it the

has

he

learned a it?

Where? pays in no From

fact that the

musician

regard

to him

declares nor that a the the are highest ; lines from not yet

lowestf chord if geometrician, he of he a the

lyre

is

declares

that

the center and shall

circle who is

to

the

circumference pay

equal ; word his and in is

reallyinstructed a *The addresses

Kvptoi, the

name a

by which physician angel term slave

in

Epictetus by
i.

master

(dominus), cases is

addressed used

his

patient, and other

also of it is used. of

It is also

by the 24); or Evangelists.
Jesus
is master. They

speak

the same the

Lord

(Matt. 2),

addressed

by

the

(Matt.

viii.

Lord

f In names "

the lowest

chord Greek

or

note," it musical must

be

remembered are that the

employed to ours.

in the

terminology

preciselythe

opposite

102

EPIOTETUS.

when he pronounces man regard to the uninstructed judgment on what is pious and what is impious, on what structed is just and unjust ? Oh, the signalwrong done by the inDid they learn this here ?* any Will matters corner you to not

leave

the

small

arguments or about

these in one a

others,to lazy fellows,that receive their sorry pay,

and

sit they may grumble that no come gives them make small Stoics wanted acts use

anything ; of what you that

and have are will you learned now not

forward it is not

and these the is his

?
:

For the

arguments are wanted What shall

writingsof thing one

full of them. A man then

is the

which

?

who

apply them, f may no who

by in shall bear this the of

testimony of to his words, we Assume,

I entreat the some you,

character, that

longer may use

schools

examples our own.

the

ancients,but

have

example
To

contemplation of these matters (philosophical nquiries)elong? To him who has leisure, i b for man is an animal that loves contemplation. But it is shameful slaves to contemplate these things as runaway does whom

then

the

do; and we

should one sit,as time in

a

theater, free from

distraction, another As actor soon

listen at

to the not tragic actor, do as

at

time as to the

and lute-player;

slaves

do.

the the

slave has taken same his station round:

he

praisesthe if any one and

at

time

looks

then

calls out that right, but are

his

"I think instructed as "

that are Schweighaeuser's interpretation who think that

is

"the not, the etry geom-

those

they

are

instructed in moral in music

they show by their opinion judgment of an ignorant man, tiieywould not

that whose

they accept

matters or judgment

accept.

f"'What hath faith and is dead

is the

profit, my not brethren, if
?
. . .

any

one

should

say that he it hath not have

works But a Thus may

also

faith, if hast and

works, have thee

in itself.

man

say.

Thou

faith, and
I will shew

I

works: my faith

shew

me

thy faith without works." "

thy works,

by my

Epistle of James,

ii. 14-18.

EPI0TETJJ8.

103

master's disturbed.

name,

the

slave

is

It

is shameful of

immediately frightened and for philosophers thus to contemplate
For but comes the
Man is not

works master nature.

what

is

a

master? life and

the

of man; if he you with I am death without how

is, and these I am. pleasureand pain; for bring Caesar to me and when he shall come things,
But and I do slave? a will

see

firm

these afraid master

things,thundering of and liglitning,* thea But

when

them, what these do

do

except so to

recognizemy
I have stands any in the

like the runaway

long as slave respitefrom theater, so

terrors,as
I: I

runaway

bathe, is from

I

drink, I sing; but all this I do with
But those what if I shall release

terror

and

uneasiness.

myself from of have we my

masters, that are things by further means

which

masters master

formidable,
I still? all men?

trouble

I, what

have

What

then, ought we to

publish

these

things to to No, he but

ought to say:
"

to

accommodate man ourselves me to the

igno-

rantf and thinks also

This

recommends I excuse that which For Socrates

good

for

himself:

him."

excused

the

prison and was the poison,and
*

w jailer,ho had the charge of him in Socrates was weeping when going to drink us. said. How generouslyhe laments over J that Upton

supposes

Epictetus

is

alluding

to

the

verse

of Aristophanes

(Acharn. 531), where
"

it is said

of Pericles:
Hellas."

He

flashed, he thundered, the uninstructed we as now

and

confounded

fHe
"

calls
"

and use ignorant by in to sense a

the sense. Greek
An
some

word Idi-

Idiotae," was a

idiots," which

peculiar who of one ota

private individual thence it had

opposed the one

filled who not public

office;and of any

generally

was

ignorant ophy. philos-

art, as, for particular

instance, one

who

had

studied

Compare :j: were the Phsedon in to see of

Plato

(p. 116). he The the children

of

rates Soc-

brought and him of the

before

took of poison by which who attended to he died him to ;

also the

wives

friends his

Socrates

his death.

Socrates

had

ordered

wife

Xanthippe

be led

104

BPI0TETU8.

Does sent he away were then the able a say to the women? to hear

that jailer

for tliis reason says

we

have

No, but

he

it to his friends he treats the

who

(understand) it; and

a jailers

child.

CHAPTEE
WHAT WE OUGHT
TO HAVE READY

XXX.
IN DIFFICULT STANCES.* CIRCUM-

When that and He what that then used

you

are

going also to

in to any from

great personage, sees ber remem-

another you who you

above

what than :

is

going

on,

ought sees please him above exile and

rather you bonds are the other. the from

asks

In and

schools and to say about to

death

disgrace? I used (neithergood nor now? then? The
Are

say that What at they then things indifferent do you Are say of them you

bad). they changed
Tell
me are

all? what No.

changed

No.

things which of the will

indifferent? things are independent of the will. Tell me, then this. The

also, what the follows from are things which
Tell A me are

pendent inde-

Good, what to have

was

nothing to me. opinion? your such a use

also about such as will

we

ought the say end

and

also

of

appearances.

And Do you

(purpose),what now is it? same To now follow

thee.

this

also? into the

I say the

also.

Then these home was

go

great you personage see things; and before lie had

will

what

boldly and a youth

remember is who has she Lis

last conversation and with

liis friends, and

taken
*

away

lamenting may bewailing.

The

reader

understand the

why Epictetus tyranny under

gave which

such men a

lesson at as

this, if he will lived. remember

that

time

BOOK

II.

CHAPTER

I.
IS

THAT

CONFIDENCE

(COURAGE)
CAUTION.

NOT

INCONSISTENT

WITH

The to be a opinion of paradox; that with and

the but it is

philosophersperhaps still let us seems as to we some

examine do

as

well

can,

if it is true caution manner to possible

everything seems both to are

with be in in no a

confidence. to For

caution

contrary consistent. in the matter confidence, and which seems

contraries to way

That under

many in my

to be

a

dox paraof

consideration that we opinion is

this kind: and us if

we

asserted in the same confidence of now ought to employ caution accuse things,men might justly cannot But

bringing together things which where in is the difficulty what are be

united.

is said? said use for if these and of often ances, appear-

things proved, true, which the nature

have of evil not been

often the

that the of

good admit is in

and

nature our of

likewise, and

that

things

dependen in-

will do

either the nature

of evil

paradox do the philosophers assert if they say that where things are not dependent on the will, there you should pendent employ confidence, but where they are dethe will,there you should For on employ caution? nor of

good,

what

if the

bad

consists to be

in

a

bad

exercise

of

the

will, caution on ought only

used

where

things are

dependent

the

108

EPICTETU8.

will. our But

if are power

things independent of the will and nothing to us, with respect to these we thus we

not must in

employ confidence; and confident, and
For indeed

shall both because

be cautious of our and

confident toward

caution. are by employing it will result to

caution that are we

things which have confidence

really spect re-

bad,
We

shall not so.

with

things which then in the

they flee in fright, from the huntsmen's feathers whither do they turn and in what do they seek refuge as safe? They turn thus to the nets, and they perish by confounding things which are objects of fear with things that they ought not are condition

of

deer;*

when

to fear.

Thus

we are

also act:

in what of the with

cases

do

we

fear? what as In cases things which on were

independent we will.

In

the no contrary do

behave

confidence,

if there

things dependent on the will. To be deceived then, or to act rashly, or shamelessly or with base desire to seek something, does not at all, concern us if we only hit the mark in things which are independent danger? of our

In

will.

But we where

there to as run

is

death, away, or

exile we or

pain

or

infamy, there with with terror. attempt err there

are

struck

Therefore who in

we

may

expect to it we to

happen convert those

the

greatest matters,

natural

confidence

(that is,according and nature)

into we dacity, au-

desperation,rashness, shamelessness; and natural which should may caution are vert conness, meana man

modesty to those

into cowardice confusion. For which

and if

full of fear and caution and

transfer

things in of the have if to the

will

be exercised

the be acts

will,he also transfer

will immediately power it to of the

by willing to

cautious but

the

avoiding what
*

he

chooses: of on

he

It

was

the various fashion colors

hunters ropes or

frighten deer strings and

by displaying

feathers them

of

thus

frightening

toward

the

nets.

Virgil,Georg. agitant payidos

iii. 372 formidine "

Ponlceseve

pennse.

EPIGTETU8.

109

things which to are

not

in

his

power

and

will,and of avoid of

will

are things which necessityfear, he will For death or pain is

the

in the power be not attempt others, he the fear

turbed. unstable, he will be dis-

formidable, but we of who

pain

or

death.

For

this

reason

commend

the

poet *

said
Not

death

is evil, but

a

shameful

death.

Confidence

(courage)then caution ought

to

be

employed against
But
now we

death, and do the and and

against the

fear of death.

contrary, and

escape; rashness used

employ against death the attempt to to our opinion about it we employ carelessness, indifference. These things Socrates f properly tragicmasks; fearful from events to call

for

as

to children

masks are appear affected in

terrible and in like for is a no manner

by reason we inexperience, (the things which

also

happen
Want

life) what other

than

children What knows is

are

by

masks.

For

child? For

Ignorance. when to a is a child? these death?

edge. of knowl-

child What it.

way Turn

inferior it and must as

us.

things,he is in no A tragic mask. not examine be

See, it does from the it before.

bite.

The now are

poor or body later separatedX

spiriteither
AVhy
then

it

was

separated from be you

troubled, if it be separated now? now, for if it is not

separated
Tliat the need

it will the

period of
*

AVhy? separated afterward. universe be completed, for " may

it has

Euripides, fragments. the Phaedon, was c.

f In X
It

24,

or

p. 78. some the

opinion

of

philosophers that the soul into human and

was

a

portion of the

divinity sent a down of God

bodies. of Zeno. or "
Laert. of time

This vii. was

doctrine of Heraclitus as Zeno

(Diog. and 137) speaks into "in

certain universal

periods sul)stance revolutions

exhausting

himself of the

{ov6ia)

again generating

it out

Ijiiiiself." Antoninus

(xi. 1) speaks of the whose existence is so

periodicalrenovation

of all

things.

For

man,

110

EPIGTETUS.

of the is

present, and
A mask.

of

the

future, and it and

of

the

past.
The

What poor

pain?

Turn

examine

it.

flesh is moved

roughly, then on the contrary smoothly. If this does not satisfy (please)you, the door is open:* if it does, bear (with things). For the door ought to be open for all

occasions; and then is the to be the are so

we

have of

no

trouble.

What which

fruit most

these

opinions? the most

It

is that

ought who from

noble

and

becoming must to those

educated, really
For who we release from in these

perturbation, we release not fear, freedom. the many, should

matters

believe

say that

free persons

to be

educated, but who say that manner. rather

believe

only ought the philosophers
How than Tell do is the me the

educated Is freedom

this? power

In this of

living as men, we

choose? wish in to error

only are free. anything else Nothing else. error? Do We you Do one then, ye
No
one

do who Do

you

live in

not. to

then

lives you

is free.

wish you live in fear? to live in

wish

to live in sorrow? no means.

wish who but

perturbation? By of fear or No

then

is in

a

state

sorrow

or sorrows is perturbation free; and also fears whoever

is delivered he is at the

from same and from

bations, perturserviof

time

delivered

short, time is in

the

doctrine then

of

all

existing things perishing in the is of no course

and

being renewed, men. practicalvalue. few The

present embrace of

enough thought

for most

But

for and the the

who

are

able

to

the

past, the of present all future, the may contemplation a the

perishable nature their worth.
*

existing things the have

certain

value

by elevating their minds above above

paltry things which

others

prize

Sec, i. 9, note is the

7.

Schweighaeuser of '
'

says

that
"

he he

does

not

quite is open

see

what

meaning to "

"

ought

to

be open; to and

suggests that door to

Epictetus intended for say

we

ought in consider he says, bear

that the

all occasions; are but a the man occasions, can no

ought them man or be

when orably honto

things the such

that

way

cannot

endure voice

them,

and

such him

occasions

the

wise

considers

be

of God

giving to

the

signalto retire.

EPIGTETUS.

Ill

tude. dear to How

then

can

we

continue say. We

to

believe

you,

most

when legislators, For

you

only allow we free persons none be educated?

philosophers say that *

allow does before

to be

free When his

except then own

the a educated; has he done has Has

is, God round He

not

allow

it.

man

turned

the done own prsetor thing. some-

slave,has
What? He

nothing? turned he done

has his

round

slave Yes:

before he

the

prastor. to pay not

nothing gone more?

is also bound

for him man the tax has than are called the twentieth.

Well

then, is become the

who more through

this

mony cere-

free?

No you

he is become able to turn

free from round

perturbations.Have others or a no

who

master? some is not

money some boy, or

tyrant,or then kind? when

do

you

tremble this

you

(free) master, or a girl your friend of the tyrant? why are going off to any trial this these reason (danger) of say, you to It is for

that

I often

study may which those

and

hold

in readiness what

determine you

and

ought thingswith reference courageous in that in that read to principles which by those things are with reference have confidence to (courage), to which

you not ought it. to be on cautious: your

which does

does

depend on will; cautious have is

which

depend you not

Well
*

I not an to

you,f and of do
Roman

know of V.

what

This slave

allusion

one

the

modes

ting manumit-

a

before
"

the praetor. steriles Compare una Persius, Sat.
Quiritem

75

"

Heu

veri, quibus

Vertigo and

facit; hunc Dama. was a

again
Verterit
Marcus

doraiinis, memento

turbinis

exit

The in sum

paid of on

manumission

tax

of five per

cent., established

B. C. 356

speaks it as

Epictetus here (Livy, vii. 16), and paid by the slave. the tax being paid by the master; but in iii. 26 he speaks of slave. paid by the enfranchised Politique des Romains, f These are See

Duresiu

de

la

Malle, Econ-

omie

i. 290, ii. 469. some the

words

of

pupil who

is

boasting

of what

he

has

written.

112

EPICTETUS.

I me was

doing? how you

In are what? with me In

my

little dissertations. to not

Show aversion

respect if you do not desire fail in the

and

and {ehkXi6iv)', you you you

show if you but

do

wish, and would will take then But one fall into

gettingwhat things which sentences avoid: them did

as

to these

long and out. labored

and not blot them

What much?* hand

Socrates
As he

write? could

And not who

wrote

so

how? argue to

against his

always have at or principles to be argued

himself, againstin turn, he used to argue with and examine he was and one always treating at least some subject in These the things which a practical are a philosopher way. writes. But he little dissertations leaves who as and

that the

method,

which

I

speak of, happy men or to

others, to free from too being are stupid,or to those sure, perturbationshave leiconsequences. and

to such

foolish the you

to reckon

And

will you

now,

when

opportunity invites,go possess, and I make See how recite

display those and Do make not an

things which idle them, not show,

and

say. See how rather say:

dialogues?
I I do am so, my

man:

but which

disappointedof into you that will which see. that

I desire: Set

See death

how

not me,

fall and

1 would Set

avoid. me before

before is the the ever man

condemnation. who is come This out pain, prison,disgrace and display of a young man proper
But say a of one schools. hear you

leave word for

the about

rest

to

others, and

let

no

these not things; and allow if any think that author very

commends you are you

them, do

it; but show No other

that you

nobody

and never know to written

Only
*

know

this, how

nothing. be disapanything.

speaks of Socrates words much.

having

It is therefore who that may difficult to the so took

down wrote Arrian, explain this passage in which him of Epictetus, represents as saying
Socrates
if it were Socrates have

talked

much,

and

Epictetus have spoken

of

talking as was writing; for

he must

known

that Socrates

not

a

writer.

114

EPIGTETU8.

CHAPTER
OF

II.
FROM

TRANQUILLITY

(FREEDOM who what a PERTURBATION)." you For wish

Consider, to maintain wish every if you is to you and

are

going wish into court, what in. you will

to succeed to if you have For and

maintain

conformable have nature, you no security, every facility, you wish to

troubles. own maintain

what are is in

your

power

free, and naturally you Who and choose you care can

if you For them

content

with

these, what of such to else do

for? take

who

is

the

master

things? modest If you

away? not or

If you allow

choose to be so?

faithful, who not to desire

shall

you

be

to be restrained

compel think what

you you

think

compelled, who shall that you ought not what The you do not to desire?

who

shall

compel
But what

to avoid

fit to avoid?

do you

say?

judge

will

determine but how the care can

against you that he do you that? them this be

something
When
are

that

appears

ble; formida-

should

also suffer in then in your the

trying to avoid it, pursuitof objectsand what else do you

avoidingof for? Let

power,

preface,*this your narrative, this your this your confirmation, this your victory, ration, perothis your applause (or the approbation which you will receive). said to one Socrates who Therefore was reminding him your to

prepare been

for

his

trial, Do f

you

not

think

then what was that kind in

I of my

preparing for it all my preparation? I have maintained have own

life? that never

By which done

power. either
*

How in my

then?

I have in my

anything

just un-

private or to public life. divisions of a Epictetus refers
(Mem.
the

the iv. of
c.

rhetorical

speech. saying the of

f Xenophon on 8, 4) has

reported

this

rates Socof

the near authority

Hermogeues.

Compare

Apology

Xenophon

beginning.

EPICTETU8.

115

Bnt

if you your you and

wish

to

maintain and

externals your

also, your

poor

body, advise little to make

property from little estimation, I all this moment both the

possiblepreparation, of your embrace if to

then

consider

nature

judge his groan, what do is not adversary. If it is necessary to his knees; if to weep, knees, embrace weep; and your groan. your For own, when then be

you a have slave a subjectedto and do not externals a resist,nd not sometimes but a choose all your

to be

slave,and be one or or

sometimes the

choose, or with

mind

other, either free a slave, either cock die or or a

instructed mean uninstructed, either endure to be

welluntil

bred you

one,

either and

beaten

receive

yieldat once; stripesand many base, determine

things nature are

happen to you to to yield. But then if these is the immediately. Where truth is: where where truth is caution: is. you think truth

let it not

of evil and where is courage what wished and do to good?

It is where

is and there For had

nature

is,there nature is,

where you

think?

do

that, if Socrates would can

preserve

externals, he and not

have

come

forward me, as

said: me Anytus they are

Melitns able? to kill certainly he so but not to harm

Was the

foolish

to

see

that

this way to no

leads not another account preservation
What is the

of reason life and then even fortune, but that he takes

end? of same his way adversaries, my a

and

irritates them? had a Just

in the

friend bit of

who lleraclitus,

littlesuit in Rliodes to the

about

land, and said when will

had

proved come he had entreat to nor neither

you

judges that his case was just, the perorationof his speech,I what judgment you do I care than I who What not are on

Avill give, and And of thus he

it is you ended do may rather

your was trial. there "I do text, the not mean

business.*

need

this?
*

Only words entreat; but do either what

also say, written in

The so I have

the

or

"and

he lost his suit."

116

EPICTETU8.

not

entreat;" unless the if you

there

is

a

fit occasion case a

to irritate purposely

you,

the judges, as was are preparing such do to with

Socrates. do And you For come: as

peroration, why to wait, why if you but as you be

obey

the

order

submit the

to trial? cross wish

crucified,wait to submit

and to will cause if you you can, choose you

and

plead your with own

well

must

do what what

is consistent is your

this

object, acter). char-

provided you
For this

maintain

(your proper

reason

also it is ridiculous what my that to to say.

thing Suggest some-

to me* to

me (tell

do). so as

What to same

should

I

suggest itself who write

you?

Well, form event. mind is

accommodate as me

to any

Why of justthe say. me.

if

a

man

is

ignorant any name

letters

should to Tell
For

what

to

when

is and name

proposed then of Dion

if I should come tell him propose what will

to write to him

Dion, not another but

should that of

and

the what

Theon, have be

done?

will

he write?

But

if you

writing,you are also prepared to write (or to I now that is required. If \ you are not, what can For if circumstances requiresomething else,what say or

practiced do) anything suggest? will you

what and

will you will

do? need must no

Eemember

then

this

general precept if you gape down and

you

after
*

externals, you
"

of

suggestion. But ramble necessity not up

The a meaning

is, You

must man ask

for to advice such

when

you

are

come

into

but difficulty, on every to name

ought as have

principlesa.s he who him."
"

to be

ready to all occasions can act

he

ought: just as is knows Wolf.

how

write

write

any

which that

proposed

to

f

'

'

The

reader and that

must one know

these

dissertations would not were come

spoken into extempore,

thing after
So the the

another will of

the

thoughts when from

of the

speaker. is on

reader

be

surprised that or the

discourse

maintenance now firmness

freedom

perturbations, Epictetus should is most

speak of philosophical of firmness."

preparation, which
^Wolf.

efficient for the maintenance

BPIGTETV8.

117 master. over

in obedience master? He

to the will of who has

your

And

who

is the you

the power

the

things which

seek to

gain or try to

avoid.*

CHAPTER
TO THOSE WHO RECOMMEND

III.
PERSONS
TO

PHILOSOPHERS.

Diogenes of

said well
"

to

one

who you you; are asked a from he

him

letters

recommendation, as soon or as

That sees man/'

said, " he whether to

will know you are he

and

he will know

good the will

bad, if he is by experience skillful and the

tinguish dis-

good never bad;

but

if he is without to ence, experithousand

he

know,

if I write same as

him a ten

times."! ^or it is justthe of silver money) asked to be be tested. what you We the the it. case if

drachma to a

(a piece person to

recommended in

If he

is skillful

are, for you

he testingsilver, will (the drachma) will recommend in life also to that a me

know self. youras

ought of then

have be

some

skill to in

of silver coin

man

may

able and

say, like

judge
But
*In

silver.Bring case any

drachma would it is to a

I will test

in the the of

syllogismsI or say.

Bring take any

Encheiridion is he who

Manual

(c. 14) to written, man or

"Every away to

man's

master

has have

the power or give

that which

he

would

not

have:

whoever

then

wishes

he

free, let him power neither

seek

anything or not act

avoid

anything which will is in the

of others:

if he

does

thus, he that says

be

a

slave." the hidden mark man \ Cicero character. on

i. (De legibus, 9) says

the

face expresses no Euripides (Medea, 518) the better, that

is impressed from

body by which says we

can

distinguish the good
There's
no

^he bad.

Shakespeare
To

art the face. act I. sc.

find the

mind's

construction

in

Macbeth,

4.

118

EPICTETU8.

man man

that who does you knows not. and please, how to I will resolve

f distinguislior syllogismsand how man you the

the man who

Why? the those

Because power, who

I know a to resolve must

logism sylwho

I have is able to which

have of

discover

have do the

power At one resolving
I call son rea-

syllogisms. But a thing good, and
? The

in life how at I act? bad.

time is the case another that

time which

What

contrary to

is in

the

of

gisms, syllo-

ignorance and

inexperience.

CHAPTER
AGAINST
A

IV.
ONCE BEEN DETECTED

PERSON

WHO AD

HAD

IN

QLTERY.

As and

Epictetus that he who of

was

is formed saying that man subverts subverts fidelity there of entered one for the

fidelity, peculiar who are

characteristic considered in

men, men of once those been

to be

who letters,

had

detected

city. Then Epictetus continued. But if for and make we lay aside this fidelity which we are formed designs against our neighbor's wife, what are we doing? What else but destroying and the overthrowing? Whom, of fidelity, the man of modesty, the man of sanctity. man Is this all? And not overthrowing neighborhood,and are we and the community; and in what friendship, place are we How shall I consider As a putting ourselves? you, man? What kind of one? As a citizen? neighbor, as a friend? shall I trust you? So if you were Wherein utensil so an worthless that on a man adultery in

the

could

not

use no

you, man you would

would

be

pitched out up. But

the

dung heaps,and a man

if

being

you

are

unable

to

fill

pick you any place

BPICTETHa.

119

which

befits that you

a

man,

what hold slave? that

shall the And you a we

do

with a you? trust For

pose supyou

cannot a place of who will also should useless man friend,can be hold you

the not place-of then a

content

you? Are where pitched somea a on

dung heap, as will you do say,

and utensil, cares bit of man dung? letters? is for

Then

no

for me, and no a man

of It

They but not, because

you

are

bad

useless. man cares

justas them, if the

wasps all

complained them, them trouble would you can common

because and if

flyfrom knocks into

can,

he a strikes

them you

and

down. and you be

You

have any do man such

stingthat you You wound have

throw it.

pain have us

that

with no What

with

you?
So
I

place where are put.

What say

then, a not

women

by

nature?*

to all the invited guests, pig is common the portions have but when been distributed, go, if you think it right, and snatch who clines reup the portion of him steal it, next to you, or slyly or place your hand down bit tear away a by it and lay hold of it,and if you cannot of the meat, grease A fine fingersand lick them. your Well, is companion over cups, and Socratic guest indeed!

also;for

little

not

the theater taken of them. When

common

to the

citizens? think also are When proper, common then and

they eject ure. nat-

have one their seats, come, In this way then the

if you

women

by of a

like legislator, not the

master

feast, own has

distributed not them, will you filch and what sense.

also look what

for

your

portionand
*

handle

belongs to being school
"

another.

It is not in any

clear rational is meant

by and women

common

by

nature

Zeno

his

said

(Diogenes

Laertius, vii.; Zeno, that the should the book love women p. 195.

London,

1664): in his

it is their

opinion also man should woman, be as common

among says the

the

wise,

so

that any

use on

any

Zeno

Polity,and
Plato;
the knew

Chrysippus and we

in

Polity,and children be if

Diogenes
These such

Cynic and men shall about all the

equally like fathers, and wise jealousy

adultery will nature, removed."

little about

man hu-

they taught

doctrines.

120

BPICTETU8.

But

I

am

a

man

of letters and

understand and be a Archedemus.* an Understand a faithless,nd

Archedemus instead of a then, man, be

adulterer, and or an

wolf

ape:

for

what

is the difference?

f

CHAPTER
HOW

V.
CONSISTENT

MAGNANIMITY

IS

WITH

CARE.

Things use themselves is not and

are (materials)

indifferent; | then shall a but

the serve pre-

of them firmness

indifferent.

How

man

and time be at the same tranquillity, careful and neither rash nor negligent? If he imitates those who are indifferent;the play at dice. The counters

dice
But

are

indifferent. use How

do

I know

what

the cast cast

will be?

to

and carefully

dexterouslythe then of

the

dice, ness busi-

this is my

business.

Thus

in life also the

chief

is this: are and distinguish in my power: and But the

separate things,and will is in my bad? power.

ternals say, Ex-

not the my

Where

shall I seek which call are good

AVithin,in does not

the

things to or

own.

in what or belong

you thing any-

nothing of the

either kind.

good

bad,

or

or profit damage

What no then? for

Should

we

use

such hand thingscarelessly? In is bad for the

way: the
*

this

on

the

other

faculty but we

of

will, and was consequently against nature; a Archedemus him. may be a Stoic

of pliilosoplier

Tarsus.

We

know

little about

fA time he

man

be

a

philosopher or pretend which works

to

be; and

at

the

same

may

beast. on man names are

X The and of or so

materials are, as

neither

good
But

nor

bad, use they

Epictetus to nature

them,

indifferent.

the used

things, or

of

material,

is not or indifferent. not. They

may

be

well

ill, conformably

122

EPICTETU8.

But will

one

will say, have

Throw; thrown or,

Do

not

throw; is and

another

say. You

once.

This

not quarreling,

play.
Socrates then knew the how to play where at

ball. was How? tried. not

By
Tell believe Are men?

using pleasantry in me, court

he

he says, God.

in

Anytus, how The Demons, of do who

you are say that

I do

they not
When think but

sons

Gods, admitted or

they, think you? compounded of gods and this, Socrates said, AVho mules if he were Anytus you, not can then,

believe and was

that he

there said as are

asses;

this

a (lialf sses), playing at
Life, chains,

ball.*

And

what a the ball in that of

case?

banishment,

from wife and poison,separation the things with leaving children orphans. These were which he was playing; but still he did play and threw the do: we So we should must ball skillfully. employ all the indifference about the same but show of the players, care

draught

the some ball.

For

we

ought by be, showing make Anotlier them

all as our

means

to

apply

our

art

to

external it may does as material, not not valuing art the

material, but,
Thus his and too art

whatever weaver in it.

the

wool, but

exercises food upon

such and When

he receives. to givesyou and the

property

is able then you

take have out away

your

poor

body on also. it. you come received

material, work

without having suffered (of the trial) anything, all who meet you will congratulateyou on your if how knows to look at such things, but he who escape; he shall see that you have behaved properlyin the matter, and if he shall will commend you and be pleasedwith you; If then find that
*Iii says, are you

owe

your
c.

escape
15, Socrates if a man

to

any

want

of

proper and Plato's be Apology equally and But

addresses should not Meletus; believe that

lie

It would

absurd and

that

there are foals of horses and asses.

asses,

should says

believe of there

horses word

Socrates of the

nothing is the mules, wrong.

for the

mules

in

some

texts

Apology

manifestly

EPICTETU8.

133

behavior, he will do
How then

the

contrar}'. some For

where

is rejoicing

reasonable. reasonable, there also is congratulation is it said that and others we external

thingsare union ing accordas

to nature

it

might
:

be to said if the

contrary to nature? were separated from
I shall say that if you take it

It is said

for

foot

it is as ety) (or sociaccording to a nature a for it to be not the detached mud

clean; but and tread

foot and

as

thing

it (independent), on will

befit it both sometimes otherwise such If you way

to to

step into be cut no thorns, and whole in

off for the foot.

benefit We "What

of the

body; some man.

it is about

longer a

should are think A

ourselves

also.

you? other to be a man

consider to yourselfas nature detached

from age,

men,

it is

according
But of one a

to live to old

rich, to be healthy. and whole take a a

if

you

consider

yourself as sake part at certain you into cases whole, should it is for the

of that time

that

time run be sick, at another and at voyage

and in some danger, die not

another

time then is are men. no

be in are want, and you prematurely. Why know, that the as so a

troubled?

Do

you

foot you longer a no foot if it is detached a man a

from

body,

longer what of to if you man? and A of is a are

separated from of a

other

For

is

part men; state, of that first which of that which universal another is called state. consists next Gods

then

it,which must small

image to of the

What a then

I be sail on brought the sea, it is

must trial;

have

fever, another condemned? another

die, and such another a be

Yes, for of impossible in among not so many some body, in such a that livingtogether, to one are

universe such

things, should things what you one happen, then and come others

to

others.

It is your

duty

since these

you

here,

to say

ought,
'"

to arrange
*

things as imaginary must

it is fit.* Then who some

says, since I he He

tells into

some

person,

hears in it.

him, that

is

come

the

world, he

do his

duty

124

BPICTETUS.

shall

charge you
I have you yours,

with done must doing my look it may to me

wrong." but Much you good some may

it do you: done

part;

whether

also have ger dan-

that; for your tliere is

of

this too, that

escape

notice.

CHAPTEE
OF

VI.

INDIFFERENCE.* indifferent: it is either

The

hypotheticalpropositionis about it is not error. b indifferent,ut Thus any

ment judgknowledge use the

or

opinion or are life is indifferent: the man is not these

indifferent.

When

then not tells you become

that

things also when do not a man

d indifferent,o you to invites

be careful with

negligent;and (about such things), of rial mate-

become

abjectand

struck

admiration

know it is good for you to things. And your own where preparationand power, that in those matters you have been and be not not prepared,you may keep quiet, For you too vexed, if others have the advantage over you. will claim to have the advantage over in syllogisms them; and if others should "1 have be vexed learned is need the those at this, you and of any

will console you have

them not."

by saying,
Thus that but and
*

them,

also where

there

which

is

required from to need who

yieldin that matter content be yourself
This
from

seek not practice, (of such practice), have had practice,

with a firmness

of mind. to discussion

is with

young feared

philosopher who, intending the tyranny See and of also

return was Nicopolis to Rome, toward Domitian, who the note on particularly severe
24, 3.

philosophers.
Plin.

i.

Schweig.
Rufus

Compare

Epp.
"df

i.

12,

the emperor expression of
Domitian.
of

Corellius The

about

the detestable means villain,the the bad.

title "of

Indifference" are indifference

things;"

of the

things which

neither

good

nor

EPICTETUS.

125

Go But my door

and I have

salute been

a

certain

person.

How not ?

Not

meanly. to shut the

out, for I have window come

learned I have enter make the the Not you then

way

through must ; and

when or found

shut, I

either still

back to window.

But But "Was claim what

speak that him. have In

what not

through way? what meanly. wanted. do you

suppose this your that

you

got his? business,and

not to

Why

which own, belongs and what

another?

Always

belongs to another; and you will not be disturbed. Chrysippus therefore said uncertain, I always well. So long as future things are clingto those which are more adapted to the conservation is according to nature; for God himself of that which has But if I knew that given me the facultyof such choice. it was fated (in the order of things)for me to be sick, I would even

remember

is your

move

toward move it; for to go

the the

foot

also, if it had
For

would intelligence, are ears

into

mud.* that

why come be-

of

corn

produced do ?

Is it not

they not become may be reaped ?f for they are not communion separated from with other things. If then they had perception,ought to be they to wish never reaped? But this is a curse upon know of corn, to be reaped. So we must that ears never dry? in the same we we as

And

they may dry that they

case

of

men

too

it is

a

curse

not

to

die, just the
But since

not

must are we

be vexed

ripened and not to reaped,and we also know at to be

be

reaped. we are we

that

reaped, are nor

it; for what we

neither

know man, as

what those

have
*

studied

belongs to

who

luive

Sec. ii. 5, 24. alludes to f Epictetus
Compare ripe tUem ears the

verses
"

from
Life

the must Hypsipyle be of

pides. Euri-

Antoninus one (vii.40): six reaped
Cicero

like tbe

of

corn:

mania

born; another verses dies."

(Tuscul. among Disp.

iii. are 25) has these translated

from

Euripides, omnibus and

two: turn vita

Wetenda

ut fruces:

sic

jubet neoessitai',.

126

EPICTETUS.

studied santas* himself it seemed than to horses when when

know he he

better follow even But belongs to horses. Chrychecked was going to strike the enemy heard the trumpet sounding a retreat: so command to him to obey the general's own what

his when

inclination.

But

not

one

of

us

chooses, but and

weeping we and
"

necessity summons, suffer groaning we circumstances." readilyto obey it, what What we do

suffer, to call them man?

kind

stances, of circum-

If you are give the around call

name

of all

circumstances are the

which tilings
; but

you,

things

stances circumwhat duced? proor a

if you

hardship is wheel, about or there that sea, in the which or a

hardships by this name, dying of that which has been destroys is either a But the way But

sword, do you ways

tile,or down a

tyrant. Why to care are

the

of

going

Hades

?

All

equal, f the man

if you you

will listen to the is shorter. but a truth, the way

which a tyrant these sends

A

tyrant a never

killed about of

in six months:

fever sound

is often and the

year noise

it.

All names. things danger are

only

empty not are

I in

am

in

of my

life from in Caesar.

And

am

I so dwell danger who earthquakes : many hazard But I am Nicopolis,where when run? also you are there

and

crossing the the

Hadriatic, what of your
*

do you in

Is it not as hazard Do

life?

danger

to

opinion. tlie The

story is

in

Xenophon's he called from Cyropaedia (IV.

near

beginning)

where

Cyrus says

that

Chrysantas by

name.

Epictetus, as

Upton remarks,

quotes

memory. to f So Anaxagoras is the same said that the road

the

other

world
i. 43. ) in

(ad inferos)
What lows folA

from of the kill

all

places. slow (Cicero,Tusc. of Disp. assertion does.

is

one

examples a some

extravagant as a

Epictetus. that Stoic the

tyrant to ^ven

may

by

death

fever

I suppose to a are

tetus Epicways

would death he are have not can

answer

to some that. ways

Except of indifferent: endure with

dying

painful, and easy death,

who

fortitude, would

preferan

EPIGTETUS.

127

you have to

mean

your

own?

how? you

For do and not who

can

compel
? But of I am you is it

to as any

opinion man's which

choose kind But be Yes:

another

opinion? have false What than at what

danger in To then you if

is

yours, of

if others

opinions? is it to Rome? If that can danger be I go stead into

being be but

banished. else sent to

banished? what you, another who then sends do you

somewhere should Gyara?* he or

suits go to will

there;

if it does whither he were not, you also place you of

Gyara, whether as

will

go,

Gyara, to choose

not.

Why

go up all It

Rome

if it

something great? an It is not should and the

worth say.

this was preparation, that not so

ingenuous youth have heard sat so so

worth much who is which

while and not to to

much

to have

written old man have

long by Only not side

of

an

worth own much. and

remember own are

that guished: distinA the you be in avb division

by never your

your

claim a anything are which a belongs

to

others. and if then

tribunal other choose imitators

and

prison the it

each can place, one maintained And able to we

high shall low; to but

will

be

equal,
Avrite

maintain of But in to not

equal

in each. we are

Socrates, when in our

pgeans if Would

prison,f could you me? such like do

consider present disposition, another to endure me prison know person

saying Why hold do

to

us.

read

Paeans the

you? which you

trouble Can I in

you

evils

me? What men circumstances I am (listen to to pgeans)? will stances? circumbe mortal? im-

going

die.

And

other

*See

page

82,

note.

f Diogenes prison to a Laertius and reports

in

his life of Socrates first line which

that

he wrote an in

Ptean, and he

gives

the

contains

address

Apollo

Artemis.

128

EPIGTETU8.

CHAPTEE
HOW WE OUGHT
TO USE

VII.
DIVIXATION.

Through us an

unreasonable duties.* For or regard to what more

divination can many

of see omit

many or the diviner

than

death

danger
I must

kind? and then has to me If then

or disease, generally things of that expose myself to danger for a friend,

if it is my

duty

even

to die I not

for

him, what me a

need diviner has

have who

I

for divination? told me Have of

within

the

and good and of evil, What signs (or marks) of both? the nature viscera when of victims he is for he has the or explained have I

need

then and For

to coiisult the

the

of flight birds, your

why does is

do I submit he know and

says. It is for my

interest? he know

what as does intei-est, the

what

good; he learned

signsof and the

the viscera, For of the is But

has if he

also learned the

signsof good knows of the is the

evil?

knows

the beautiful

signsof these, he and of the ugly, and tell me, is it life man, or

signs both

unjust. Do f signifiedor whether are

you me: what

justand of thing which or death, poverty my interest

wealth? whether you you and as these

things not matters on are

for to ask

or

they give not, I do about intend

you.

Why and all in

don't

your

opinion on

of grammar, which of we are

why

do

give dis- it here
*

things was men
"

error

Divination it led

a

great part many ancient

and, religion,
In those a Epictethere in God

tus was can can

says, some see

to omit

duties." that

certain

sense

meaning certain what are. in it.

If it is true

who world

believe

signs in their the administration behavior

of the to by can which learn

they what are

judge duties ought

be, they or their seen If these may of any be

signs are

misunderstood, an if

they

not

right,men forms of human

governed by and the

abject superstition. the means

So the

external and be

religion may
Lucan

become true of of God's

corruption will debasement,

indications

may said a,

neglected. Upton compares

(ix.573),who

sometimes

few

good things.

130

EPICTETUS.

and

while

we

invoke mercy on

God me; we

entreat suffer me the to augur, come and out say, of

Master this other than

have

safe

Wretch, difficulty. than what what is best?

would

you

have then

Is there do lead

anything anything better far as

then

power,

pleases God? Why corrupt your judge and

you,

so

in

your

astray your adviser?

CHAPTER
WHAT IS
THE

VIII.
OF THE

NATURE

GOOD?

*

God

is beneficial. then of God? that the

But where

the Good the

also is beneficial, f of God AVhat not. It is

consistent the nature nature

is, there also then An is the in

good
Flesh?

should

be.

nature

of

J

Certainly

estate

Is it intelligence, Fame? No. means. By no Yes. then simply seek Herein knowledge, right reason? the nature of the good; for I suppose that you do not seek irrational Do seek it in an it in a plant. No. you land? animal? No. you of have
*

If

then

you it

seek

it in

a

rational in

animal, the riority supe-

why

do

still seek over anywhere using that There

except

rational even irrational of

animals

?"

Now and

plants for tliis

not

the

power

appearances, title of is no

Sdiweighaeuser correctly be
God

observes in man.

the

this

chapter would chapter in more

better

the

book.

f is Socrates to (Xenophon, to Mem.

iv.

6, 8) concludes

"that

the

useful

good

him not whom

it is useful."

I :J do

remember nature to

that of God.

Epictetus has
He
a

attempted more any

other

de

scription who But

of the

has

done

wisely than cannot some

have see attempted

answer

question which

be answered.

ii. 14, 11-13. Offic. i. 37.

^ Compare Cicero,de

EPIGTETUS.

131

reason

you

do

not

apply the

term

good

to

them.

The

Does it re^ good then requiresthe use of appearances. quire this use only? For if you say that it requiresthis use only,say that the good, and that happiness and unhappinessare in irrational animals also. But you do not say do right; for if they possess even in the this, and you highest degree the use of appearances, yet they have not the faculty of understanding the use of appearances; and there is good reason for this,for they exist for the purpose of serving others,and they exercise no superiority. For the ass, I suppose, does not exist for any superiority over others. able his also

No;

but

because

we

had

need we of

a

back need he

which also

is of

to bear

something;

and

in truth for of

had reason being able to walk, and the facultyof making use he would not this

received wise otherthen

appearances, And

for here the

have

been

able

to walk.

the of

matter

stopped.

For use if he had

also recived it is have

faculty that jected sub-

comprehending the with reason consistently to us, nor of appearances, would have us plain been he he

not

then us would been

done and

these us. services,but

he

would AVill

have you

equal to seek like to

not

then

the

nature

of

good not in

the

rational

animal?

for if it is not any other

there, you animals not are will

choose

to say that What God? then?

it exists in are thing (plantor animal). also the works of

not

plantsand they But are They a a

are;

but Gods.

yet parts of are the

you the

superior things, nor a superior thing; you have you in self yourthen do are portionseparated from certain own

deity;you
Why

portion of noble came? you are him.

Why not ignorant not of

your

descent?* will who you eat a

you when

know you are wlience

you

remember whom you

eating,who you *

and

feed? not When remem- are

in

conjunctionwith descent. See
i.
c.

woman, The

will you

Noble

9.

doctrine

tliat God

is in

man

is

an

old doctrine.

132

EPIGTETUS,

ber

who

you

are

who

do

this are social intercourse, when you are

you

in are thing? When you exercisingyourself,when you not are

engaged a in

know discussion,

that

you

nourishing you are

Wretch, know silver

god, that you are carryingabout a god you and think external that ? I You you

exercisinga god? with mean

3'ou, and some you of

it not.* or Do

God

of

gold,

carry are him

within

and yourself, you perceivenot that by impure thoughts and dirty deeds.

And dare

polluting him if an image of any of the

God

were

present, you
"

would

not

to do

*1 Cor. vi. 19. of the are What? which This The

know

ye

not

that your ye

body is is the

ple tem-

Holy Ghost own is in you, follows passage of God
v.

which

have

of God an and

ye

not

your

?"

18, which
2 Cor.

exhortation "And what

to

"flee

fornication." hath the as in

vi. 16

is are agreement of the in temple
God is

with
I

idols ? for will dwell knew but

ye in the temple and of walk the

living God; etc. hath

said, that them

them,"

It

certain

Epictetus
Testament;
as we

nothing whence in

writers writers cited

of the learn Mrs.

Epistles in the New such forms ? of

did these passages the Stoic

expression that find them

the from

by

Carter

I believe before

they

drew

philosophers who to wrote

Epictetus aud were that The

they applied them

the

new

religionwhich Epictetus does says, "

they not teaching. the faculties whether race. as

teaching of
God is in

Paul man. and

of

differ: two man,

spirit of he be

Swedenborg the Lord the is In

these every and (rationality

liberty) evil, they of the

resides

with

good

or

being
Lord

Lord's

mansions a in the human in

But man the mansion opens nearer

with

man,

proportion

the

the superior he comes degrees by these
Lord.
man

faculties; for

by the opening thereof and into to superior degrees of love and
Hence is in the 240. not wisdom, that Lord as consequently degrees are nearer

the so a

it may

appear

these in opened,

Lord

and
"

the the God's

him."

Swedenborg, not Angelic in in what in derstood, un-

Wisdom, itself, is sense Again, but faculty of in man."

viewed thinking rationally, I am man's,

quite to sure

the administration Church of and

of the

Eucharist Some

ought
English
the us be understood

the

England perhaps blood see

service. some now

divines ceremony of his

formerly as a

understand, shed for

memoration com-

of the was of Christ

and

body

which et

broken:

as

we

io T. Burnet's

Posthumousi

work

(de Fide

EPICTETUS.

133

things which present within ashamed of

you and

are sees doing: all hut

when hears and

God

himself are is not and

all,you

thinking such you are

things own ignorant as anger a

of your

nature we doing such things, and subjectto the when we are

of God. young do man Then from

why the do

fear into

ing send-

school

active

life,lest he have in

should

anything improperly, intercourse with women eat

improperly, lest the

improper which should he

;

and

rags

is

make

wrapped should him prond?
p.

debase This
It
was a

him, lest fine garments

youth (if he commemoration not

acts of thus) tlie last be the

Officiis Cbristianorum, supper sense 80). is of Jesus in which

and the

tlie

Apostles. now But

this does

appear some to

ceremony of the

understood

by whose priests and

by near some

members

Church

of

England, mass. notions

approach to to sense the doctrine of the

of the made

Catholic

Nor

does

it appear

be to to

the the eat our

prayer

before prayer is

delivering the
"

bread

and

wine so Communicants, the flesh of

for the

Grant and

us, to

gracious Lord, drink his blood and may our

thy

dear may son

Jesus made

Christ clean blood a that souls sinful

bodies

be

by and his

body we washed dwell notion through in him of God and

his most he

precious
This and two that

evermore

in us." in man, is

different

thing of from

Epictetus' it, that be

being

also

different,as
God

I understand

from said God

the notion

contained the

in the

passages is in man Paul;

for it is there not not an generally that is in man Holy of a

Ghost

or

in man,

by the virtue

particularceremony. of It should service remain our omitted

that there that

is after the end sacramental

the and

Communion wine of

monition ad-

bread

what

they
Christ

were, are "

and

that the natural and to not

body it time

and

blood

Saviour

in heaven

here; one being against in more

the

truth

of

Christ's It was natural

body by the be

at

places than of the is a one."

affirmed that the and

Reformers of Christ

and in the the

best

writers

English

church

presence

Eucharist Calvin and spiritual presence,
Swiss divines: and and that

in this in the

opinion they Prayer book we

followed have

the

yet even the

language a that I have

quoted; said, " "

Calvin, who

only

maintained

spiritual presence,

the ment verity is we nevertheless
'

joined

to

the

have

true

Communion
p.

in

signs, and that in the Christ's body and blood.'
What would

sacra

temporary (Con-

Review, have 464, August, 1874). of our

Epictetua

thought

of the

subtleties

days

?

134

EPIGTETU8.

does sets not out
"

know

his

own

God:

he

knows we not

with endure Have

whom when you

he he not (into the
I wish I had and

says, God have you would

world). But can you (God) with do you seek for tell you

me." any

with

you? or a

other, when than or

you K

him? were will God of of

anything else
Athena

this?

statue

Phidias, either

Zeus, you

and of the artist, and if you yourself would had any understanding (power of perception)you of made or try to do nothing unworthy of him who you in an and yourself, unbecoming dress try not to appear those who look But because to now on (attitude) you. Zeus shall has made you, And for this reason think

both

do artist

you

care

not one case

how

you

appear?
And

yet or is the the of an (in the one case) like like the has in it?

tlie artist in the other? itself the Is it not of

other? work

work

in the

what

for instance, artist, artist shows in

faculties,which marble when or the or once

making and bronze, she has

gold or ivory? and extended stands have the in power

the Athena ceived re-

Phidias

hand that of

in it the forever. But

of Victory * figure the works have of the God

attitude

motion, ances appear-

they breathe, they of things,and the work of suc)i an the power artist do that made he you

faculty of using the of examining them. you made a Being what intrusted Will your

dishonor you,

him? but also

And

shall I say, not you you to not

only of yourselfand think depositto yourself? do you also an this

too, but

dishonor

guardianship? But if God had thus neglecthim? would you your care,

intrusted He one me

has

orphan to you, delivered yourselfto intrust he on and

says, I

had him

no

fitter to such as him

to

than
*

yourself: keep
The Athena

for was is

by nature,
Athenian of

of Phidias

in the

Parthenon

the

Acropolis, a colossal chryselephantinestatue, that is,a frame-work wood, covered with on ivory and hand of

gold (Pausanias, the i. we 24). The iii. 34.

figure of ia Victory stood coins. See
i.

the

goddess,

as

frequentlysee

6, 23, and

Cicero, de Natura

Deprum,

EPICTETUS.

135

modest,

faithful, erect, unterrified, free
And then you do has not from him

passion such. and

perturbation.
But
some

keep

will say, he so whence

this

fellow

got

the

gance arro-

which have do not displays and much confidence to: these

superciliouslooks? a I I in Let

yet

gravity as

befits I my

philosopher; learned for

not

yet
I have

feel

in what I still fear then and you an have own see

and

what me assented

weakness. a get confidence as and to shall

countenance as such have:

I

ought
I

have show

attitude you the What the

such

I

ought, to it is a *

then

will

to

statue, when do Zeus as perfected, when lift up who is his brow? to it is

polished.
Does his look

you at expect? Olympia him supercilious countenance?
No,

is fixed

becomes

ready

say is my word and shall not Irrevocable

fail.

"

Iliad, i. 526.

Such free from a will from

I

show

myself from to

you,

faithful, modest, and immortal

noble, becomes perturbation. AVhat, and sickness? a too, exempt as old age,

No, but

dying power nor

god, sickening as
I
can

becomes the rest god. not a

This

I possess; can this

do. the

But nerves I do

possess,

I do. What an I will show

(strength) of
A

philosopher. it would which

nervesf

are

these? never desire on never

disappointed, assent aversion^ which a falls

that

which an avoid, is not

proper

pursuit,a diligent purpose,
These you statue rasli.
*

shall at a

see.

The
v.

great

Olympia seated was

the

work

of

Phidias

(Pau-

sanias, held a

11).

It

was

colossal

chryselephantine

statue, and

Victory
An

in the to right hand. the combatants muscles in the

f to allusion

public exercises, who as a

used their

show

their See Book

shoulders,

and

sinews

proof

of

strength. X See

i. 4, ii. 18, iii. 22. iii. c. 3.

13G

EPIGTETU8.

CHAPTER
THAT WHEN
CHARACTER CHARACTER WE OF OF A

IX.
FULFILL

CANNOT
A MAN

THAT
WE

WHICH

THE THE

PROMISES,

ASSUME

PHILOSOPHER.

It is the answer no

common

thing (easy) a to

do

this

only, to a fulfill The

promise is, beasts.

of a man's

nature. and

For

what

is

man?

rational

mortal are rational wild faculty from
And Take

whom what then have your

being. Then by the we separated?* From
From

from care others? to sheep like a

and wild

like animals.

do

nothing character See

beast; but you have

if you not a

do, you but lost the

of. a man; you man fulfilled

promise. as that the we do is

nothing like lost. What

sheep; do we

if you do

do, in this

case

then

we

sheep? we when

act

lewdly,when have The rational and

t inconsiderately,o

what

What

have

we

lost?

contentiously and to harmfully we us

tonously glutact rashly,filthily, we declined? To sheep. act we faculty. When and lently, viopassionately, act When

what some have of

declined?

To

wild

beasts. others we sequently Conlittle say. the when called meant

are

great wild
But

beasts, and in is

beasts, of
Let
me

a

bad

be of a a dispositionnd eaten by a lion.f man small, whence

may ways For man, all these

promise
*
"

acting as of a

man

destroyed. are The

abuse

the

faculties, which the proper

to

rationalityand the then and

liberty,is

origin truths meant

of and

evil. thence

is By rationality

faculty of understanding evils; and

falses and

goods

and

by liberty is
"

the

faculty of thinking, willing man acting freely

and

these

faculties 264

distinguish and from

beasts."

Swedenborg, Angelic Wisdom, ii. c. 8.

also

240.

See

Epictetus,

f the This

seems

to

be

a

proverb.

If

I

am

eaten, let

me

be

eaten

by

nobler

animal.

]38

EPiCTETtlS.

contrary things,and contrary to true

we

put

in

which practice opinions

are

opinions. If then we shall not also put in practice than rightopinions,we shall be nothing more For who the expositorsof the opinions of others. now is not able to discuss according to the rules of art us among about good and evil things (in this fashion)? That of differen inare are bad, and some are things some good, and some the good then virtues, and the things which are in participate virtues;and the bad are the contrary; and the indifferent are wealth, health, reputation. Then, if in the midst of our talk there should happen some greater noise than

usual,

or

some

of those

who

are

present should

laugh at us, we are disturbed. Philosopher,where are the Whence did you were things which talking about? you From the lips, and thence only. produce and utter them? Why then do you corrupt the aids provided by others? if you were as Why do you treat the weightiestmatters playing a game of dice? For it is one thing to lay up bread wine in a storehouse, and another and as thing to eat. That which has been eaten, is digested, distributed, and is become sinews, flesh, bones, blood, healthy color, healthy breath. Whatever and that an is stored show

up, yon

when have

you no choose other

you

can

readily take learning who the means it;but shall be

advantage learn. to

they of men

able

to

do

what

they

He tice prac-

teaches

art art are professes that the

scholar for

shall be or able other

art, the There

making who These

shoes

example, what who told useful

'

things. and virtue

profess to men teach tell us religion,and they are

morality, conceive to

generally. know what

may

be

religion,and may o"

morality, and their of

virtue; and teachers those have of of

said to
But

be

taught learner which

them. mean the the

learning is of fact

religion,and do the acts morality, and religion and from are.

virtue,

that of acts

will a of

morality what teacher's

and the

virtue; of ligion, re-

very

different

thing of virtue

knowing
The his

morality, and made efficient

teaching that which

is in he

only

by

his

example, by

doing

teaches.

BPICTETU8.

139

from

it

except men so

far

as

to appear

to possess

it.

For

what and now

is the those and

difference of who

between have

explaining these different opinions?

doctrines Sit down

explain according to the rules of art the opinions of Epicurus, and perhaps you will explain his opinions in a useful manner than more Epicurus himself.* Why then do you call yourself a Stoic? Why do you deceive the many? Why do you act the part of a Jew,f when you are Do you not see how a Greek? (why) each is called a Jew, ing inclinor a Syrian or an Egyptian ? and when we see a man to two a sides,we he acts who as are

accustomed But when

to say. This

man

is not the

Jew,

but one one.

he with

has

assumed

affects of and named
*
"

has that Thus

been

imbued he

Jewish fact

doctrine and he is

has a adopted
Jew.
is not sect, then we is in

J a too

imbued being falsely can (bapa

He

Stoic the

who philosoplier, Stoic

only explain same in

subtle can plain ex-

and

proper

manner

principles: for the course person purpose of

the

principlesof Epicurus, of perhaps he can for

the

ing refut-

them, and himself. explain them be at

better time means a man

than a Epicurus an Consequently he might is absurd."
"

the

same

Stoic and the mere Epicurean; which knowledge other them is a

Schweig. does not

He

that a of

Stoic

opinions
A be man a

make to Stoic, or

any

philosopher. in order to must

according philosopher. the can Stoic if we

principlespractice say that a man

Stoic do we So

religiousman, it is he

he

must

acts

which him his to no

religion teaches; a for What

by his says acts

only that professes words

know

be man religiousman. knows and

may

be

false; and are except

himself

whether

his

and

professions his acts are true.

The

uniformity, cannot regularity,and mistaken. consistency of

evidence

which

be

f It name has

been

suggested who Jews were that Jews

Epictetus confounded and those who were under

the

of Jews know

those some Christians.

We

that is

became

Christians.

X It writers, iv.
c.

possible, as
Christians

I have

said, by Jews are were name

Epictetus
Jewish
to

means

tians, Chris-

for as and

Jews

evidently confounded of of

by
In Jews.

some

the first Christians

the

nation.

book

7, Epictetus gives the

Qalilaeans

the

The

140

EPIGTETUS.

are tized),

in

name

Jews, but in fact

we

are

something else. our Our are are

affects far from

are (feelings) inconsistent practicingwhat we say,

with and

words;

we we that of which

being unable to fultill what the character of a man add even even promises,we is as heavy a of a philosopher, which to it the profession who is unable to bear ten burden, as if a man pounds should attempt to raise the stone which Ajax * lifted. proud, as if

we

knew

it.

Thus

CHAPTEE
HOW
WE

X.
DUTIES OF LIFE FROM NAMES.

MAT

DISCOVER

THE

place,you are a ulty f and this is one who has nothing superiorto the facman; of the will, but all other things subjected to it; and the faculty itself he possesses unenslaved and free from what then from subjection. Consider things you have been separatedby reason. You have been separated from wild beasts: been mals. aniseparated from domestic you have Further, you are a citizen of the world,! and a part
,

Consider

who

you

are.

In

the

first

term

Galilaeans ii. points
'"

to

the

country a of

the great teacher. which His is one

Paul
"

says

(Romans, he the is a

28),

For is one he

is not

Jew, etc. outwardly and says

but

Jew
"

which who
"

inwardly," a remarks law

(ii. 17-29) on makes of a man

is called may a

Jew,

and with does

rests

in the

his man boast who

of God is called

be

compared

what not Epictetus

philosopher,and

practice that which

he

fesses. pro-

*

See

ii. 24, 26; Iliad, vii. iv. 264, etc.

f Cicero (de Fin. J See and i. 9. M. my as 10); Seneca, Ep. 95. vi. 44;

Antoninus,

"But so my as nature

is rational is

social; and but so

city and
I
am a

country,

far

I

am

Antoninus,

Rome,

far

man,

it is the

world."

EPICTETVS.

'
^

141

of it,not

one

of

the

subservient for you

principal(ruling)parts, the connection citizen to of divine

administration then To

b (serving),ut one of the are capable of comprehending and of consideringthe does the

things. What ? promise (profess) to character

of

a

hold

himself; from deliberate

about but and

nothing as profitable tached denothing as if he were to act as the

would

do, if of community, they had reason for the

hand the

or

foot

understood never tion constituin

nature, nor they

would

put themselves than with

motion to the

desire

anything

otherwise

reference

whole. man Therefore had

the he and

good would philosopherssay well, that if foreknowledge of what would happen, his * own

the

co-operate toward knows sickness these

and

death are signed as-

mutilation, since he to him

that

things

that

the whole

according to the universal arrangement, is superior the state to to the part, and now and the

citizen, is more our

f

But

because to our

we

do

not

know are were

the

future, it nature duty

to stick

the

things which for we

in their made

suitable

for

choice, that To

among

other

thingsfor

this. you are a son.

After character
*

this remember

What

does

this is

promise? may to

consider but that

everything which possible that not to

This

appear assent course

extravagant; to it is believes

explain it,

and

even

it.

If

a

man

all is

wisely resist ranged ar-

in the

of human

events, for

he him

would to try he to

that

which and he

he

knows

it is

appointed
If
or

suffer: that would man submit would in

would

endure. the end

Epictetus purpose with

means

the

activelypromote that his acts may which what he is too

he

foreknew, and deal

order his

be consistent

foreknows

with

duty, perhaps the philosopher's saying as hard

to

with; and we it rests wiser

on

an

impossible assumption the of we foreknowledge, no more

may it.

be

here

than de

philosophers, if
c.

say

about

pare Com-

Seneca,

Provid. vi. 42:

5. We are f Antoninus, some "

all

working others together

to

one

end, what

with

knowledge

and

design, aud

without

knowing

they do,"

142
,

EPIGTETUS.

the never son's

belongs to him him

the to father, to obey him another, nor in or all

to blame

to say

do all

things, anything and After to which

does

give way, this know character to to injury, yield to with him as co-operating that you to are a

him far as in

things can. you

brother

also, and

that be

this

it is due

make

concessions;to

easily suaded, per-

in to claim speak good of your brother, never oppositionto him any of the thingswhich are independent have but readily to give them of the will, up, that you may the will. For see is dependent on the larger share in what what so a thing it is,in place of a lettuce, if it should pen, hapor a seat, to gain for yourselfgoodness of disposition. How great is the advantage.* Next that an to are this,if a you

are

senator a of that man; any you

state,remember are a

you old

senator:

if are youth, an youth:

if

man,

that you comes old

for

each the

of such proper I say to names,

if it But

to

be go

examined, and blame who you you you were marks your are a

out

duties. you, name. a

if you

brother, and smith have what

You In use have the

forgotten next is your made

place,if hammer, have

and

wrong

of the if you have

would

forgotten the and instead not smith; of a

and

forgottenthe an brother would in you that and

brother

become one enemy, another tame appear case?

to have

changed of a a

thing for who is a And

if instead are man,

animal

social,you must become

mischievous lost

wild

beast, treacherous, and suffer man

have biting, lose does had the a you of

nothing? But, (I suppose) you that you

bit the

money

may do or a

damage?

And If you think

loss of the it

nothing a else

damage? you lost

art

of grammar

music, would

loss of

moderation
*A

damage? and if you shall and do {HaTa6roXT'/v) gentleness, is a an

lose you modesty, think A

the seat lettuce means example of of

the

most

trifling thing.

probably

seat

a superiority, magistrate's seat, a Komai^

sella curulis.

EPICTETUS.

"

143

loss

nothing? cause And

yet the things first mentioned and are

lost

by the some

external our independent as of the

will,and to to

second them not by nor own

fault; and them and is

to the

first neither but as have

to

lose them

shameful;

the and

second, matter to have

to lose them

is shameful

of He makes

lose? who

What does the pathic reproach and a misfortune. does he lose loses the (character What of) man. and the pathic what he is? Many other things; man he also loses the he lose who

no

less than He

the

other.

What

does

commits

adultery? temperate, does the he coward

loses the

of (character

the) modest, the neighbor. What else. man

the

decent, the is citizen, the

lose who lose?

What is bad you men does

angry? Something Something else. No damage. If

without for the no some sufEering

loss and

then these even look

damage harm or

in the

loss of money

only, all

receive

and gain,when profit of -these to a

damage; it may be, they have they acquirea bit of money by that who say, any

deeds.

But

consider even if you loses

refer his nose small

coin, not but he

thing everyis in

your in his lose an opiniondamaged. body. Well; to him

Yes, you does then he no for he

is mutilated

who

has

lost his smell

only is nothing?

Is there

energy

of the soul which a advantage we who me possesses what sort it,and
We

damage
Does of

to him mean. who Have

has lost it? not a

Tell

(of energy) you have. natural no modesty? the he

who

loses this sustain does him? natural he

part with
Have
we

damage? nothing of

is he

deprived

nothing, belong to things which a not

natural naturallyfidelity? natural

affection, a to disposition

dispositionto help others,
The
man

forbearance? in these What me?*
*

then can who

allows

himself harm

aged to be damand has jured? uninhurt

matters, then? first
We

he bo free from I not consider no shall

hurt what then him, who hurt do an In

the

place by is, (/JAa'/i^) of are

Socrates.

must

means

act

injustice.

Crito,

Certainly not.

Socrates.

Nor

yet when

you

wronge^

144

EPICTETU8.

and For

remember if the

what

you

have in

heard the in will

from

the

philosophers. intention, see

good and consists the this: an (purpose, will,* that shall man itpoatpedEt), you say is not evil What

also

the

if has hurt do we what hurt self mynot

then, act act to

since me, himself

by doing doing to some

unjust unjust

I not

by imagine kind? to our to

him?

Why

ourselves where

(mentally there is any is harm of

think

of) something to of

this or But

detriment

the

body the same

possession, happens no there the he

there; the been

and

where is or thing

to

faculty who has

will, there deceived in the head

(you who in we pose) suphas the wish But or harm;

for act he nor done eye for

an

unjust in the

neither nor suffers he lose

nor

hip, else shall

does

his

estate; these and

and

nothing we than have

(security the we care to) modest the are things. faithful whether shameless in the

will not and school so faithless, far as a

least, except concerned. only fore There-

few

words to even

our

proficiency them do do

is not limited exist

these in the

few

words;

but

beyond must it does

slightest degree, f think, since you must you no wrong an in

return, act. as

most

people Crito,
c.

in

way
*

unjust

Plato, ii. 16.

10.

See

the

beginning remark o{

f written delivers

The on same

will

apply they matter are

to

most

dissertations of and skill for

spoken him a

or

moral writes an

subjects: them, hour for or

exercises for criticism

who way of

or

perhaps is all.

spending blames our

idle

him

who

listens; and as that

Epictetus

indolence of

and

indifference in to

acts,

and

the

trilling of

the

schools

philosophy

disputation.

146

EPICTETU8.

of

adaptation;for if they possessedthis power of adaptationin addition would to those things,what der hinthem from since you think being perfect? But now that you properlyadapt the preconceptionsto the particulars, tell me whence derive this (assume that you do you But it does not seem to anso other, so). Because I think so. and he thinks that he also makes a proper adaptation; does he not think so? He does think so. Is it possible or then that both of you can properlyapply the preconceptions which to things about have contrary opinions? you It is not possible. Can then show us anything better you toward adapting the preconceptions beyond your thinking that you do? Does the madman do any other things than the thingswhich to him seem right? Is then this criterion sufficient to

unsuitable

for

him which

also? is It is not

sufficient.

Come

then

something is this?

superior to seeming (roudoxEiv).

What

Observe, this is the beginning of philosophy,a perception of the

disagreement of the cause

men

with

one

another, and

an

inquiry a "

into

of of

the that

and certain
"

distrust

demnation disagreement,and a conwhich only ''seems," and

seems we of investigation that which and a discoveryof rightly, discovered a a

"seems" some whether

it

rule

{navdyo'i), of as

have

balance

in

the

determination

rule (orsquare) in the case of carpenter's straight and crooked things. This is the beginning of philosophy. Must we say that all things are right which that contradictions And how is it possible seem so to all? all then, but all which be right? Not to us to can seem be right. How than those which to you more seem right than what to the seem Syrians? why more right to the than what seems Egyptians? why more rightto me or to

weights,and

any

other

man? man Not

at

all

more.

What

then

*'

"

seems
"

to every

is not case sufficient for of

determining what measures are we

is;"

for neither in the

weights or

satis-

EPICTETUS.

147

fied with discovered rule that

the a bare certain

appearance, rule.
**

but this

in

each

case

we

have no In

matter

then

is there

superior to the most

what

seems?"

And

how

is it

possible

should have no men things among There sign (mark),and be incapableof being discovered? And is then some rule. why then do we not seek the rule it without and discover it,and afterward use varying from it?* For it,not even stretchingout the finger without necessary when mere "

this, I think, is that which their madness and misuse those who use it is discovered
"

cures

of

it; so

that

for

the

seeming as a measure, future proceeding from tain cer-

in are and made clear we known use things (principles) may which of particular the case things the preconceptions fixed. distinctly

What

is the

matter

presented to

us

about

which

we

are

inquiring? rule, throw such Yes. a Pleasure it into

(for example). Subject it to the the balance. Ought the good to be we thing that
And
to

it is fit that we have

confidence It

in

it?

in which

ought

to confide?

ought it then from

to be.

Is it fit to trust then throw

anything which pleasureanything secure? it out of the

is insecure? No. Take

No.

Is and the

scale,and
But

drive

it far aAvay are place of good things. and one

if you for is

balance be

is not over over

enough what you,

sharp-sighted, Is bring another. not it fit to then not to

elated

good?

Yes. See

Is it proper that you do not

be elated

present pleasure? but of the v.

say that you are it is proper;

if you the rule. compare

do, I shall then

think
*

worthy

even

balance.
This
is

f a Thus
Greek

things proverb, Doing also nothing ii. 16.

without

used and by Persius, Sat. is, so far shall

119;

Cicero, de

Fin.

iii. 17;

Antoninus,

f That with a

I consider a you that you you

from I shall do are being

able

to

judge

rightlyof things without even use

balance can understand you a

that not even the

aid

of

a

balance

it, that not cannot

balance, and me. consequently that

worth

singleword

from

148

EPICTETUS.

are

tested and

weighed when when examine the rules and are

ready. the And

to

is philosophize this,to then to use

confirm

rules; and a them

they are

known

is the act of

wise

and

good

man.*

CHAPTER
OF DISPUTATION
OR

XII.
DISCUSSION.

learn in order to be able to must things a man has been accurately shown by apply the art of disputation, our philosophers (the Stoics);but with respect to the of the things,we are use entirelywithout practice. proper illiterate man an Only give to any of us, whom you please, to discuss

What

with,
But

and when

he

cannot

discover moved the not how man a

to

deal

with

the answers man.

he has

if little, he how to treat

beside

the

purpose, either

he

does or know

him, but he then
He with is an abuses

ridicules

him, and do a man

says.

illiterate man;
Now leads abuse him him man a

it is not

possibleto has way: found he

anything out not

him.

the road or guide, when he into the right and then leave

of

does you

cule ridishow lows. fol-

him. you show own Do will see

also he

ths illiterate But not the

truth, and you do not that the

so

long did as

him

truth, do

ridicule How then in

him, but

rather

feel your act? bear He

Socrates

used

incapacity. to compel his and say, he "I with not adversary wanted care no

to disputation

testimony to him, he could am other

witness.

f

Therefore

not for other evidence
*

witnesses, but I my We the

the

(testimony) of a always satisfied and I do adversary, fix the canons or

This

is

just conclusion. are must

rules

by

which wise things and tried; and all cases.

then

rules

may

be

applied by the

good

to

f This

is what

is said in the

Qor^^

of Plato, p.

472,474.

EP1CTBTU8.

.

149

opinion of others,but only the opinion of him who me." For he used make is disputing with to the clusions connatural notions drawn from so plain tliat every the contradiction man saw (if it existed) and withdrew it (thus): Does the envious* from man rejoice? By no think that but he is rather pained. Well, Do you means, what is there of evils ? evils? and envy envy is pain over his adversarysay that envy is pain over he made Therefore those who good things. Well then, would any man envy Thus are pleted nothing to him ? By no means. having comthe notion and distinctly fixed it he would go away without his adversary. Define to me and if saying to envy; have the adversaryhad defined envy, he did not say. You of the definition do not cordefined it badly, for the terms respond technical These are to the thing defined. terms, and to and for this reason disagreeable hardly intelligible which illiterate men, terms c we (philosophers)annot lay ask the aside. the But that the illiterate man himself, who should never

follows to use cede con-

appearances

presentedto him, or be

able

anything
*

reject it, we of envy is stated vexation

can

by have the

of

Socrates' this:
"

notion

by Xenophon which are men

(Mem. at iii. 9, the

8),

to be

it is the

pain

or

perity pros-

of their friends, and

that

such

the

only a envious more persons."

Bishop Butler of the

gives

a

better
"

definition; at least is complete hope

scription deof

thing. does Emulation over merely the desire and whom other we equality with ourselves. or

superiority not want as others, with to may

compare natural

There but be so appear

be

any

grief m in desire.

the

passion, this the may

only that strong of this

which be is

implied

However desire

to

the occasion

of great

grief. To

attainment

equality or superiority, by the particular means to our

of others distinct being brought down notion level, or

below to it,is, I think, the see. of envy. natural at is the

From

whence

it is easy

that

the

real

end one, which envy, the aims passion, emulation, same; to

and

which

the unlawful

namely, that equality or mischief of to superiority: of envy,

and

consequently that means do use is

not

the

end
"
"

but upon

merely the
Human

it makes

attain its end.

Sermons

Nature, I.

150

EPICTETU8.

these terms of our own

move

him

to do.

we inability, as do

Accordingly being conscious not attempt the thing; at least do not.

such

of and

us

have

any

caution

But such

the

greater

part

the

rash, when and and

they enter confuse into

confuse

themselves

others; and

disputations, finallybusing a

their adversaries

by them, they walk away. Now this was the first and chief peculiarity of Socrates, in argument, never to be irritated to utter anything never abusive abusive, anything insulting,but to bear with and end to the quarrel. If you would to put an persons know what

abused

great

power

he

had and Hence

in you with

this will

way, see read how

the

Symposium of Xenophon,* quarrelshe put an end to. poets also this power is most

many in the

good reason highly praised, disputes. Quickly

with

skill lie settles great

Hesiod, Theogony,

v.

87.

Well at then; Rome; corner, the

matter

is not who be

now

very

safe, and it,must go to a larly particunot man for you

he may so attempts sure, to do must a do of ask trusted in-

it in

a

but or consular

rank, if it you happen,
Sir,
can

to

rich care man,

and have

him. them Can

tell me. I

to

whose

you you who

your to horses? person tell you.

Have to one

intrusted has no can

any of

experience you tell me and indifferently horses? By no means. whom you intrust I don't

Well your then; or to

gold even silver to things or any one

your

vestments?

intrust

these

Well; your own indifferently. body, have you about the care of it to any intrusting already considered of experience, suppose, I person? Certainly. To a man and one or acquainted with the aliptic,f with the healing
*The

Symposium

or

Banquet of Xenophon iv. c.

is

extant.

Compare

Epictetus, iii.

18, 5, and

5, the beginning. of f The best means

art aliptic

is the

art a anointing

and

rubbing,
The iatric

one or

of

the

of

maintaining

body in health.

healing

EPIGTETtrS.

151

art?

Without or doubt.

Are

these

the

best

things that

you

have, than That each mean? In

do

you

also possess What makes

all I mean these? which

something else which is better kind of a thing do you mean? of these use things,and tests
Is it the soul much Can of the you soul that that I you mean. of

them,
You I do

and

deliberates.

think think others you

right, for it is the that which have the soul is a truth

better then for

thing show it is
'

than us all the

I possess. taken care in what

way

soul?

have wise a man and are so a likelythat you, who allow and carelessly inconsiderately reputation in the city, the most valuable thing that you possess to be neglected taken But have and to perish? Certainlynot. care you and have learned from another of the soul yourself; you discovered have the means to do this, or yourself? you Here the danger that in the first place he may comes say, not What you raise also these an is this to you,

my

good

man,

who is

are

you? that once

Next, if he may

in persist troubling him, his hands and

there

danger
I
was

give

you

blows.

myself
I fell into

admirer

of this mode

of instruction

until

dangers.*

CHAPTER
ON ANXIETY

XIII.

(SOLICITUDE). does this in a When want? power, art I

see

a

man

anxious, I say. What want man

If he did how art not

something
For

which this body.

is not reason his lute art could of he

be anxious? health a

is the

restoring to to diseased

The of

aliptic

is also

equivalent

the which

gymnastic are are

art, a means

or

the of art

preparing the for

gymnastic exercises, health, when

also

preserving

body's

the exercises in good of and

moderate. and of *Epictetus
Bome.

speaking

himself

his

experience

at

152

BPICTETUS.

playerwhen when he

is the singing by well also on himself

has

no even

anxiety,but if he he not he enters voice to theater, he is anxious the to

has

a

good wishes and

plays power. lute; for

only this sing well, but his obtain

applause: but

is not there knows for and matter he has skill, Accordingly,where he has confidence. Bring any singleperson who does not care nothing of music, and the musician
But
not

in

him. has

in been He a the

matter

where

a

man

knows

nothing
What
or

there practiced, knows is. and not he a is anxious. crowd he has but is

is this?

what

what to the

praise of the the

crowd chord

However the what

learned what in

strike

lowest many nor * highest;

the

praise of neither must

is,and has he

power

it has it.

life he

knows

thought grow lute

about

Hence

he then him

of that

tremble necessity a man can

and a say

is not say pale. I player when not a

cannot

I one see

afraid, but I but This but the many. man something else,and all I call him in what so thing, say. he

And does he the

first of not has know been

stranger and the world is

part

of

is,

though laws and of

here the

long, he has never

ignorant of what is permitted any man State is

and

customs,

and

what tell him

not; and to he

employed
But it a lawyer to does be not and

explain the not laws.

write

a

will,if he does

know who a how does written, or he his desire

he

employs a a

person or ought to know; nor
But he

does uses rashly seal

bond a write

security. and purpose. not without

lawyer's advice, and does not aversion,
How that which is his he he know that

and do he

pursuit(movement), and attempt without a lawyer? He you mean wills what is not

allowed, and he does not does know but

will

is of own and necessity; or either if he

what

what never is another be

man's; he would

did be

know,

would

impeded, uote. never

hindered,

*See

page

101,

154

EPICTETU8.

Should know the

I

try

to

measure

another. man or

Have what

you is a please you ? Why? man one by which taken pains to learn bad man, are I

suppose,

you

is estimated what is a by good one and the

and you how not a

man

becomes

other?

Why
I not weeps, will it he

then

good yourself? How, no lie or am replies,

groans How

or

good? no good receive Because man good and man

laments or is how

pale do you

trembles, listen to about

says.

mo,

will he care me? what Slave, Justas

pleaseshim.
Is it now Why

belongs what that a to others?

his fault

if he And

receives is it

proceeds from fault should be

you? one Certainly. man's, and about badly possible belongs anxious to the

evil in which I am another?

No.

Why
I shall you

then

are

you

anxious

that

to others?

Your

questionis reasonable; but to him.

how as speak going

Cannot that name you I may of

then be

speak are him

choose? are But

I fear the

disconcerted? you afraid

If you that

to write

Dion, no you

would

be

disconcerted? have were By

means.

Why? name? name,

is it not

because

you

Certainly. Well, would has a if you

practiced writing the going to read the and you

not

feel the

same?

why?

Because

every

art

certain it.

strength and
Have you

confidence not in the

things

which

belong to

practicedspeaking? and what else did you learn in the school? Syllogisms and it not sophisticalpropositions?* For what purpose? was for the purpose of discoursingskillfully? is not and coursing disthe as skillfully same discoursingseasonably and and also without ing makcautiously and with intelligence, mistakes with on a

then

and ? go

without Yes. into man are a

hindrance,
When then you

and you

besides are all this mounted at confidence

horse

and

plain,are who is on anxious

being in a

matched matter againsta in which

foot, and he anxious is not?

you

and practiced,

Yes,

*

See

i.

c.

7.

EPICTETUS.

155

but that person to kill not me.

(towhom Speak the claim to

brag, nor in going to speak) has truth then, unhappy man, be a philosopher, refuse nor am so

I

power and to do knowledge ac-

your handle than talked he who your

masters, but

long

as

you who

present is this

body,
Socrates

follow used

every to man

stronger

yourself. as he

did to the in who his

talked

practice speaking,he who tyrants,*to the dicasts (judges), prison. Diogenes had practiced as speaking, he t pirates,o the confident walk sit in

spoke who he

did

to

Alexander,
These
men

to

the were person

bought

him.

in the

things which own they practiced. never But

do go them

you and to a

off to your a affairs and weave leave

them:

corner,

and

a syllogisms,nd in you the man propose

another. state. There

is not

who

can

rule

CHAPTER
TO NASO.

XIV.

When" to one

a

certain Roman

entered

with

his

son

and

listened

of instructi reading,Epictetus said. This is the method the Roman and he stopped. When asked him it is taught causes to go on, Epictetus said. Every art when who labor to him is unacquainted with it ami is unskilled the things which in it,and indeed proceed from the arts for which immediately show their use in the purpose they were made; and most of them contain something attractive and pleasing.For indeed how to be present and to observe
*The

Thirty tyrants talk is

of of in

Athens,
Socrates

as

they with were

named and (Xenophon,
Charicles
two

Hellenica, ii.). The of the defense in Critias

Thirty

reported before Xenophon's who Memoral)ilia

(i.2, 33). his The

of Socrates are those

tried

him and and

conversation Phaedon and

prison

reported was in

Plato's

Apology, some in the

Crito.

Diogenes

captured by

pirates and

sold

(iv.1, 115).

156

BPICTETUS.

a

shoemaker and of a learns also not smith chances work more useful

pleasantthing; but the shoe is the discipline to disagreeable look at. And when he is learningis very disagreeable is not a to

one

who but

to be

present the use

and of

is

a

stranger
But

to

the will

art: see a

the

shows in

the

art. are you

this much person is

music; results know

for if you

present most while

will the discipline learning,

appear are agreeable dis-

and

yet

the who

of

music

pleasing and

here And nothing of music. of a philosopherto be something of conceive the work we this kind: he must adapt his wish to what is going on,* so that neither any of the things which are taking place shall of the things take wish, nor place contrary to our any wish which do not take place shall not take place when we From this the result is to those who that they should. of philosophy,not to fail in the have so arranged the work desire, nor to fall in with that which avoid; they would without uneasiness, without fear, without perturbation to pass through life themselves, together with their associates maintaining the relations both natural and acquired,!as

delightfulto

those

*

Enclieiridion, c. 8: take "

Do you as

not

seek

(wish) that things which desire you

take

place shall take life."

place

as

desire, but

that will

things which live a

place shall take Compare "| iii. place

they do, and

tranquil

2, 4, iv. 8, 20.

Antoninus

(viii. 27) writes: other to

"

There the

are

three

relations surrounds [between to thee

and second the things]:the the to

one

to

body which which thee." all thee; the all; and and in a divine

cause

from

things come is third

those who

who

live

with to "

This

precise, true may write

practical. Those place of it "the

object and stitution con-

the

divine of

cause,"

nature

things;" for there to we

is

constitution for most

of

things, which origin fact be has

the it philosopher attempts is immaterial

discover; say that

and

jiracticalpurposes, or some

whether no it is of

divine The

other

origin,or of origin can we be discovered. or, remains not that

a

constitution we things exists; conceive if that

expression we accepted, ing think-

may so. say that

that

it exists and

cannot

help

EPIGTETUS.

157

the of The

relation of son,

of

of father, of brother, of citizen,

man,

of ruler, of ruled. wife, of neighbor, of fellow-traveler, work of a philosopherwe next to

conceive

to

be

something be complished. ac-

like this.

It remains

inquirehow

this must

We

see

then

that

the a a

carpenter when

he has

learned

tain cer-

things becomes thingsbecomes also not there is also a tain pilotb}'learningcerpilot. May it not then in philosophy

carpenter; the to be

be sufficient to wish to necessity

wise

and

good,

and

that

things? We inquire The these things are. then what philosophers say that we ought first to learn that there is a God and that he provides for all things; also that it is not possibleto conceal from intentions and him our our acts, or even thoughts.* The next learn

certain

thing as is to learn are what

is the to nature

of the

Gods;

for

such and

they

discovered must be, he, who be would to belike

please them. it is

obey them,

If the divine

try with is faithful, man be all his power also must

faithful;if also free, man be also must

free; if beneficent, man man must

beneficent;if magnanimous,
*See
i.

also must
i.

be magnan1, 19) said said

14, 13, man ii.

8, 14. make Socrates himself

(Xen. Mem. like the
i. 4.

the

same.

That
x.

should See

gods is

also
God
"

by is Antoninus, said to

8.

Plato,

De

Legg.

(Upton.)
Greeks
of

When called these to provide for all things this (Epictetus,i. 16, iii. to

is what

the

dence." Provi-

17.) In the believe what what second

passages

there

is

a

short

answer

some

objections made
(lod is he know providence. observation to be

Epictetus could of only and know could

or

by the world phenomena;

he

only

supposed who a

God's

providence by observing his administration works other of happens in it. Among certain God's

of the
God

and

all that possesses of

is man, to intellectual

powers a which of enable man him

form Man

judgment has of or works, to have

and

judgment moral On

himself. or a

is supposed

certain

sentiments,

capacity

acquiring are them

in

some

way. man's the supposition that of all man's

powers

the

gift of God, under God's

power

judging gift of we what

hai)]"ens in the and if

world not providence

is the

God; have he should

be

satisfiedwith God's

administration,

the conclusion

th^t man,

158

EPICTETUS.

imous;

being then an imitator of God, he with this fact. say everything consistently what then must With we begin? If you as must

do

and

will

enter

on

the

discussion, I will tell you names* that then do

you you not as

must

first understand that I do not (words). names. So You

say

now

understand then do I

understand the

them. use How written one use

them?

Just use illiterate
:

language, as cattle thing, understanding is you understand let us appearances But whatever

for

use

is

another.

if you word it.

think you it is

that

them,

produce we a

please,and is now a try

whether for

understand to But who

disagreeable thing old, and, it may
I too know in want be of

man now now

be

confuted

be, has this: for

served you are his three come paigns. camme as

to

if you

were

imagine children knows their you you whose also a a

to

and you,

nothing: and what are wanting to you? You wife perhaps, and a many you know in you have how the many to same

could

you

even

rich, you slaves :

have Caesar render does does show

in Rome to friends, you who who kind If then him

dues

all,you
What

requite him

favor, and wrong. powers are to repay

do

lack?

I shall

from Thus

God, condemns
God and a that who

administration is God's belief and

which are is

from to God. one man,

work, in a

in opposition and in

another. because or If of man

rejectsthe in deity

a

providence, and the to contradictions be difficulties if he

involved tradictions con-

in this belief

supposed

involved as it,and

finds the his difficulties such

he

cannot

reconcile in

with

moral

sentiments notion of a and

judgments, and of

he

will

be

consistent

rejecting and any of

the

deity show providence. and But

he

must are also his

consistently own, admit he

that

his moral how

sentiments he

judgments or that

cannot

acquired them, powers how

he

has

the

corporeal he or

intellectual are which All

he then

is

daily using. a man can

By say the

pothesi hy-

they has such

not

from

God.

that

is that

powers.

"See

ii. 10, i. 17, 12, ii. 11, 4, etc.

M.

Antoninus,

x.

8.

EPICTETUS.

159

you chief

that

looked to man and the things most necessary things for happiness,and that hitherto you have than what after everything rather you ought, and, you

lack

the

crown

all,*that what about said

you is

neither nor know what

what is

God and

is as nor

what

is,nor have good your bad; other to what

I

ignorance of but is it

matters, that know should It ing nothdure en-

may

perhaps be endured, how about yourself, me if I say that

you

and

bear you

the

possiblethat you proof and stay here? go off in bad the you ? unless it shows is him

is not And jures also insuch as but possible;

immediately
I done because

humor. mirror

yet he what the

harm

have

ugly man the when he

to himself

is; unless ail physician also says But to supposed to you go fever:

insult the think that food

sick man, you

him, Man, do have no

nothing? say to are a

you And

a one without an to-day; drink
But if you aversions

water.

says, what are insult!

man.

Your

desires are inflamed, your

low, your

intentions

inconsistent, your

to nature, your pursuits(movements) are not conformable rash and false,the man opinions are immediately goes

away Our Beasts

and

says. He

has

insulted

me.

Avay of are dealing is brought to be men come

like that sold and

of

a

crowded and

assembly. the oxen;

greater some part few of the

to

buy the and

and

and sell, and

there to are

who

come

to look on, at

market who

inquire how meeting and

it is carried for what some life):

and

why,
So

fixes the also in this

purpose. like

it is here trouble

cattle

themselves who

assembly (of about nothing are except

their fodder.

For

to all of you

busy

about

lands and and slaves and offices, possessions magisterial these are But there are who a few nothing except fodder. the assembly,men attend love to look on and who sider conwhat
*Tlie

is

the
"to

world, add who the governs

it. is Has a it

no

originalis

colophon," which to a

proverbial

expressionand

to signifies

give

the last touch

thing.

160

EPIGTETUS.

governor?* cannot an

And to how

is it

possiblethat even a

city or so a

family out withand

continue

exist,not and should purpose

the

shortest that with

time

administrator a guardian, and be administered and kind

great such beautiful and an system a order is then

yet he and him way

without

by of we,

chance

?f were some

There

administrator.

What
And who

administrator

and

how

does

govern? for and in some are

who we produced by connection none? This then examine is

him, with the

what

purpose? relation these few

Have

toward are him,

or

which

affected, and one they the are

apply themselves only to meeting and then to go ridiculed the

this away. the beasts who

thing, to
What then?

They fair are

by

the and

many,

as

spectatorsat had any

the

by

traders;

if the

understanding, else than

they would fodder. ridicule those

admired

anything

CHAPTEE
TO OE AGAINST
WHAT THOSE THEY WHO HAVE

XV.
OBSTINATELY

PERSIST

IN

DETEEMINED.

When

some

persons constant have

heard

these

words, that

a

man

ought free to be

and are things power of

deviation

that and the will is naturally (firm), not subject to compulsion, but that all other subject to hindrance, to slavery,and are in the that they ought without others, they suppose to abide by everything which they have deter"

Sunt

in Fortunae

qui casibus nullo omnia rectore ponunt, moveri. Et

mundum

credunt

Juvenal,

xiii. 86.

f From that Mde. we the

fact that that

man

has is some a

Voltaire intelligence

concludes

must

admit Vol.

there

gn;ater

intelligence.(Letterto

Necker.

67, ed. Kehl.

p.

278.)

162

EPICTETU8.

miiiations? to kill me,

And

if it you was ever

in any

way

came

into your

head

ought man Now

this

his mind. at But

it is that I

by your determinations? with persuaded to change difficulty impossible to convince some persons to abide seem now

present; so can to

know, what common I did

not

know you

before, the neither lot to have "I

meaning persuade nor a am

of

the

break

be my

wise fool for my

saying. That a fool,* May it never friend: nothing is more man untractable. are on

determined," the more says. a men Mad-

also; but do Will

the not firmlythey form more man

things which you I am exist,the like a

ellebore and

judgment quire. \ they recall in what also: the I I

not

act

sick

physician? must sick,master, help

me;

consider

know Not have and

So it is here duty to obey you. what I ought to do, but I am to not come about other things: upon speak to me so; but do: it is my determined. more learn. this I

What than

other

things? for to be

what

is greater it is not not to

useful to for you your tone

persuaded that and sufficient

have This

made is the

determination

change health. What

it.

I will has

die, if you
I have

(energy)of madness, not of compel me to this. Why, man? determined determined determined lead fool" a "

happened? that you

have not I to "

have kill Be

had me "

a

lucky escape take *

I

no

money.

J

Why? is that you "A such force. and in I have cannot assured

The

meaning or fool must see.

from mean "

his purpose a either thinks shouldst will not

by words himself wise we fool

who thou wise; a sometimes

Though a bray

fool

the

mortar

among him." in wheat

with

pestle, yet

his foolishness was a

depart medicine from

Proverbs, xxvii. 22. madness. Horace says, Sat.

f Ellebore ii. 3, 82"

used

Danda

est ellebori

multo

pars

maxima to

avaris.

X

"

Epictetus seems who had

in this discussion

be

referringto take our

some

fessor, pro-

declared

that

he

would

not

money

from

his

hearers, and some receiving

at then, indirectly least, had

blamed

philosopherfor

fee from

his hearers."

Schweig.

EPIGTETU8.

163

that

with to the

very

tone is

take, there

(energy) which you now nothing to hinder you at reason use some

in

fusing re-

time ing, say-

from

incliningwithout
I have

to take

money

and

then

determined.

As

in

a

distempered body, subject sometimes to these

to

defluxions, the humor then to to inclines too a

parts, which and way there

those, but a

so

sicklysoul inclination knows and

not

incline:

if to

this

movement

is added

tone

then (obstinateresolution), cure. the

evil

becomes

past help and

CHAPTER
THAT
WE DO

XVI.
TO AND USE OUR

NOT

STRIVE GOOD

OPINIONS

ABOUT

EVIL.

Where In the

is the will. are good?

In

the

will.* of them? will. lessons

Where In W^ell out is the those then?

evil?

Where

is neither of

things
Does

which anyone Does

independent us the

among any to one

think

of these

of the schools? to meditate in

by (strive) the case

himself

give an
Is it of

swer an-

Yes.

thingsf as Is it night?
I cannot you a of

questions? number is shown proper

day? stars No. When to Well, make is the

even?J you, money in have

say. studied

money the

to (offered) answer, that

is not

these

good thing? Have practiced yourself you or only against sophisms? Why do you answers, if in the cases wonder those you

then have

which in those

you

have

studied, in have not

improved;

but

which

you

*Seeii.

10, 25. answer f

"

To

to

things

"

means

to

act

in

a

way

suitable

to

cumstances cir-

to

be this

a

match was a

for them. common X Perhaps he cannot

puzzle.

The

man

answers

right;

sajr.

164

EPICTETU8.

studied, committed in

those knows to memory

you that

remain he what has he

the

same?

When he

the has an

rhetorician

written has well, that

written, and

brings

he is not Because voice, why is he still anxious? agreeable then does he want? satisfied with What having studied. For the purpose To be praisedby the audience? then of he has been declamation : being able to practice disciplined and blame plined. but with respect to praise he has not been disciFor when did what he hear from any one praise

is,what of be

blame

is,what be And these when words the

the

nature what

of

each of

is,what blame kind should

praise should shunned? follows

sought, or did kind

which still there been the fine for what

practice this discipline (things)?* Why then do you which in those same a man

he

wonder, if in he surpasses

matters

has he

learned, has not

others,and he how

in which with the

there disciplined, lute player knows

is the to many. has

So a play,singswell, and he enters he a on

dress,and these a

yet he trembles he nor

when

the not nor

stage; know what

matters

understands, but the does or or

does

crowd is. it is

is,

shouts he the

of

crowd, what ridicule whether it is been

Neither our know work For of this

anxiety is, if he but if he has has

work it

another, whether reason to possible stop

not.

praised, he leaves the theater

puffed up, has been and ridiculed,the subsides. is the case swollen

bladder

been

punctured do we

This

also About we with what ourselves.

What we mire? adternals. Ex-

Externals. And we things are then busy? fear we or

have

any

doubt

why when we

why the in

are

anxious? are What

then on happens us, think

things,which our coming

to be not

evils? our It is not not power
*

not

to be

afraid, it is praise in

power
He
seems

to be

That

is which use follows of or

blame.

to

mean

making

the proper

or praise

of blame.

BPICTETUS.

165

anxious. anxious? Then

we

say, you

Lord not God,

how

shall not I not God

be

Fool, have

hards, did

make

them not Well Has you

you? Sit down now and pray that your nose may run.* Wipe yourselfrather and do not blame him. then, has he given to you nothing in the present case? he not has he not given to given to you endurance? magnanimity? has he not given to you manliness? for you

When shall nor

have your such

hands,
But Give me do we a

you

still look

for

one

who

wipe

nose?

neither man study these cares a

things he shall who

care

for them.

who

how

do cares anything, not about his cares for

the

obtaining of
What
own

thing,but when when

own

energy. for his

man,

he is walking he is not about,

energy? who, own about cares deliberating, about obtainingthat about

his

deliberation, and he deliberates? well we which and

And have

if

he succeeds, he

is elated

says. How

liberate de-

did I not when turn we tell you, about

brother, that

it is

impossible, should out not not

have thus? thought
But
man

out the

if the is has matter anything,that it thing should turn humbled; taken has has he knows Who a wise, othereven us

wretched about of to what for

to say

what this his

place. consulted not

among seer?

the

sake us as

AVho

among

actions

sleptin may is

indifference? see Who? whom

Give I have

that I one (name) to me long been looking for,who young down" wishes do. that this met most or the

man

truly noble

and

ingenuous, whether
*By
ness

old;

name

him.f tlie man's which base tlie words

"Sit

Epictetus indicates
God
to

and

indolence, who and do

for liim that

he

can

do himself

ought

to

fit owns is observable, his The

practical of all the little very or no success

ophers philosamong in endeavors

with a his their the

scholars.

Apostles speak first converts the monuments different

language the Acts

epistlesto the Apostles, and to of

Christianity:and of of

all

the

primitive

ages

bear

testimony

the

reformation

of

manners

produced by

the

Gospel,

166

EPICTETU8.

if surprised, we are well practiced but in our matters in (any given subject), patient acts are low, without decency, worthless, cowardly, imFor we do not care about bad? of labor, altogether if we had But feared not things nor do we study them.

Why then are we thinking about

still

death studied evils. if any are or

banishment, not to

but

fear

itself,* we irritable and any should appear

have to us

fall into school

those we are

things which of Now little to in the

wordy; to and

able you

question arises about examine them fully. find us

these us things, we

But

drag and what

practice,
Let
some

and

will

miserably shipwrecked. come on

disturbing what we

appearance been

us,

you we will have

know been

have

studying

and

in

exercising and For

down
I
am

of discipline Consequently through want we are always adding something to the appearance representing things to be greater than what they are. and look I am instance to myself, when on a voyage as the deep sea, or look round it and see no land, on on ourselves. out of

my

mind am and

imagine

that

I must not occur

drink to up me all this water
This the difference difference this not note

if I

wrecked, and might two

it does

of of

success

indeed

justly
Mrs.
I think of

be

expected
"

from not the of Mrs.

systems."
Carter,
because

Carter.

I

have it of

quoted
We tus, do

that

is true.

know

what passage from very

was

the

effect us, the

teaching
Carter Paul has to Epictea

unless

this

informs it. if

Mrs. of of drawn the thians Corinand

right speaks may inference is very not

The

language from of

different of some that his

Epictetus, converts. he We

unfavorably that "a

Corinthian was allow in reformation of

of converts manners

produced but in in

by there all:

the is and

Gospel" no many that

the

to was Christianity, produced corruptions are a

evidence

this that it in

reformation was there

is evidence church

not.

The ages

the

early the forms re-

Christian made and would this

and the

subsequent were proof nor that

by is us

Gospel result neither our universal of permanent; nature the to which

knowledge
*

human

lead

expect.

See

ii.

1, 13.

EPIGTETU8.

167

that
The

three sea? shall

pints are
No, but

enough. my What

then

disturbs

me?

on

me;

but

quake opinion. Again, when an earthhappen, I imagine that the city is going to fall is not one little stone enough to knock my

brains "What disturb

out? then us? are the

things than him and

which

are

heavy
What and

on

us

and

What

else

opinions? who goes

else than leaves his of on sorrow

opinionslies heavy upon companions and friends
Now
nurse

away

places and

habits

life? the

little

children, for

instance, when

if

leaving them for a short Do they receive a small cake. compare wish to they cry time, forget their you choose then

that

we

should do not you be

to

little children? a pacifiedby

small

No, by Zeus, for I cake, but by right

Such as a man opinions. And what are these? ought to study all day, and not to be affected by anything that is neither by companion nor not his own, placenor gymnasia, and not the law even by his own body, but to remember and to have

it before a his

eyes. not And

what

is the that

divine longs beit is taken to law?

To to keep

man's to own, use to claim

which

others, but to what

not

given, not to desire

it; and

away,

give not it up

and readily that a man

given,and when when a thing is immediately,and has and had mamma. man

is

be

thankful you would

for tlie time

the

use

of For

it, if what cry for your

nurse

matter on does he

it make

by

what

thing a

is

subdued, and

he

depends? In what respectare you better than who cries for a girl, you if grieve for a little gymnasium, such places and little porticoes and and men young what Another the water of Dirce? in turn in comes

of amusement? no worse

and Dirce. I was laments Is the used

that Marcian to the

he shall water water

longer drink than that And a of

But

of

Dirce.*
*

you

will be used
Bceotia, wbicli

to the flows at

other. the Then
Ismenus.
was

Dirce Marcian

pure water stream

into

The

is the

Marcian

aqueduct

Rome,

which

168

FPICTBTUS.

if you

become a attached verse to

this verse also, cry for this too, and of the common try to make
The

like the of Nero

Euripides,
Marcian
water.

hot

baths

and

See how men. silly

tragedy is then are

made

when

things happen the you than sea? the

to

When

shall I you not

see

Athens

again and with what to see

Wretch, have the you moon, content or Acropolis? see daily? the sun,

anything the better

greater who stars, the

wliole him

earth, the administers you

But

if

indeed and

you

comprehend him a

Whole, small carry

about beautiful sun in

do yourself, rock?* the When moon, still desire you will are stones, and to then what

going do? have

leave you been you

the

itself and weep in the like

you

will you did when

sit and

children? what did

Well, what you doing learn ?

school? you

hear, what
"I made I did how

you

why did might have the write

a yourself philosopher,

written I read of of a the

truth;

as,

certain not even

introductions, and

approach
I possess died

door

Chrysippus, but philosopher." For kind lived as should

anything as the

which he

Socrates or who possessed, such any one as

he

did, who

did, he thing anythat not to of to see

such a or

Diogenes possessed? Do you men wept or grieved,because man, or

think was nor

going
Susa
when still or certain in

a

certain

woman, so be in

in Athens

Corinth, but,
For
no

if it should man can

happen, the in Ecbatana?

if

a

quit

banquet he any at man, Some
"

he

chooses, and and longer

amuse

himself, does

stay

amusement, constructed of the

complain, and does he not stay, as only so long as he is pleased? Such a was I

B. C. 144, and of the

best

water

that
'
'

Rome stream had.

arches

this

aqueduct

exist. of

The

bright

of Dirce

is

spoken of
*The

in the

Hercules stones" the

Furens are Euripides (v. 573). to "small

supposed to be

the

marbles

which

decorated

Athens, and

rock

be the

Acropolis.

170

EPIGTETUS.

was

believed to that God

he

was

the he

son

of

God, and

he

was.

In justice inand

obedience and you nor are

then

went

about you the to are

purging not away

lawlessness.

But away

Hercules of

not are able to you purge

wickedness purge own. others; evil yet

Theseus,
Clear
cast

able

away From

the

things from of Attica.

away away

your

yourself, and your

thoughts

instead

of

Procrustes

Sciron,* sadness, fear, desire, envy,

malevolence, avarice, to possible eject

effeminacy,intemperance. these But

it is not

things otherwise your affections But and on than him if you be

his commands. with

by looking to God only, by only,by being consecrated choose anything else,you compelled to

ing fixto

will is

sighs able to

groans

follow

f

what

stronger never than

and yourself, always seeking tranquillity find it; for you seek tranquillity there where you

it is not, and

neglect to

seek

it where

it is.

CHAPTER
HOW WE MUST ADAPT

XVII.
TO

PRECONCEPTIONS
CASES.

PARTICULAE

What throw to to is the away

first business

of him For he

who

self-conceit. J that which

it is thinks

philosophizes?To impossiblefor a man that and and he knows. As to be of us begin

to learn

things then good which and and ought

to be done

done, and

bad, and
Sciron,
as

beautiful robbers who

ought not ugly, all

"Procrustes were two

infested

Attica

and

destroyed by Theseus,

Plutarch to tells in his life of rational animal to Theseus.

f Antoninus, follow x.

28, "only

the but

is it is a given

to

voluntarily what on happens;
Seneca,

simply

follow ii. 59.

necessity

imposed

all."

Compare and iU.

Quaest. Nat.

tSeeii. 11, 1,

14,8.

EPICTETUS.

171 to the

talkingof these we

them we at random we praise,

go

a philosophers;nd we on

matters

censure,

accuse,

we

blame,

judge we and

determine But

about do what we we

dishonorable. wish why

go

and honorable principles cause to the philosophers? Benot we to learn

do

think wish

that

we

know. what

And

what

is this? as Theorems.

For

to learn

philosophers say some wish

to learn

being something elegantand acute; and that they may get profit from what they then to think

learn. to a

It is ridiculous one that

a

person

wishes that not learn man will But the for

thing, and will learn another; or further, in he does make proficiency that which the many are learn. also Plato he

deceived

by

this which he

deceived even rhetorician

Theopompus,* of before

when

blames what Good

wishing everything to
Did do none we us

be defined. you use For words

does or say? or the an Just,

utter

the

sounds

in what

empty

way Now

without who

understanding tells you,

unmeaning and they severally nify? sig-

Theopompus, that we had not natural notions of each of these things and preconceptions But (TTpoXTjipeti)? it is not possibleto adapt preconceptions if we have to their correspondentobjects guished distinnot (analyzed)them, and inquired what object must be subjected to each make the preconception. You may sarue us charge against physiciansalso. For who among did not use the words healthyand unhealthy before Hippocrates lived, or
For
are we

did a we

utter

these

words

as

empty

sounds? we liave also able to certain it.

preconceptionof health,f but
For
as

not
*

adapt or this

reason

one

says, abstain him, appears to

This same "

rhetorician person as

orator,

Epictetus of names

be

the

Theopompus does not

Chios,

the

historian. the notion

f
"what

That

Epictetus to quite correctlycompare body and

of

is wliolesome

the human

with bad. various the will

preconceived be notion to (anticijjata nntione) who our

of moral

f^ood into ajiparent

those

have

carefully inquired

the

origin and

principlesof

notions."

Schweigh.

172

EPIGTETU8.

from

give food; another says, bleed; is the reason? is it another and cupping. What says, use cannot properlyadapt the preconception any otlier than that a man of health to particulars? So it is in this matter concern also, in the things which food; another says, life. useful

Who and of

among not us

does

not

speak among of us good has a

and not a

bad, of ception preconand

useful; for of these

who

each

things?

Is it then

distinct

shall I show How this. perfect preconception? Show this? Adapt the preconception properly to the particular things. Plato, for instance, subjects definitions to the preconceptionof the useful, but you to the preconception Is it possible then that both of you of the useless. are is it possible? Does not one man adapt the right? How preconceptionof good to the matter of wealth, and another of pleasureand to that of not to wealth, but to the matter if those words health? use For, generally, all of us who need each of them, and know no diligencein sufficiently the notions of the resolving(making distinct) tions, preconcepdo we do we differ, why quarrel,why do we why blame And one another? do I now with one allege this contention another and speak of it? If you yourself properly adapt why are you unhappy, why are you your preconceptions, Let us omit at present the second hindered? topic about the pursuitsand the study of the duties which relate to them. Let us omit also the third relates to topic,which I give up to you these two topics. Let us inthe assents: sist

why

upon demonstration

the

first, which that we

presents that an

almost the

obvious ceptions.* precon-

do

not

properly adapt which then now are

Do that you

now

desire

is

possibleand hindered avoid ? the

which are is possible you ? to

Why not you

why
*

you

unhappy? the desires

Do

you

try to
Sec.

The

topic of

and

aversions.

iii. c. 2.

EPIGTETU8.

173

unavoidable? which you

Why would then avoid?

do

you

fall

in

with

anything

unfortunate? are Why you Why, when you desire a thing,does it not happen, and, For this is the when you do not desire it,does it happen? thing, greatestproof of unhappiness and misery: I wish for someAnd what is more and it does not happen. wretched than It came I?* was because

she her

could

not an a a

endure act this a that

Medea

to murder at

children:

of

noble

spiritin it is for Then she

this view a least,for she had to succeed

justopinion what person on

thing not wronged which

wishes.

says, "Thus has is

I shall be and thus?

avenged me; him what

insulted how

and

(my husband) who shall I gain if he
I shall what kill do

punished

then

shall it be done?

children, but I shall punishmyself also: and my is the aberration I care?^'f This of soul which

possesses ing do-

great energy. of that

For we she did wish the

not

know you

wherein cannot new

lies the

which

; that

without,

nor

yet by not alteration man and

get this from adaptation of

things. Do and nothing remain which in God

desire the you which

desire

(Jason, Medea's husband), will fail to happen: do not obstinatel you: do not desire that he shall live with

desire to

Corinth; wills. No Zeus. have same and

in who

a

word

And man compel you? shall compel
When
are

shall

nothing than that shall hinder you? who shall than he comjielyou any more and your wishes and sires de-

desire

you the Give

such as a

guidej

his, why do you desire to wealth

still fear and your the

ment? disappointaversion you to up you
i.
c.

your

poverty, and
*

will be 27, 10.

disappointedin

one,

will

Compare

f This

meaning of what Medea Epictetus does not give the words iv, 7, 20.

is the

says

in

the Medea

pides. of Euri-

of the

poet.

\ Compare

l'^4

EPIGTETUS.

fall into

the other.

Well

give them them a

up to to

health, and

you

will be unfortunate:

give

up

country, friends, children, in which are

word

h magistracies,onors, of the things to any you to

not

in man's

power up

(and

will the

be

nate). unfortuof the let

But

give them them and aversion you envy, cease to Zeus

and

rest

gods; your and

surrender desire

to the

gods, let ranged on

the

gods

govern,

be be and

the side of the

gods, if, wherein

will you

any

longer unhappy?*

But

lazy wretch, fear, and educated? that you never yourself and have of the What

and complain, and are jealous, of for a single day complaining both gods, why do you still speak of being of an kind

education, man?

Do

you

mean

s employed about sophisticalyllogisms?f unlearn all these things and Will you not, if it is possible, time that begin from the beginning,and see at the same been hitherto you have from not even

touched

the

matter

; and

then up all you you

commencing that do do comes this

foundation, will

you

not

build which

after, so that

not

choose, and

happen nothing may nothing shall fail to happen who is become up has a which

choose? Give me one

young

man

come

to

the

school this it is

with matter this

intention,who says, me
"

and for

I

give ever champion for everything else,and my power to pass free from

enough life free stretch and

if it shall hindrance

be in

my to from

and neck as a

trouble, and a out

(present) my up to heaven

to all

things like of free man,

to look

friend

ing God, and fear noth-

that man can

happen." say, "

Let

any

of you man, point into out

such

a

that

I may

Come, young own, are

the

sion posses-

of that adorn

which

is your

for it is your

destiny to these have shall

philosophy: yours yours If you

these

possessions, yours when he

books,
*
"

these

discourses."

Then

would

subject

all

things to yourself, subject yourself
+ See i. 7. 1

to

reason."

Seneca, Ep. 37.

EPICTETUS.

175

labored

and sufficiently exercised himself in this part of the matter let to me {roTtov), him come again and say, "I desire to be free from passionand free from perturbation; and a philosopherand a diligent and I wish as a pious man person to know

what

is my

duty

to

the to my

gods,

what

to

my to parents, what to my brothers, wliat Come also strangers." (I say)
''

country, what second now

feo the

matter

this {roitov): studied secure also is

the second and

But I have yours." a part (roTtov)lso, and I
"

sufficiently gladlybe awake, but wine, and have would am unshaken, lam and

not

only
I

when

I

also when when I am asleep,and

when

am

filled with are a

melancholy." Man,
I wish of to you

god, you

groat designs.
No: his not but

understand Pseudomenos*

what

treatise

the

Chrysippus says in (the Liar). Will you
And with Thus to w hang yourself,retch, with such your intention? what good will it do you? You will read the whole and will speak to others trembling. sorrow, you also 'do. and you you also "Do to you

you you, and

wish You the

me,f brother, write to

read

me?"

in excellently

excellently, man; my of style Xenophon, and you

of style Plato, and you in the styleof Antisthenes. Then another to one having told your dreams you return to the the same things: your desires are same, your aversions the same, the same, and are pursuits your your

in the

designs
*The
vii. the

and

purposes,

you was a

wish

for the bv was

same

things

and

Pseudomenos
"

treatise

Clirysippus (Diog. a Laert.

Chrysippus).
Stoics, and he not?

The

Pseudomenos When a famous

problem he among

it is this.

person

says, if he on I lie; doth

lie, or

doth The pus If he

lies, he speaks truth: many books

speaks

truth, he lies.

philosophers composed wrote this in

difficulty. Chrysipto answer six.

Philetas

wasted

himself

studying

it."

Mrs.

Carter.

f Epictetus is their writings.

the ridiculing

men

who

compliment

one

another

oft

176

EPIGTETU8.

work seek for for

the to same.

In

the

next

place you are do vexed say, he are not

even

give you advice, but you such hear things (as I say). Then 1 was when natured old fellow: going one if you
"

you away, you

An

illnot if is

did

weep you what

nor

did off

he say, Into

what

danger will burn do."

come a

safe,my if you

child, I man going: lights.* This a good-natured you would return It will be it will be

great worth to be

thing for while immortal

do

safe, and person: to burn

for lights

such

a

for you

ought

exempt from Casting away then, as I know and

disease. say, this conceit must come

of to we we

something useful, we

thinking that philosophy as do we

apply to geometry, and to music: but if we shall not even t approach to proficiency,hough collections and commentaries of not, read we

all

the

Chrysippusand

those

of

Antipaterand Archedemus.f

CHAPTER
HOW WE SHOULD STEUGGLE

XVIII.
AGAINST APPEARANCES.

Every

habit and

faculty is J

maintained

and

increased

by

the

corresponding actions: the habit of walking by the habit of running by running. If you would

ing, walkbe a But when good reader, read; if a writer,write. you shall read for thirty not have days in succession, but have done the consequence. In the something else,you will know shall have lain down ten same days, get up way, if you and attempt to make a long walk, and you will see how
*

Compare
As
to

i.

19, 4. see f

Archedemus,
c.

ii. 4,

11; and

ii. Antipater, 19, 3.

\ See

iv,

13.

178

EPICTETUS.

day; then intermitted habit

every

third, then to be not

every a fourth.

But

if you For

have the

thirty days, make begins have any **I been

sacrifice to God. then is

at first

weakened, and vexed completely the destroyed. after, nor

to-day, nor

day

yet but Be

on

months; when wish he I I

I took assured a succeeding day during two or three when care some pened.*' exciting things hapthat you are in

a

good not way.

To-day

saw

handsome lie with

person,

I did

say to

myself,I for do Nor

I could

her, and

Happy is her the

is her

husband; also. who

says this says, rest to

Happy my adulterer woman picture the and mind;

present, and
I stroke solved a strippingherself head little

and

say. Well

by my lying down done, Epictetus, you finer if than even side. have

my

fine the

sophism, much master sophism. And and sends gives signs, and come

that the and

which

is called is

woman

and willing, me messages, and

if she abstain that a also fondle and which

close to me, would the be a I should

ous, be victoriis named this master a

that the man sophism beyond
Over
for not

Liar, and may Quiescent.

such

victory as the justly be proud;

proposing

sophism.
How then shall this be done? Be

willingat length to appear own

be to approved by yourself, be willing to God, desire to be in purity with your with Plato the God. Then when any such

beautiful pure

self and visits you,

appearance

to expiations, says,*Have recourse go a suppliantto sufficient temples of the averting deities. It is even

if you and

resort

to

the

society

of

noble

and you and
The

just find see

men, one compare is
*

who

yourself with them, whether Go Socrates to living or dead. passage is in

him is, The

Plato, Laws, of your life." ix. p. 854.

conclusion death

"

if you

cannot

be cured

(mental) disease, seek
This And bears if some

which to is better

and in depart from
Matthew
vi.

resemblance

the

precept

29,

"

thy right eye

offend

thee,

pluck it out and

cast it from

thee," etc,

EPICTETUS.

179

lying over down what

with a Alcibiades,

and

mocking

his he had what

beauty: gained number one consider

victoryhe at last found that himself; what an Olympian victory; in from he

stood

Hercules;*

so

that, by the man, Gods, who may quered con-

justlysalute him, Hail, not wondrous boxers

you

have

less these are sorry

those

who

like

them, the side you

nor pancratiasts, yet gladiators. By placing these

and

objectson you be not say, are, the other be drawn away

will conquer

the appearance: in the first

will not hurried

away

by a it.

But

place but you test. by are the for about the the you it

of rapidity me the appearance, me see

Appearances, wait and what do you not little: let let me who

:f

put

you

to the

And draw you

then

allow

appearance

to lead

you

on

and if

of lively pictures

things off some

which

will it

follow; for

do, it will carry

wherever other

pleases. and And you

But

rather

bring in and to oppose cast to out

beautiful

noble if you

appearance are this base appearance. in this way,

accustomed

be

exercised

will

see

what now shoulders, what it is is the true such Great

sinews, what and man

strength you

have.

But

words, only trifling

nothing who more.

This

the athlete,

exercises do not himself

against away. appearances. is the

Stay, wretch, for be carried it is for from

combat, divine
God:
at a sea

is the

work; freedom as a

kingship,for freedom, perturbation. Remember and storm.
*

happiness, for call call on on

him

protector, as
For
Hercules been men

the Dioscuri that which contests helper X in a comes what

is

greater storm establislied Those were than

is said to have first victor. in the

gymnastic gained in the

and

to

have

the

who

tlie victory both

in

wrestling and as pancratium or reckoned after

list of victors on. coming

in the

second

third

place

him, and

so

Compare "j-

iii. 12, 15. Pollux. Quorum
Stella

X Castor

and

Horace, Carm. simul i. 12:

allia nautis

refulsit, etc.

180

EPIGTETUS.

from reason?

appearances
For the For

which storm are

violent

and

drive

away

the an itself, what away and
*

else of

is it but

appearance? as take

the

fear

death, and is in

pose sup-

many

thunders what But calm if you

you

will know

as lightnings you there and serenity once and please, ing the ruland the say same a

faculty. that you will

have

been

defeated say so conquer that

hereafter, and you that will at you

then

again,be condition that to assured and you so last be in even wretched know

weak are will not

ward after-

make you

then

doing wrong, but you will even begin for you apologies (defenses) wrong-doing, and will confirm the saying of Hesiod f to be true.
With
constant

ills the

strives. dilatory

CHAPTER

XIX.

AGAINST

THOSE

WHO

EMBRACE

PHILOSOPHICAL

OPINIONS

ONLY

IN

WORDS.

The to have is

argument been in in fact these to a

called

the from

proposed common ruling argument appears such principlesas these: contradiction between one there another

three the must contradiction

positions,each two being in third. The that propositions are, of everything past does necessity be true; a that that

an a

possibilit im-

not

follow

and possibility;

thing in ""Consider power. a

that away has

everything is opinion, and thou the doubled a opinion is wilt thy like Take

then, when

choosest, thy opinion, and thou find

mariner, who

promontory,

calm,

everything stable, and Hesiod, Works "j

waveless

pay."
v.

Antoninus,

xii. 22.

and

Days,

411.

EPIGTETU8.

181

* will be true. which neither is nor Diodorus possible observingthis contradiction employed the probativeforce of this proposition, for the demonstration of the first two which is not true and will That never nothing is possible will hold these two: That another be. Now something is will be: and That which is neither true nor ever possible, But he will does not follow a possibility. an impossibility is past is necessarilyrue, not allow that everythingwhich t of Cleanthes to think, and Antipater seem as the followers defended them. But others maintain the other copiously T which is neither two propositions.hat a thing is possible That will be true: and true nor everything which is past that an is necessarilyrue; but then t they will maintain But it is impossible can impossibility follow a possibility. these three propositions, because of their comto maintain mon

is

contradiction.!
If then do any I man should

ask

me, answer whic'h

of

these that

sitions proponot

maintain?

I will this

him,

I do

know; and but one I have

received

story, that Diodorus of tained mainI

opinion,the maintained third. this a followers another then to

Panthoides,

think,

Cleanthes

Chrysippus not What purpose, to is

opinion,and those of your opinion? I was the others appearances say and Therefore was made occur an

for

examine what the

that form

to me,

and of

compare own on

to

opinion
Priam.

my the

thing.
Who

I

differ not father?

at all from

grammarian. his brothers? mother? their

Hector's and I have And

Who was were

Alexander Hecuba.

Deiphobus. heard this Hellanicus
*

Who

story.

From

whom? about at From the same Homer.

also, I think, writes surnamed things,and in the time

Diodorus,

Cronus, lived was Alexandria

of

Ptolemseus

Soter.

He

of the

school

named

the

tinguishe Megaric, and dis-

in dialectic.

f If

you

assume

any

two

of these

three, they

must

be

in

diction contra-

to

the third

and

destroyit.

182

BPICTETU8.

And what further have I about perhaps others like him. the ruling argument? vain a Nothing. But, if I am at especially a banquet I surprise the guests by man, have written these matters. on enumerating those who Both Chrysippus has written wonderfullyin his first book about a has written specially Possibilities,nd Cleanthes on the subject, and Archedemus. Antipater also has written about but not only in his work Possibilities, also separately in his work the ruling argument. Have read not on you the work? I have it. Read. And what not read profit will a man have from and pertinen imit? he will be more trifling than he is now; for what else have gained you this on by reading it? What opinion have you formed but you tell us of Helen and Priam, subject? none; \Yill and the island of Calypso which will and never was never be. in this matter indeed it is of no great importance And if you retain the story,but have formed no opinion of But in matters of morality(Ethic) this happens your own. than in these things of which to us much more we are speaking. Speak to me about good and evil. Listen:
The wind from me.*
"

Ilium

to

Ciconian 39.

shores

Brought
Of

Odyssey, ix. are things
*
"

some

are

good, some be bad, to and

others to are

Speak been to

me,"

etc., may

supposed of be and

said the

Epictetus, takes who

has

ridiculing logical subtleties he is told to grammarians' a learning. verse When

speak it is

good to and

evil, he and of the

Odyssey, to the first which

occurs as

him,

says, Listen. as There

is

nothing
Then he a listen to, but utters some

good from for the

hearers

thing any-

else.

he

and being philosophical principles,

asked

where

learned

them, he says,
He
is I learned

Hellanicus, who

was

an

historian, not no philosopher. what author you bantering the hearer: them; what it is all

it makes

matter

from

the

same.

The are, real have

question you is, have an examined

Good

and

Evil

and

formed

opinion yourself ?

EPIGTETUS.

183

indifferent. which the the

The

good the then

are

the

virtues bad are and the

the

things are partake of things this? which

virtues;the the vices,and the things which

partake of tliem; and lie between

the indifferent and Whence

virtues

vices, do you

death, pleasure, wealth, health, life, pain. know Hellanicus does says

it in to or

his say

Egyptian history; this, or to say that

for what

difference

it make

Diogenes has
Have
an

it in his examined your on Ethic, any you

then

of Show

Chrysippus or these things how you

Cleanthes? and formed used to opinion of in a

own?

are

behave division a man,

shipboard? Do you remember o when the sail rattles (distinctionf things), who knows nothing of times and seasons, stands storm this and

by you vice you

you

when the

you

are

screaming you were

and

says, Tell

me,

1 ask Is it Will a by not we

Gods, what

to suffer

shipwreck: does up a

take to do

stick and you, But man? if

with us?

saying just now, in it participate vice? lay it on his head? we are perishingand sent What you answer

have come a

to

mock

Caesar

for

you

to

the distinction? If when charge,do you remember you in pale and should are come going trembling,a person up is the to you and what tremble, man? say. Why do you about which matter are engaged? Does Ciesar who you sits within him? to ine

give

virtue

and do

vice you

to

those mock

who me go and

in

to

You

reply,Why tremble? a

also tell me, death the

add

my

present sorrows? you Is

Still it not of

philosopher,tell of which or why

you

run

the or risk, or

or prison, pain

body,

banish

meiit,

vice or Is there any disgrace? AVhat else is there? did you What then anything which partakes of vice? to say of these, things? What have to do with use you man? And evils are own enough for me." me, my you evils are own right. Your enough for you, your say baseness,your cowardice, your boastingwhich you showed when Why did you decorate yourself yon sat in the school.
"

184

EPICTETU8.

with a what

belonged to yourselves sect you

others?

Why your did

you

call

yourself you will

Stoic?

Observe find to what

thus

in

actions, and

belong. You will find that most of and those feeble. you are Epicureans, a few Peripatetics,* will you show that you virtue For wherein consider really equal to everythingelse or even superior? But show me a me

Stoic,if an you

can.

Where who same

or

how? small But

you

can

show of the

endless For any do

number the

utter

arguments the Stoics.

persons the

opinions handle Stoic?

worse? also And with a Epicurean do Peripatetic, they not repeat who then is a them As we equal accuracy?
Phidiac, which show call the art

statue

is fashioned a man

according is fashioned Show me to

of

Phidias; so the is sick and

me

who utters. according to a man

doctrines

which

he

who

happy, dying and happy.
Stoic.
me

and

Show cannot happy, in danger and happy, in exile and happy, in disgrace him: 1 desire,by the gods, to see a show is Do me one

You least be a fashioned who favor: has do not so;

but a show ency tendan

at to

one

who

forming, me shown not seen

Stoic.

this

grudge yet. Phidias any

old you the show not man

seeinga that a

sightwhich must I have me Do or think

you work

show

the

Zeus

of

Athena, me a

human

ivory and gold? f Let soul ready to think God as
God
or

of

of you

does, and be to
*Tlie

blamej to either

man,

ready to not be to

disapcon

Peripatetics allowed a many

things

good which that tributed mental
V.

happy life; but was still to they contended all other

the smallest De Fin.

excellence

superior

things. Cicero,

5, 81.

f Seeii., :}:To things,for
"

c.

8, 20.
God
"

blame to means

to blame to

the

constitution to and and

order

of

do this for the

appeared

Epictetus to be absurd

wicked; can as

absurd

as

potter'svessel it liable to

blame out the and potter, if that to be

imagined, for making

wear

break.

186 then do not

EPIGTETtia.

you

finish the work? my fault that

Tell you me

the not reason.

For

it is either

through

do

finish of the

it,or

fault,or through the through your own and the The thing itself is possible, power. in you, are nature

thing. in me

only thing in both.

our or It remains or, what

then nearer we

that the the fault is either

is

truth, in last to take to Well a then, pose purthe of

you

that willing this us begin at a bring such no into

school, and

notice to

past? you Let see. only make

beginning.

Trust

me,

and

will

CHAPTEE
AGAINST
THE EPICUREANS

XX.
AND ACADEMICS.

The

w propositionshich even are

true

and

evident them:

are

of a a

sity necesman

used

by

those

who

contradict the

and

might perhaps consider it to be being evident that it is found who denies if a greatestproof of even same

thing

to be necessary

for him For

it to make man use

of

it at the that he

time. is make

stance, inversally uni-

should

deny

there must anything the true, it is plain that

dictory contra-

negation, that wretch, than do you not to affirm

t nothing is universallyrue. even What, is false? that capable inand lieve be-

admit

this? is

For

what

else is this

that whatever should that can come

affirmed universally and but say:

Again

if

a

man

forward

Know

there is

nothing of sure

be or known, if another a all

things are me evidence; better for

say, Believe

you

will

be the

it,that

man

ought

not

to

me,

anything; or again,if another that it is not to possible man, this and will teach you, if you those? Academics?

should learn choose. Whom
"

say. Learn

from tell

anything; I
Now
shall in

you

what

respect do these differ from
Those who call themselves

I name?

Men,

agree

[with

EPIGTBTU8,

187

that lis] mail no

man

agrees

[with another]:

believe

us

that

no

believes Thus

natural of not that

anybody." he designs to destroy Epicurus* also,when time makes of fellowship mankind, at the same he say? which he destroys. For what does
"

the use Be

deceived, is me. no

men,

nor

be

led

astray,

nor

be

mistaken: lieve beand mit Perrest

there

natural But

fellowship among who say What you rational

animals; you those

otherwise, deceive is tliis to

seduce us you to be are by

false reasons." Will that

you?

deceived.

fare worse, is a if all the

of

us

persuaded and among

us,

Nay, do you

it will be trouble

for us?

Why do fellowship that it ought by all means to be preserved? much better and safer for you ? Man, why yourselfabout us? Why do you keep awake do you light your lamp? Why do you rise you write the no there

natural

early? Why may care

so

many and may

books, that believe suppose

no

one

of

us

be deceived of men; or

about that than

gods one that the

they take nature of

good and to be

other

pleasure?

For

if this is so, lie down of which you and lead the life of a worm, sleep, yourselfworthy: eat and drink, and ease judged and how tlie

eiijoywomen, is it to you,

yourself,and

snore.

f these And

what

rest shall think
*

about

things,whether speaking he with was rightor wrong? letter, whicli
"

Cicero, to de

Fin.

ii. 30, 31, when

of

the

rus Epicu-

wrote

Hermarchus were of were Epicurus confuted inconsistent

that the actions dying, says his sayings," and "his writings

by his probity
Cor.
at

and

morality." after f Paul fought with rise not? "let us says.

i.

15, 32:

"If

the

manner

of it me,

men

I have

beasts us Ephesus, what drink, for etc. are seems

advantageth to morrow a we

if the

dead words

let eat eat

and

die." from The

and

drink,"
The

said to be to quotation not the Thais in the

of Menander. resurrection of

meaning dead, This

be, that
I

if I do not

believe

the

why

should the

enjoy of the

sensual we pleasures of life only? see is not

doctrine

Epictetus, as

in the

text.

188

EPICTETU8.

^j
You
and be a For

what

have

we

to do

with with

you? wool take

care

of

sheep all because

they supply us flesh. Would be lulled and

milk, desirable and

last of

w^ith their could

it not

enchanted to you

by ought the

thing if men Stoics, and sleepand like you say to present themselves and milked? For

and

to those to

to be shorn your brother

this

you

Epicureans: but ought you not to conceal it from others, b and particularlyefore everythingto persuade them, that that temperance we are adapted for fellowship, by nature be secured is a good thing; in order that all things may for with some this fellowship Or ought we to maintain you?* tain whom then ought we to mainWith and not with others? it? with more With as such violate

as

on

their

part

also And

maintain who

it, or it such than

this

fellowship? waked to write

violate

you

who was establish such it that him

doctrines?

What and else was then

Epicurus what he

from did

his

ness, sleepiWhat men, compelled it than that draws

write?

which a man

is the to her

strongest thing in own nature, which

will

though

he

be

unwilling and that there is

complaining? no community it for

For

since, she says, you think write this mankind, among break your

sleepto do condemn practice opinions. your own your own Shall we then say that Orestes was agitatedby the Erinyes and did not more (Furies)and roused from his deep sleep, Erinyes and Pains rouse Epicurus from his sleep savage him allow to rest, but and not compelled him to make known his own opinion and this,and by

leave

others, and

evils,as how madness

and

wine

did

the

Galli

of (the priests Cybele)? nature. So strong and vine be moved of an invincible not is man's manner For

can

a

in the or of

a

vine, but
*

in the

manner

olive tree?

on

the

It would

give security to if other

the men Epicureans, should be is

that

they

would that we joy en-

all that all made for

they value,

persuaded a are

fellowship, and

that

temperance

good thing.

EPIGTETV8.

189

other hand of an

how olive can

an

olive tree in the

be moved manner not in the of a ner man-

tree, but

vine? then

It is is it

be conceived. impossible:it cannot for a man completely to lose possible of a Neither the are movements

fects) (aftheir of man's

man;

and are even

those able to who

deprived of all the

genitalmembers desires. man,

not

deprivethemselves of a

Thus of a Epicurus father not

also mutilated

offices of and he of could

a a

and

of

a

family, and human citizen

friend, but he did not; blind their has not more

mutilate the

for desires, can than own their

senses,

lazy Academics though they a cast

away with a or

have is this?

tried when

all man might

to do

it.

What

shame and

received of

from

nature does not measures

rules for the to ing know-

truth, and to to

strive to add but

these

measures

and

rules and

improve them, away and

deavors just the contrary, en-

take truth? you

destroy whatever

enables

us

to

discern

the say

What you that

what do philosoper?pietyand sanctity, think that they are? If you like,I will demonstrate it,that our they are good things. Well, demonstrate may be be turned and honor the of

citizens

deity and the I

may

no

longer
Have

negligent then Since the then

about

things are no

highest value. have, and I am you

demonstrations? you are thankful. the take us well

pleasedwith them, are, hear

contrary: Tliat there no Gods, and, if there any they is and rifying ter-

care

of

men,

nor

is there this

fellowship

between

and

them; of and

that most talked

among

sophists,or and of certainly checking wrong-doers.*

which pietyand sanctity is the lying of boasters men for of legislators the purpose Well

done, philosostate, of the

*Polybius commends multitude

(vi. 56), when men be

is

speaking of tlie Roman established and in the minds

the

of old

time, who t the opinions abou more the

gods in Hades,

wherein, he would says,

they guch acted

wisely than

those

his

time who

destroy

opinions.

190

EPIGTETU8.

pher, you brought divine. have back What

done all the

something young does men for

our

citizens, you contempt of have

to

things

Learn satisfy your is that justice nothing, that modesty is folly, that a now, father is nothing, a son nothing. Well done, philosopher, p persist,ersuade the young men, that we may have more with the same as opinionsas you and who say the same wellFrom such principles those have as our grown you. constituted Lycurgus Sparta founded: states; by these was fixed these opinionsin the Spartans by his laws and education, not then,

this

that

neither nor is the

servile

condition men more more

base than honorable

honorable, than from the these

the that

condition those who

of free died at base, and
Athenians

opinions;and leave and

through

what

Thermopylae* died other opinions did those who talk

their

citypf

Then

thus, marry in Of consult the

beget children, and make of

and

employ not themselves preters. inter-

public affairs whom? themselves who do

priestsand exist: hear and may

gods to they

t Pythian priestesshat they

lies,and

they repeat the and imposture.
Man every what are oracles

others.

Monstrous

impudence

you

day; you or

and

will you

doing? J are not give up you you

refutingyourself these frigid attempts? hand to? to When mouth you go

eat, where to your

do

carry you

your

your do a eye? you a

when

wash

yourself, what a into? If I

do were ever

call

a

pot of dish,

or

a even

ladle

spit?
*

slave

of any

these

men, at if I

Epictetus alludes

to

the

Spartans who

fought

ThermopylaB

6
.

C. 480

againstXerxes
Xerxes
on was

and

his army. on f When city and
480. See

advancing their vessels

Athens, the Athenians

left the

embarked

before

the battle of Salamis, B. C.

Cicero, De is now

iii. 11. OflBciis, who

X He
^now

attackingthe Academics,

asserted

that

we

caa

nothing.

EPIGTETU8.

191

flayed by him daily, I olive-oil some said, "Boy, throw and pour it down take picklesauce must be this? he would swear would into on

rack the

him.

If he

bath," I would
What
is

his head.

say.

An

apj)earauce

genius,which from oil and was exactlylike drink he (tisane), says. I would filland carry him Did I not ask for the barley drink of sharp sauce. Take it and master; this is the barley drink. by your presented to me, I could be not distinguished it. Here give me the barley was a

dish

?

Yes,

smell; senses take it and deceive same

taste.

How

do three

you or know four to then

if

our

us?

If

I had

fellow-slaves himself

of

the

opinion,I should force passionor to change his mind. using all the things which destroyingthem.
Grateful indeed are men

him

hang now But nature they mock gives, and in if through us by words and

modest, who,

they

do

nothing else,are dailyeating bread and yet are shameless her or enough to say, we do not know if there is a Demeter that daughter Persephone or a Pluto;* not to mention of they are enjoying the night and the day, the seasons the year, and the stars, and the sea, and the

land, and

the

of in co-operation mankind, and yet they are not moved to them; any degree by these things to turn their attention but they only seek to belch out their little problem (matter for discussion), and when they have exercised their stomach But to go off to the bath. what they shall say, and about what things or to what persons, and what their hearers shall learn from do this

talk, they if any suffer any

care

not

even

in

the

least ing hearhe

degree, nor such has suffered
*

they care should generous harm from

youth it,nor of

after

talk should harm is after

lose all the seeds to his generous notions. same

Epictetus

speaking according to eat

the

popular gives which be for

To

deny Demeter in the common and

tlie bread

wliicli as slie

is the

tbing

notions

of the

Greeks, to eat

it would

Epictetus to gives.

deny

the existence

of God

and

the bread

he

192

EPICTETU8.

nature:

nor

if

we

should in of his some give acts; an

adulterer if a being should shameless

nor

help toward public peculator

from these cunning excuse neglectshis parents should doctrines; nor if another who in his audacity by this teaching. What be confirmed This that? then in your or opinion is good or bad? should in reply to such then a man Why say any more listen to any reason or persons as these, or give them any them? from them, or try to convince reasons By Zeus one catamites change their might much sooner expect to make

lay

hold

mind own than

those

who

are

become

so

deaf and

blind to their

evils.*

CHAPTEE
OF INCONSISTEN^CY.

XXI.

Some do not. things men
No
one

confess, and readily then but that will confess that

other he is a things they fool or

out withall

understanding; men quite the contrary you
I had fortune

will hear my are as

saying,I
But

wish men readilyconfess rather find he me equal to that they

standing. under-

timid, to other man and

they

say:

I

am

timid, I confess; but to respects you not will not

be foolish.

A

will he means confess readily unjust, he will not confess that

that

is at confess or he is envious resembles unto

a

intemperate; and all. He will by busybody. Most said to

that no men

is

will rulers: into

*"This

what

our

Savior

the

Jewish go

Verily

I say of

you,

that the

publicans

and

the harlots Mrs.

the To

kingdom an God who

before said not Academic
' '

you." Matthew, he comprehended see even

xxi. 31.

Carter.

nothing, the who "

Stoic

Ariston

replied,
When

Do

you

the person

is

sitting near made you

you?" blind? the

Academic power

denied of

it, Ariston

said,

Who

who

stole your

sight?"

(Diog.Laert.

vii. 163.

Upton.)

194

EPICTETU8,

you

have the turned

family upside down, and to me come neighbors, you and you take your how come the

you as have if you how

ened frightwere a

wise

man,

seat

and have

judge babbled and

I liave

explained some came word, and head. You

I

whatever

into my you

full of envy,

humbled,

because

sit home;* and bring nothing from you during the discussion thinking of nothing else than how father is disposed toward and brother. your you your **What there? now are they saying about me they think that I am improving, and are saying,He will return with all knowledge. I wish I could learn everything before I return: but

much

labor

is necessary, at and

no

one

sends

me

anything, and is bad Then at the baths and no Nicopolisare dirty;everything the home,

bad one here."

they who of

say,

gains any profitfrom the school? who comes school. for the

Why, purpose comes

to

to comes being improved? who present his he is in to learn what opinions to be purified?who comes of? then if you want Why do you wonder carry back from the school the very things which you bring into it? For you come not to layaside (yourprinciples) to correct or them in place of them. to receive other principles or By no nor anything like it. You rather look to this, means,

whether

you to possess

already

that

for

which

you

come.

You not wish become

about prattle

theorems? Do not What your You

then?

Do

you

greater triflers?

little theorems solve

opportunity of display? syllogisms. Do you not examine f the Liar? J Do of the syllogismnamed syllogisms? Why then are hypothetical give you some the you you

tical sophisassumjjtions examine if

not

still vexed to the is you
*

receive

the
'
'

things

for which to you or you for you

come

school? from Literally, because
Perhaps
no

nothing

brought

home." man the at meaning home; is

has

comfort

he

follows. The by what brings nothing by the thought of

explained

which

he is comforted,

f See

i. 7.

X ^^^

""

^'^" 34,

EPIGTETU8.

195

Yes; or but

if

my what for this to cliild

die will for your

or

my these do

brother,

or

if

I me?

must

die

be you

racked, come good this? things you or

do

Well, side? or,

did you you any a this

sit

by awake? my

did when

ever

for out light the that

lamp

keep did went

walking-place, had did and you when? To are you to ever

propose instead discuss Theorems bad who use appearance

been and

presented your Then such as you

of it

syllogism,

and

friends you make to together? are Where
To

say. a useless. For as whom?

of use them. them are eye-salves ought and

not

useless

those

they useless. to some, are

when
*

they are ought. not Fomentations but me not

Dumb-bells useful to useless; you that How did ask

they now are

useless

others. will prove me? you ask ask Will for the And it tell it you

If

if

syllogisms and in are useful,
I

I will to they then you Let

are

useful,

if any

you way

choose, be to

f

will ask if him

they they who I I

useful or Man,

useful

you, from it

did

generally? me is

suffering say say, the the that no. dysentery, is useful.

if then

vinegar be useful to is

useful; to me?

will will and cure Seek to first be

discharge do you, be into

be 0

stopped first in your and

ulcers ulcers it

closed. the

men,

and free what

stop from power

discharge; distraction reason

tranquil the mind, you bring will know

school,

has.

*See

page

16,

note

on

Halteres.

f See

ii.

35.

196

EPICTETUS.

CHAPTER

XXII.

ON

FRIENDSHIP.*

t rally applieshimself to earnestly,hat he natuDo then loves. men apply themselves earnestlyto bad? the things which Well, do they are By no means. in no selves? themto things which apply themselves way concern It remains then that they Not either. to these are earnestlyonly about things which employ themselves good; and if they are earnestly employed about things, then understands Whoever they love such things also. how he who what is good, can also know to love; but cannot distinguishgood from bad, and things which are What a man

neither power

good nor of loving? is this? a bad To

from

both, how is can

he

possess

the

love then

only in
I
am

the power

of the

wise. How love my man may

say;

foolish,and that are

yet I have For use child.

I the

am

surprised indeed admission in? that you you

you

begun by making what your not are

foolish. make

you do

deficient you is not Can

not

of

senses? use food

which

distinguish appearances? do you suitable for your body, and clothing then because do you you are and

habitation?

Why

admit often power the Stoic

that

you

are

foolish? appearances
*
"

It is in truth and

disturbed of

perplexed,and is between

their

by persuasion
He
also

In

tliis dissertation

expounded the principle that this friendship is only possible says which note good." of Schweig. on that there he

was

another some discourse of by Epictetus from of

subject, in
Rufus
words was expressed he the

opinions conclusion Musonius certain (i.1, of in

12). Schweig. of the been non

draws

this that of Stobseus; and one supposes

this

dissertation

Epictetus

last four lost. books

Epictetus' discourses
c.

by Arrian, which

have esse Cicero
Q.

(de Amicit.
19,

5) says

"

nisi in bonis amicitiam

posse,"and

BPIGTETU8.

197

often conquers to you; then

and the

sometimes same you

think be

these

good, and neither good nor are be

thingsto you bad, and

things lastly

bad;

disturbed, you confess in that you But

you

love?

fear, envy, grieve, are why changed. This is the reason foolish. And are are able you not changewealth, and pleasure and in a word you bad? sometimes and do at and

in short

things themselves, good, men

do

think not them the bad

to same be

and one sometimes time at one

you

think time

at

to

be time the

good, a another

? and

have and not

you

not

at another

time

friendlyfeeling toward feelingof an enemy? and

them, do you

at

one

time I

them? think friend? as Yes; that time blame praise them, and at another a "Well then, do you have these feelingslso. has been And a he who

deceived he who

about has

a

man a is his man Certainlynot. friend and is of him? and

selected

his

has changeable disposition, has not. And he

he now man

good-willtoward abuses also has a no

He

who
This

man,

afterward

admires

him?

Well then, did you good-will to the other. little dogs caressing and playingwith one another, never see that you ? so might say, there is nothing more friendly but that you may know what is, friendship throw a bit of flesh among

them, your and son a

you

will

learn.

Throw you soon between will you and know

and yourself how your what to the If a soon son a

little estate, and

he will wish to die. son me. man

to

bury

you

and

how your

wish say, Then

you

will

change
He has

tone

I have Throw

brought up! a long been you; and

wishing do you too. bury old smart

between girl one love her, and intervene

the young or will love her it will be

little fame You
Life *The

dangers,

just the

same.

will utter

the words and of the father

of Admetus!

gives verse you

pleasure: the why

not

your

father.* 691. thinks The

first

is from not Alcestis

of

Euripides, v.

second it has

in

Epictetus is intruded in

Euripides. from a

Schweighaeuser trivial scholium.

that

been

into the text

198

BPICTETU8.

Do when

you he

think was a

that

Admetus he

did was not not love in his

own

child the I had

little? that fever? that of was agony

when

child the

had

he

did

not

often

say, I wish the test fever

instead and

the

child near, ? then see when

(the utter. thing)
Were

came

what

words

they

mother Polynices from the same Were father? the same from and they not brought up together, together, had they not lived together,drunk So that, if another? and often kissed one slepttogether, not Eteocles

and

any the

man,

I

think, had

seen

them, he would

have

ridiculed

for the paradoxes which they utter about philosophers them about friendship. But when a quarrelrose between the royal power, as between dogs about a bit of meat, see what they say

Polynices.
Eteocles. Pol. Et. I will

Where

will do you

you ask me take

your

station

before

the towers?

Why

this?

place myself opposite and to try

to

kill you.

I also wish

do the

same.*

Such
For

are

the

wishes

that

they utter. deceived, every as be universally, not to nothing so much then appears to animal

is attached ever What-

to its

own

interest. to a

it

an or

impediment a this

interest, loved, beis to

whether or this be

a

brother,

father, or curses: child, or is lover, it hates, spurns, much as

for its nature
; this

love and then we nothing so brother the abuse and

its and to own

interest

father,
When

kinsman, to us

country, be an

and

God. to gods them appear and

impediment statues this, burn -^s-

throw

down

their the

and of

their

temples, as Alexander when culapiusto be burned
For
*

ordered his dear

temples died.f friend same this
From

reason

if

a

man

put

in

the

place

his

in-

the

Phoenissae did of

Euripides, v. 723,

etc.

f Alexander of Alexander,

this when

Hephsestion died.

Arrian, Expedition

vii. 14.

EPIGTBTU8.

199

goodness, and terest, sanctity, friends, all these his his borne and kinsmen down the and are country,and but if he

secured his

:

parents,and place puts in one his interest,in another

friends, and

country

and

by

the are Mine inclines:

all these give way being justiceitself, the I weight of interest. For where to placed) that place of necessitythe there flesh, and is the

animal

if in the is there: I am ruling

power:

if in the

will,it
If then a if it is in my to externals, it is is,then son, there.*

there such be as where I

will

only and the

shall I be father ;

friend this

ought

be, and

for of

will

my

interest, to

maintain

of of fidelity, modesty, of patience, abstinence, of observing my of active co-operation, relations (toward place,and honesty in all). But if I put myself in one of Epicurus becomes another, then the doctrine strong, which asserts either that there is no honesty or it is that which opinion holds to be honest (virtuous), f It was and through this ignorance that the Athenians and the Thebans the Lacedaemonians with both; quarreled, and the great king quarreled with donians Hellas, and the Macewith both; and the Eomans with the Gette. | And

character

*

Matthew be vi. 21, "for

where

your

treasure

is, there

will

your

heart

also."

f

"

By

'

self

is here xii. meant
'

the

proper

Good,
The

or,

as

Solomon

presses ex-

it,Eccl. the 13,

the of whole

of man.' in Stoic proves but a

lently excel-

inconvenience

placing this but make that

anything in right choice of and (a right disposition

behavior): to how choice

it is the

interest

each

individual

in every

case

preference to present only from

pleasure doctrine and of a

in defiance future

of

presenf sufferings, appears
Mrs. with
Carter.

the

recompense." of the of

X
The
the

The

quarrels the Athenians

the

Lacedaemonians

appear i.

chieflyin

history of the

the

Peloponnesian the war.

(Thucydides, is 1.) of quarrel

great king,

king
The

of

Persia,

the

subject nians Macedo-

history of with the

Herodotus Persians

(i.1.) is the

great quarrel of Arrian's

of

the

subject

Expedition

of

200

BPIGTETUS.

still earlier

the

Trojan guest war

happened
Menelaus;
would not for these if any have

reasons. man

Alexander seen was

the

of

and

had

their one any was cast

he disposition, friendly who said that they were them between (as between woman, see

not

believed there a friends. bit But of

dogs) a war meat,
And
now

handsome when you do

and

about

her

arose.

brothers conclude even to be friends

mind,

not

from

this

appearing anything swear one

to have about

one

their

not friendship,

if be

they bad rule

say it and

that

it is impossible For is is

for them the

to

separated from a man

another. be

of rulingprinciple no cannot

trusted,it

insecure, has

certain

by men which

it is

directed,and appearances. overpowered
But of the

at not

different what

times

by up different

examine, the same same

other and but

examine, if they are

born under

parents

brought examine in them

together, and

pedagogue; their this

only, wherein or they will. than do not place
If in name name

interest,whether not name

externals

in

the

externals, do them them a friends, no brave or

more

trustworthyor constant, or even free:

men,

if you human one have nature

any

judgment. makes occupy and

For them

that bite

is not one of principle

which

another, and

abuse

another,

deserted

mountains,* and in placesor publicplaces, if they were as the courts of justicedisplay the acts of robbers; nor yet that which makes them intemperate and adulterers and

corrupters,nor men that

which

makes

them this

do one whatever

else

do of

that

againstone another placingthemselves are through and power at war

their

interests will.
Getse

opinion only, in the things
But
or was

which

not
The

within
Romans
we

the were of their with that the

if you in the

Alexander. time then. of

Daci still

Trajan, and

may

assume

Epictetus

living

*Schweig. heasts men, in the not thinks

that

this

is

the for even

plain meaning: men, so men

"as

wild for

mountains in deserted

lie in

wait

lie in wait

only

places,but

in the

forum."

202

EPIGTETUB.

ready to pardon on his being mistaken but account in to of his of

ignorance,on the account

of

things no greatest importance; well convinced of do of truth in is

he will be harsh doctrine man,

being

Plato's

that

every cannot

mind do

deprived you can

unwillingly. other and together, same If you as this,yet drink you but retain

all

respects

friends

do, also as

together, and may be born

lodge of the be

sail

together,and snakes are:

parents; for nor neither these will

they

friends cursed

you,

so

long

you

bestial

and

opinions.

CHAPTER
ON"
THE POWER OF

XXIII.
SPEAKING.

Every with more

man

will read

a

book

with

more

pleasureor

even

ease, man if it is written will also

in fairer characters. more fore There-

every

spoken, words. if

it is must

We

is readilyto what signified by appropriate and becoming is no not say then that there faculty of listen

expression:for this impious and also of because affirmation a is the man. characteristic Of an of

an

timid the

impious

man,

he undervalues if he would or justas of vision,

of

given you infused *The a eyes to

into them word for

from come God, giftswhich take away the commodity of the power then God hearing,or of seeing. Has has he no purpose? and to no purpose a spirit* so strong and of such skillful means a

"spirit"

vital

spirit,an as animal Plutarcli the

spirit, says of

nervous

fluid, as

Scliweigliaeuser explains it,or spirit which chief passage are (De Placit. Philosoph. iv. 15), "the vision, which permeates
"

has

power to from

the

faculty of the of the to same

mind

the

pupil
' '

of the eye; instruments have a and of in another

treatise

(iv. 8), the the

perception from the

said

be

intelligent spirits the mind to which

motion

chief

faculty of

organs."

BPICTETU8.

203

contrivance forms of

as

to

reach

a

long

way

and

to

fashion

the

is so seen? What are things which messenger has he made the to no swift and vigilant? And purpose atmosphere so efficacious and elastic that the interjacent vision penetrates through the atmosphere which is in a has he made And moved? to no manner light, purpose without other the presence of which there would be no use

in any

thing? be neither nor yet forget ungratefulfor these gifts But indeed for the are superiorto them.

Man, the things which and for life itself, of seeingand hearing, and indeed power contribute to support it,for the fruits for the things which which to God: are dry, and for wine and oil give thanks that he has given you something else better but remember the power of using them, proving than all these, I mean For them and estimatingthe value of each. what is that what which about each of these powers, gives information of them is worth?* Ts it each each faculty itself? Did hear the facultyof vision saying anything about you ever itself? or the facultyof hearing? or wheat, or barley, or a horse or a dog? No; but they are appointed as ministers the and slaves to serve has the power of faculty which quire of things. And if you inmaking use of the appearances what is the value of each quire? do you inthing, of whom who be and of more answers

you? and How

then uses can

any

other as faculty

powerful than this, which each what knows pronounces knows of not? them what turns itself when

the rest them

ministers

itself proves them

about what to ? for which own is,and it it which from

is its

value?

which when ought

employ and which

itself and closes it the

faculty is them away

opens

eyes, and not to

Is it
*

and does apply them the facultyof vision?
i. 1.

objectsto apply them to
No;
but it is

ought other objects? the facultyof

See

204

EPICTETUS,

the

facultywhich closes and opens the is that by which ears? what they are curious and inquisitive, the contrary unmoved or on by what is said? is it the of faculty hearing? It is no other than the facultyof the all will. Will this faculty then, seeing that it is amid will. What is that the to

other see faculties

which

are

blind

and

dumb

and

unable

they anything else except the very acts for which and are appointed in order to minister to this (faculty) is it,but this faculty alone sees sharp and sees what serve of the the value of each rest; will this facultydeclare to And that anything else is the best, or that itself is? us else does the eye do when it is opened than see? But what whether we ought to look on the wife of a certain person, who tells us? The and in what facultyof the manner, whether will. And we ought to believe what is said or not and if we do believe, whether to believe it, we ought to be moved by it or not, who tells us? Is it not the facultyof But this faculty of speaking and of ornamenting the will? such words, if there is indeed peculiar faculty, any what else does it do, when there happens to be discourse about a thing,than the words and to ornament arrange them to as hairdressers to be

do

the

hair? better is

But to whether

it is better

speak or way, the the

and silent, this each the

that and than come and season whether for

speak in this way or becoming or not becoming, use, and will?

the

what you

else tells it then

us

of faculty and it

Would

have

to

forward

condemn

itself?

What which can then? ministers the horse or be the

that (the will) says, if the fact is so, can it ministers, be superior to that to which superiorto the rider, or the dog to the instrument What What to the

huntsman, to the

musician, makes of all?

or

the

ants serv-

king? will. is that which takes care use

of the will. rest? What another

The

The

destroysthe whole man, time by hanging, and

at at

one

time

another

by hunger, at time by a preci-

EP1GTETU8.

205

pice? this? The and will. how is

anything stronger in men it possible that the things which are
Then is

than ject subWhat

to restraint

are

stronger than do that

which the

is not?

things are
Both of the will

formed naturally and things which It is the same to hinder not

will.

with

of faculty vision? depend on the faculty the facultyof hearing,

with

But what facultyof speaking in like manner. has a natural power of hindering the will? Nothing which is independent of the will; but only the will itself, when it is perverted. Therefore this (the will) is alone vice oi

the

alone virtue.

being so great a facultyand let it (the will) forward and come excellent of all things is the flesh. itself declared bear which that it is the say most Then

set tell Not

over us all the that the

rest, most even

if the

flesh any excellent, would
But
wrote on person

that

it should

this.

what about the

is

it,Epicurus, of pronounces

this,which which the wrote the End Nature

(purpose)of our Things, which which led you that it

Being,* wrote wear

about a Canon

(rule of truth), wrote a

to was beard, which the will? Then this blind

when

it

was

dying
Was you you

spending or last and do

happy day?f admit that are this the possess not flesh

the

you

anything superior to are (the will)?and and deaf? other

mad? then? not. you Does

in fact any man man

so

What I

despisethe say that there

faculties? use or ex-

hope
*

Does

any be is

no

This on appears

to

the

book
"

wbicb summo Cicero

(Tuscul. book iii. 18) as en

titles

the

"

supreme all tbe

good doctrine (de

bono), wbicb,
Tbe de on Cicero

says, contains or as

of

Epicurus. in Cicero on tbe

Canon
i.
c.

Rule
"

is mentioned

by

Velleius of

Nat. Rule

Deorum

16,

that celestial volume also De

Epicurus

tbe

and

Judgment."

See

Fin.

i. 19. a f This in is said in

letter written
x.

by Epicurus,

when ii.

be
c.

was

dying

great pain (Diog. Laert.

23); Cicero

(De Fin.

30) quotes

this letter,

206

EPICTETUS.

cellence would man some

That speaking faculty? I hope not. God. But be foolish,impious,ungrateful toward a there For is renders to each thing its due value. in the use even use some

in in

an a use

ass,

but

not not

so so

much much not so

as

in in much not so a an

ox:

there there

is also is also

dog, but in some a

as

slave: as slave,but use in

citizens: us there

is also

in

b citizens,ut

much

because some magistrates. Not indeed which undervalue the use must we superior, in have. but then There it is not I is so a

certain value

in the

power of

things are other things of speaking, will. When you you to to

great let of nor as no the man power think the
I do

speak thus, power that

ask I ask nor neglect the

speaking,for the ears nor

neither the hands ask

neglectthe eyes, nor clothingnor the most excellent

the

feet, is shoes. of all

But

if you

me

what

then

not things,what must I say? I canof the will, of speaking,but the power say the power when it is right. For it is this which the other uses (the faculties both small of speaking), and all the other power and great. For when this facultyof the will is set right, who is not good becomes a a man good: but when it fails, man

becomes that

bad. we are

It is

through

this we that

we one

are

fortunate, un-

fortunate,that

blame

another,

In a word, it is this which pleasedwith one another. if we neglect it makes unhappiness,and if we carefully look after it makes happiness. But to take away and to say the faculty of sj)eaking is that there is no such facultyin reality, the act not only of an toward those who man it,but also ungrateful gave are of

a

cowardly is any

man:

for such

a

person

seems

to

me

to

fear,

facultyof this kind, that we shall not be able to despise it. Such also are those who say that there is no it difference between beauty and ugliness. Then would would be affected in the same happen that a man way if he g^w Thersjtes and \t ]\^ saw

if there

intbesam^ Acliiilesj

EPICTETUS.

207

way, are if he foolish know

saw

Helen clownish the nature and

any

other

woman.

Bat notions are these men and not see

notions, and of each

the

of

who a man

thing,but he shall But

afraid

if

shall seized

the

difference,that off immediately this is the

be

and to carried

great matter; which the it worth of

has, and of the all

vanquished. leave to each thing the leavingto it this power power, and to learn

power to see

(faculty) what most

is cellent ex-

what

is the

this always, to be things, and to pursue all other things of secondabout ary this, considering diligent value compared with this, but yet, as far as we- can, all those other things. For take not neglecting must we the most excellent of the eyes also, not as if they were care of the account on thing,but we must take care of them excellent most thing, because it will not be in its true the other natural condition, if it does not rightlyuse thiugs to others. faculties,and prefersome is usually done? Men then What generally act as a traveler he enters would a do

on

his and you

way

to

his

own

country,

when

good inn,
Man,
But are remain you were there. not being pleased with have forgotten your this it should purpose:

travelingto this is a inn,

but

you And

were

passing how many are through other it.

pleasant inn.

pleasant? and how many pleasant?yet only for passingthrough. But inns is of

meadows your your

purpose kinsmen to are

this,to return

to your

country, duties to

relieve a anxiety,to dischargethe

of

citizen,to marry,
For you

beget children, to
*Tlie Stoics i.

fillthe usual a man

magistracies* should as

taught that

lead

an

active

life.

ace Hor-

(Ep.

1, 16) represents himself
"

sometimes

following the Stoic undls." principles:
Nunc

agilis fio The

et

niersor

civilibus

but a this

was

only talk

Stoic should even discharge marry all

the

duties

of

citizen, says

Epictetus; he should

and of

beget children. duty: and

J?ut the rafvrrving may

be (lone without

any

sejise

thfj

208

EPICTETUS.

not

but to live in these places, pleasant born and of which where made were a Jrou were you citizen. Something of the kiud takes place in the matter which we are considering. Since by the aid of speech and come to select

more

such to communication

as

you

receive here will and of

you

must

advance

a perfection,nd makes use purge of

your

correct

the

faculty

things; and since it is necessary also for the teaching (delivery)f theorems o to be effected by a certain mode of expressionand with a certain varietyand sharpness, some captivatedby persons these very things abide in them, one pression, captivatedby the exanother another by syllogisms, again by sophisms, and still another other inn of the kind; and there by some Sirens. they stay and waste away as if they were among make to was Man, your yourself (business) purpose tlie appearances capable of using conformably to nature presented to you, in your desires not to be frustrated, in from things not to fall into that which you your aversion luck (as one would to have no avoid, never say),nor may which ever

the appearances

to have

bad

luck,

to be

free, not

hindered,

not

pelled, com-

conforming yourself to

the administration

of one, Zeus,

obeying it,well no satisfied with

this, blaming your whole

no

ing chargto utter

one verses:

with

fault,able

from

soul

these

Lead

me,

0 Zeus, and

thou

too

Destiny.* if some

Then of you

having this purpose pleasesyou, expression abide among of the of

before if some you,

little form do

theorems to pleaseyou, natural them human female censor and race choose is secured

dwell

there, forgetlove of

continuance male and

by the his the

the

for

conjunction. gave to

Still it is

good advice, the best of

which as the Roman not Mettellus women, fellow-citizens,that, make they could

live without

they should

this business

of rest

marriage. of the

i. (Gellius, 6.) verses are

*The
s.

quoted

in

the

Eoclieiridion,

52,

210

EPIGTETU8.

an

speaking,and and he who skillfully, art in

I do

think

so.

He is able

himself, and but to

he who

is rather

others, will he be may find that And

speak has not, will speak unskillfuUy? then who by speaking receives benefit to benefit others, will speak skillfully: damaged by speaking and does damage unskilled in this art of speaking? And are that

he

who

has

the art, will

you

some are

damaged hear among There

and

others

benefited what some by speaking. hear? benefited Or and

all who that

benefited them are by also they are will you some find

damaged? case both who

among hear

these

also, he said. In this are also then who hear then so. those

skillfully damaged
?

benefited,and admitted is in matter those

unskillfuUy are a He

this.

Is there It seems skill in If you

hearing also, as choose, consider to there the whom

speaking? in it a this

way

also. To a The

practiceof music,
And that the it think

does of

belong?
And the

musician. do you

proper

making
To
a

statue, to whom

belongs?

statuary.

this appear the requires business with of

to you

aid of

does lookingat a statue skillfully, art? This also to requirethe aid of no Then if speaking properly is the art. man, the skillful is the

do

you

see

that

to

hear Now

also as benefit

business

of the skillful man?

to

and let us for hearing perfectly, usefully,* the present, if you please, for both of us are more, say no But I think that from a long way everythingof the kind. is going to hear will allow this, that he who every man of practice in hearing. amount some philosophers requires

speaking

and

Is it not

so? me Tell what then are about you us what

I should

talk

to you:

about evil. in matter
*"Tliat

able not to listen? now About whether well Let us good
I
am

and

is, let

consider have a perfect to the real art

of

speaking, and from ears

you

mind

prepared consider derive

advantage your philosophical are a

talk.

this

only,

whether

prepared sufficiently

for

listening,whether Scjweig.

you

can

understand

discussiop," philosophical

EPIGTETU8.

211

Good ox? and No.

evil in what?
What
a man In In a a

horse? man? notion

No. Yes.

Well,
Do
we

in

an

then?

we

know have of this can then

what or is, what our ears

the

is that

him,

have But

we

in any understand understand

degree practicedabout what me

matter? you use even

do

you

nature

is?

or

in any

degree to when

I say, I shall you how understand

demonstration

you?

How?

Do

thing,what demonstrated, or by this very

demonstration wliat means; not or is,or what anything is things are like
Do you know on a

demonstration, what is true or but what

are

demonstration?
What is

is false? to a

consequent not thing,what inconsistent? is

repugnant
But
must

thing,or you consistent,or

and philosophy, Shall I show to you the repugnance in the opinions how? of most through which they differ about things good men, and unprofand evil,and about things which are profitable itable, when know this very not thing,what repugyou nance I shall acis? then what Show me complish (contradiction) with you; excite my inclination to by discoursing when it is presented do this. As the grass which is suitable, its inclination to eat, but if you present to a sheep, moves to to it are a

I excite

stone us or

bread, it will to not

be moved also to when us to

eat;

so

there the shall or in

certain natural be inclinations

speak,when he himself a hearer excite

shall appear us: somebody, sit but can when

he shall a by

like

stone

like Does

grass, how the but vine

he excite the

nuin's

desire Take

(to speak)? care say to

husbandman, if he does

of

me?

No,

the vine

by showing care. in itself that take are care

it will be of

profitable and to the

husbandman, do it,invites him

tc exercise

When

children

attractive and to lively, with whom

they not lispwith to

invite to them?

playwith them,
But
who

crawl

them, and an ass or ass.

is eager it is

play with

bray do with

it? for

though

small, it is still a

little

Why then

you

say

nothing to me?

I

pnn

oiilysay

212

EPICTETUS.

this what

to

you,

that

he

who

knows what what and

not

who

he

is,and

for with

purpose he is

he

exists,and

is this

world, and

whom the associated,and the beautiful discourse nor bad, and what is

things are the good and the ugly,and who neither what is true able to

understands nor demonstration, nor is not

false,and desire who

distinguishthem,

will neither move nor

will

according to nature nor turn away nor dissent upward, nor intend (to act),nor assent, nor suspend his judgment: to say all in a few words, he dumb and body, blind, thinking that he is somego about Is this so now but being nobody. for the first time? the fact that and ever Is it not all errors

since have

the

human

race

existed,

misfortunes did Was

arisen

Why one are

another?

and Agamemnon it not through not

through this ignorance? Achilles quarrel with knowing what things

profitable? Does not the one say it Chryseisto her father, and does not does not the one the other say that it is not profitable? say that he ought to take the prizeof another, and does not Did the other say that lie ought not? they not for these and for what both who reasons forget, they were purpose did you there? for what purpose Oh, man, they had come come? to gain mistresses to fight? To or fight. With the Trojans or the Hellenes? With the Trojans. whom? and not profitable is profitable restore to Do you then own leave

Hector And

alone do

and you,

draw most your excellent

sword

against your neglect the guardian a

king? of such the

Sir,

duties have

king, and warlike care you are who you

and

cares;

people's about quarreling are the

little girl with every

the most means of of

whom your* allies, and

you

ought by you who you

protect? and do become than worse (inferioro) a well-behaved t priest treats you these fine gladiators with all respect? Do what kind of thingsignoranceof what is profitable see am to take

does?

J3ut I also
.

rich.

Are you then richer than

Agamem-

s:pictetu8,

.

^13

non?

But than I

am

also handsome. But I have

Are

you

then

more

some handBut

Achilles? more also beautiful hair and

hair.

had he

not

Achilles not comb you

beautiful nor elegantly

and gold-colored? But as did

it

dress it.

I

am

also or strong.

Can

then

lift

so

great a

stone

Hector

Ajax? But I am also of noble birth. Are you the son of of a father sprung from are a goddess mother? you the son Zeus? What good then do these things do to him, when he And sits and weeps for a girl? But I am orator. an was he not? of the Do you not see

how

he handled

the

most

skillful how he

Hellenes

in

oratory, Odysseus and
*

Phoenix?

stopped their
This
not

mouths?

is all that

I have

to say to you; Because you

and

I say not even

this me. willingly. Why? what must

have

roused as men

For are I look

to in order

to be

roused,

who Must your your would me expert in ridingare to you That That a roused You treat by it To

generous

horses?

I look

body? is the

disgracefully.To behavior, When you to dress? look?

is luxurious. same as

your

nothing.

philosopher,do not say to him, You tell nothing; but only show yourselfworthy of hearing or for hearing; and will move will see how you you speaker.

listen to

fit the

CHAPTER
THAT LOGIC IS

XXV.
NECESSARY,

f me When that this
*

one

of those

who

were

present said.Persuade you wish me Do logicis necessary, he replied. The Yes. to you? answer was,
In the ninth sent to him

to prove nse a

Then
Achilles

I must answers book

of the

Iliad,where
The

the is a sengers meswon"

by Agamemnon. eloquence.

reply of Achilles
i. 17.

derful

example

of

f See

'214

]"PtGfBTUS.

granted. How speech. This was know if I am then will you cheating you by argument? that you The silent. Do you see, said Epictetus, man was yourselfare admitting that logicis necessary, if without it know much cannot sary so as this,whether logic is necesyou not necessary? or demonstrative form of

CHAPTER
WHAT
IS THE

XXVI.
PROPERTY
OF

ERROR.

Every who that thief then which offended errs error

comprehends not not

contradiction: but to be

for

since is does

he

does does

wish do

to err,

right,it what own

plain the If that

he

what

he which

wishes.

For

wish

to do?

That

is for his

interest.* not the theft he at is not

for his But

he interest, rational so does soul

do

wishes.

every

is

by not nature

contradiction, and when long as hindered it does from

stand undertradictory con-

this

contradiction, it is

not

doing the things: but it must avoid when it he as it does

understand the

diction, contra-

of as necessity avoid a a man

contradiction from so and false this as much sees must

dissent

the as that not thing to is

false; but

long to falsehood truth. He then

does

appear

him, he and assents

it

to

is

strong in argument

has the

of faculty man horting ex-

and contradiction how which man so

who confuting,

is able to show he errs to each

the prove that

through not not

which that

and wishes one to clearly

he he

does does

do

which For

he

and

does

wish. withdraw not

if any

shall show he

this,a

will himself

from

that

which be

does; but a long as
*

you

do

show
Mem.

this, do iii. 9, 4.

not

surprisedif

Compare

Xenophon,

MPtCTETUS.

215

man

persists right, also

in he

his

practice; does to what this of

for he

having does. used I

the For to appearance this I I reason of

doing
Socrates
to

trusting other witness him his with

power what I

say,

am

used

call

no

say,

but

am

always
I ask and of all.

satisfied him to with

whom and he what and is

am

discussing, him in as a

and

give he is

opinion one, call sufficient the

witness,

though
For like chooses

only knew the soul is

place moved, whether

Socrates

by

rational it rational must just it a

pair or of not.*

scales,
Show and it

then the

incline,

governing from than

faculty but who if you is do not a

contradiction, not will blame

withdraw

it; him show

it, f is rather

yourself

persuaded,
*

There ut some

deficiency est lancem

in

tlie in text. libra

Cicero

(Acad.

Prior, de- i.

12),

"

enim

necesse

ponderibus to impositis supply the primi; ciency.

sic

animum

perspicuis

cedere,"
v.

appears

defi

f

M.

Antoninus,

28;

x.

4.

218

EPICTETUS.

Ions; and

he

who

is beautiful
It is so for the said he.

Pentathlon, is very
What then makes both then

ugly a a man

for

wrestling.* a beautiful? and a

Is it that

which
It

in its kind

makes
What

dog a horse

beautiful?
The makes of the

is, he horse said. the

makes of

dog

beautiful? And the what

possessionof a a

excellence

dog.

beautiful?
What then

The makes of possession a man a

excellence Is it not do you at horse.

beautiful? man? man,

of possession

the excellence

of

And

young

labor But what you

then, if you wish to be beautiful, this, the acquisitionof human is this? Observe whom you self your-

excellence.

without praise many ality: partipersons do praise the just or the unjust? The just. you the immoderate? Whether do you or praise the moderate the temperate or the intemperate? And The moderate. such a person, The temperate. If then you make yourself that you will make yourself beautiful: but you will know so long as you neglectthese things,you must be ugly,even though you contrive all you can to appear beautiful. when praise, Further to I do what I

not

know I

what shall

to say

to

you: you,

for and

if I say you

you

think, school offend return will

perhaps leave not say what

the I

and

not

to it: and

if I do

acting, if you to me to be improved, and I shall not improve you at come I shall and to me to a philosopher, as all,and if you come how cruel it a as philosopher. And say nothing to you think, see

how

I

shall

be

is

to

3'^ou to you me leave shall and is a

you

uncorrected. sense, If you

at

any with

time

afterward reason *

acquire say, man

will

good in that five

blame
A

What

did

Epictetus observe for the

Pancratiast for who

is trained

Pancratium,

is, both

boxing are and

wrestling. one The Greek

Pentathlon line.

comprised

exercises, which

expressed by the Leaping, running,

quoit, throwing

the

javelin, wrestling.

Compare

Aristotle, Ithet.

i. 5.

BPIGTETU8.

219

me

that a when

he

saw

in such said a scandalous did I not men word? was he

plight coming condition, he neglectedme and much so was despair of me? me a

in such

to

him

never

I

not

young? other hear

able

to listen to

reason? many

and like a how

many I

young that a at this age

commit from

errors? dissolute

certain

Polemon such a being be a

most

youth he did

underwent not great change.
I should

AVell, suppose

that

think set my

that hair

Polemon;*

yet

he

might

right,he might have stripped off from decorations, he might have stopped me plucking my dressed the hair out of my me body; but wlien he saw I do not say like like what shall I say? he kept silent. have " "

what;
If

but

you what

will say it

when

you

come

to use me

your such

senses, a and

shall know you

and is,

what

persons

dress.

bring

this

charge against
Why,
me? and then Was shall Laius drunk reason hereafter, what that the man defense not shall I make?

I say

will

be he

persuaded by not persuaded by Apollo? and show did not no care

Did the to go

away

get
I

for

oracle? tell him

f

Well the

for this indeed

Apollo know, refuse

truth?

do

whether

*Comp.

Horace, Sat.

ii. 3,

v.

253. quod olim Quaero, faciasne
Mutatus Polemon
? etc.

The

story of

Polemon As

is told was by Diogenes Laertius. one He

was

a

lute disso-

youth. was he

passing his drunken

day words man,

the

place where burst the into Xenocrates the

lecturing,he
Polemon he came was

and so companions of and

school, teacher but

affected

Ijy the different excellent

that

out

quite school the

a

ultimately succeeded
Epict.
he iv. 11, 30. have to Xenocrates

in the

of the

Academy. at to

See how t Laius
The them if he

consulted oracle did. told Laius

oracle not so

Delphi

should even dren. chilexpose

him was beget children, and as foolish and to

disobey the god up. was

in both

respects, for he begot children order his child

brought them the He

did

indeed and came be-

CEdipus

to

be

expos"!d,but

boy

saved

the

murderer

of Laius.

220

EPIGTETU8.

you

or not; but Apollo knew persuaded by me would that Laius not be persuaded and most certainly yet I say in reply, But why he spoke. But why did he speak? is he Apollo, and why does he deliver oracles, and why has in this place as a prophet and of he fixed himself source

will

be

truth him? front them? Did

and and of

for

the

inhabitants

of Know

the

world

to

resort

to

why are the words the temple, though no persuade
Not been says, he the

yourselfwritten takes any notice in of

person

Socrates

all his

hearers

to

take But the

care

of

themselves? after he he even thousandth in this

part.
But what on however,

had

placed never '*

position by

deity,as he say tions condinot to himself to left it. If you that

does these

his I

judges? no acquit me which I do I will

that consent longer
I will

do

now,

I will up man

and and and to not to

desist;but

go

both whom

young I meet, most old, and,

I will ask

t speak plainly,o the questionswhich I do this to you my

every 1 ask

now;

and

will particularly you are more

fellow-citizens,
Are how you does you so because

curious, Socrates, and concern nearly related to me."* such a busybody? and act? and what the bad

it

you

how

we

is it that same say? the bad it

Being of the same community and of neglect yourself,and show yourselfa state, and a kin, you to a

citizen and

bad

kinsman

to

your

kinsmen, are neighbor to your neighbors. I am is a great thing to say,
"

Who he

then whose

you? duty and are Here

it is to take which resists you, kind in dares

care

of

men; a for

it is not if the you

every bull

little heifer comes to resist

lion; but bull, if have up who

him, and there in

say what is

to

the

choose, 'And here? which then
' "

business

you

Man, in every oxen, to

produced something
Do

excels; in say c,

dogs,

bees, in horses.
*

not

that

which

excels,

Plato, Apology, i. 9, etc., and

17.

EP1CTETU8.

221

Who some then way
*

are

you? say, I not am

If

you such me do, it will find a a

voice

in a or

and do

thing to as

the the

purple in others, from

garment: blame rest

expect that be me like

my of men. nature

it has

made

different

the

What are then? such But to me nor as a

am man

I

such as can

a

man? listen in beard a Certainly not. to And I wish been you in a you were. the

truth? I have

you

however wear a a

since white

manner

condemned come and not a

cloak, and treat to

cruel

way

philosopher,I will yet as if I despairedof to you I will

you,

but

say, In

Young the first

man,

whom

do who are you you a wish are to

make then

beautiful? adorn and

place,know appropriately. You mortal animal which what

and

yourself this is a human power

being; of has

the

using
AVhat
animal

appearances formably Conyou No. of

rationally. But to is meant and

by ''rationally?" then do it the No.

naturef is of

completely.
Is

possess Is it the

which

peculiar?
No. adorn made

part? power condition

mortality?
You and it as Is it the

using appearances? J as a peculiar thing: your other Man. hair to him

possess

the rational but

faculty leave what

beautify this; he chose. you not as man woman.

who

Come, or appellationshave you? Are then as man, x\dorn yourself note. woman? Woman

*Page 10,

f Cicero, de great principle in the Preface virtue not to

Fin. of ii. 11: to Horace, live Epp.

i. 10, 12. to naturi'.

This

was

the
Butler

Zeno, his according says of

liishop
"a

Sermons in this

philosophicali)rinciple, that it is and manner that

consisted

following nature, hut of

speaking just and

loose and

undeterminate,

clear

distinct, strictly

true."

\ The rational use

bare

use

of is

objects (appearances) belongs

to

all animals;

a

of them

peculiarto

man.

Mrs.

Carter, Introd.

"

7.

222

BPICTETUS,

is

and naturallysmooth hair (on her body), she Eome to have

delicate; and is And has no a

if she and

has

mnch at not

monster

is exhibited

among

monsters.

in

a

man

it is monstrous is a hair; and him? if he

hair, he exhibit I will

monster; but shall we

if he cuts do with name off his hairs and Avhere we plucks them we out, what him? exhibit than who that without you man? and

shall show

under you man. what man shall chooses terrible at him? a woman

to a a

who a to

be

rather is no man

What wonder who

sight! a There

will the

not men such out notice. haira do Man That nature Indeed what

I think

pluck what your was their do.

they do fault you make a ing knowto

they

what it made

have

find What ures creat-

with then?

nature? it fit that and

should

all human case women? have had in

what

advantage in whom that

would you

you have

adorned But upon
"

you

for being adorned? if yourself, all human not are pleasedwith the business. is the cause would were creatures matter:

women? work then

set to

the whole which in all make do man. one

Take of the we away

"

what make be

is its name?

that

hairs: not yourself a do half woman. woman

that respects, half wish to may the

mistaken:

not

man,

and

other

Whom as a

you

please? they if women The

women? men. Please Will in

them you mites, cata-

Well; would but

like

smooth took

not

hang you yourself? you for born

and

delight dissolute such a one

become this

one? purpose, Shall we Is this your that make

business women as

?

were

should a delight in you?
Corinth the and of

you

citizen of chief

or

youth, or and your when hairs

perchance a prefect of the city, generalor superintendentof the you have taken out? you a games? intend and for

Well, to have

wife, do

you

plucked
And when them

To

pleasewhom begotten with

what

purpose? you introduce

have

children, will the habit of also into the state A

plucking

their

hairs?

beautiful

citizen,

EPICTETUS.

233

and young Do when to senator men and

rlietorician. among you heard us We and the

be born

ouglit to pray brought up.

that

such

not you

so, 1 entreat

by

have

once

Gods, young these words, go away

man:

but say

and

''Epictetushas not said this to me; for how yourself, he? could but some propitiousGod through him: for it into his thoughts to say this, since would have come never he is not let accustomed us to talk

thus we with not any be

person.

Come his

then

obey God,

that

may

subject to

But by his anger." You (1 say),if a crow say, No. croaking signifies anything to you, it is not the crow but God which signifies, through the crow; and if he voice, will he not signifies nything through a human a cause the of and

man

to say this to

you, he

that

you

may

know

the

power way,

the to divinity,that others in the that

greatest things and noblest chief

to in this signifies some and concerning the way, he through the signifies

messenger?
For
we

What

else is it which

the

poet

says:

ourselves the

Lave

warned

and liiin,

liave sent

Hermes The

careful not watclier, Argus' slayer, wed husband

to kill nor

the

wife.*

Was him and you

going to (^gisthus)? And send not to

Hermes

descend now from the

heaven say

to say this to this to to

Gods of

you warn the

messenger,

the

slayer

Argus, to man

is well pervert that which busy yourselfabout it,but to allow a and a a woman

arranged, man nor a

to

be to man,

to man, be and

a an

woman,

a man are

beautiful as an

be

as

beautiful not ugly be ugly man, if your up IJut you are for you will is to are

flesh and

hair, but you you will not will; and that beautiful, then present time think that the beautiful.

the

I dare you are tell you to readier where hoar

ugly,for I anything than

From

Odyssey, i. 37,

Zeus

is

speaking of iEgisthus.

224

EPIGTETU8.

this.

But

see

what of does men Socrates

says

to

the

most to beautiful be tiful. beau-

and

blooming
What the

Alcibiades: he say your to Try

then

him?

Dress

your

hair and

pluck

legs? Nothing of that kind. with bad opinions. How adorn But your will, take away has looked Another it as it is by nature. Leave the body? What to him. after tliese things: intrust them then, must be uncleaned? man a Certainlynot; but what you are and should be cleanly made are by nature, cleanse this. A man hairs from as a

man, no: a

woman

as us

a

woman,

a

child

as

a

child.

You

say not

but

let

also

pluck out the as a

the lion's mane, for he the

that he may also lion

be

uncleaned, and

cock's comb

ought as a

to

be cleaned. and

Granted, but as cock, and

lion,

the

hunting dog

a

hunting dog.

CHAPTER
A OUGHT TO BE

II.
EXERCISED WE WHO

IN

WHAT
MADE CHIEF

MAN

HAS
THE

PROFICIENCY THINGS.

;

AND

THAT

NEGLECT

There to exercise concerns are

three

in things (topics) who and would the be wise

which and

a

man

ought
The may first not himself desires he does

good. a man

the

aversions, that that The he may second

fail to that

get

what he

desires,and not not

fall into the from to an

which

desire.*

concerns

movements

and object, that
*

and the (toward an object) in generally doing what a act movements man ought and should

do,

he

may

according to order, to
37,
"as as reason, he notcare-

Antoninus, away from

xi.

to to

sensual avoidance of the

desire

altogether should not in not our

keep show it; and to [aversion]he axe it with

respect

any

things which

power."

226

EPIGTETU8.

if

a

man

come

and

tell you

that Who that

in

a

certain best

conversation a philosopher,

in which man the was questionwas, present said two is the a who

certain was person

was

the

philosopher, your length stretches out to present says, to a

chief

little soul which cubits. But

only a finger's who is while he are if another

You

are

mistaken; for what no it is not worth he then know? you

to listen

certain

person,

does

has

only the him these Do

first you who very you in

and principles, pale,you grow I am, that I am more?

confounded, will is seen show

cry out a immediately, I great philosopher.It wish to

by

things: why not do

you

show

it

by

others?

know way this

Diogenes pointed out one by stretching out his middle the man was

that

of the

sojjhists
And

finger?*
This, he to you. or a

then the man when certain is not but he us wild

with

rage. out said, is
For
a

person: shown when him at not

I have

by any as

the

pointed him as finger, a shows stone

wood:

person a the

man's

piece of principles, plain nally exter-

then
Let that

shows look value

man.

your

principlesalso. own are

For

is it not look

you to at all your

will,but you your and what

thingswhich what will a independent of certain say? person

will?

For will

stance, inple peo-

of learning; a man you? will you be considered have you read Chrysippus or Antipater? for if you have read sire]. Archedemusf also, you have everything [that you can deshow not Why are you still uneasy lest you should us think

of

who man you you

are? have

Would shown to us as you us a

let that mean me

tell you are?

what You

manner

of

you

have

hibited ex-

yourself

fellow, querulous, passionate,

cowardly, finding fault with everything,blaming hibited everybody, never quiet, vain: this is what you have exto us. Go out away man now

and

read

Archedemus; a then

*

To

point

a

with

the middle

finger was to way see ing of showii. 4, 11.

the greatest contempt

for him.

fAs

Archedemus,

EPICTETU8.

227

if dead was a

mouse

should For man's

leap such a

down death

and awaits and

make you lie

a

noise, as you did
"

are

a

man.

it was what cause be-

the he

name?
"

Crinis;*

too

proud,

understood will you at Archedemus. you not Wretch, concern dismiss

these are things suitable that to to

do

not

all? them not These

things

those those to who who I for must are

able say: not to

learn am without

perturbation, to can

"I

subject
I
am

anger,

to

grief,
What

envy:

am

hindered,
I have

not

restrained.

remains how liow be led To to we

me? deal man leisure,

I

am

tranquil: f he

let let shall

us

see

with has

sophistical accepted absurd." an arguments;

us

see

when away those

a

hypothesis
To tliem such

not

to

anything who if the are things to belong. a happy choose, is

it both

is

appropriate to you

light to fire,
But

dine; when sails.

they vessel sing come and to me

dance. and hoist

sinking, a tlie

J

*

Crinis

was

Stoic that he

philosopher was no

mentioned real

by

Diogenes and that

Laertius.

We

may

suppose

philosopher,

he

died

of

fright. t X things those which See this

chapter

above.

The which

philosopher do who not not

is concern represented him, from and

as

being which are

full

of

unxiety

about for proper and are subjects quite to

only is are

free

disturbing condition. passions
He
is to happy, a the at philosopher's this very time

compared be ing sinkin

ship, useless and

he sails.

is

supposed

employed

the

labor

of

hoisting

the

228

EPICTBTU8.

CHAPTER
WHAT BE TO IS THE

III.
WHICH A WE GOOD OUGHT

MATTER
AND OURSELVES.

OlS

MAN

SHOULD
CHIEFLY

EMPLOYED,
PRACTICE

IN

WHAT

The

material

for the wise

and the

good

man

is his for the

own

ing rul-

and

the body is and faculty: who the aliptes (the man for the man material

physician land is the and and to oils The

persons);the business matter

husbandman. use of the

wise

good as is to

appearances of every soul

conformably to to assent to

nature:

it is the from is

nature

the

truth, as dissent which the

the

and false,

to remain

in suspense to be moved

to that

uncertain; so of the that as it is its nature to aversion

toward

desire

good, and which the

from nor the bad

evil;and it feels is not with

respect to to is neither

good the he

indifferent. allowed but must matter attracts

For

money-changer coin, nor

(banker) seller of or reject Caesar's show what the

herbs, not, in he the

if you

coin, whether the evil the

chooses so give up to is sold for the When

coin;

it is also

of the soul.

itself;the never good appears, it immediately itself. But the repels from manifest will appearance of the

soul

will any

reject than good,
On and

more

persons every

reject Caesar's both of

coin. man this God.*

principledepends reason movement

good is preferred to every relationshipobligation).There is no intimate ( between and my For the me For

this

the

intimate ship relationme

and Are

my you

father, but so there

is between

good. reason hard-hearted? coin is which God

Yes, for such is has nature; and this and
i.

this is the if the

given from me.

beautiful

the

good both just,

something is gone

different

the

father

a (neglected),nd

*Comp.

19, H,

EPIGTETJJ8.

229

brother my own and

country, and everything. But have good, in order that you may to shall I overlook

it,and
But
are

shall you not are

I

give it not up

you?
I
we am Why? your I

am

your

father.
But
a

my

good.
But if

brother. in of

you

my

good. of the

place tlie good observance who

right any determination of life is

will, the very and that which But he

the

relations

good, obtains accordinglyhe is does

givesup
Your

external takes away

things, your will have

good. not father

property. have as

injureyou. estate Your

brother Let him

the

greater part of tlie as in land. have a mucli

he

chooses.

Will

he

then

greater share

of

of For who will modesty, of fidelity, brotherlyaffection? Zeus, for neither ejectyou from this possession? Not even has he chosen and he to do so;

but

he

has me made

this

in

my

own

power,

has

himself, free from
When if a just as he possessed it hindrance, compulsion,and impediment. given which another he uses it to

then man the

coin

is

a

different which the

coin, is sold a presents this coin,

receives comes that into

for

it.

thievish Show one Suppose that there proconsul,what coin him, and who is an province
Silver

does

he you

use?

coin.

it to comes carry

off what

please. Suppose coin does sell he me adulterer:

what

use? the you the

girls. Take, a man small thing. Give, says is eager want]. Another coin, and receive a

Little

says, the the to coin, and

seller,and possess buy
Give

[what hiui boys.

what

you or wish. a Another

is fond he

ing: of hunt-

give him laments, he another fine nag sell for him

dog.

Though which you Avho

groans want. and For

will

it that

compels

from

witliin,he

has

fixed

termine (de-

this coin.*
*

Mrs.

Carter

compares says,

the man Epistle either any sees to

the

lionians, vii the 21-23.
.

Schweighaeuser doing is bad or the or that reason thing which he does to "

he

is

unjust, he for

other and

not

do the carried

thing willingly; but away is

compelled, rules allows

himself

be

by the passion which

him.

The

"another

who

compels

230

EPIGTETUa.

Against (or with man respect to) this himself. every man as

kind soon as

of

a thing chiefly

should

exercise

As whom to a

you

go out

in the man morning, whom seen? this Take over examine

you

see, every

you A

hear; handsome answer man independent of it away. the death What of a the

have What question, you woman? or Apply the rule. Is will, or dependent? Independent. you seen? the A man have child.

lamenting
Death Has of is a Apply

rule. it away.

thing independent of the will. Take proconsulmet you? Apply the rule. is a proconsul'soflSce? Independent it? on Independent. Take does not

the

What of the

kind

thing pendent de:

will, or also it is

this

away

it

stand

examination:

cast

it away:

nothing

to you.

If from But

we

practicedthis and exercised ourselves in it daily be done. morning to night, something indeed would forthwith now we are caught half -asleepby every and it is Then He If see appearance, roused a only, if when ever, we that go

in the we school see we a

are man we

little.

out, if
If
we see

lamenting, we say. say, He is happy. miserable. he has We this If we is undone. we a see an

a we consul, say. He

exiled we man,

is

poor

man,

say. He

is wretched:

nothing

to eat. to

ought end we

then

eradicate direct all

these our bad

and opinions, For is bad divided of man

to

should

efforts.

what fortune?

is

weeping and lamenting? Opinion. What Opinion. What is civil sedition, what is is opinion, he God, Scliweig. says, who and he adds, that
God

has

made to do a the that

nature

such, that he

must

postpone everything else it is

thing in it. which

places his in will not Good: that

man's

fault

if he

places his good persons thing, in which this to

has

not

placed man Some
'

consider himself

to be

satisfactory. The away," etc. is

'

compelled and allows
"

be carried with

The

notion

of

compulsion is "

is inconsisten

the exercise

of

the will. Latin the

The

man

unlucky. better He

is like him and approves "who

sees,"

as

the

poet says, "the
"

things

of them,

but

follows

worse.

BPIGTETUS.

231

what

is blame, what

is

accusation, wliat is impiety,what

is

trifling?All these things are opinions,and nothing more, about things independent of the will,as if they and opinions Let a man transfer these oj)inions to were good and bad. thingsdependent on the will,and I engage for him that he will be firm and

constant, whatever
Such
as

may

be

the

state

of

things around soul. such are him. as is

a

dish of water, such falls water on

is the

Such

is the

ray of

lightwhich
When the

the

water, the the appearances. seems is

moved,
And
arts

ray also then the nervous a

to be

moved, yet it is not moved. with are

when and

man

is seized which on giddiness,it confounded, is not but

the

virtues

the

spirit(the
; but

power) restored which

they are

impressed

if the also are be spirit

to its settled

state,those

things

restored.

CHAPTER
AGAINST

IV.
HIS IN A PAIITISAXSHIP THEATER. IJ^

A' PERSO]Sr
A]Sr
UNSEEMLY

WHO

SHOWED WAY

The actor governor in an of

Epirus having way and

shown

his

favor

to

an

unseemly blamed this that

account, and he was

afterward and that

blamed on being publicly having reported to Epictetus he was vexed liarm as at

those

who

blamed

him,
These

Epictetus said, Wliat men liave

tlieybeen you doing? were also governor

were

acting

as partisans,

doing. liis The

Does replied,

tlien any

person

show said and not see partisanshipin tliis way? AVlicn tliey you, Epictetus,who are their governor, a friend of Caesar it in this way, was his deputy, showing partisanship their partishow to be expected that they also should sanship

in tlie in

same

way? do for if it is not not right to

show

tisanship par-

this way,

do

so

yourself;and

if it is

233

EPICTETUS.

why right,
For their whom

are

you the

angry many whose

if to they followed imitate your

example? who are

have

excej)t you, how the

superiors?to to the

they go of Caesar cry out. np. out. as

theater on: example should except yours? See out, and from his

they look
I too then

when

deputy will looks He

he has cried

springs up no as

seat, and

I will

spring call much

His

slaves sit in various

parts of the

theater out and as I have can slaves,but I will myself cry loud as

I

and

all of them enter together.

You

ought enter as

then a to know

when

you

the theater how

that you

example to tiie acting. Why then man one

rule and

hates person hindrance were they ought to look at did they blame you? Because every is a hindrance that which to him. They wished another. to be crowned; you wished They were rest to

the

a

you, to be

and the

you

were

a

hindrance

to what What you And Zeus abuse

them.

You

found

stronger;and they did hindered should do them. what you

they then could; they blamed would and you have? not that That even which

please, what when him? not they should wonder? say what the

they please? abuse sailors the

is the

Do

not

husbandmen do not they are hindered do they ever cease
Zeus then abuse when know? does is not he do?

by him? abusing what he knows have

Caesar?

What

then?

does

is said

reported to Cajsar? that, if he punished to rule over, What all who

him, he would you enter

the

nobody theater, you my W^hat say

tiien?

ought but to you

not. Let to sa}'

Sophron this. Come than (some actor) be crowned, let me

ought so maintain

will in this no man

matter

that to me

it shall be conformable

to nature:

is dearer

myself. It would be ridiculous then for me to be hurt who is an be actor (injured)in order that another may Whom then do I wish to gain the prize? Why crowned. the actor who does gain the prize;and so he will always I wish to gain it. But I wish Sophron gain the prizewhom to be crowned.

Celebrate

as

many

games

as

you

choose

in

234

BPI0TETU8.

something? the the husbandman he is on while his

he is

the tilling ground, would be you be

sailor while when you

voyage?
If

what must doing when death are surprises you, for doing something? than this when you

you

anything better
For I wish to be

are

surprised be doing can you surprised,do it.

I am surprised disease or death when by will,that I may be looking after nothing else than my own that I may free from be free from hindrance, perturbation, free from compulsion, and in a state of liberty. I Avish to be able to say be found these things that I may practicing I in any respect transgressed to God, Have thy commands? have I in any

respectwrongly
I misused I ever used

the powers

which my I ever thou ceptions?* preconfound because to gavest me? fault with it was have have

my

perceptions or thee? I have have been I was blamed

thy

administration? so sick,

thy will, and
I have content have poor have

others, but because not

content

be sick. was been I

it

was a

also. was filled that

thy will, but I magisterialoffice,
I should: for this I have reason because never it

not

thy pleasure thou not ever desired

it. have

Hast I

seen

me

always approached thee with a cheerful and to countenance, ready to do thy commands thy will that I should depart obey thy signals? Is it now I depart. I give thee all from the assemblage of men? that thou hast allowed to thanks me join in this thy and to see thy works, and to comprehend assemblage of men I this thy administration. while May death surpriseme thus writing and am thinking of these things,while I am reading.
But Go your my mother mother held on a

discontented?

will not

hold

my are head a when

I

am

sick. to to your

then; for you you are

fit person at home

have to head

when

sick. Go

But

I nsed

lie down
*

delicious bed.

away

to your

bed:

indeed

On

"preconceptions," see

i. 2.

BPIGTETUS.

235

you

are

fit to do what not lie then on

such

a

bed you can even

when do there man, you

are

in

health: But

lose what

(athome). he says, is

does

Socrates

say?* his As

one

pleasedwith improving his land, another what? that. in In

with

improving
I
am

horse,

so

I

am

daily pleased in observing that
Better
not are growing words? better.

in say

using little nice matters little of I do

Man, what do

what sjseculation? not see

you is on saying? which And

indeed

else Does

there it any seem philosophersemploy to their time. found have out nothing neither the same you God

to

have nor never

fault with blamed

person,

with

man?

to

nobody? in? he

to carry

face

alwaysin going knew, and

and never coming man This knew

is what

Socrates

he But

said that

anything or to yet f taught anything, or if any he

asked carry came for nice him

little words

little speculations, to would man and him

if any to the

to ask

for

Protagoras or he pot-herbs, among you you in if indeed

llippias; carry would

gardener. to Who

then

has this purpose had

(motive would death. both If any

action)?for in you has

it, you in ing charm-

be content among

sickness, and been hunger, and a in love with

he girl,

knows

that I say what
i. 6,

is true.

J does not

*Xenophon

(Memorab.

14); butEpictetus
Antoninus But

quote
"

the ferent Dif-

words, he only gives the meaning.

(viii.43) it is my

says,

things delight different the or

people.

delight to keep from any at man

ruling faculty sound from any of the

without which eyes,

turning happen and away to men,

either but things welcome looking

and to receiving all its value."

with

using everything according

self professed to teach virtue, but by showing himtuous his companions virhe expected to make to be a virtuous man i. 2, 3.) (Xenophon, Memorab. by imitating his example.

f Socrates

never

X Upton explains it is to endure all a this passage love. for

thus: If any

"

He man who then

loves

knows

what

with

love what

for

things for girl would he not

being captivated

her

sake

endure

dangers

and

even

death,

would

endure

if he

possessedthe

love of God, the

Universal, the chief

of beautiful

thingsV"

236

EPICTETU8.

CHAPTER
MISCELLANEOUS.

VI.

When since reason

some

person has been

asked more him

how

it

happened the men

that tlie cultivated in former

by

of

present age,
In what now, the progress

made

times more was

greater. cultivated respect,he in what in which

answered, has

it been

and

respect was it has will now now

the progress been be more greater then? cultivated, in
At

For that has and

in that also been

the

progress

found. of

present it was cultivated is made.

for the purpose But of in

resolving syllogisms, times it vated culti-

progress

former

for the purpose in a maintaining the governing faculty to condition Do not conformable then mix you But

nature, and are progress

was

made. do not progress

expect, when in another. upon nature things which are laboringat see different,and

one

thing among to make us if any

man

when formable con-

he is intent to this,the keeping himself and in

a

state not

living so

always,does a make

progress. The contest want

For man you

will not find such is for invincible,

man.

good where to have

he

does

not

enter

the

he

is not

stronger. all that

If you is on (his adversary) the his

his land

and his

it,take

land; poor which would

take

his

take slaves, you

magisterial office,take make his desire that fall into into which the power

body. it avoid.

But nor will not

fail in that

seeks,

his aversion

which

he

The

only contest are he enters of his

is that about then

things which will he not Some person

within

will; how

be invincible?

having asked him what is Common sense, A Epictetusreplied.s that may be called a certain Common that vocal sounds, and hearing which only distinguishes which but musical sounds is not Common, distinguishes so artificial; there are certain things which men, who are

EPICTETU8.

237

not

see altogether perverted,

by

the

common

notions miud

which

all possess.

Such

a

constitution

of

the

is named

Common
It is not it easy

sense.

easy

to

exhort

weak

young

men;

for

neither

is

cheese with a hook.* But those who (soft) have if you a even good natural disposition, try to turn them to reason. Wherefore aside, cling still more Eufusf and he used generallyattempted to discourage(hispupils), this method and say, down mind as a as a

to hold

test of

those had

who

liad For

a

good was natural his be man position disto

those

who

not.

it

habit

stone, if you the earth

cast

it

upward, nature, you so will the

brought whose the more to is

by

its the

own more

naturally good, toward that

repel him,

he turns

to which

he is

inclined. naturally

CHAPTER
TO THE OF THE

VII.
FREE CITIES WHO "SVAS

ADMINISTEATOR AST

EPICUREAN.

When man was are

the an who

not

the to visit him, and J came Epicurean, Epictetussaid, It is jiropcr for us are i)liiphilosophers to inquire of you who

administrator

losophers,"as
*

those a who

come

to

a

strange city inquire of as This

was was

proverb used and by Bion,

Diogenes used it.

Laertiiis

says.

The

cheese

uew

soft, as the page ancients

fKuf

us

is mentioned

7,

note.

J The elsewhere. Latin

word

is

Corrector, which

occurs

in

inscriptions,and

" The them Natura were Epicureans arrogant i. 8.

are

named ironically See what

Philosoi)hers,for of most

of

men.

is said

them

iu Cicero's

Do

Deorum,

Schweig.

238

EPICTETU8.

the citizens and the best may as are

those the

who

are

acquaintedwith it,what that we

is

thing in go in do

world, in order that which the

also

quiry after inat

quest of which is best and For

look that

it,

.

strangers three with

things relate in cities. to man,

there

things

soul, body, and
It remains AVhat it for for shall this best. and was things external,scarcelyany man what to you philosophers answer we denies. is the

say to men?
*

Is the sailed as flesh the best? far and as tliat Maximus

his son, weather) with in might be gratified the it fit was Cassiope in winter accompanied him
When that the from man (or bad that said he that

flesh? be be

not, and

added.

Far

him.

Is it not

then, Epictetussaid,to
It is do we best? then

of certainly

all

actively employed about the fit. What things the most tlian the flesh? The

possess

which
And the

is better

soul, he

replied. the good things

of the

best,are
The of

they better, or good things of the best within power of the

the

good best. power

things
And
are

of the

the

w^orse?

good things not the will?

of the

will

or

within

the

of the They are within the power the pleasure will. Is then of the soul a thing within the It is,he replied. And of the will? what shall on power this pleasure depend? On that be itself? But cannot conceived: or for of

there

must

first exist

a

certain we substance shall On have what

nature

good, by obtaining
He assented

which

pleasurein then shall

the soul. we to

this also.

depend for this pleasureof the soul? for if it shall depend on thingsof the soul, the substance (nature) of the good is discovered; for good cannot be one thing, that and at which are we delighted another rationally if that which that thing; nor precedes is not good, can
*

Maximus

was

appointed by he or

Trajan lost to

conduct life. a a

campaign
Cassias, ii. near against tlie Partliians, in which
1108, 1126, Reiinarus. the sea, and between his is Dion

Cassiope
Pandosia

Cassope

city in Epirus,

and

where Nicopolis,

Epictetuslived,

EPICTETUS.

239

which which be

comes conies

after

be

good, be not

for

in that

order wliich

that

the

thing in after may But you

good, would and

precedes must are good.

would for you

affirm then

this, if you say what your

your

right mind, both with then

is inconsistent doctrines.

Epicurus that the

the rest of

pleasure of the soul is in the pleasure from things of the body: and again that those be the things which bodilythings must precede and the substance (nature)of the good. For this reason Maximus acted foolishly he made if the voyage that for any other reason It remains

than the

for

the sake And also

of a the man flesh, acts is, for the sake he abstains a of

best. that

if foolishly when he is

from and

which to belongs it. this no to

others, be judge

able

take

But, if you

let us consider this only, how please, done and and that so safely, secretly, it. For not even does Epicurus himself be

thing man may

will know to stealing

declare

bad,* but he admits have he says. Do done

that

detection

is; and
I say to

because for

it is this if be

impossible to reason securityagainst detection, not steal.

But

you shall

that not stealingis detected: both and men no man

cleverlyand also we

we cautiously,

further and

have the to go

women,

and

powerful friends in Konie Hellenes (Greeks) are weak, up to Rome

Avill venture

for tiie purpose from your own me

do you (of complaining). Why good? This is senseless,foolish. that you do to refrain But even if you For

tell as refrain, I will as;sent that that and to not

believe

you.

it is to impossible turn that

which is true,

appears so false,and wealth is

away

from

which

it is But

impossibleto a abstain

from

which

appears

good.

good

thing,

pleasure. Why
*

etlieient in certainly most will you not acquire wealth?

producing
And

why fear Diogenes

Laertius
"is
on

(x. 151), quoted by an rptun.

"Injustice."

says

Epicurus, there is

not account

evil

in

l its""lf,)ut tlui t^vil is in the

wLicli

of suspicion."

340

EP1GTETU8.

do it wife, if we can neiglibor's husband and if the without detection? foolishlyprates If the matter, why not pitch him out of the house? about be a philosopher such as you ought to be, if a you would should we not

corrupt our

if perfectphilosopher, consistent with your [you must act thus]. If you would not, you at all from us we

own

doctrines, differ one

will not also

who do

are

called we Stoics; for talk of the is base.

we

say

thing, but beautiful perverse

another: we things
But is

which

are

(good),but in the is

do

what

you

will be

what
In the

contrary way, teaching what good. of bad, practicing of name

God,* man are

you

thinking do nor

a

city
''

of

Epicureans?
I, for a man nor [One ought engage says],"I to marry;

not

marry." we Kor

not

ought

to

beget will children,

in

public

matters."

What

then

will the citizens come? who will bring happen? whence them of the youth, who up? who will be governor preside over gymnastic exercises? and in what also will the teacher instruct were them?

will he teach what the

them

what

the Lacedsemonians were taught, or a Athenians him up

taught? to a

Come trines. doc-

take

young The to

man,

bring are according of your

doctrines

bad, subversive

state, pernicious

Dismiss becoming to women. You live in a chief city:it is your duty to be them, man. to judge justly, from that which a magistrate, to abstain beautiful to belongs to others; no woman ought to seem not you no families,and

except vessel of are your

own

wife,and with with what

no

youth,

no

vessel of for

silver, them gold (except your you such compares own).

Seek

doctrines

which your which
*

consistent

I say, and

by making from and

guide have pleasure abstain to lead us persuasive power the an were

will

things

overpower of Upton who in

passage

(v. 333)
Not

in to the marry

Cyclops and pides, Eurito gage en-

speaks like public affairs

Epicurean.

not

Epicurean doctrines.

See

i Epictetus,.

33, 3 W)d 6.

242

EPIGTETU8.

give you the use

a

commission

to

judge the of did

music; and you become hand

what a will be

of it to hand ? have

you? you Still how kiss ? whose

whose

did

i\umenius
To whom a Before you is

bedchamber Then do

judge? of Symphorus or have slept?* you you as

sent

gifts? same not

see

that is? So

to be

judge do just into a

of the

value man Numenius I

But you I

I can can

throw with So you us prisonany
But
ass.

whom beat with is not
: :

please. sticks whom

stone.

I

can

please.

may as an

This

a

governing us us

of is is us men.

Govern

rational

animals

show shows it.

what what Make

to profitable us, and we will follow it and will turn we unprofitable, away Socrates made imitators of yourself, as

from men imitators who

of

himself. them

For

he

was

like

a

governor

of

men,

made

subject to toward this: you do Do

him an their

desires, their if you is not do

aversion, their from I will like so movements

objectand do this: This

their turning away not it. throw not

obey, men into

prison.
But
act

governing has rational act: animals. do not

I

(say):As be the

Zeus

ordained,

if you

so, you

will feel the

be

punished. not of

What

will

penalty,you will punishment? Nothing will not

else than

character

having done your duty: you fidelity, modesty, propriety. Do these. "

lose look

the for

greater penaltiesthan and with even for on a

will.

"

Codicilli men were

small a wax,

which is a

wrote or with

tablets,covered writingstylus or pointed metal. a Lastly, codicillus by which only or one

book

writing generally; and any office.

writing to or

ter let-

the emperor which but is a conferred small is Our or word

codicil has a use

sense,

writing added also derived

subjoined the Roman

will

testament; word.
*

this

sense

from

of

the

(Dig. 29, supposes tit.

7, de jure codicillorum.) whose says

Upton and this to mean, But

bedchamber that this who he man's

man

are

you ing mean-

?

and

he compares

i. 19. that the door of

Schweig.

is not

the

here,

meaning a is this: whose

He

before

daybreak is said in

is a waiting

at the

rich man,

favor a seeks,

4erisive way

to be

passing the night

before

chamber.

EPICTETU8.

243

CHAPTER
HOW
WE

VIII.
OURSELVES

MUST

EXERCISE

AGAINST

ANCES. APPEAR-

As we WE

exercise to ourselves

ought these exercise

for

appearances

certain within has

person's son the power a so againstsophistical questions, ourselves daily against appearances; also propose A questionsto us. is dead. Answer thing is not ; the an

of the will: it is not certain the a an

evil. you

A

father of an disinherited a son.

What of do the a think

it?

It is

thing beyond has condemned of the is a power person.

will,not

evil. the

Caesar power

It is The man thing beyond the will
:

will,not

evil.

is afflicted at this. it is an a

Affliction evil. He

thing borne the

which

depends will: we

on

has

the condemnation of the manner, to

bravely. it is shall a That If

is we thing within train for an we

power in this assent good.

ourselves shall never make

progress; not son

appearance What

capable of has anything of which there is being comprehended. Your
Your
son

is dead. more?

happened?

is dead.

ing Noth-

AVhat herein

has hapNothing. Your ship is lost. What pened? Your has been led to prison. ship is lost. A man has happened? He has been led to prison. But that he has But fared

badly, every he has

man

adds not from

his

own

opinion. matters. Zeus, you because he has that

say, does made you

do you Why? because taken because from

right in these durance? capable of enbecause of

made

magnanimous? the power to he

has

which

befalls you be he

being you the out

evils? are it is in your you

power

happy has while

what suffering to you,

suffer; because not opened
Man,
go

door and

do not

things do complain. the Romans

when

pleaseyou?

Hear

how

feel

toward

i philosophers,f

you

244

EPIGTETV8.

would of the with

like to know.

who Italicus,

was

the

most

in

repute

once philosophers,

when as 1

was was present

his

own

friends

and cannot if he bear man being vexed sufiferiug something are me: killing me.

intolerable said, "I will make me it,you

you

such

as

that

to is;" pointing

CHAPTER
TO A CEBTAIIf EHETORICIAN
EOME WHO

IX.
WAS

GOING

UP

TO

01^

A

SUIT.

When to Rome

a

certain person account of the a came

to

him, who had his

was

going

up

on

suit which reason regard

to his

rank,

Epictetus inquired the man

then

asked

what you ask or he me going to Rome, and thought about the matter. what you no can

of

I Epictetusreplied.f whether But have you is you

will do

in

Rome, this. if you

will succeed ask me fail,I have will will

rule about tell you
:

if you

how

you

fare, I fare man

right opinions, you will fare ill. For For what of

well; if they are the cause

false,

to every

of his desired

acting to opinion. reason is the

reason

why
Your up

you

be

elected is the

governor that And

the Cnossians? are opinion. to Rome?

What Your

you

now

going

opinion.
Then has the and you think if bad

going go. in

winter, and tells you of cause with this? all

danger
Your

and

pense. ex-

I must

What

opinion. a man

opinionsare the causes such the as opinions,
Have
we

actions, and be, such
But

may

also

is

effect. your

then

all sound how your do you

opinions,both differ? adversary? And sounder opinionsthan so. you have

And so so

does

he

You adversary? Why? think that his opinions are is a better; and show to me do

madmen. you

This

bad

criterion.

But

that

have

made

some

inquiry into

your

SPIOTETUB.

^45

and opinions now have

taken

some

pains about in order to not

them. become to

And governor home

as

you

are

to sailing

Rome you you

of the with

Cnossians,and which are

content you

stay at ever the honors more had, but

desire you own something make greater and a voyage

for the

so conspicuous, when of examining purpose

did your

opinions,

and

bad? out, if you have any that are casting them Whom have you approached for this purpose? What time have you fixed for it? the times of What age? Go over if ashamed of me (knowing your life by yourself, you are the fact)when a boy, did you were you examine your own opinions? and did you not then, as you do all things now, do as you did do? and when become a youth and you were attended the rhetoricians,nd a rhetoric, yourselfpracticed And what did you deficient in? imagine that you were when and ters, a man engaged in publicmatyou were young and pleaded causes a gaining reputation, yourself,nd were when would who then seemed your equal? And you have submitted to any man examining and showing that What then do you wish me to say your opinionsare bad? in this matter. I have theorem to you? no Help me Nor for this. have for this to me (rule) you, if you came but as to a seller of to me come a as philosopher, purpose, For what then have or vegetables a shoemaker. purpose For this purpose, that whatever philosopherstheorems? happen, our rulingfacultymay be and continue to be may conformable to nature.

Does

this

seem

to

you does as a

small

thing? No; only a short by? If you
Then
meet more. but time? can, the and

greatest. What is it to possible

then? seize it

it need pass

you

seize it. say, or a

you a will stone I

met

with

Epictetus as saw a

I

should

with But

statue: with turn a

for you man as

me,

and

nothing learns he meets in me man, own. who

his

opinions, and

his

shows and

his

Learn that you

opinions:show

yours;

then

say

my have

246 visited bad Let

BPIGTETUS.

me.

us

examine

one

another: have a

if I have show it.

any
This
so, we us

opinion, take meaning the

it away; of

if you with

any,

is the

meeting is (you say): but are see

this

only a can hiring what he

vessel, we
Then used

philosopher. Not passing visit,and while also see Epictetus. Let away and come says. he

you solecisms

go

and

say: in a Epictetus barbarous was

nothing:
For
a man

spoke as way. but you

of may

what

else

do

you

judges? such matters none;

Well,

say to me, have no as answer

if I attend

to

(as as do), I no shall

land, you to

as

you none, have nor I shall

have you silver cups none. have

fine beasts

have

In no this it is

perhaps if you

sufficient possess you

to say:

I have

need

of

such need

things: but of I others: am. many choose I need mind

things, or you are have

whether What then

not, you
Of

poorer which

than you to have a of? which

that

have

not:

of

firmness, of free from

is conformable Whether it is

nature, a of

being or perturbation. that you: this to me?

I have

patron*
I will This

not, what richer of I me: is

but not something what no man.

to you.

am

than for

I

am

anxious I flatter of

Caesar

think is what

reason,

possess

have utensils gold. You of gold; but your discourse, your opinions, your assents, desires movements of earthen are (pursuits), your your But I have when these to ware. things conformable I not nature, why should employ my studies also upon and reason? What for shall I to to a instead

of vessels

silver

I have

leisure:

my no mind

is not

distracted. What you more do, since I have man distraction? this? go .When to the

suitable

have are I

than

have or nothing you the

do,

you

disturbed, you a theater should

wander

about

without

purpose.

Why his not

philosopher
*Tbe Roman a labor

to

improve which reason?

You bad the

word

"patronus,"

at

that

time

sense

of

protector.

EPiGTErXTS.

247

I employ myself crystalvessels: named the lying:* the syllogism about you about myrrhinef the syllogism named the. vessels;I employ myself about everything a2)pears small that you denying. To you

employ yourself about

possess:

to

me

all that mine a I have

appears To

great.

Your

desire

is insatiable: their hand out into

is

satisfied.

(children)who vessel and

put

narrow-necked

earthen

bring few of

figsand take and your what

nuts, this happens; if they fillthe it out, you will do and draw not hand, they a cannot

then

them with

desires: you they cry. Drop And do things out. desire many things and

you you

part will have

want.

CHAPTER
I]Sr WHAT MANNER
WE OUGHT

X.
TO BEAR

SICKNESS.

When

the

need

of each on opinion comes, of the

we

ought

to have

it in readiness: as J

the occasion

breakfast, such that opinions the relate to in

breakfast; in that bath, those bed. see

concern

bath;
*0n

bed, those

concern
"

the

syllogism named vasa" were

lying"

Epict. ii. 17, 34. precious by the Romans, terial ma-

f and "

Murrliina

reckoned

very

It is not certain of what they gave great prices for them. made. they were Pliny (xxxvii. c. 2) has something

about

them.

XM.. Antoninus, and knives

iii. 13.

"As

physicians have cases always their understanding the divine

struments in-

ready for and of for which for suddenly require the their of

skill,so

do

thou and have

principles ready the bond neither at things divine with a

human,

doing everj'thing,even which wilt same est, smalland well

recollection one unites

the do human which to to

another. to man nor

For

thou time anything a pertains

without the

the

having

reference

things divine;

contrary."

248
Let

EPIGTETUS.

sleep not each done

come

upon

tliylanguid eyes thou hast

Before What's From Blame

daily action amiss, what

scann'd; left undone
;

done, what all, and is first to last examine what is wrong,

then

in what

right rejoice.* in such them way that as And we we use we

ought exclaim to retain

these we verses

may

them, not that
*'Paean

may

utter

aloud,

when should we have

ready such soon as

ought not, as who all. (A man any care

has I be

a

Apollo."f Again in fever we a fever; and opinions as concern the fever begins, to lose and forget fever)may say: If I philosophize wherever fever it not Do this you may a longer, may of the poor

hanged: a I go, not I

must

take But

body, that is philosophizing? Is what which events happen? may you are saying something of prepare come.

preparation against not understand "If I shall that still

kind?

myself should our

to bear

with

patience what as be hanged." blows it is in in the we But

this is

just

if

a

man

happens, may I after receiving
Pancratium blows. But shall

give up power matter

the Pancratium. not In the to receive

to desist and

other

if

we

give

up

philosophy,what

then should of the occasion a man gain? What say on each painfulthing? It was for this that I exercised self, myfor this I disciplined myself. God says to you, Give t a proof that me athletics,hat you you have duly practiced have eaten what ought, that you have been exercised, you that you have obeyed the aliptes (the oiler and rubber). Then do you show yourself weak when the time for action comes? well.
*

Now Now
These See

is the

time

for the

fever. it

Let

it be

borne is the

is the time verses are

for the thirst,bear
Golden
verses

welll; now attributed to

from

goras. Pytha-

iv.

6, 32. of prayer, ita as f The
"

namque Paean."

beginning of a form Vestales Virgines

in

Macrobius,

Sat. i. 17:

indigitant:Apollo Msedice, Apollo

250

EPIGTETU8.

Why

do

you

give proud;

him or an

opportunity his do a of

raising

his
Do

brows eyeyou he is

(being not showing as importance)? shoemaker when as vahie

a

physician, your and but

you a when he the has these is

measuring your is not an foot, so or

carpenter

building wliich has he of wine power. to a

house, yours, treat nature the

physician dead? He if he it is

to

body a by of who does not fever

opportunity what doing to this: For

things, business his

has

belongs to nor

him. after

the

philosopher nor look his

these

externals, but he then for his act? own neither

his as oil to poor how

body, must ruling far reason as

But

externals them. then to to

so

not

be

careless where what For we about is there

Where still reason

is there anger, which

for of of fear no fear? about

and are belongs ought the lead have will

others, have about two things

value? that these is to principles nor in and

readiness, that brother he will we except not not to to

nothing but good follow to me. bad; them.* ought ought see

events, behaved however as My but will own thus he may

No;
I is my

to

that: toward

and, him to can behave,
For
man

conduct business:

myself that other

I

ought. no this can belongs

another; be hindered.

prevent

this,

the

thing
*To

this

Stoic

precept

Horace

(Epict.

i. 1,

19)

opposes

that

of

Aristippus.
Et mihi res, non me

rebus,

subjungere

conor.

Both

wisely

said,

if

they

are

rightly

taken.

BPICTETU8.

251

CHAPTER

XI.

CERTAIN

MISCELLANEOUS

MATTERS.

There who any

are

certain the divine to penalties

fixed

as

by

law

for

those thinks disobey other on

administration.*

Whoever those let him

thing the him

be

good him except envy, whoever

things

which let

pend dehim

will, let be desire,

flatter, let else weep, to perturbed: him considers him

anything let liini

be let him we evil, let be grieve,
And

let

lament, so unhappy. desist. the

yet, though

severely

punished,
Remember

cannot

what

poet f not, e'en

says if about

the

stranger: come. Stranger,
This
even

I must

a

worse

man

then if a worse

may man be

applied than are

even

to

a

father: come, I treat must a not, father the who of

you

should

unworthily; same for of

all a from

paternal for so

Zeus. from the other

And the

(let
Zeus

be

said) over brother,
And
to

all in

are

presides life we

kindred. find Zeus

relations

shall

be

an

inspector. iii. *"

As iv.

to

the

divine etc. law,

see

24,

82,

and

Xenophon's

rabilia, Memo-

4, 21," poet etc. Upton.
The

f xiv. v.

The

is Homer.

complete

passage

is

in

the

Odyssey,

55,

Stranger,
I'll treat a I must

not,

e'en

if all

a

worse

man

come,

stranger, and poor. for

come

from

Zeus,

Strangers

252

EPICTETUS.

CHAPTER
ABOUT EXERCISE.

XII.

We

ought so, at we not

to

make

our

exercises to cause

consist in

means

contrary we to nature

and call

adapted

admiration, for

if

do

who

ourselves

shall philosophers,

not

differ

to jugglers. For it is difficult even b gerous. not walk on a rope; and only difficult,ut it is also danto practicewalking on Ought we for this reason or settingup a palm tree,* or embracing statues? a rope, ous Everything which is difficult and dangerBy no means. but that is suitable which is not suitable for practice; is proposed to of that which conduces to the working out

all from

us

as

a

thing

to

be worked

out.

To

live with

desire

and

aversion

things) free from restraint. Neither to be disappointed in that is this? what And fall into anything which which to desire, nor you you this object then exercise (practice) Toward would avoid. For since it is not possible to have ought to tend. your aversion free from ing falldesire not disappointed and your of (avoidance into constant
*
"

certain

that which

you

would know
He

avoid, without that not

great allow real

and your

practice,ou y
To
set up a must

if you mean a

palm tree." and Dea he wood

does The

palm tree, trees are

but

something by

high

upright. says climbers

of

palm ha.s mentioned true Lucian, de

Syria (c. 29). Schweigh. that on

given in the the the when interpretation a certain

feast and

days
In
to

country most we

high piece of what this

is fixed in the

earth and

climbed

by

active know

youths by using only their hands is. It is said with

feet.

England embrace of cising exer-

that snow Diogenes used for the not statues

when himself.

they

were

covered bronze would purpose

I suppose The man statues, not marble

which

might of I have on a

be a easilybroken. metal of statue a

remain

long

in the embrace

in winter.

heard cannon; general,not it was as a

but

perhaps the story is not true. an English general, settinga soldier punishment.

But

cold

EPIGTETU8.

253

desire and the power

aversion of the

to turn

to

things which your you

are

not your

within desire free avoid.

will,you

will neither nor object,

have

capable of attaining your from And the since to are

aversion would

power

of

avoiding leads and of

that

which

strong habit

employ a desire

not

within habit

the power

and tomed (prevails), we are accusaversion only to things which our will, we ought to oppose where there is

to

this

contrary habit,and the appearances,

great

in slipperiness of exercise. I am there

to oppose

the habit

rather side to inclined above

to

pleasure:I for rub the and

will sake

incline

to

the I

contrary am averse

measure

of exercise.

pain: which I will are exercise me against this thing. to

the appearances of presented to every He

for the purpose For

withdrawing my aversion from who is a practitioner in exercise? using his desire, and applieshis which in reason such who

practices not only things this aversion

are

within

the power which must are

of his

will,and to practicesmost
For

the

things one man

difficult

conquer.

thing and to the

another to purpose

tent of if you vexed make

skins, or are practicehimself more against one then is it againstanother thing. What to carry about set up a palm tree, or a and mortar a a pestle? Practice, man, endure if you are to irritable, are abused,
Then

not

to

be will you a

if you so treated

with

dishonor. if a man

you

much to progress

that, even that strikes you have wine embraced

will say statue: as

yourself.Imagine also exercise

you use then

to yourself

properly so are men

not

to drink

much,

for in this but

also

there

who should

foolishlyracticethemselves; p abstain cakes. from Then

first of a all you

it,and at abstain

from

young

girl and

dainty

last, if occasion

for the presents itself,

of tryingyourselfat a proper time you will descend purpose into the arena if appearances to know as overpower you far from that which is theydid formerly. But at first

lly

254

EPIGTETU8.

a yourself: the contest is unequal between charming young girland a beginner in philosojihy. The earthen pitcher, as the saying is, and the rock do not

stronger

than

agree.*
After the

desire and the the aversion toward may or comes

the

second the reason, topic witlithat (matter)of drawals you do from

movements

action

and to it; that out you season be obedient

nothing

of

propriety of assents, which and a

the

kind.

The to the Socrates

is related For as attractive.

life without

examination,! so without see

place,or contrary to any the third topic concerns things which are persuasive said, we ought not to live we ought not to accept an but whence we appearance

examination, you are

should you come; say. like

Wait, the let

me

what

and

the me night (who says) Show pass (the which Roman tessera). Have you the signal from nature And the appearance that may be accepted ought to have? whatever means are finally applied to the body by those who exercise it, if they tend in any way toward desire and watch at aversion, they also

may

be are fit

means

of

exercise;but of and one if

they are has for

display, they himself towai-d

the

indications external looks this exercise

who is

turned for

something and man.

who

hunting who lonius your a something
Oh the

else

who For to for

spectators

will say. said own great you reason,

well. When

intend are Apolyourself for nobody. | the advantage, and of cold is a

you and

mouthful
*

water, fable in

from thirsty spitit out and of the earthen

heat, take in tell There

like

-^sop

pitcher and

brazen.

Upton.
See
i.

t

26, 18, and

iii. 2, 5. refers of to Arrian's

X Schweighaeuser 26) for such of an

Expedition abstinence. of

Alexander There was (vi. an instance

Alexander's life was ApoUonius

Tyana, not whose the man written

by

Philostratus:

but

it

va"j be that this is

who

is mentioned

here.

EPIGTETUS.

255

CHAPTER

XIII.

^V1IAT

SOLITUDE

IS, AND

WHAT

KIND

OF

PERSON

A

TARY SOLI-

MAN

IS.

Solitude because a man

is a certain is condition not of

a

man. helpless reason

For

alone, he is

for that

also

tary; soliis not a is justas though a man therefore not solitary. When

among then whom we numbers, have we were

he

lost

either

brother, to repose,

or we

a

son,

or

a

friend we are

on

accustomed

say that

left a often many

in

Rome,

though the same

such

though we are solitary, crowd meet us, though so and man a

live in

place,
For

sometimes who is

we

have

a

great number it is to of slaves.

the to be

as solitary,

conceived, is those considered wish to helpless person him. For we and reason posed ex-

who

harm we this are when when

we we

travel,then fall among creature one

do especially

say that

lonely of a

robbers, for it is not removes us

the

sight

human

which

from

but solitude, and

the us. sightof
For that if even who alone

is faithful is

and

modest

helpful to

being

himself

Ilera, nor descendant *Tliis from enough to make solitude, say you may * Zeus is solitary the conflagration and bewails in who have neither saying, Unhappy that I am Athena, nor brother, nor son, nor Apollo, nor nor kinsman. doctrine This

is what
"tliat
were

some

say that were tilings

he

was

the

of Heraclitus

all

posed com-

(had

their

origin in) fire,and the Stoics. to resolved so into

it," an

opinion afterward as adopted by to a some

It is not that the

extravagant, had a

it may

appear is in some persons, of

suppose

earth will ginning, be-

state

continual

change, new and

finally be
Seneca, Ep. cessante destroyed
9
"

in

way,

and

have in a

beginning.

See

cum

resoluto

mundo,

diis

unum

confusis, paulisper traditus,"

natura,

sibi s adquiescit Jupiter,cogitationibusuis

256

EPICTETV8.

docs not when

he is alone at the how out a man

conflagration.* For his life when natural mutual men. they do alone, from the

understand

passes a he is

because

they set of from

certain and

from principle, love and But none the natural the loss

desire of

community

pleasure a man

conversation

among

for this also ought to be prepared in a manner (beingalone),to be able to be sufficient for himself and to be his own companion. For as Zeus dwells with himself, tration adminisand is tranquilby himself, and thinks of his own able and of its nature, and is employed in thoughts suitto himself; so ought we also to be able to talk with

ourselves, not with the

to feel the

want of

of

others

also,not

to be to provided un-

the

means

passing our the relation

time; of observe to

divine administration, and

ourselves

affected everythingelse; to consider how we formerly were toward thingsthat happen and how at present; what are still the things which give us pain; how these also can be how cured and removed; if any things require improvement, to improve them according to reason. For peace, you that see that

Caesar are appears

to furnish enemies of east nor us

with battles we

great nor can

there

no

longer nor great associations travel at every Caesar hour

of

robbers and

but pirates, to west.

sail from

But

can

I will
*

he from from fever also,can give us security wreck, shipfrom from fire, earthquake or from lightning?well, he give us security againstlove? He cannot. say, can
Latin translation
....

The

is:

"

hoc

etiam aiunt."

nonnulli But

facturum

eiim

in

conflagratione mundi mean the and word will hero

may

that

the

conflagration has philosophers in happened, their Even

happen not again. troubled his was The^ with Greek

speculations
Herodotus that

were

the consideration the

of time.

(ii. 11), in

speculations on once, or

gulf, which

he supposes it the Nile up in

valley
20,000
bold in

speaks of the less. Modern aside of possibility

being and filled

years,

speculators have the notion as only recently become the other

enough

to throw

of the

earth

bodies

space being limited

by time,

the

ignorant ha,ve conceived

it.

358

EPICTETU8.

to

fire;of earth, to earth; no of air

to (spirit), air; of nor water

to water:

Hades,

nor

Acheron,
Gods

Cocytus,
Demons. the

nor

PyriWhen the phlegethon, but a man

all is full of

and

has and even moon nor things to think on, and sees stars, and enjoys earth and sea, he man helpless. Well then, if some such when I alone poor and murder

sun,

is not should

solitary come upon

me

me?

Fool, not
? what want murder

"You, but your
What
do we body. then kind make do

of solitude ourselves when worse remains than ? what why do children

? and

children and and means They take up shells they are left alone? ashes, and they build something, then pull it down, the build want something else, and so they never Shall I then, if you sail away, of passingthe time. and Aveep, because I then have I have no sit down

been

left alone ashes?

and But

solitary? Shall children do what

shells, no

of thought (or they do through want in deficiency knowledge), and we through knowledge are unhappy. is Every great power (faculty) dangerous to beginners. You then bear such things as you must formably able, but conare to nature: a but a a

not
. . .

Practice out of health that

sometimes you from may at way

of time

livinglike live like

person man some

in

health.

Abstain

food,

drink order reason water, abstain that ; and

you if

altogetherfrom desire,in time desire consistently with some may when have with consistently reason, you sometimes you, you men anything good we in

will desire

well.

Not to be

so;

but

wish to live like wise

immediately and universe will

useful

into

something else, which
It the is the

require that so more:

for

some

use

or

purpose. studied

strange, observes

Schweig., speaks say of no Epictetus, the who

philosophy his of Socrates, and

eloquently but of man's

capacity and may sense

duty he to

God, no should doctrine

tion explanathe

be

that

had

man's

i immortality,n

in which

that word

is

now

used.

EPIGTETJJ8.

259

to

men.

Useful to how?

what I

are

you

doing? you have

you to been

useful them. Show

yourself? But, exhort in

suppose, You wish

wish

exhort

You to them! your own

to be useful what kind

to them.

them

example

of

men

are eating, philosophy makes, and don't trifle. When you when eat with you; do good to those who you are drinking, to those who are drinking with you ; by yielding to all, giving way, bearing with them, thus do them good, and do not spiton them your phlegm (bad humors).

CHAPTER
CERTAIN MISCELLANEOUS

XIV.
MATTERS.

As with

BAD

tragicactors so are some

cannot

sing alone, cannot but

in company about alone. talk Examine you may to many: if you

persons

walk

anything, both walk alone and and do not hide yourself in the chorus. yourself, a little at last,look around, stir yourself up, that
Man,
know When sake of who a you man are.

drinks

water,

or

does

anything there is Is an for

the

whenever practice(discipline), tells it to all: "I drink drink

tunity opporthis

he that you

water." of

it for

water, for the

purpose

drinking

water? you you

Man, are good for yon to drink, drink; but if not, acting ridiculously.But if it is good for you and about What it to those who you are if it is

do

drink, say nothing water-drinkers. very men?

displeased to with these Of

then, do

wish

please

are things that are done some some according to occasion,

done others

with with

a

final purpose, a certain of com- reference to circumstances, others

for

tlie

purpose

260

EPIGTETUS.

plying of with

others,

and

some

according

to

a

fixed

scheme

life.
You
must

root distrust.

out

of

men

these

two then is

things, the arrogance that

(pride) you is the want and

Arrogance

opinion
:

nothing that surround and

(are you deficient cannot in be

nothing) when is who

but

distrust cumstances cir-

opinion

happy

so

many

you. was Arrogance the is first not removed

by

futation; con-

Socrates that the will to practiced inquire in a manner

this. and

And seek. this desire I rank. not. (to know)
This is

thing do you seek

impossible harm; it is and

search

no

philosophizing, and aversion to

how

possible

to

employ

without for I

impediment. my been father is a man

am

superior
Another
If we you,

of but

consular have

says, were have

a

tribune, say. or

you father

horses, much then

would and

you

My

was

swifter? ornaments. I

have If

barley while you

fodder, were elegant this, I

neck Be

saying there which Is

said. in a man

it such

so:

let

us

run

then. in

Well, a is

nothing it there in will not as

running is horse, inferior? by

be

known

which

superior
Show
as

and

modesty, that you can fidelty, justice? may kick that be

yourself a superior you you, tell

these, that superior
I

man.

If to me

you

violently, which also act will

say an ass.

that

you

are

proud

of

is the

of

EPIGTETU8.

261

CHAPTER
THAT WE OUGHT TO
PROCEED

XV.
WITH

CIECUMSPECTION

TO

EVERYTHING.*

In" every and then

act

consider to the

what act. precedes
If you do you

and not what

follows,

proceed the consider, you not will at first begin with at some

since spirit, which shown you

have

thought when all of

things that which

follow; but have afterward will

consequences

have

themselves, you

basely

desist

(from at the

it is what the

a

fine

quer begun). I wish to conOlympic games. [And I too, by the gods: for thing.] But consider here what precedes and

follows; and

then, if it is for must act

your

good,

undertake strict pulsion com-

thing. at You

diet, abstain water, In you a from fixed

according to rules, follow exercise delicacies, yourself by in times,

heat, in is cold; to drink

no

cold

nor

wine, when you a

there

opportunity of drinking it.f yourself the

word do to

must

surrender Next

trainer, as must physician.

in

the

contest, you a be

covered

with

sand, sometimes
Encheiridion
xiv.

dislocate
"This

hand, sprain an a *

Compare to 29. But

chapter has observed great

formity con-

Luke and 28,

etc.

it is to be some that

Epictetus,

both

here

elsewhere,

supposes

persons men: incapable of being but quires Christianity re-

philosophers; that and Luke of enables a is, virtuous all to

and such."

pious
Mrs.
so

be

Carter. is the same The as passage the

in

contains

practical lesson, and but far
v. v.

ing teachto

Epictetus:

the

conclusion

in

33 does 28-32.

not

appear

be

helped by what gives to immediately all to
"

precedes such" The

remark
Mrs.
see.

that Carter

Christianity "enables the word
'

be a is not

true, unless I do not '

enables

meaning us which

f The

commentators

refer

to

Paul, 1 Cor.

c.

9, 25.

Compare

Horace, Ars

Poetica, 39:
Versate diu

quid ferre recusent.

Quid

valeant

humeri.

262

EPIGTETU8.

quantity of dust, be scourged with the sometimes whip; and after undergoing all this,you must After be conquered. reckoning all these things, if you If have still an inclination, to the athletic practice. you go ankle, swallow a do who

not at a

reckon one them, observe

you

will

behave

like children

blow "and time

play as wrestlers,then as trumpet, then act a tragedy,when time such

then gladiators,

they you have are a

seen one admired a things.

So

you a also do:

at

wrestler then a then (athlete),

then gladiator, your whole

pher, philosoyou are but rhetorician;

with

soul

ways nothing: like the ape you imitate all that you see; and althat which one pleases thing after another you, but taken underFor you have never becomes familiar displeases you. nor anything after consideration, after having explored the you Thus whole have some matter

and

put it it at

to

a

strict and

examination; with a

but

undertaken persons

hazard

cold

desire.

having seen a philosopher and having heard and yet who can one speak speak like Euphrates * like him ? wish to be philosoj^hers themselves. is (which you first what the matter Man, consider pose proit is able to to do), then your own nature also, what
" "

bear.

If you

are

a

wrestler, look men at

your are shoulders, your

thighs,your for different you think and must are

loins: for different you can things. Do doing daily), you can think be do a naturallyformed that, if you do (what philosopher? Do you drink out as that you in the same eat

as

you

now,

you

do

now,

way

be

angry

and

of humor? must You

watch, labor,conquer your certain

desires, you

depart

despised by your slave, laughed at be in an must by those who meet you, in everythingyou inferior condition, as to magisterialoffice, in honors, in courts of justice. When have all these considered you be *The merits "who and younger attractive

from

kinsmen,

Pliny (i.Ep. 10) speaks eloquence
M. of this

in

high

terms

of

the

Syrian philosopher Euphrates^ by others. is mentioned

by

Antoninus

(x. 31) and

BPIGTETUS.

263

then, if you think things completely, proper, approach to if philosopliy, you would gain in exchange for these things freedom from t perturbations, iberty, ranquillity.If you l these things, do not have not considered ophy: approach philostime a philosopher, do not act like children, at one then a

tax

then collector,

a

then rhetorician,

a

procurator
You labor must of (officer) must Caesar. man These

things are or not

consistent. must be

one own either

good

bad:

you

either

at your either you of A the

labor

rulingfacultyor at things within occupy the

at or external at external a things: you

must one either the

place of when that is, tilings: philosopheror that

of

vulgar.
Rufus* Galba was person

said to now murdered.
But Rufus from

Is plied, re-

world Did

governed by

Providence?

I

ever

that

the world

form an incidentally argument is governed by Providence?

Galba

CHAPTER
THAT
WE

XVI.
TO WITH

OUGHT

WITH

CAUTION"

EXTER MEN.

INTO

IAR FAMIL-

INTERCOURSE

frequent intercourse wifch others either for for social purposes, or talk, or drinking together, generally he must either become like them, or change them to his For if a man fashion. own places a piece of quenched charcoal close to a piece that is burning, either the quenched charcoal will quench the other, or the burning a man
*

If

has

Rufus

was was

a

philosopher.
The that that to See

i. 1, i. 9. of

(Jalba the

is the

emperor

Galba, who obscure, Lord and

murdered.

meaning it does not passage

is rather

it is evident

Shaftesbury or remarks

this

belong to this chapter. perhaps belongs to passage of chapter 11

14,

or

perhaps

the end

chapter 17.

2G4

EPIGTETU8.

charcoal the will is

light that so which must danger it is who

great,we those of

quenched. enter cautiously sort, and can is

Since

then

intp such remember intimacies that one with

the a common man impossible that is covered For with what

soot

without do

soot

himself.

will you

with keep company o being j)artakerf the if a man speaks about what person is is worse about gladiators, about this was horses, about a athletes,or bad, such a men? well Such

person was is

good:

done, this

scoff,or any takes he man a

ridicule,or among us

lute, so that which a

badly. Further, if he ill-natured show an disposition? Is when he prepared like a lute-player the strings, he has touched as soon as done discovers such

are

discordant, and
Socrates had

tunes

the

ment? instru-

power

as

who

in all his social own intercourse How

could you

lead his have that

should

companions It this power? you are

to his

purpose? a is therefore about

necesmon com-

safy consequence kind of

carried

by

the

Why they but this nauseous then utter people. are they more useless your

powerful words from

than their

you? real your

Because

these

you

utter

reason

elegantwords only from they are without strength and your of exhortations and is talked

opinions: lips;for it is miserable In

dead, and your and

to listen to

virtue, which this way the is

everywhere (up the down). the vulgar have strong are

advantage and you

over

you: then

for every

opinion sentiments certain in your every

and

invincible.

Until shall

fixed in you, for your

have you good acquireda are power

I security, common advise

to be careful

association with like you wax persons: sun if you

not, away draw With-

day then in

the on there minds the this sun will be

melted

whatever

inscribe

your from For

in the school. so yourselvesfar sentiments. to leave

these advise

waxen

reason

long as you have also philosophers ancient to

men

their and

native do not

country, because allow a

habits distract them

beginning

be

266

BPICTETUS.

once

saitl

to

a

man

who

was

vexed choose

because to Philostorgus with Sura?* should

was

fortunate: it never AVould

you he you he those does

lie this receives can May come? in him

happen, then that are replied, vexed, sells; if or

that he how

day

Why for who or something you means

return

which

consider as happy

acquires what to

things

by

such

you the be you member Rethat

abominate; better modest vexed

wrong the better

Providence,
Is it not if

he

gives to things than to

men? He admitted possess in the which

better

be

rich? when and you

this. the better the has

Why

are

then, then man,

thing? truth, always of have that in

readiness

this over is

a

law

nature, in that

superior he is

an

advantage and you

the never inferior be my wife

superior;

will
But what

vexed. treats me

badly. treats Well, me if

any

man

asks there you then

this

is, say, more? my

wife

badly. gives Is me nothing [What else is

Nothing. my father

My gives but added we me

father

nothing there ing nothevil is

this?

nothing. say to

Is this

then? which For

Nothing]: must to

that

is

an

something added. but of

be

ft not externally, get then rid

and of we falsely poverty, shall be

this

reason

must

the

opinion

about

poverty,

and

happy*

Upton

suggests
Sura

that

Sura

may

be

Palfurius

(Juvenal,

iv.

53),

or

PaJfurius

(Suetonius,

Domitian,

c.

13).

BPIGTETJJ8.

261'

CHAPTER
THAT WE OUGHT NOT
TO BE

XVIII.
DISTURBED BY

ANY

NEWS.

When nature news

anything to shall be this disturb, have

reported to you which is of a principlein readiness,that the is within you that the you no is about Can any

nothing man which

power have

of your formed But a will. bad

report to a opinion,or he will to had

bad

desire?

By

means.

haps perthen

report that
He then may

some

person

is dead. some What

is that of you.

you?
What

report that to person

speaks ill

you? Or that your father is planning something or other. Against Against whom? will? How he? But is it against your can poor your body, againstyour little property? You are quite safe: it is not againstyou. have But the judge declares that you committed did the judges act of impiety. And not an it conmake the same declaration Does cern against Socrates? No. this declaration? you that the judge has made AVhy then do you trouble yourself any longer about it? is that Your father has a certain

duty, of a

and

if he a shall man not

fulfill natural

it,he else one

loses the character

father, of wish does On him a of

affection,of gentleness.Do on not never to lose man anything wrong side in it is

this

account.

For

do other

your

thing, and suffer in duty to make your but a man

another. defense

the

firmly, modestly, without also lose the character of a anger: son, if you of

do

not, you

of

modest

behavior, of then to do

generous

character. but he also of his

Well is in

then, is the judge free from

danger? No; are equal danger.
What
have evil?

AVhy you own

you that

still afraid which a decision? man's on

with

is another defense:

It is your

evil to make But

bad

be or your to be

guard againstthis only. condemned, as

to be condemned

not

that

is the act of

anocher

person.

268 it is the you.

BPIGTETU8.

so

evil of
Me? his

another No. own a

person. He blames He man. A you.

certain
Let

person him see

tlireatens how you he

manages

affairs.

is going to condemn

unjustly.

He

is

wretched

CHAPTER
WHAT IS
THE

XIX.
OF A

CONDITION AND
OF A

COMMON

KIND

OF

MAN

PHILOSOPHER.

The

first difference this: the

between common a

common

person says. Woe

and to me

a

philosopheris for my little

person

child, for my

brother, for my

father.*

The

be compelled to say, Woe philosopher,if he shall ever for m3'self." For to me, nothing stops and says, "but which is independent of the will can hinder or damage the will, and the will can only hinder or damage itself. If then we are we

ourselves

incline blame cause in this

direction, so and to

as, when

unlucky, to nothing else is the except our gods that we have state ourselves of

remember

that

own

quillity perturbation or loss of tranto you opinion, I swear by all the

made have

progress. gone another

But way

in

the from

present the ginning. be-

of

affairs For

we

nurse,

if

we

ever

example, while we were stumbled through want beat the stone. But

still of what

children, the care, did

not

chide

us, but

would

did the stone of your

on Ought the stone to have moved child's folly? Again, if we find nothing to of the bath, the pedagogue never checks he flogs the cook. Man, did we make you

do?

account eat our on

the

coming out but appetite, pedagogue of child, im-

the
*

cook

and

not iii. 5, 4.

of

the

child?

Correct

the

Compare

EPIGTETTJ8.

269

prove are him.

In this way For

even

when

we

are

grown is in a up child

we

like children. he who

he

who

is unmusical a in he

music; who is

is without a letters is

child

learning:

untaught, is

child in life.

CHAPTER
THAT WE

XX.
FROM ALL EXTERNAL

CAN

DERIVE

ADVANTAGE THINGS.

In

the

case

of

appearances allowed

which the

are

objects of the evil to name the be

vision, nearly all have in of it

good
No

and one ourselves, and

not

in externals. it is

givesthe to good to the is night, nor three are

fact that the four. is name day, nor do error

bad

the

fact

that

of the But and what

greatestevil men to the

that that in

say? is opinion They say that even

knowledge to good,

that

bad;

so

respect

falsehood

itself there So

is it

a

good result,the to a

knowledge also. that

it is falsehood. a ought

be bad

in

life ?

Is health man. good thing, and is it? To be

is sickness

thing

No, a But is

what

healthy, and

healthy

in

is bad ; good: to be healthy in a bad way that it is possible gain advantage even from to so sickness, I declare. For is it not possibleto gain advantage even from death, and is it not possibleto gain advantage froni mutilation? Do think that Meii03ceu8 gained little you Could who much as man a by death?* says so, gain so

right way,

*

Menoeceus, save the

son

of as Creon, it was

gave declared up

bis

life

by

wbicb

he

would Tuscul.

his
c.

country,

by

an

oracle.

(Cicero,

i.

48.) Juvenal
Quantus
Dilexit erat (Sat. xiv.
Quarum
Amor

338) says in te in

patrias si Deciorum

pei-tore; quantum

Thebas,
v.

Grajcia,vera,

Menoeceus.

Euripides, Phceniss"e,

913.

270

EPIGTETUS.

Menceceus character

gained? Come, man, did he not of being a lover of his country, a
? And if he had he not maintain man the

of

great to not

mind, have faithful,generous have continued would he

live, would

lost all these

things?

he not have gained the gained the opposite? would of his country, a man of coward, ignoble,a hater name that he death? feared who Well, do you think gained I suppose But did the father of little by dying? not. Admetus* gain much by prolonging his life so ignobly and Cease, I adjure miserably? Did he not die afterward? material things. Cease to make you by the gods, to admire of things slaves,first of things,then on account yourselves slaves of those Can From the who are able to be who

give them derived abuses the

or

take

them

away.

advantage all;and from who

then him

from you. combat

these Wherein

things? does man

exercises

before This man profit the my exerciser

athlete? before my hold does does and But not Very greatly. the combat: he

becomes in say

exercises

me

endurance, in keeping no: temper, neck in mildness. and

You

but and

he, who

lays

of my me disciplines my master loins

shoulders, both good; and he he heavier a me man

the exercise says:

or (thealiptes, oiler)

right when the if do

Eaise

him the more up

with is my

hands, he vantage ad-

is,so much me advantage.

exercises

in

good? men. me:

This

is not

keeping knowing my my how

temper, does to gain an to from but

Is my he exercises father

neighbor
Bad

bad ?

Bad

himself, eration. modto me good

to

good disposition, my to Is

my

bad? of

himself, but with of

good.

This the is the rod

Hermes:

touch

it what

you

as saying please, but bring what so: you

is,and

it will be

gold. make I say not it

and please, was I will

good, f

*

The

father

of Admetus

Pheres

(Euripides, Alcestis).
28): "and (viii. to we

f Mrs. Carter quotes the epistle to the Romans know that all things work together for good

them

that love

EPIGTETU8.

271

Bring disease, bring death, bring poverty, bring abuse, bring trial on capitalcharges: all these tilings through the shall be made will you do rod of Hermes profitable. What with death? or AVhy, it shall

what show

else you

than

that act it shall

do

you a honor, man that

by

through
What be not it, what will you

is who

follows

the

will of

nature?

do

with in

disease?

I will show

its Jiature, I will

conspicuous flatter you the

it, I will be firm, I will be will not

happy, die. I will a man

I will

physician, I
Whatever you

wish

to me,

What make shall you do

else it

do

seek? nate, fortu-

shall a give

happy,

honored,
You
a

thing take which care seek. not say

No:

but This never that as fall sick: say.

it is Take

bad

thing. that three you are is the

same

if you

should

care

receive that I

the

impression (appearance)
Man,
shall me that think

four: it as is bad. how do

how

is it bad? do me If I any

about and

ought, even it then

damage? about shall as it not

good? me? If then

I think not poverty

I not ought that then

to

do, about for disease, about will it to not

having oflice,is advantage? evil and are enough ought

be

an

IIow

I any

longer

look

to

seek

good

in externals?

What no man

happens? carries war

these

doctrines

maintained

here, but every those one them his at away

home; his tliose

but

immediately with have

is at have Good

with

slave, with hiin, with who neighbors, who proves
(Jod;
"

who

sneered luck to ridiculed I know quotes to

him.

Lesbius,*

daily

that but nothing, only who the are she
"

first

part of called to some tlie

verse

and to omits

tbe

conclusion,
*

them

the

according of the as his

purpose." of Some

abusive

fellow, known to hearers if it were Epictetus.
"

We of

ought you perhaps

understand say to the

words

said, Lesbius,"

each etc. ought note. to

himself.

Good

luck

to

Schweig.'s

2TZ

HPICTETVS.

CHAPTER
AGAINST THOSE
WHO READILY OF SOPHISTS.

XXI.

COME

TO

THE

PROFESSION

They wish

who

have them food.

taken

up

bare

theorems whose the

immediately stomach is diseased

to vomit

forth, as persons
First

do vomit

with

digest and in

it up

thus: a if you crude some do not food

thing, then do not digestit,the thing becomes unfit your to eat.

truly an athletes exercised taken up

emetic, us But

after

show digestion show and

change shoulders have

as ruling faculty,

in

their

by

what as they those have who

been have The the

what arts they show eaten; what certain does

by and they
Hear

have me learned. talk a carpenter makes not

come

say.

about

a carpenter'srt; but having it, and to do man, undertaken he knows

to build

house, he
You also drink a proves

that of

the eat art. a ought like a

something

the

kind;

like

man,

dress, marry,

beget children,do an the office of

citizen,endure bear with your

abuse, bear with father, bear
Show truth say, us unreasonable your we brother,

with

son,

neighbor, see companion.* you have in You

these

learned

things that something come may from me that

the read

losophe phi-

No;

but Go

and

hear

commentaries. vomit to you
*

away,

and

seek

osophica (philsomebody to

them the

A indeed 1 will expound (He replies)nd I writingsof Chrysippus as no other man can: on. The

practicalteaching of the and our

Stoics

is contained of modern

in iii.

c.

7, and
"

it is we good

wise. eyes A

modern if we writer will

says

practice: to If

open we and we honestly acknowledge to ourselves the view life

what and the

discover,

shall be

compelled of our

confess

that

all on a

efforts of the civilized

people alte und

times

is founded view of

of

world,

which
"

is

directlyopposed

to

the neue the p.

world

whicli

Jesu3

had

Der (Strauss,

der

Glaube,

74),

374

EPICTETUS.

which in those work and {oi M^raniTtTovrei), has a school; why should by questions? But such a man These not I also have a school? things are not done, man, in a careless happen; but there just as it may way, nor You be a (fit)ge and life and God must as a guide. say. a without ficed sacrisails from No. But a port no man having invoked their help; nor do men and to the Gods sow who without Demeter; and shall a man having called on

arguments

has the to undertaken Gods? it with and

so

great a they
What

work who else

undertake undertake are it

safelywithout come shall

this work

success?

divulging the
Eleusis, and Eleusis,* and herald, and at than doing, man, is a temple at mysteries? You say, there is an here also. There one Hierophant at I also will make an Hierophant: there is a you a I will establish

herald; there a is

a

torch-bearer are Eleusis, and at are

I also will establish I will do Most

torch-bearer;there torches here. here

torches words from

Eleusis, and the same:

have the

The differ no how

those

done these

there?

things done impious man,

is there

things are done both in due place and in due time; and when accompanied with sacrifice and prayers, when is first purified, when he is disposed in and a man his mind to the thought that he is going to approach sacred rites and ancient rites. In this way the mysteries are difference? useful, in this way

we

come

to

the

notion

that

all these

things were and out

established of life. of

by
But

the you

ancients

for the

instruction

correction of

publish and

time, not out

place,without which the

you

have nor the

garments

divulge them without sacrifices, purity; the hierophant ought to nor as

have, the the nor hair, nor have you

head-dress,

the he

voice, but nor

age;
*

yourself purified of Demeter an has:

you in Attica,

There and

was

a

great temple

(Ceres) or at

Eleusis

solemn

mysteries, and

Hierophant

conductor

of

the

ceremoniesj

EPIGTETUS.

275

have committed
Sacred
You are to words

memory

the

words

only, and

you

say:

the

by

themselves.*

in another ought to approach these matters way, the thing is great, it is mystical,not a common thing, But not is it given to every man. even wisdomf nor of youths: to take care perhaps is enough to enable a man a man

must

have and

also a a

certain

readiness

and and

fitness above

for all this one this purpose,

certain God

qualityof body, to things he who must

have advised error, advise

him

to the

occupy

as office, God

Socrates

to occupy

place of

confutes

and the reproof, a doctor's shop, though you have nothing except physic: but where not and how they should be applied, you know
*

Diogenes the office of royalty and office of teaching precepts. But you open

The and reader, who modern, of is

has may are

an

inclination

to

compare

religiousforms practiceto which

ancient

find

something

in modern

the

words

Epictetus a applicable. the f This know, vague of fitness is notion

view new; of and

fitness

of

a

teacher

which, there as was

far

as

I

quite

it is also

true.

Perhaps at was

some

of this Itind in modern were Europe when secured it

the time

when that ers teachtheir the

youths for the

only

priests, and teacher was
"

supposed
"

office of

by their fitness
Deacons
a

for

office of of

priest. In the present person, who

Ordering of proposed as

in the to Church a England, the is asked

is

fit person
"

be trust con, dea-

the

following question by the bishop: by to serve

Do

you upon of

that this

you

are

inwardly moved ministration the

Holy Ghost
God
"

to

take

you his

office and

for

the

promotion

glory this and

the

edifying

of his and of

people?" another In the

ordering is think of our of

Priests"

(juestion is omitted, also you etc. question only
"Do you will to put, which in your

is used

in the be

ordering teacher Deacons; to heart

that
"

truly called, according ought as the
God

Lord him say

Jesus to Christ

The

to

have

advise does advice received not

occupy God

the will in office of advise:

teacher, in which

Epictetus supposed
Socrates
"

says.

He this he to how be

perhaps he is not

that that man might it. of
' '

given ever Whathave

the

way

said a Wisdom

haps per-

enough may to

enable

take a care

yoyths. should "wisdom"

mean,

it is true

that
If he

teacher

a

fitness and

liking for the

business.

has

not, he

will find it dis-

276

EPICTETUS.

nor

have I

you too taken have

any salves

trouble for Do to about eyes. know

it. Have both will tlie do Leave Do own See, that you when do also and

man

says, power

the you

the how

of will do

using do you

them? and

they then good, act are

whom in

they things why you? of

good?

Why tance? impora

at

hazard you

greatest

why thing are careless? fit for to you

undertake those who

that to on

is in do

no

way

it to not able

it, and

do

it well. your a yourself

bring be But not disgrace one philosophy who load you, say

through it sit with

acts, and

of

those

bad turn a

reputation. them over

if

theorems but another my

please never still, and you are

by nor self; yourallow are that but say: from other use philosopher, mistaken, were

to

say

it;

He what

is

for

neither nor desires

different to they nor before,
I
assent

is to my

activity things, from my

directed nor objects, appearances This think you are do have

other at in former

the

of

I

altered think and

all say not condition. if you do would what

you as must

about act at

yourself, hazard, you

ought: for it

if

and

doing;

becomes

you.

agreeable, reasonable he is on

and

he

will

not

do labor: and or it well. if

He seeks like may

and

ought and to

gain wealth, in

a

living the wrong a by his track, butcher and a

he

only a common

money

he a is

only

dealer a ing buy-

and members selling, of shoemaker, necessary or

tailor, all several as

useful kinds.

society has into or a

all

of

them

in

their as But

the

teacher

priestly office, the men making,
Should
is even more

far

it is

ble, possi-

children like of the a good

and for

women.

he

be

"ordered"

Deacon or Priest,
? Some so. his will

office

useful ridiculous.

than

that

Priest wise

Deacon not say

that

this

is

Perhaps

will

think

BPtCTETm.

%ii

CHAPTER
ABOUT

XXIL
CYNISM.

When was a

kind notion at pupils inquired of Epictetus, and he who appeared to be inclined to Cynism, what person of person the a Cynic ought to be and what was of the thing, we will inquire, said Epictetus, one of his

leisure: but without I have

so

much so to

say

to

you

that

he

who to God has For no attempts other gi'eata matter, than to act no

is hateful

God, and

purpose

indecently man comes

in

public. liouse. in any to forward, and the says If he

well-managed house himself, I ought to so, be

manager

of

does

the

master

turns

round, and

seeinghim flogshim. for here

insolentlyiving orders, drags him forth and g So it is also in this great city (the world); there is a also

master

of are the the

house sun; who you

orders can everything. (He going round make fruits make go, grow them travel and

says) the nourish warm You year

by the and

and

seasons,

and the men make winds

them, the so

and

stir of

remit, and round, the least. proper suffer. and

bodies

properly: from the

administer are a

things a greatestto do You

calf;when run lion shall appear, if you and you do

your will

business You are {i.e. a away): advance and

not, you it. You can bull:

fight, can for this is your can business,and the army

becomes

you,

do

lead

You
But he

fightin
*

against Ilium; be Agamemnon. combat single againstHector: be Achilles. came if Thersites would either would

forward have

and

claimed

the

command, did many obtain nesses. wit-

not

obtained

it; or if he before it, he
Do
*

have

disgraced himself about the matter in the

you
See the

also think

it carefully: Iliad, ii. 213.

is not

descriptionof Thersites

278

^PICTBTUS.

what

it

seems

to you. it then: I will I

I shall hard

wear

(You say) I wear sleep hard now, in addition and if I a a

cloak

now

and

and

I shall

sleep

then:

take

and staff, those hair his the whom out I will I

go

about

meet; and

and a bag now begin to beg and to abuse man see plucking the any

little

of his

body, I

will rebuke about in

him,

or

if he has dressed If you

hair, or if he walks

purple.

imagine

thing to be such as this,keep far away from it: do not But if you imagine approach it: it is not at all for you. and do not think yourself to be unfit for it to be what it is, it,consider what a great thing you undertake. relate to yourself, In the first place in the thingswhich you must must not not

be in any God must or

respectlike man: what must you take

do

now:

you

blame

you

away the desire

altogether, you which anger appear nor transfer power nor avoidance

only to must things feel not

are nor

within

the

of the envy nor will: you

not

resentment

pity; a girl must you a

handsome be that and have

to you,

nor a men

must

love

a

little reputation, you them

pleased with the rest of

boy

or

cake^

For

ought and to know

throw

walls around do any such A chamber: at man

houses

darkness many means when of

they

things,and shuts if a they

concealment. before the is not

the

door, he comes, sets

somebody he of all these he does

say that

is out, he

leisure. use person But the as (Jynicinstead i protection:f and this is the For and he under

things must
This

modesty house, that

his

not, he will be indecent

in his nakedness his door:

the open

sky. to is his

slave before not to

his bedchamber: wish hide has

this is his darkness. he does: of a a

ought a man

anything lost the the open

if he

does, he is gone, who he

character

Cynic, of man: lives under to fear some sky, of he he

free

he has to have

begun need of

external nor can

thing, he get hide has begun ment concealhimself

concealment,
For chance where this

when and

he And

chooses. if

shall

how?

by

public instructor

shall

kPlCTETUS.

2^0

be be detected, this pedagogue, what

kind

of

things will

he

fears these then man a compelled to suffer? when things, is it possiblefor him to be bold with his whole It cannot be: it is impossible. soul to superintend men? make In the first place then you must your rulingfaculty Now this mode of life also. (you should say), pure, and is my the matter to work to me on understanding,as wood is to the

carpenter, is the to me: as

hides of

to the

shoemaker;
But the me. and

my is

business

rightuse the it

appearances. it are body
Death? whole

nothing
Let of me a

parts of say. He

nothing to death can

it

come

when

chooses, either
And cannot. moon, of

the any

or

part. Fly, you out whither;

man

eject
I go,

of

the world? sun, But there with true wherever are there

is the

there and the

is the

the

stars,

dreams, Then, satisfied messenger to show

omens,

conversation

Gods.

if he is thus with from tliem of

prepared,the he men

Cynic that and are cannot

be a this; but
Zeus that to must

know

he bad

is sent

about wandered

good

they have and and that

and

things,* seeking the where it

substance

they spy. are

never

good think; to evil where he the is are a

it is not, but is a is,

spy,

as

Diogenes f
Chjieroneia

was as a

carried

off For

in for men after Pliilip fact a Cynic and which to come

battle spy

of of

the

things which duty to

good be evil, and and to

it is his

examine to carefullyand struck who are with not terror

so nor as

report truly,and not point out as enemies other way to be

those

enemies, nor in any

turbed per-

by
It is his occasion say are appearances

confounded. be able with a duty

then

to

loud the

voice, if the

should

and arise,

appearing on whither are

tragicstage

to

like you *

Socrates:

Men,

doing,

wretches?

like blind

hurrying, what people you are wanyou to The

oflSce which

in of

our a

times

corresponds of this

descriptionof
77,
note.

the

Cynic, is the office

teacher

religion.

fSee page

280

BPICTETXfS.

dering up have and

down: true you

are

left the

road:

you

road, and going by another seek for prosperity and liap-

piness where they are not, and if another shows you where Why do you seek it they are, you do not believe him. It is not there. If you doubt, 'In the body? without?* at Ophellius.f In possessions? It is look at Myro, look not there. at But who

if you are do now not

believe

me,

look

at Croesus:

look their those

those

rich, with have Whom without been

what

lamentations If it thrice

life is JSlled. must but be

In

power?

It is not twice we there. and

is,

happy who they are not.
You who from

suls; con-

shall see believe

in these are matters? dazzled

their

affairs and

the men What themselves? or by an appearance, them when do they groan, when they they say? Hear when account of these on grieve, consulships and very wretched glory and splendorthey think that they are more It is not: and in greater danger. Is it in royalpower? if would it were, Nero have been happy, and Sardanapalus. neither But was a Agamemnon happy, though he was better man than Sardanapalus and Kero; but while others are snoring,what is he doing?
Much from his head he tore his rooted

hair.

Iliad, X. 15. *Quod
Est

petis hie est,

Ulubris,

animus

si te

non

deficit aequus.

Horace, Ep.
Willst du immer
Gute das weiter

i.

11, 30.

schweifen? nah.

Sieh, das
Leme Denn nur liegt so
Gliick

ergreifen, da. das

Gliick

ist immer

Goethe, Gedichte.

fThese
CrcBSus the is the

men

are

supposed of to

have was been taken

strong

gladiators.

rich

king

Lydia,

who

prisoner by Cyrus

Persian.

282

EPICTETU8.

hither?

Wjis

your your He

desire

in any

was (exKAi^rs)?

movement

danger? was your aversion ance was (pursuits)? your avoidbut a of was things? off. of an No; replies. it not wife? then

the wife

of my to brother be prived de-

carried

Was

great gain we despised then kind of people are the Trojans, by the Trojans? What If they are wise or foolish? wise, why do you fight with If they are fools, them? Avhy do you care about them. In what then is the good, since it is not in these things? adulterous Shall

be

Tell you you

us,

you

who

are

do

not

think to seek

that

lord, messenger it is,nor choose would have be to and to spy. seek

Where it: for if

chose nor it,you you found out it to be in yourselves; of were would

wandering others as

the

way, your

nor

seeking
Turn

what

belongs

if it

own.

your

thoughts you into

observe yourselves: What kind of a the

ceptions precon-

thing do you That which flows easily,hat t imagine the good to be? which is happy, that which is not impeded. Come, and do imagine it to be great,do you not imagine you not naturally it to be valuable? do you not imagine it to be free from which have.

harm? which which free.

In what flows serves material

then

ought

you

to

seek

for

that

f easily,or or that

which

is not

impeded?
In
or

in that is

in that possess do not which the

is free? then Do free you

that

which

Do

you We

body

is it in know

servile that it

condition? is the a know.

not

slave

tyrant, of a fever, of gout, ophthalmia, dysentery, of is stronger? of fire, iron, of everything which of How then is it can Yes, it is which and

slave.

that possible free from

anything hindrance? belongs to the body how is a thing great or or be

valuable

which

is

naturally ing nothis able to

dead,

earth, to or

mud?

Well

then, do you
And which you not possess who

which

is free? you

Perhaps nothing. to compel man. assent can that

appears to false? to see

No that that

And appears

who

compel
No
man.

assent

which

true?

By

this then

you

EPIGTETU8.

283

there to be

is

something from, to

in you or free. naturally toward an But

to desire to move or

averse

to

move

objector propose he has is to from

it,or which prepare of you can or yourself,

to

do

thing, anyan

do

this, unless of that then and have in

received

impressionof a duty? No something men,

the appearance man. which

You is not

these free. for

or profitable things also

which out hindered care a a

is

Wretched

work how

this, take

of man this,seek who good

here.

And is

is it

that possible

naked, houseless, without a slave, without

city,can you me, a man

pass to am

nothing, who without a hearth, squalid, life that flows a easily? show without you a has

See, God house,

has Look

sent at

that

it is possible.*

without I have earth

ground;

without a city, without the a slave; I sleepon possessions, but no wife, no children, no praetoi'ium, who and Am I not

only what the

heavens, and
I not free? my did that one

poor am cloak. I not you see And out withme

do I want?

without When desire? I ever sorrow? did or fear? in failing which
*
"

Am the

any ever of

object of avoid? into falling God to or

that did

I would

blame seems man?f a It is observable a Epictetus from tliink it

necessary of kind man-

in qualification to teaclier sent of all

God

for

the instruction a be

destitute

external man, advantages and who to

acter. suffering charhuman that reason Thus to so

doth a this excellent bear had

carried

great

height,

testimony hath the

propriety of follow method of

which the

the divine

wisdom

thought fit to had not

in the

scheme

Gospel; whose some great author have ichere to

lay his head; and as an

which

in later ages

inconsideratelyurged infinite in

argument the deemer Reof

against the in Christian

religion. The of disparity between our proposal of the the Mrs.

example
New

Diogenes is too

Epictetus and to Testament

obvious

need

any

ment." enlarge-

Carter.

f Some blame who the do God

of the and same ancients, who administration If a man

called of

themselves the philosophers, did and his

world;

there

are

men

the

now.

is dissatisfied

with

the condition

of

world, he and has

the

power as of

going

out

of

it,as he Epictetus often cannot says;

if he

knows,

he

mu.st

know,

that

alter the

284

EPICTETU8,

I

ever

accuse

any

man?

did And

any

of you how do

ever

see

me

with tliose them that

sorrowful whom you

countenance? are I meet Do does not not

with I treat think

afraid

of and he

admire? sees like slaves? he sees Who,

when

me,

his

king

and

master? of the You

This this

is the

language purpose. Cynics,this say No:

their

character, teristic charac-

is their

but

their

is the little

wallet, aud

staff, and

devouring of all that you give them, or the abusing unseasonably all whom they meet, fine thing. Do their shoulder a as you nature great jaws: the storing it up, or or see

playing dishow it of to man

and

the from

conditions a of

human

life,he which is at

may

think

wise

withdraw

state

of is

things with no he is not

fied. satis-

If he believes he he thinks may best for

that

there and God,

he

libertyto do what that there is is a a

himself; that his when are if he

does believe

God,

still think

power he

of

quitting
Many
with

the

world

power cide, sui-

which

he may not exercise

chooses.

persons state commit of

because reasons. they

dissatisfied not the of a

the

world,

but

for other found from I have the

yet heard of human live and as modern

philosopher they and who

fault with life. take condition

things,and voluntarily long whom as retired some Our care philosophers of can,

of them even themselves comfort seems

of

all that

they

provide
The
to

well

for the

of those to they posse"s; hind they leave bethat

them. this world

conclusion

be

that are they prefer living in idle talk; and assume leaving it, that their complaints minds, while to being

men

of weak

and

great vanity they to are can. as

the

pher's philosoas

name,

and

they try be, they as make

others

as

dissatisfied

they after may

profess themselves their have human make as reallyenjoying themselves
These much men, as

fashion the means as

much of they

though they

living with are as

comfort

the conditions

of

life permit, dissatisfied

and dissatisfied,

they would, if they could, who not

themselves

those are have the

less men means

ing of mak-

life tolerable. money mankind but or

These or grumblers their lives

who

their and find

labor

for

increasing the

give their happiness of life; or

diminishing the unavoidable it easier to as

they not blame

God, are, when

sufferingsof human they believe in him; is more

to

find fault with do things in God,

they under which

absurd, make when

they that believe

and

when

they ought which we

to

the best

they can

of the conditions

live.

EPlCTETUFj.

285

you take your

are a

going mirror: to look

undertake at your are so

great

a

business? your enrolled

First

shoulders; observe my man, no a man

loins, as a

thighs.

You

going,

to be

combatant contest. in the In the

Olympic games, Olympic games

frigid and miserable is not permitted to

conquered only and to take his departure; but first he be disgracedin the sightof all the world, not in the must of Nicoor only, or of Lacedgemoniaus sightof Athenians he must be whipped also if he has entered next politans; into the contests rashly: and before being whipped, he be must suffer thirst and more heat, and

swallow

much

dust.

Reflect

without you you very

(to do

know ity, consult the divincarefully, thyself,* God attempt nothing; for if he shall advise this or anything), bo assured that he intends

to become

great

or

to

receive

many

blows.

For

this be love the you, do I

amusing qualityis conjoined to a Cynic: he must floggedlike an ass, and when he is flogged, he must those who the father of all,and floghim, as if he were brother stand of all.f You say

No; under but

if

a

man

flogs

in the

publicplace and of peace

call out,

''Caesar,what

thy protection?" Let us is bring the offender before the proconsul. But what Caesar to a Cynic, or what is a proconsul, or what is any other the Cynic down sent hitlier,and. except him who
*

suffer in this state

The and expression "Know to thyself" tliem. is attributed

to

several is one

sons, perthe

Socrates kinds of among

Self-knowledge and no man

of

most

difficult

knowledge; powers or

lias it

completely. ity, van-

Men

either

estimate or their

too

highly,

and too this is named

self conceit powers

arrogance;

they think

meanly

of if

their

and

do not

accomplish

what

they might accomplish, of they

had

reasonable

self-confidence. this with Matthew the Christian v, f love "

Compare enemies, precepts
The reader

forbearance observe

and that

to

39-44.

will than

Christ and specifies higher injuriesand of (illhis followers,

provocations

Epictetus doth; only as requires one what

Epictetus as describes

the

of dutj'

or

two

extruordiuari/persons,

such."

Mrs.

Ca,rtef,

28^ whom other he than serves, EPICTETU8.

namely
Is he who is

Zeus? not Does

he

call upon whatever

any he when

Zeus?

convinced

that

it suffers, is Zeus he was exercised

Hercules exercisinghim? by Eurystheus did not think that hesitation And he

he

was

wretched, but without all that contest attempted

to

execute to he had and

in hand.

is he who

is trained

the

by Zeus going to call out and to be vexed, he who is worthy to bear the scepter of Diogenes? when he is in a Hear what Diogenes says to the passers-by wretches, will you not stay? but are you fever. Miserable going so long a journey to Olympia to see the destruction the and will you not choose to see the fight of athletes; or exercised combat accuse between God who

a

fever

and

a

man? as Would if God his who

such were a

man

sent man an

him who

down

treating

him and

unworthily,a claimed For a to be

gloriedin example to those accuse circumstances, were passing he tains mainvirtue say compare of

by? more what

shall he of

him

of? he what How

because

decency

behavior, because and displayshis does did he he

conspicuously? Well, death, about own poverty, about his pain?

happiness with that of the great king (the king of Persia)?or rather he thought that there was no comparison between a them. For where there are perturbations,nd and fears, and desires not satisfied, and aversions of griefs, things which you cannot avoid, and envies and jealousies, how is there a road to happiness there? where there But there these things must of necessity are corrupt principles, be. When and care a the friend

young asks him

man

asked, if when to come

a

Cynic and is

sick,

to

his

house

be taken

of in his

tion, sickness, shall the Cynic accept the invitahe replied. And where shall you find, I ask, a Cynic's For the that man friend? as the

Cynic

he He

Cynic'sfriend.

ought to be such another be worthy of being reckoned the may ought to be a partner in the Cynic's

who

invites

EPICTETUS.

287

and scepter to be

his

and royalty,

considered a tends worthy minister, if he inas worthy of a Cynic's friendship, a Diogenes was of friend you that

of

Antisthenes, that if a as man

Crates comes was

a

friend

Cynic'sfriend, and that the Cynic will think him worthy of receiving a Cynic into his reflect on this also: rather house? So that if you please, convenient look round for some dunghillon which you shall bear wind wish for a a

Diogenes. Do and salutes him,

think

to

a

Cynic

he is the

your that to go

fever you into

and may some which not will

shelter you
But and of to you

from seem the to fed

north me be chilled. house you

to

man's then a be well

there

time.

AVhy

do

think

attempting so great ation procre-

thing (asthe of life of

Cynic)? shall chief a man

But, said the young cliildren as

man, a marriage and the duty be undertaken community will on by

the

Cynic?* If you grant me Epictetus replies, perhaps no to the Cynic practice. he of

Avise

men,

readily apply account self him-

For

whose

should we undertake that and he

this

manner

of life?

However

if from be

pose suping marry-

does, nothing will prevent him for his wife another up his father-in-law be

begetting children; children the will

will

another

like and But of an himself, and his in

like like is

himself, himself. like that the

brought

army should

present state of things Avhich placed in battle order, is it not without of any distraction able to go the fit that

Cynic on be

employed only among men,

the ministration
*

God,f

about

The

Stoics

recommended

marriage,

procreation duties of

of children,

the

and discharge of magisterial offices,

the

social

life generally.

f

"

It is remarkable 1 Cor. to the

that

Epictetus here urges uses

the

same

word of with

St. Paul,

vii. 35, and service of

the to same

consideration, from one

ing applyFrom to wholly this and think God, of dissuade

marriage.

many

other was passages

Epictetus with would

l)e inclined

that he heard

not

acquainted of the

St. Paul's

Epistles or that he
Mrs. Carter. I do

had

something

Christian

doctrine."

288

EPIGTETU8.

not

tiea down in the he

to

the

common

duties of

of

mankind, of he

nor

tangled en-

ordinaryrelations maintain if he the and observes and

life,which an if he neglects, honorable

will not

character them spy and

and

good

man? of the

will lose the of

character For

messenger,

herald

God. his consider

that it is his

duty to the

to do

something kinsfolk toward

father-in-law, omething s something to other

of his

wife,

(if he has one). He is also excluded by being a Cynic from looking after the sickness of his own family,and from providingfor their support. have a vessel for And to say nothing of the rest, he must his wife also

heating water for the child bath; wool for his wife when oil,a bed,
I say a that she

he

may

wash

it in of a the

is delivered of the house of

child,

cup:

so

the furniture

is increased. his distraction. self him-

nothing of
Where
to the
The

his other now then

is

and occupations, that king, he who

devotes

public interests. people'sguardian and so full of

cares.

Homer, not Iliad,ii. 25. with the

find any Paul.

evidence

of

Epictetus being acquainted heard Epistle tus Epictefor Paul to of

It is possible that he had
I have not not cannot something of about marry:

of the Christian fact. doctrine, but and says marry Paul
"

observed

any

evidence

the

have

the

same

opinion let them

marriage, for is "to avoid

that

if to they burn." man

contain,

it is better

than

Accordingly his own

his doctrine

tion fornica-

let every own have
He

wife, and

let every what but of a woman man

have should is her do husband." he is not

does to not

directly say a when what that

able

maintain

wife; view the inference

plain from he will of "

do (1 Cor. vii.

2).

Paul's

marriage
Paul

differs not: Epictetus, who
I say

recommends to the as marriage. and not

does It is

he for writes, them and if therefore abide even unmarried

widows,

good

they

I." as a

He

does

the

begetting of not children world present condition
(^od
"

of the marry, unable
"

duty; which Epictetus says the cares

acltnowledge marriage In the Epictetus did. that a

the

"minister

of

should make

because to of

family

would

distract is sound

him sense and

him
A

discharge
"

his

duties. not There

in this.

minister

of God

should

be distracted

by the

cares

of

a

especiallyif family,

he is poor.

290

EPIGTETU8.

to the Thebans

do them And or more

good
Priamus

than who

died

childless? sons or

did ^olus then

Ej)aminondas who less worthbegat fifty more Danaus Homer? of a contribute shall the a man

to the a munity comor or

than the the business

duty

of

general

writer exclude

from

marriage

shall not be begetting of children,and such a man judged to have accepted the condition of childlessness for nothing; and shall not the royaltyof a Cynic be considered for the want of children? Do we not perceive an equivalent his grandeur and do we not justly ter contemplate the characof Diogenes; and do we instead of this turn our eyes to the present Cynics who are dogs that wait at tables,and in no respectimitate the Cynics of old except perchance in breaking wind, but in nothing else? For such matters would not have

moved should

us

at all

nor

should

we

have

dered won-

if the the well idle He

a

Cynic are not

marry

or

beget children. the men are

Man,

Cynic women is the father his care of all men; so his sons,

daughters: he for all. he a visits all,so carefully think that it is from he meets? of

does

he

Do

you

impertinencethat does it as a

rebukes

those

whom as father, as

brother, and of Zeus. a the minister

the father
If you

of

all,the minister me ask please,

also if

Cynic do shall

engage seek he is a in the

administration form Do say who with nor of the state. than appear

Eool, that you'

greater and of administration you ask if he shall

in which

engaged?

among and with

the Athenians the

something must about

the

revenues

supplies, he supplies, but and man talk with

all men, with nor alike

Athenians, alike about or

Corinthians, alike yet about revenues, Eomans, about not

peace

war,

about bad has ask

happiness and fortune, about undertaken me

unhappiness, about good fortune When a slavery and freedom? of such a the administration

state, do of a

you

if he shall engage

in the administration

state? ask

ine

also if he shall govern

(holda magisterial again office):

EPICTETUS.

291

I will say to you.

Fool, what which also for such

greater government now? a man

shall

he

exercise than

that

he exercises

(the Cynic) to have a to be consumptive, certain habit of body: for if he appears thin and pale,his testimony has not then the same weight. o For not only by showing the qualitiesf the soul he must to the vulgar that it is in his power independent of prove but he to be a good man, the things which they admire also show must by his body that his simple and frugal way air does of livingin the open not injure even the body. body also See, he says, I am a proof of this, and my own freshSo Diogenes used to do, for he used to go about is. the notice of the many by his looking, and he attracted But if a Cynic is an objectof compassion, personal appearance. he seems turn to be a beggar: all persons away from him, all are offended with him; for neither ought he to appear dirtyso that he shall not also in this respect drive away but his very roughness ought to be clean men;
It is necessary and attractive. natural ought also to belong to the Cynic much and sharpness; and if this is not so, he is a stupid grace have these qualities fellow,and nothing else;and he must that he may be able readily and to for all fitly be a match circumstances that may So Diogenes repliedto happen. who one said. Are you the Diogenes who does not believe that there are gods? And, how, replied Diogenes, can this be when I think that you are odious to the gods? On occasion in reply to Alexander, who another stood by him when he was and line (Iliad, ii. sleeping, quoted Homer's U)
A
man a

There

councilor

should

not

sleep all niglit,

he

answered, when
The

he

was

half-asleep. so people's guardian and

full of caresi.

292

EPIGTETUa.

But than

before the sun;

all the and and

cunning himself For see knave is how

Cynic'sruling facultymust be purer be a if it is not, he must necessarily of no principle, since while he a fellow in some

entangled the matter

vice

he

will reprove

others.*

kings and tyrants their guards and arms give the power of reproving some do of being able even to punish those who persons, and stead bad; but to a Cynic inthough they are themselves wrong which and of arms gives this guards it is conscience stands: to these

power. for

When

he and

knows has

that

he

has

watched

and

labored

mankind, friend power

still purer, as a

the say

slept pure, and sleep has left him he has thought that he and thought whatever o of the gods, as a minister,as a participatorf that on all occasions he is ready to of Zeus, and

Lead

me,

O

Zeus,

and

thou, 0 Destiny;

and

also. If have he not to his

the gods, so let pleases confidence to speak freely to so it

it

be; why own should

his

brothers, this he the reason children, in of mind: he

a

word

to his kinsmen? nor a a

For when with

he

is neither

overcurious

busybody meddler is in

this state of is others

for he is not is

affairs he may

when

superintendinghuman affairs. a

but affairs, so, you

looking

after his the

own

If that

is not when

also say that his

general is examines busybody, them and if while

he

inspects and cake a soldiers, and the watches you

them have

punishes under you which of not disorderly. But you go rebuke away into

your

arm,

others, I will say a to you. eat Will that rather have For

corner

and with

you

stolen;what who are

have are you you minister to do

the affairs

others?
*

you?

the bull of the

herd, must The

Cynic

is in

Epictetus the how can

of vice religion. He
? This is a be pure,

for otherwise

he

reprove

useful

lesson

to

those whose

hasiness

it is to correct

th^ vices of mankind.

EPICTETUS.

293

or

the queen

of such

the as bees?

Show

me

the

tokens But

of if you

your are supremacy, a drone

they have from nature. claiming the sovereigntyover the that your

bees, do you down as

not

suppose bees do

fellow-citizens will put you

the

the drones?

The as man

Cynic seem also

ought to man no

to

have common such

power sort of a endurance s^'^ne: no

to

insensible

the

and man reviles he

him,

strikes that For eny

him, man no

insults may him, do but with

gives his body he likes. be

who in mind

chooses that that the

it what must he bears the

rior the infein which

overpowered by the in superior to

it is weaker a inferior;and to the

body
He be can is inferior never many,

the

stronger. he from

then

descends

into such

contest

in which

withdraws claims not ately overpowered; but he immedithings which belong to others, he are the the he

things which use servile. there may say,

But you

where will see there how blind

is will and many eyes

of appearances, so has

that

you

Argus

was

Is his assent ever ment hasty, his movecompared with him. (toward an object)rash, does his desire ever fail its object, he would avoid befall him, does that which his purpose find fault, is unaccomplished, does he ever ever in is he

humiliated, is attention and

he

ever

envious? but there what as To to no

these

he

directs he

all his snores energy; is peace; But

everything else robber as

supine. All his is

who to his

takes

away

will,no is. for

tyrant.
And
as

say you

body?
What would

I say there does he

to

and magistracies When he then says to to honors? person

care

them?

any

frightenhim for that children:

through them, masks made are formidable

him. Begone, look them; but I know have they

are

of

shell, and this you you in

they are nothing

side. in-

About

such

a

matter

as

fore, T deliberating.herename,

if you

I please,

urge

God's

defer

the see matter, and

first consider

your

preparationfor

it.

For

294

EPICTETUS.

what into

Hector the house

says and

to

Andromache,

Eetire

rather,he

says,

weave:

War Of

is tlie work

of

men

all indeed, but

specially 'tis mine.
II. vi. 490.

So he

was

conscious

of his

own

and qualification,

knew

her

weakness.

CHAPTER
TO

XXIII.
DISCUSS
FOR

THOSE

WHO

READ

AND

THE

SAKE

OF

OSTENTATIOlf.*
First say to what wo see

yourselfWho you doing; for you are so. wish in

to

be:

then other

do

cordingly ac-

nearlyall do things

this to be

Those

who to follow

athletic

exercises

first determine what there follows. is a a

what If a they man certain man kind is he a of

if are runner

accordingly is a runner in the long course, diet, of walking, rubbing and exercise: in the stadium, all these things are wish

be, then

if different; So you

is

a

Pentathlete, they the still

more

ferent. difare a will find it also in

arts.

If you

carpenter, you will have such and such to things: if a we worker we in

metal, such things. For everythingthat no do, if if we

refer it

end,

we

shall do we it to

no

purpose; the and man. and

refer it to there

the wrong is a

end,

shall or miss

mark. a Further,

general end

purpose, act as a

First of all,we
*

must in an

particularpurpose. What is comprehended touclies made or on

Epictetus
This
in the

amusing and of

manner

the

practice

of

Sophists, Rhetoricians, praise. common

others, who

addresses verse only the to

get was practice time of

reciting prose we compositions from author of the

Epictetus, as

may

learn the

letters treatise

of the

younger

Pliny, Juvenal,

Martial, and

de Causis

corruptse eloquentiae. Upton.

BPICTETUS.

295

in nor this?

We

must

not a be wild

like beast.

a

mischievous, like reference to each

sheep, though gentle; But the particular end

his will. of life and person's mode The t acts as a lute-player,he carpenter as a lute-player t carpenter, the philosopheras a philosopher,he rhetorician has as a

rhetorician. to you: take a When care then first of then

you

say. Come you

and are hear not me

read

all that if you

doing that this without you are purpose;

have

discovered

doing this with reference to a purpose, consider if it is the rightpurpose. Do you wish to do good or to be what praised? Immediately your hear him saying, To me is the value of praise from the many? and he says well, for it is of nor no a

value

to

a

musician,
Do may you run so

far

as

he to is

a

musician, useful? in

to

geometrician. us man

then to to

wish your

be

what? Now can tell a that do

we

audience-room. has can anything useful

others, who

not a received man a

do

No, for neither something useful himself? a anything useful in the carpenter'srt, unless nor he is

is a carpenter;
Do

in

the

shoemaker's

art, unless have he

shoemaker. you wish to know your then if you

received

any

advantage? is the thing object. What that which

Produce which does you opinions, philosopher. What desire promises? Not to fail in the aversion promise? Not to fall into avoid. would

Well;

do

we

fulfill their

promise? Tell me the truth; but if you lie,I will tell you. and Lately when your hearers came togetherrather coldly, did humbled. not give you applause, you went away about Latelyagain when you had been praised, yout went and said to

all.What

did

you

think to of me. me? But The

Wonderful, how did I in

master, I treat swear

of that

by all that is dear matter? particular
Pan and the

Which?

passage

which
*

I described
Such in. were nymplis?* Excellently. literarymen of the lighted day de-

the

subjects winch

the

206 tell EPICTETUS.

Then

do you

me

that

in desire and

in aversion

you

are

Begone; try to persuade acting according to nature? trary somebody else. Did you not praise a certain person conto your opinion? and did you not flatter a certain person your then own who

was

the

son

of

a

senator?

Would I

you not. wish

children to be such

persons?
He

hope is an

and did you praise youth and listens well admires you me. flatter him? to Why ingenuous
He

discourses. your

How

is this?

You do a have these who ever a

stated very

think? then any

not man nor

proof. Then what do people secretly despiseyou? that he a When done who

is conscious thinks of

has

neither

good

it, finds else some

philosopher you have a says, You and

have

great natural

talent,and do you need

candid he says tell me what good disposition, has except this,This man what he act that

think of

that

me?

Or

indicates in your

a

great mind a has

he shown?

Observe; listened he become

has

been

company

to your more discourses,he has heard modest? has he been what a long time; he has reading; has you to turned bad look

reflect he

on

has himself?. he cast he

perceivedin does. to

state for a is? has to away

self-conceit? He A

does man he who

person

teach

him?

will teach

him

to live?

No, fool, but how you with also. Listen

talk; for hear what

it is for this that he admires he says: This man and

writes gether is alto-

better than Dion,* perfectart, much another thing. Does he say. This and faithful,free from perturbations? even

This man is if he

modest, did say me it,I should what say to

him. Since man this

man

is

faithful,tell not this faithful

is.

And

if he could what you

tell me,

I

should add
You
*

this,First understand are then, who
Dion of Prusa because term in

a

wretched named He was say, then plight and

speak. gaping
(goldensopbsame

in

Bithynia was eloquence. of bis then

Chrysostomus a was

moutbed) ist, as time as

of his was rbetorician

and tbe are tbe

understood, and orations fifteen.

living at in Greek

Epictetus. Eigbty some written

still

extant, and

fragments of

298

BPICTETU8.

show them me

that you

put words and do

together, man; What me. only praise me, together cleverly? You put what good will it do you? But by praising? Say to you mean
Well, I say so. admirable, wonderful.

But

if that

is

praisewhatever it is which philosophersmean by the name If it is good to of good, what have I to praise in you? then? speak well, teach me, and I will praise yoii. What to listen to such things without pleasure? I ought a man For listen even to a lutehope not. my part I do not stand playerwithout pleasure.Must I then for this reason Hear what Socrates says. Nor it and play the lute? would be seemly for a man of my age, like a young man ing composbefore Like a young addresses, to appear you.* man, he says. For in truth this small art is an elegantthing,to select words, and and to come ward forto put them together, to speak, and while he and gracefully read them to or
"

is

reading
Does
a

to say,

There

are

not

many

who

can

do

these

things,I sun swear

by draws all that you

value. hear food

philosopher invite people to men him?

As

the not

himself

to

him,

or

as

does, does will be treated

philosopheralso draw to him benefit? What physician invites the him? Rome Indeed do I now those a man

who to receive

by

hear

that

even

the I

physicians in there, the

invite

but patients,

when

lived

hear invited. I invite you and to come were physicians in a bad way for you, and that you that things are are taking care of everything except that of which you ought to take care, and that you are ignorant of the good and the bad and are unfortunate and unhappy. A fine kind of inbetween would would find not Socrates do on so:

and but

Quadratus. he would

The as a

man man come

says,

No. do me. Socrates now. do, you might to hear

He

say

the road; I the notes

hope on will

I don't

anything in

this passage;

but

it

tion. requires explana-

*

From

Plato's

Apology

of Socrates.

EPIGTETU8.

299

philosopher do not produce this effect on you, he is dead, and so is the speaker. I leisure to praiseme, used to say: If you have Kufus was am purpose.* Accordingly he used to speaking to no sitting speak in such a way that every one of us who were had him before accused there one supposed that some what Rufus: he so touched on was doing, he so placed hevitation: and

yet

if the words

of

the

fore the The

eyes

every

man's

faults. ye men,

philosopher's school, not not to go out

is

a

surgery:

you For located disa

ought you are

of it with health

but pleasure, when you has an with one pain. has a

in sound

enter:

his and fistula, you me a

shoulder, another fourth a

abscess,

third utter headache.

Then

do I sit and that in with you the his may same to

little and go thoughts away, which a and

exclamations witli his

praise dition con-

one

shoulder

in

he

entered, another with his fistula that or head

still as aching, and they were? and

third

his

abscess men just

Is it for this then leave their

young their say to shall and

quit men kins-

home, when do

parents and

friends you,

and you

property, that they may are AVonderful! Did Socrates

uttering your or exclamations.

this, or
What it?

Zeno,

Cleanthes? there not

then? as is

the

hortatory style? fourth Who

denies

there is the

styleof refutation,and a the didactic

style. AVho then ever the style of display? able in to reckoned What one style with

these,

is the

show

both

to

person

hortatorystyle? To be and to many the struggle more they are engaged, and that they think about anything than about what they really wish. lead to happiness,but they wish the things which look be for them a which

For

they be fine

in the wrong seats place. must must

In order

that

this may

done,

thousand and listen,
Qellius

be

invited

to

you
1.

must placed and men ascend the pulpit in a

*Aulus

v.

Seneca, Ep. 52.

Upton.

300

BPIGTETUS.

robe

or

cloak and you as

describe

the

death

of Achilles. and more

Cease, I

entreat as by you the

much

exhortation that you turns than need or gods, to spoilgood words can. Northing can have the speaker shows when of them. But tell me good power the

acts

in

to

hearers he hears or he

has

who

when

reading

discoursing is on anxious when he

about has no himself out to reflect

himself?

or

gone

says. these

well: philosopherhit me things. But does he not, even person? He say to some The and another says,

1

must if you

longer a do

No, but a great reputation, about Xerxes;* spoke finely about the battle of Thermopylas.

have

Is this

to listening

philosopher?

CHAPTER
THAT WE THOSE

XXIV.
BE ARE MOVED NOT IN BY

OUGHT THINGS

NOT WHICH

TO

A OUR

DESIRE POWER.

OF

Let an not

that

which for 3'ou nor in another are evil to you: with

not

contrary to formed by nature with is fault: from

is

nature to

be pressed deto

be

others

to be

unhappy

others, but remember has God

If a man happy with them. that his unhappiness is his own all men to be happy, to be free he has given means this purpose be each some unhappy, for made

person

as

his own,

and

other

things subject to hindrance and these things are not a man's things which are not subject to hindrances,
*

perturbations. For to them, some things to things not as his own: privatio and compulsion and deown: are

but his

the own; excelHinc

i. Cicero, de Officiis, 18:

"Quae

magno

animo

et

fortiter

lenterque gesta
Rbetorum Leuctris.
"

sunt,

ea

nescio

quomodo

pleniore ore

laudamus.

campus

de

Maratlione,

Siilamine,

Plataeis, Thermopylis,

EPICTETUS.

301

and

the nature him has who made

of

good care and of us evil,as and you

it

was

fit to like a be

done

by he takes our protects us say, I have

father, from a

own.

But he is

parted he certain person, as and

grieved. Why to did

consider when he that him sequences con-

his

own on that you

which and was belongs

another? he not to why, part looked you for are a

did rejoiced,

also reckon from the

mortal, that it is natural

for you he

foreign country? of his own Therefore

suffers

folly. But why do you or for what bewail yourself? Is it that you also have not purpose who are thought of these things? but like poor women good for nothing, you have enjoyed all thingsin which you took as always enjoy them, both pleasure, if you would sit and and conversation; and now places and men you weep because the you same do

not

see

the

same

persons deserve who have

and

do

not

live in more places. than crows

Indeed and ravens you

this, to the be

wretched

power

of

flyingwhere they please and changing their nests for without others, and crossingthe seas lamenting or regretting their former condition. Yes, but this happens to them because Was then reason they are irrational creatures. of unhappiness given to us by the gods for the purpose and misery,that we lives in wretchedness our may pass and no

lamentation? man Must

all persons must we

be immortal not and go our on

must

go

abroad, and rooted like must ourselves if any weep; and

abroad, familiar the trary, con-

but

remain go when

plants;and we of and

friends

abroad, he sit and we returns, must

dance

clap our

hands

like children? Shall have them is one we

not

now

wean

ourselves

and

remember did not what

we

heard as from

the were if

they

philosophers?if we jugglers:they tell us substance out of

listen to

that

this world it has been

and city,* t3ee ii. 5, 36.

the

which

*

302 and

FPICTETUS.

formed and must remain that then and all of some is one, some that

there

must

be to a

certain

period, some that be

things must others same

give way come others, that

dissolved, and in the

in their

place; some

to

thingsare men who must place,and others to be moved; and full of friendship,irst of the gods,* and f made to be of one are by nature family; with one

be

another, and are others

must

be not man in those who rejoicing separated, grievingfor those who are removed of in addition to being by nature a contempt of all things which his be

with

them, and

from a them; temper

and and

noble are ing havof to not

in the power nor will,also possesses

naturallyfixed

to

property the earth, but

this

not to go

to be rooted at different

times

to different

sometimes from places, occasions, and at others merely for with Ulysses, who it was saw
Of
many men the

urgency

of certain

the sake of

seeing.

So

the states, and was learned

their

ways.f to visit all

And the still earlier it inhabited world

the

fortune

of Hercules

Seeing men's

lawless

deeds

and

their

good

rules

of

law:;}: and ducing introhow

castingout in many many you

clearing away their place good do you think many in how he

and

their rules that

lawlessness of he law. had and And in

yet many friends in think

Thebes, how do Argos, that it

Athens?

how

also, when

gained by going about? And he married seemed to him a proper occasion,and begot left them without or lamenting or regretting

children, and

leaving them as orphans; for he knew that no man takes care of orphan; but it is the father who always and continuously. For it was not as mere that *

is all men an

report for he

he had
See

heard

that

Zeus

is the

father

of men,

iii. 13, 15.

f Homer,

Odyssey i. 3.

i: Odyssey,xvii. 487.

EPIGTETUS.

303

thought so, that

Zeus he was was

his

own

father, and he was

he

called he

him did.

and

to him

looked enabled

when

doing

what

Therefore it is never he

present have to

happily in all places.And desire of what is not for happiness and possible come together. For that which is happy must it to live

all * that

desires,must must resemble neither and

a

person nor as

who

is

filled with But a food, and a have for

thirst

hunger. he sat on Ulysses felt
Do Or you if

desire

his wife

wept was rock.

attend

to Homer

and what man his stories in everything? he else than In not an

unhappy the care

Ulysses reallywept, what man? and good is own

is if may

unhappy?
Zeus be nor truth take

whole of his But

badly administered, citizens that are does

they not himself. think a these if

things is he

lawful

happy like right to was of: and man. Ulyssesdid who weep

and

lament, he knows not

not

good who For

good

if he

who

he

is?

and have for

knows made

what are is, if he forgetsthat that be with another

things

which

been one a perishable,nd to are

it is not

possible
To
a

human

being which always? to a

sire de-

then

things

impossible is it is the

have

slavish a character, and man is foolish:

part of the stranger, of that he can,

who his But

fightsagainst mother she not we

Grod

in

only she way

by

opinions. my laments learned should we when these

does

not

see

me.

Why say has

and principles? care I do may

not not

this, that is not sorrow: not

take not that

she

lament, but I say that what our own. ought
And the sorrow to desire

in every another I then

way is other's an-

sorrow

of own. but sorrow my

is my means, will

stop and my the

own

by not every

for it is in my to power: as sorrow

of another will

I will endeavor to stop every far means; as

I can;

but

I

attempt

do

it

by

for if I

do, I shall be fighting against God, I shall iii. 2, 13. Paul to be op-

*See

the

Philippians, iv. 18.

304

EPICTETUS.

posing Zeus

placingmyself against him in the the reward of the universe; and administration (the punishment) and bedience of this disoof this fightingagainst God of my children pay, not only will the children but I also shall myself,both by day and by night, startled by dreams, perturbed,trembling at every piece of news, and d having my tranquillityepending on the letters of I onlyhope Eome. Some others. person has arrived from and shall be that where come: there you I

is

no

harm. not? that the

But From there

what

harm

can

happen some to you, one are

Hellas is no (Greece)
In
to

is

hope be you be

harm.

this way you. you the are every

place may enough for must cause

of

misfortune there sea, Is it not are, to be so even

unfortunate

where

and of

you

beyond way in which suppose far from is the at and

by

report in a

letters? of Is this the Well

your that me. affairs my

state

security? than you the you time a then are friends

have

died

in the

placeswhich that What of

else have mortals?

they
Or

suffered how and are which

condition time

desirous same the to same see to live to old age,

at

time Know and

not

the death that of a of any course person of a whom

love? many

you

not

in the

long that third us, various

kinds one, things must of happen; a fever shall overpower a robber

another, and

tyrant? are Such

is the

condition us things around cold and

such

those who

live with ways of

in the world:

heat, and and which and

unsuitable

and journeysby land, living, various and another

voyages

by one sea,

and

winds, and one circumstances banish into

surround throw

us,

destroy an man,

another, an upon in a embassy

and

army.

Sit down

then

flutter at all these on unhappy, unfortunate, dependent not on one or things,lamenting, another, and dependent thousands upon ten two, but

on

ten

thousands.
Did you hear this when you were with

the

philosophers? hum^il lil^is

did ^ou iQ^ru this? do

you

not

know

that

306

EPICTETUS.

you do

are

doing what

they the away

do words as and of far

holding their opinions,
Zeno
as

you

speak not to

us

and can of

Socrates?

Will

you

throw

you

the

things

decorate yourself, belonging to others with which you though they do not fit you at all? For what else do they hindrance and free from desire than to sleepwithout pulsion, comand when they have risen to yawn at their leisure, and and their a to wash

the

face, then write and some read

what

they choose,

then

talk about whatever

friends

matter being praised by trifling they may say, then to go forth for

walk, and and need do you

having

walked

about

a

little to fashion can bathe, and of such

then men?

eat

such sleep, we sleep as how? for tell your who are is the one own an

why
Come,
which

say also

you

way

of

easilyconjecture. passingthe time of truth and of to do in Athens?

desire,you

admirer wish

Socrates the do same and

Diogenes. "What (that others do), or yourself Roman who a do you

something
Well, but

else?

Why

then

you

call

Stoic?

call themselves should

citizens,*are

they who falsely severely punished; and reverend not a those, name, thing and but exacts

claim so falsely great and get off unpunished? or is this and

possible, commit the law the

divine severest strong
For what

and

inevitable from those

is

this, which

punishments do who

the who

greatestcrimes?

does

this law not pretends to things which boaster,a vaingloriousraan:f divine administration be let grief, him be envious, let him be unhappy and lament.
*

let a him

say? Let him belong to him be a who disobeys the him a

base, and him slave; let and in

suffer word let

pity; J

Suetonius usurpare (Claudius, 25) says:
Romana
in campo

"

conditionis Peregrinae

homines
Ro-

vetuit manam nomina,

duntaxat securi gentilia.

Civitatem

usurpantes
This "| is
"

Esquilino of the

percussit." Upton.

a

denunciation

hypocrite. he will

\

"

Pity

perhaps means

that

suffer the

of perturbation

EPICTETU8.

307

Well to then; go to

do

you

wish

me

to pay

court

to

a

certain

son? perto

his

doors?* of

If

reason

requiresthis sake of

be for are done the not are

for the sake sake ashamed in want want country, for the

kinsmen,

of

mankind, to go to why

should of a you

not

go?

You when

the doors nor shoemaker, of a

you

of

shoes,

to the are door ashamed

gardener, when to you

lettuces; and when you shoemaker. the

you

to go

the

doors no of the awe rich a want

anything? feel any And awe Yes, for of the not I have rich.

of

Don't

Nor rich. go not as

will How if you

I flatter then were gardener. get what to do Do

flatter the

shall I

I want? what do still you what

I say to you, And do

certain that

get may I

want? is

I

only

tell you,

you should have

becoming you of

to yourself?

Why gone, of a then you

go? further That the

may a have

that

may a discharged
And

duty

citizen, that you

brother, of gone no

friend.

remember

have have

to the

shoemaker,

to the seller of or power You

in go a anything great to who vegetables, noble, though he may

sell dear.

buy rich lettuces: So

they

cost

an

obolus matter (penny), but is worth It is worth him. But

not

talent.

it is here man's door.

also.

The

going

for to the

Well, I will go.
I will talk with with flatter him

talkingabout. you must

Let

it be

so;

also kiss his hand

and

it is not praise. Away with that, it is a talent's worth: to profitable me, nor to the state nor to my friends, to have But done that which a spoils good citizen and a friend. you will seem not

to have not to

been feel eager
I
am

about not sure

the about matter, if the exact

pity, wlien

lie

ouglit

it.

meaning.
*
"

What

follows

hath to no

connection

with

what

immediately
Mrs.

preceded; but belongs
Carter.

the

general subject of the chapter." whom "The seems person to with been man

Epictetus chiefly held by his friends to this pay course, dishis iii,

have

instructed at respects

to to

some

great

Nicopolis (perhaps the procurator,

4, 1) and

visit his house."

Schweig.

308

EPICTETU8.

you went? the What what Dion

do

not Know

succeed. you not

Have that but to a a

you

sake

of

appearance, is it then is it to as advantage advantage to write

again forgotten why you does nothing for good man for the sake of doing right? him done to have right? And who The writes the name man

of

it

he no ought? reward advantage
Do

is to have seek is a written reward and seems seem

it. for a Is there

then?*

you

just? to you

At

good man Olympia enough to

greater than you wish for be crowned worthless a doing what nothing more, games. good it it and

but Does

to you

at the

so

small these

and

thing to

be

good the happy? into this undertake and move a

being introduced city(the world),and it being now
For purposes the work and make foolish a by your gods duty to also of

a

man,

do

you women still want

nurses

mamma,

do you

foolish

by
Will
not

their you

weeping never you to be acts

and a effeminate? know older he you

thus he who

cease

child?

that more does

the he

of

child, the did is, the

ridiculous

is? In Athens you that whom with see no one

by going

to his house?

I

visited any and you

man see

I

will

pleased. Here also be ready to see, please:only let it be without you desire nor

meanness,

neither

with

aversion, and not your deStoics

affairs will be well
*The reward virtue of is

managed. virtue its own But in this result does acts is

the

of

virtue.

The a taught written now

that

reward. not When know I

was

boy I have
I know

this in

copies, but people believe shall

I did

what the man it meant.

that few reward

it; and for no

like as here, they inquire to what of

they sense have

doing other they ought than heathens when thou seek thou hast to or

do.

A

man

common

would will give not answer

what must Epictetus give the done a

gives. answer: man a

But 'For

that

satisfyall. dost not

The want what
Art

more

thou

hast

service? to thou

content

that thou for

done

something for itV

ctmformable as thy nature, a and

dost

be

paid feet ju.=t
9.

if the

eye

demanded

recompense

seeing

the

ing." for walkc.

M.

Antoninus,

ix. 43.

Compare Seneca, de Vita Beata,

EPICTEWS.

309

pend on on

what

learned

standing at the doors, but it depends have is within, on opinions. When you your external and not pendent denot to value things which are

going nor

on

on

the

will, and that to consider

that

not

one

of them

things only are your own, to opinions, to move judgment well, to form to toward an object, desire, to turn from a thing, where is where for flattery, for meanness? there any longer room why do you still long for the quiet there (atAthens), and is your own, exercise the but for the and are these

accustomed? Wait a little placesto which you are then, if you you will again find these places familiar: of so ignoble a nature, again if you leave these also, and lament. shall I become of an weep How

then of a affectionate

temper?
For

By

being to noble to be on reasonable

a disposition,nd nor mean-spirited nor happy. to lament

it is not

yourself,nor or man.

depend

another, become an

even

to

blame person

God

I

entreat

you,

affectionate But if to in this way,

observing you there you as name

these

rules. are through be a

this

by affection, as wretched, prevents love as

it,you no going as a

slave And

and what

is from

profitin being

affectionate. person you. but must loving may children?

another away He

subject to mortality,
Did
not as a a

one own

who

go

from

Socrates free friend man, to

his one did; he he

it

was

who

remembered For to a

that

first be

the coming benor

gods.

this

reason

violated in

good

man, on neither

nothing which was making his defense even or

by fixing a penalty part *

himself,* he was a nor

in when

the he

former was a

of
It

his was life when the custom an senator when at

Athens

the court in some

(the dicasts) had cases on

determined ask him

to

convict

accused

person, to at

least, to but what refused name penalty to he

proposed or be

inflicted to himself;

Socrates that to do

this

to

allow same his friends as do it, for he

said

the

penalty

was

the

admitting his guilt (Xenoif he did name a

phon, Apologia, 23).

Socrates

said

that

proper

310

EPICTETUS.

soldier.

But

we

are

fullysuppliedwith some every

pretext for of a

being some of a ignoble temper, mother, and us for

the

sake

child,
But person, it

for

others

for brethren's on sake. of any

is not but

fit for

to be on unhappy of us

account

to be

happy has who

account

all,but and on chiefly

account

of God

who

made was for this end. kind so Well, did Diogenes* much a

love that much but

nobody, for labor how?

so

lover

of all

mankind and As men, so general he willinglyundertook bodilysufferings? He did love mankind, a in

became and

minister also his taken and

of

God,

at the

same

time this

caring for reason being was was

subject to prisoner he friends God. no For

all the when his

earth he country, and

particular not place; and
Athens became nor did

regret even associates with the

there, but tried to

he

familiar and

pirates and he have of the reason improve as them; at being sold and the to afterward he would

lived in behaved

Corinth the

fore beif is

Athens; gone same,

he

had

country
For this me Perrhaebi.f he used not to

Thus

freedom since

acquired.
Antisthenes

say, Ever a Antisthenes did

made

free, I have him is my own, been what what

slave. says: my

How

make what not free? own, nor

Hear and

he is not

Antisthenes own; taught me

possessionsare nor my nor kinsmen,
What he

domestics, nor friends, of your me, reputation, these The use places familiar, to mode then is to corn-

life; own? that for in

all

belong of it free from be others. This

appearances.

showed from be I possess himself, the hindrance, and he should
c.

penalty to it would

that

daily

allowed Ora-

dine

Prytaneium

(Plato,Apology,

26; Cicero, De

tore, i. 54).
*

The from

character that

of

Diogenes we is described common very books.

differentlyy Epicb

tetus

which in read

in

f A people
Olympus.
country.

Thessaly same between as the

river

Peneius said to '

and any

Mount remote It is the

if

Epictetus had

EPIGTETU8.

311

no pulsion,

person force then or me

can

put use an

obstacle

in

my

way, than

no

person wish.

can

to

appearances power the is over otherwise me? How

I or Who

has

any or Philip have Alexander, this a

Perdiccas
For if a man

great king?

they

power? he must

man,

long before not then

pleasureis nor able to he in a overpowered by be overpowered by things. If subdue a nor pain, nor man, going to

be

fame, out wealth, but

is

able, when face and But

he

chooses,

to

spit life, life, the How

all his poor slave can body was man's

depart manner from

whose in

he still be?

if he dwelt this man's of

with

pleasure of Athens, and

overpowered by been had at his affairs would

have have that

every

command;

stronger would do you think

the power

him. grieving

the flattered have Diogenes would Athenian, that piratesthat they might sell him to some time he some might see that beautiful Piraeus, and the would Long Walls and the Acropolis? In what condition them? what As a captive, slave and and see mean: a you would be the use of it for you? Not so: but I should see them as a

free

man.

Show has

me,

how you, abode to to on you who and

would leads says. you from

be you You

free. away are Observe, some from my as person

caught of your

accustomed

place power power

slave, for it is in my you it please, you: and is in my I when go elated as a

hinder treat living to are

you

gently,and you humble cheerful who one choose, to the What means contrary do you have you

Athens.
What

say to him of

treats you who him will in

slave? you from

finding even rescue

look

the set face, but free? slavery? Or cannot without saying more you you do

you to entreat

to be

Man, before ought who to

go

gladly you Kome you

prison,hastening,going
Then,
I ask you, are those

lead in

there. and must

you

desire to

live in

Hellas also not see

unwilling to (Greece)? And fill us

live

when your walk

die, will you because you

then will

with nor lamentations, about in

Athens

the

31^

iJPIGTBTUS.

Lyceion? reasou Have have

you

gone to abroad find

for this? some was

it for from this

you

sought

person

whom

you

That What benefit? might receive benefit? you may solve hypothetical syllogisms more readily, or handle leave did you brother, arguments? and for this reason when country, friends,your family, that you might return these things? So you did not go abroad you had learned from perturbation, freedom to obtain constancy of mind, nor nor in order

that

being person, thus

secure accuse

from no harm person, maintain

you and no may man never

complain wrong of any and

may

you,

you

may

your fine

relative

positionwithout you have gone

impediment? abroad for in

This

is

a

traffic that

sophistical arguments and hypothetical: if you like, take your place in the agora (market or public place) and proclaim them for sale like dealers in physic* Will not deny even you syllogismsand all that name on

you

have

learned as that

you

may What

not

bring has a

bad

your

theorems

useless? has your you the not done that you

you? the Wherein

osophy philCluysippus injured you harm acts

should

prove

by were that there of his

labors

are

useless?

Were those even

evils that

had cause enough, added which

(athome) pain your
Have have causes not

and you

lamentation, more if you the

had

gone if you will

abroad?

to

list?

And

again more an

other for for

acquaintancesand lamentation; another and

friends, you the same

have take

also if you then upon do

affection to country. with is

Why sorrows you sorrows live

surround which

yourself
*

other old through

This

Cicero who seen a

and sell physic to people. practice,to go about (Pro Cluentio, c. 14) speaks of such a quack (pharmacopola), an would a do

a

poisoning job for in France

a

proper went came

sum

of in money. a I have rang who

traveling doctor sound of

who

about

cart, and Some money, bell, at the deaf way

which

people into round

him.

were

had for stuff others

poured who had

their

ears,

paid their

and

made

other

complaints.

314

EPICTETU8.

in^ will or

your

child and

to say to a with

a

lispingvoice, To-morrow you another some you away But also care die;

friend

also, To-morrow we see one

will go

I

shall,and are never

shall omen. again? don't call

these are words omen; of bad but them

And

incantations

of bad

because

they are useful, I
But which of bad do are for

this; only let omen be useful. those word and

you

to be of bad some except is sorrow, a things of significant and ness mean-

evil? of Cowardice

omen,

and spirit, are grief and and we sliamelessness.

These hesitate the

words

of them you

bad

omen:

yet

ought

not

to

to utter

in order tell me to a protect ourselves name things. of Do

that

which say that

against is significant even of any ears natural corn to

thing is of evil be reaped is of ears, omen? bad

for

the

omen,

for it world. omen, destruction the of the the

but also

not

of

the

the signifies Say that and for for the

fallingof

leaves the

is of the

bad

dried to be

figto made from

take from a a

place of state green For

fig,and all these

raisins are the former certain from

grapes.

things a changes
Such is a into

other and a states; not

structio de-

but

fixed economy home not administration.

going which away

and from

small state change: which now.*

such now is is

death, to that

greater change, is not, but

the which not to that

is not

Shall you will
:

I then be you no

longer exist? came You

will the not exist,but now something else, of also world
*

which

world when

has

need

for

into existence need of

you

chose, but

when

the

had

you.f xi. 35.

Marcus

Antoninus,

Compare

Epict. iii. 13, 14, and

iv.

7,75.

flam
"Universe,"
uses

not

sure
"

if

Epictetus of sense

ever

uses

xodjuoi
I

in

the

sense

of

the it in

universum" common philosophers. of think earth man he

times some-

the

the

world, the when into a and

all

that

is

on

it.

Epictetus

appears

to

teach

that

dies, his elements of

existence

is terminated.

The these

body

is resolved are the for

which

it is

formed, and

elements

employed

other

pur-

EPI0TETU8.

315

Wherefore is and whence

the wise and he came,

good and by

only to this, how he and obediently to God. regularity attentive to exist

remembering who he whom he was produced, is due fill his place with may man, Dost to exist

thou as still wish

me

(live)? I as will hast

continue

free, as for thou is my

noble hast own. in

nature, me thou

wished

me

to

exist: which

made But so free from thou no hindrance further for need

in of

that me? and

hast

I thank

thee;

and no far I have person, thou

remained and now thy sake,
I say, who so me as

for the sake I

of

other dost

in obedience

to thee

depart.

How

depart? Again, free, as thy servant, as one and thy prohibitions. And whom service, man, poses. the a thou known I

hast

pleased, as commands has

thy shall A

long as to be?

stay in thy a dost senator thou or will a prince or a vate prior a

common

person, lie may

soldier

Consistently with which of the we tliis doctrine and liave

supposed that in man

powers,

call rational

intellectual,exist brain name an

by ence exist-

virtue

only

organization of his that what we was

which the old is

superior to that has no

of all other

animals; and of the

soul

independent at death

body. to It

Greek

hypothesis that and the soul I cannot discover that the of

the to body returned the in

earth from from

which it came.

it came,

returned any regions above, Epictetus this in

which the of are

passage

which

doctrine

is

taught
The his book,
A

soul
Marcus

has

an

existence on independent matter the

body. in opinions

Antoninus

contained are iv. 14, recent 21,

and

perhaps elsewhere: has but

they the can

rather of obscure. the

writer

attempted in to

settle we question find no

existence

of

de in parted souls by affirming that heaven it must or a or

place

for them as a

either

hell; for does the not modern admit Alte

scientific notion, the und of was I suppose

that

be named,

conception der Neue

of

place heaven
p.

place hell (Strauss, Der name Glaube,

129).

We

may may

Paul

a

contemporary younger, it is

Epictetus, for though living from at

Epictetus not, I do

have

been
D.

the

he

Rome

during Nero's his D. first reign (A. not to

54-68); and to say,

affirmed, whether wrote correctlyor of A.

undertake

that

Paul

Ephesus of to

epistle

the Corinthians it is

(Cor. in i. 16,

8)

in the till the he

beginning time 56.

tetus, Epicof the mau said, lived

Rome when the

expulsion an philosophersby

Domitian.

retired

NicoDolis

old

316

BPICTETUS.

a general, teacher or a master of thou mayest assign to position

a

family?whatever as and place says, I will

me,

Socrates desert Rome me or

(lie ten where Thebes If thou men thousand dost or

times

rather to than in

them.

And or thou

will

me

be?

Athens, where no means

Gyara. me sendest

Only remember to a placewhere

there are I

am.

there

for

living according to nature, I shall not depart (from wast to thee, but as if thou in giving me life) disobedience the signal to retreat: I do not leave thee, let this be far from intention,but I perceivethat thou hast no need my of me, me. If

means no of

livingaccording

to

nature

be allowed I am, or I will seek men other

place than whom that I am. in

which

other Let

than

tho^e

among be

these these

thoughts you should
Paul's
of

day: and ready to write, these first epistle to

hand you the by night should Corinthians is and

by

read:

about tains con-

taught there. his doctrine

(c. 15)

the

resurrection, which are accepted, I believe, who by all, or
Christian Paul rose seen

nearly all, if there faith: that the but it is not died Christ

any

exceptions,

profess the same understood for our

by

all

in

the was way.

teaches

sins, that after his

he

buried he the

and was again

on

third

day;
Then there

and

that

resurrection rose by many can some

persons.

he is no

asks,

if Christ

from

dead,
"

how

say no that

resurrection

of

the

dead? not But

if there

be

resurrection
"

of

the

dead, then

is Christ

risen" we (v. 13); and are "

(v. 19), men if in this life miserable."

only
But

we

have affirms of them

hope that in

Christ,

of Christ

all

most

he

again (v. 20) that slept."
In

is risen

and

become

the

first fruits

v.
"

32, he asks if the dead seems what

advantages he let us

has

from

his for struggles in Ephesus, to-morrow we

rise not: to eat

and

drink,

die." of

He

not

admit seems the value to sense,

of life, if there we is

no or we

resurrection

the dead; and

he

say that because

shall

seek

ought do not

to

seek

only the pleasures of in any a life is short, if be added

believe is not

resurrection direct

of

the

dead.

It may

that ascended in How

there to assertion or in this

chapter that he some

Christ to heaven He dead this

in

a

bodily form, says up ? and

that

ascended man heaven say, come

any are way.

then raised

(v. 35), "But with what

will

the

body do they which ?"

He

answers

question (v. 36),"Thou

fool, that

thou

sowest

is not

quick-

EPIGTETUS.

317

these you man, should you

talk me to

yourself,and
Then

to

others.

Ask

a

Can

help and to

at all for this

go

to another

to

another.

purpose? and further, if anything that is reflection said be

contrary

your

wish, this it is not to say,

mediatel first will imFor a relieve you, a that

unexpected. that I

it is son am

great thing in all is mortal. For that

cases so

I knew

begot that knew

who

you

also will say, I knew leave my

I

mortal, I knew may Then be if you

I may

home,
I may

I

that

I

ejectedfrom turn it,I knew and that it

that to be led to

prison. the will you

round comes look which

yourself,and has seek

place from forthwith which are are

which

happened, the recollect out own.

that

comes

from

of the What and power then he of the

will, and

place of things of things which you Avillask, a not

my

is it to me? tliat to
"

Then,

ened

except as it die:"

adds and is

God seed from givetli it (the seed) his the seed would
"

body body does from

it hath that that pleased him, body, which and we

every

own

bod}'." seed, which be sown

We

all know
"

the

produced know is not is

the sown shall be:" that His a also

that the no not

die, and seed. if the

seed

died, is that I

body dead produced a such

conclusion

the

is

natural

body; do that same it is raised not spiritual body." about teach this that the

believe

that but the it tors commentaseems

agree did not "spiritual body:" body
He
of
"

plain be the and

Paul as which says God."

will

rise will

the body

which the our is buried.

(v. 50) that "flesh
Yet in

blood Creed but in cannot we inherit

kingdom belief it is is a the of the

Apostles' body: tion resurrec"

pronounce the

in the

resurrection look "for or Nicene

Creed

said

we

the may of

the

dead,"

which from different

thing of have
In person

a

different ministration meaning of "the to resurrection as are

the

body." the the to baptism asked such

of

riper

years, in

be

baptized resurrection is

"Dost of or

thou the

believe Church

God but the in

Father

Almighty," the "in

etc., in the terms of the of on Creeds, is asked

place

of

body the of the

dead, he
The

if he

believes

the

resurrection

flesh."

various of tlie

opinions

of divines

of the A. E.

English church in the
"

the

resurrection

the

body

are

stated

by of Clissold

Practical a Nature to of

Theological Writings

Swedenborg

in

letter

Whately, Archbishop of Dublin, 1859,

3ad ed,"

318

EPICTETU8.

and

thing: And who is it that sent it? The the state, the law of the state. leader, or the general, Give it me then, for I must always obey the law in everything. the appearance Then, when (of things)pains you, this is the chief for it is not in your power to prevent this, contend it: do the not against it to

by the aid strength nor it of reason, to lead as conquer you to allow

gain be in and

consequences it

by raising

images how and Kome:

such

Gyara, do many how but

pleasesand as not imagine the mode pleasures there were it there would on pleases. If you of living at Home, him him who who

for for

lived there returned a man

many

be

to

fix your

mind to this

matter, how like a

who coui-- lives in age. Gyara ought if you

live in

Gyara not man

of

And

be in

Rome,

do

imagine

what

the life

in Athens Then that in and of in

is,but think the only of that are

the life in Rome.

place of you all other

being conscious man. word, but in deed

good

For

what

substitute this, delights obeying God, that not you are performing the acts of a wise to be a thing it is for a man whatever and

able to say solemn manner to

himself. Now in the

the rest may may be

say in

saying

in

a

way

strange way), this

discoursing of my ceive praisingme; and of this Zeus has willed that I shall refrom myself a demonstration, and shall myself know if he has a soldier such as he ought to have, a citizen such to produce me to he ought to have, and if he has chosen as the rest

judged to be opinion (or in a contrai-y to common and are I am doing; and they are sitting and and virtues inquiring about me schools of

mankind

as

a

v^^itness of you

the

things

which

arc

independent of the will: See that that you foolishly desire what you good in things external; seek it not, you one fear without seek

reason, not

do desire: in

the do at if yourselves: purpose he leads

you me will not

find it.

For

this time

time

hither, at another as sends

me

thither, shows me me

to

men

poor, without

and authority, sickjsends

EPI0TETU8.

319

to far his

Gyara, from leads him be nor me

into a prison, meaning, he the

not

because who hates not he

hates tlie best me, me,

such

for

of he he use servants? not yet any because of of others. about

cares

for

for but

does does of me neglect for a

even

smallest me things;* and this as the

purpose to care

exercising Being the say to making to witness I still I am, my

appointed in which and

such am, a

service, do with whom

place about and

I

or

or

what

men

me? to do

I not

entirely direct and commands?

thoughts

God

his

instructions

Having exercising you these

things (or thoughts) by never always

in

hand, in you be

and

them will yourself, and be in it not want

keeping one them

ness, readiand

of not to

comfort to strengthen something keeping gained longer on you. to For

is

shameful

without for have

eat, but fear and from for

to

have
But and a reason

sufficient once away

sorrow. sorrow

if

you there or exemption be a

fear,

will

any

tyrant

you, shall or or

tyrant's guard,

ants attendoffices in at Caesar cause on

?f you Or

any shall of

appointment those who named received a to

court

pain, occasion to

sacrifice to so

the

Capitol from nor

the

being have make

certain

tions, funcity authorof man cause

pain
Zeus? of

you

who do not great

Only it; but satisfied

proud

display if in a no

it,

boast

show

it that

by you your are acts; and

perceives it, be state *

yourself

healthy

and

happy.
i. of

Compare

12, 2, the on

ii.

14, 11, care iii.

26, of 28.

"Compare

this
x.

with

the

description the universal

Providence,

Matthew,
Mrs. Carter.

29,

80, and

occasion

which

it

was

produced."

i See

i. 19, 19.

320

EPIGTETU8.

CHAPTER
TO THOSE WHO FALL
OFF

XXV.

(DESIST)FROM you THEIR

PURPOSE.

Consider at as

to the you are things which have proposed which to yourself have

which first, how and are secured, and you you

not; and the one, recover you

pleasedwhen

recall to memory

the when even

shrink we pained about the other; and if it is possible, things wherein you failed. For we must not are we engaged in the greatest combat, but take blows.* the For the combat in which the before both us must

is the

not

in

wrestling and and may the have

Pancration, may in truth the

successful

unsuccessful a little,nd but

have may greatest nate fortuune fortwe

merit, or or be very is for

very

unfortunate; the contest

combat "Well

good

and have

happiness

themselves.

then,

even

if

(forgood fortune hinders from and us happiness),no man renewing the combat again,and we are not compelled to wait for another four at Olympia may come again;f years that the games have restored but as soon recovered and as yourself, you the combat and renew zeal, you employ the same may it,you may again renew again; and if again you renounce like him who it; and if you once gain the victory, yon are the combat. has never renounced Only do not through a habit of doing the same thing (renouncing the combat) and then like a bad athlete go begin to do it with pleasure, about after being conquered in all the circuit of the games like quails who have run away. % renounced *

in this matter

Compare

iii.

15, 4. were \ These X
"

games

celebrated
"

once

in four

years.

All the circuit of the games and means

the circuit of the
A
man

Pythian,
Perio-

Isthmian, Nemean, in these four

Olympic

games. named to who

had

contended or games The

victoriouslywas
Qjreelcsused

Periodonices, a deutes.

Upton.

put

quailsin

as cockpit, those

322

EPICTETU8,

CHAPTER
TO THOSE WHO

XXVI.
FEAR

WANT.* more cowardly and more How than fugitive slaves? do mean they when they run Avhat estates do they depend, leave their masters? on away do they relyon? Do and what domestics they not after a stealing little which is enough for the first days, then afterward move on through land or through sea, contriving method after another for maintainingtheir lives? And one died of hunger? f But what are fugitiveslave ever you afraid lest necessary less things should fail you, and are sleepby night. Wretch, are you so blind, and don't you see you not

Are

ashamed

at

being

the where

road

to which

the To

want

of same necessaries

leads? which Have have a Well, fever not not

does a it lead? stone the on place to to death.

leads, or often read have much you

that

falls

you,

you you

said this

yourselfto that you and

your

companions? much? as

of this boasted my

kind, and were written easy

and

how

often

to death?

Yes:

but

wife this Savior Mrs. for children

also suffer the beautiful

hunger.J and vi.

Well

"'"Compare of Luke
"

chapter with on courses affectingdis-

our

the

same

subject, Matthew first verse ye 25-34;

xii. 23-30." no "

Carter. your The

of Matthew or begins, ye Take

thought
No
verses,

life,what

shall eat

what

shall the

drink

etc.

Christian and f literallyollows would be condemned

the advice

of this and

following men he

by the judgment of all

if he

did. very f It is

absurd could

to

suppose

that

no

slave fugitive

ever

died

of

hunger. X He and How

Epictetus know man that? is same supposes

that the will who the

dying of hunger dreadful end. and has The

also wife tion, consolawill also

children, who if it is any,

suffer

is that the

rich

and

luxurious all.

kings a die.

The

fact

is true. be Death alleviated as is the lot of

But

painful death all must die eveu by hunger in some

cannot

by

a

man

knowing

that

way.

It

seems

if the

philosopherexpected that

EPICTETU8.

323

then, not does same their

hunger to state

lead some to any

other

place? also? you

Is there Is not choose

the

descent

place for for them?

them Do

there then want the to and those

same

below

not

look

and

place full of boldness against every to deficiency, that place to which both the richest held who have the highest offices,and kings and to that

themselves descend

tyrants must

descend? so or

to which

you

will

hungry, if it should and drunkenness. indigestion ever see

happen, but they burst by What beggar did you hardly and even

who

was

not

an

old man,

of

extreme

old

age? But chilled with cold day and night, and lying on the ground, and eating only what is absolutelynecessary of to the impossibility dying.* Cannot they approach near Cannot not Canof) children? you write? you teach (take care at another person'sdoor? But it is you be a watchman shameful Learn then first what to come to such a necessity. the things which are are shameful, and then tell us that if any at present do not, even a philosopher:but you are other man

call you shameful you are so,

allow you the

it. is not that a Is that of you were to not as a

which cause, as

your which

own

act, that come which

has If your

to

by accident, poor, and

headache,

fever? to parents if while husband wife

and

left

their

property be others, and that death the of women

cliildren

should

and pliilosopliers,

in his

philosophy should by wise starvation. man caliulycontemplate the
This his is an

and

children even a

example

of the

absurdity to which un carried

philosophy;

and

it is

worth}' of the

teacher's
*

general good see sense.

We

many

old

beggars sooner. who

endure would what have in others

could

not

endure;

but

they about and

all die at

last, and
The
to

died

earlier if their open air

beggar cold a

life had

begun help to living

the the

and to wandering and wet

them want last food

longer; but

exposure The as the

of so ha*;tens their end. nor so

life of of a

poor

old

beggar has a

is neither

long

comfortable

that

man,

who

good

home

and

sufficient food, and

lives with

eration, mod-

324

EPIGTETU8.

they live,they do you? Is this what you be never not ypu

help

you

at

all,is this shameful the to

learned

with

hear

that that blame

the

thing which is blamable act an

blamed, and do not

which for

philosophers? Did is shameful ought to is worthy of blame? is not make his own, your him? to Whom he did as you do

which

which father Is this

himself?

Did

you power

then to such power

he

is,or to are

is it in your

improve

given which obtain you were you? not Well

then, ought you you, or

wish

the

things do not

given to
And

to be ashamed

if you

them?

have

you

also been

accustomed and groan

while to hope eat for with

studying philosophy to look nothing from yourself? Lament fear that your you poor may not to others

then

and

and

have

food

to-morrow.

Tremble run about lest

slaves

lest

they steal,lest they

they die. So live,and continue to live,you who in name only have approached philosophy,and have far as you can as disgracedits theorems by showing them to be useless and to unprofitable those who take them up; away, you who have and person for the never sought constancy,

freedom

from

turbation per-

from sake who

syllogisms;ou y of these I not

appearances

passions: you who have not sought any of this object, but many for the sake of have never thoroughly examined any Am I able to bear, or am by yourself.
What remains for me able to bear? affairs third you were to do?

Bnt

as

if

all your on well and of

secure,

you

have

been

resting

the

topic,* that may possess admiration and

order mean that

things being unchanged, in what? cowardice, unchanged
"

the spirit, any

of

the

rich, desire without

taining at-

end,

avoidance in security

the

attempt? you About

fails in which {exxXtoiv) these things you have been

anxious.

Ought reason, *

not then

to have to have

and

gained something in addition from protectedthis with security? And

See iii. c, 3.

EPICTETITS.

325

whom not did you

ever

see

building a a battlement And what

all round

and

encirclingit with placed with no door to to be

able

to prove as on

"

be

tossed

the Show you

door-keeper is watch? But you practicein order what? You that you may not practice sea through sophisms, and tossed about me wall?*

from

what? or first what and

you show

hold, what me you

ure, measor

what

weigh;

the

scales

the

uring (the measure); or how long will you goon measthose the dust?f Ought you not to demonstrate make things which make men happy, which things go on in the way for them as they wish, and why we ought to in the administration blame and acquiesce no accuse no man, man,

medimnus

of the them: I will

universe? resolve

Show

me

these.

''

See, I show

This is the syllogismsfor you." fore Thereslave; but it is not the thing measured. measure, paying the penaltyfor what you neglected, you are now philosophy:you tremble, you lie awake, you advise with all if your deliberations and to not are likely please persons;

all,you

think as that

you

have but you to deliberated it is not will not ill.

Then that

you you

fear

hunger, but you will not a you

suppose: that

hunger have a

fear, you are

afraid

cook, that the have

another off your

purchase provisionsfor shoes, you, a table, others third

to take

fourth in order

to dress

you, in the

to rub

you, you

and have

to follow

that

bath, this when out taken who are off your

clothes you

and may

stretched be rubbed

yourself on like those on crucified then the

side and the of

that, and his the

slave), Change his *
"

aliptes (rubber) may say (to position, present the side, take hold and then when you have

head, show
Plato

shoulder; simile using the to same

teaches

that last of all

disciplines

dialectic

ought

be learned." When

Schweighaeuser. you us

f This is good advice. things,you should attempt use.

propose

to

measure,

to

mate estiyou

first tell and what

what is the

the measure things are or before

to

fix their value;

scales that you

326

EPICTETUB.

left the one batli and

gone to home, eat? are

you And

may

call

out. Does away you learn

no

bring something them: be able to lead who

then, Take of the may the

tables,sponge not you

afraid a this,that
But

the life of in

sick

man.

life of those how are

health, how are slaves

live,how

ers, labor-

those

live who had a lived, who lived, and drew have water. rates h genuine philosophers;ow Socwife and children; how Diogenes attended have these to how

Cleanthes,* who
If you choose to the school

and will

things,you a man can them

everywhere,and in what? which In is secure,

you

will live in full confidence. in which that which be taken you no man fide, con-

Confiding to that alone in

in that

is not away,

subject that hindrance, in that which own cannot

is, to in your useless receive but man will.

And for

and you a good

why have nothing that no man

made

yourselfso will choose care into his

house,

to were take cast of

you?

if

utensil found

entire and it would you you

useful take up,

abroad, every it a

who no a

it up and

and

think man gain; of a

but you

man

will take

every

will office to consider even loss.

So

cannot

dischargethe do are? you you

dog, or of a longer,when
Does To any the blind a cock? you are man Why what then

choose

live any

good good be

fear that not he shall fail to it does soldier nor have not: food? shall does

it does man?

fail,to the lame
And
to a it fail to not nor

good pay, there a fail to to a

one

who and person successor gives him to to

laborer, there be the ample ex-

shoemaker: a the Does

good
God
in

man

shall thus

"wanting such
*

?f

neglect was a

Cleanthes, the of the

of Zeno

his school,

great

pursuit of knowledge to under the wells

difficulties: for the in use during the of the He

night he used

draw

water

from

dens: garwas

during the author of

the a day

he

employed to himself

his studies.

noble

hymn they man Zeus, which

is extant. make

f It when we

seems

strange that that of the

Epictetus should are such after assertions he himself know

not

true.

Shortly with speaks even

good

not

being supplied

food

by

God,

EPICTETU8.

327

things that whom both does there alone that not he he he

has

established, his ministers, his witnesses, as employs and exists,

examples administers to

the

uninstructed, the well that whole, and

neglect human no a affairs,nd when he is

to

a

good

man

or living when he is dead? with food? he does when not then What supply him he do than* like a good general he has What else does I obey, I follow, assenting given me the signalto retreat? of the commander, to the words praising his acts: for I it when when it pleasedhim, and I will also go away came him; and while I lived,it was duty to praise pleases my and to God both by myself,and to each severally person with things,nor many.f He does not supply me many with abundance, he does not will me to live luxuriously; his own who for neither did he supply Hercules was son; but another (Eurystheus)was king of Argos and Mycenae, and Hercules obeyed orders, and labored, and was exercised. And Eurystheus was what he was, neither king of Argos of Mycense, for he was not even nor king of himself; but

is

evil either

Hercules who

was

ruler

and

leader

of the

whole

earth

and

sea,

justiceand purged away lawlessness, and introduced alone. and he did these tilings both naked and holiness;! And when out cast Ulysses was shipwrecked, did want humiliate how did he go but him, did it break his spirit? is conoff to the virgins to ask for necessaries, beg which to sidered shameful most ?"
As
a

lion bred

in the

mountains

trusting in his strength.
Od. vi. 130.

*

See
"

i. 29, 29. Hebrews in xi. and

f nearly the superior Mrs.

See

i.

16, 15. which the and :j: Compare Philosopher same reason

xii., in same Apostle and even use

manner

the

terms; Hercules

but

how

is the

example

urged by the Apostle

to

and

Ulysses!"

Carter. and her maids for " The when he

story of Ulysses asking Nausicaa was help

cast

naked

on

the land

is in the

Odyssey,

vi. 127.

328

EPIGTETU8.

Eelying on on

what? of a

Not

on

reputation but on

nor

on own

wealth

nor

the

power

magistrate, about are men

his

strength, are that power is, on and his

opinions which make which which

the not.

things
For

which these are in the

our

those

only escape who on things from are

which

free, which raise the them And you head look this will was make

them of those

hindrance,

(neck) with depressed, rich the and on make

steady forth eyes

the to tyrants.
But

(is)the come gift given bold, but vessels.

philosopher. about man,

not

trembling Unhappy
What
a

your have

trifling garments you be thus sick? wasted You will on and your will take a silver time be

till in of bed.

now? such me? But

then, as if I shall

sick care way

you

ought like to

be.

Who lie down I be for also. be you and the

God; you your will lie

friends. down

I shall a hard not an

man.

shall in the You end

have

a

venient con-

chamber.

You will for

will

sick me inconvenient food?

chamber.
Those Manes.* who

Who

provide others will Do man necessary will of be the

provide
And than what

sick

like

also

sickness? that of this mean Any the other chief

death? to then the

consider

of all evils of cowardice

chief but advise

mark the to spiritand death? is not fear

death, then I

rather you your

fear

of

Against to this

exercise

yourself: and made
*

this and

let all your you will

reasoning tend, know that thus

exercises, are reading; free. Manes is only

men

a

slave's ran name.

Diogenes and had

a

slave

named was Manes, infonned his where

only the slave, who slave was,

away, did it not

though it a

Diogenes worth if

he

think

while Manes

to

have could

him live

brought without back.

He

said, and would

Jje could shame live

Diogenes,

Diogenes

not

without

Manes.

330

SPIGTBTVS.

and

say, You as differ not to at

all from a those

who

have else I a been

thrice sold you to

being yourselfnot blows? For he was slave,what says, ought slave, whom and I own a

expect than father can

What, was I whose no man

free, whose am mother

free,I rank, and purchase: I
CaBsar, and
In the I

also of senatorial

friend many man, of

have

been

a

consul, excellent in the

slaves.

first

place,most was a

senatorial same perhaps your servitude, and

father your

also

slave your

kind

of

all your were as

grandfatherand But even if they ancestors in an ascending series. it is possible, what is this to you? What free as of a

mother, and

if if

they they
And

were were noble

nature, and you you has to a

you

of

a

mean

nature; the and fearless,

coward; not to

if

they had to exercise with

power

of

and self-restraint, may to are

able do

it. a what, you
Does it seem say, you

this be

being a slave?

nothing

to

do

thing

has this nothwith compulsion, with ing unwillingly, groans, to do with being a slave? It is something, you say: but who is able to compel me, except the lord of all,Ctesar; that yon Then have one even you yourselfhave admitted master. But

that this in a he

is the you

common

master

of know the

all,as that you you of

say, let not are a

console

at

all: but So also

slave

great family. to people of Nicopolis are we used

exclaim. By the fortune not never

Ca3sar,*
Csesar
at

are

free. if you tell me However,

please,let

us

speak love then you

of any

present. a But

this: did you

person,

or girl, slave,or free? respect to being a slave or free?

young

What Were

is this with never manded com-

by did *

the

person to beloved have oath. to do never something flattered which your compares you little the not
A

wish usual do? of you
See
as

form

ii.

20, 29.

Upton

Roman

expression "Per
Quod
Obsecro te per

Genium,"
Genium,

in Horace

Epp. i. 7, 94:
Penates

dextramque,

Deosque

et obtestor.

SPICTETUS.

331

slave? man have

you

never

kissed

her

feet?

And

yet would else

if any think

compelled an you

to

kiss Caesar's

feet, you
What

it

insult Did

and you did wish

excessive never tyranny. go out

then

is

slavery? whither you did

by night did you submit to to

some

place what with to be own you not not to wish

to go,

you not not utter

expend words and your

expend, did you are did not sighs and excluded?* groans, But what

to abuse

if you

ashamed says

confess

acts, seen see so

Thrasonidesf

and

does, who not even

having you much

have, first of does not

military service as perhaps all went out by night, when out, but cried out

Geta

(a slave) his gone Thrahave

venture

if

he

were

compelled by would what does

master, would

have

much

and

lamenting sonides say? A out no

his bitter worthless

slavery. Next,

enemy a ever

of

girl,and
Then

free? yourself

whom me girlhas enslaved me, did. the slave even who are Unhappy man, a worthless girl. Why then do you still call service in the and why do you talk of your he calls for a army? who out

sword

and and and he

is angry sends weeps, he

with

him to of kindness hates

refuses

it;

presents and on

her who other even

him, and had a

entreats

the But nor hand then

having how? was

little

success

is elated. to he free

enough of neither

desire

to fear?

Now the feed
*

consider of

in

the

case

animals, how tame we

employ up, will and say a notion

liberty. some Men

keep them mistress

lions

shut who

them, and
A

take

about; and was a common

lover's cause exclusion

by Ms

topic, and

serious

of

complaint
At lacrimans

(Lucretius, iv. exclusiis amator

1172): limina saepe

Floribus

et sertis

operit.

See

also Horace,

Odes, i. 25. was a

f

Tlirasonides "The Hated."

character

in

one

of

Menander's

titled plays, en-

332 this lion is free?* ease, so

EPICTETU8.

that he

Is it not much the

the more fact he

that is in reason the a more

lives at his and one slavish would when

condition? wish to are who of and

if he had these are perceptionand
Well, these up, how some be

lions? shut birds do them

they of as

caught rather kept submit much of

they die And

suffer in their

attempts than as

to escape to ?f

and a hunger many and

such

kind

of life.

of them if So

live,hardly live and with suffering ine p find any

away; escape. to be

they ever do and

opening, they their natural hindrance. do to make

their

much

they desire free this? I from in

a liberty,nd And what I am independent is there to you

harm formed

What

you

say?

by

nature

to

flywhere you choose, this live in the of all we open

air, to sing when say, I choose: is it to

deprive me
For
reason

this, and shall say endure from

what those

harm

you? are that

animals as soon

only as free, which are cannot

capture, but

they

caught, that is to cannot can

escape

captivity by there and is he one death. way to So

Diogenes and also somewhere die

says that content: freedom,
Persian
more

writes

to the

king, You than you them?

enslave

the

Athenian How says

state

any

enslave catch you, as men

fishes.

is that?

cannot

I catch will a If you leave

them, fishes that

Diogenes,they for if you catch

immediately use do; are it fish, dies; and to you

if these is the free as was a man

caught

shall

die, of what are preparation who had

for war?

These

the the if you

words

of

a

carefullyexamined discovered from
*

thing, and, look for if you

natural, had different find it?

it. it

But

it in never place

where

is,what been wonder rather the

It must of such

have

difficult to manage Romans.

a

tame

lion;

but

we

read

things among of birds

Seneca, Epp. 41. and f The common keeping among the the

in

cages,

parrots ii. others, written was a

also tiful beau-

Romans. of a Ovid

(Amor. parrot. 6)

has

elegy on

death

favorite

EPICTETUS.

333

The Do you

slave think wishes that he

to

be

set to

free pay

immediately. Why? money he to wishes

the

ors collectthat

of twentieths?* hitherto and all and

No;

but

because

imagines

through

not

having for no

obtained

this, he all come

is hindered

unfortunate.

If I shall be set care free, immediately it is

happiness,I like to

man,

I

speak to

as

an

equal any is set

them, I go where place I choose, and go where

I I

choose, I choose. from he can Then he with

free; and looks shall for sup: the manger,

forthwith some man

having to no

place where one eat, he whom and obtain he dures ena

some flatter,

then most he

either

works

with

his

body can dreadful a he falls into even things;! ^^^^ i^ worse slaverymuch is ^^^

than a man

his former without little

slavery;or any and in his

if he of what

is become

rich, being loves and desires suffer

knowledge

good, he did I

some

girl, slave of

happiness what laments evil

to

be my

a

again. He says, slavery? Another shoes, another and man,

in

state

clothed me, me,

another looked

supplied me me now

with

fed

another services

after But slave

in a sickness; wretched instead

I did what one. only a
But

few I

for him. a things

suffer,being

of

many

of to then order is

however, he says, if I shall acquire rings, J I shall live most prosperouslyand happily. First, in to lie to that which acquire tliese rings, he submits worthy of; then when he lias acquired them, it is again the
*

all

same.

Then
The
of a he

says, were If I men shall who vahie

be

engaged this slave

in and See ii. 1, 26. taxes. Publicani twentieth at an

farmed of a other

A was tax

of

the

when
It appears tax out

manumitted from of his

established

early time
1,
note

(Livy slave vii.

16).

this passage

that

the

manumitted 7.

paid the

savings (peculium). reader See the

ii.

f The

may

guess worn same

meaning. E"iuites;and desire to

sire

J A gold ring was the gold ring is the class, by the as accordingly raised to

to

de

to

be

the

trian Eques-

334

EPICTETU8.

I militaryservice,

am

free from as all evils. as a

He

obtains

tary mili-

service. nevertheless he he

He

suffers for a much

flogged slave, and and a

asks has

second

service

third.

After

this, when slave and what

stroke put the finishing is become the a (the colophon) * he serves

to his career,

and

senator, then he to be nature

becomes the to a

by enteringinto most assembly, then
"

finer learn

splendid slavery not what is the Socrates tauglit, that a man

a

fool, but of each

thing that

rashlyadapt preconceptions to the several thingswhich are.f For this is the cause of all their evils,the not being able to adapt the to men generalpreconceptionsto the several things. But we have of our different opinions(about the cause evils).One man exists,and sliould not thinks he

that

he

is sick:

not

so

however, but the fact is that
Another father favorable not does

not

adapt is poor;

his

preconceptions right. that that and he has Caesar a severe

thinks or that

he and

another

mother;

another

again is one

is not

to him.

But how

all this to knowing not a

adapt

the

thing, the only one preconceptions. For who

has

preconceptionof that which is bad, that it is hurtful, to that it ought to be avoided, that it ought in every way be guarded against? One preconceptionis not repugnant it comes of adaptato another, J only where to the matter tion.
What then is this He the

evil, which answers is both to be

hurtful, and the a

thing to
He

be avoided? far from

not

Caesar's friend.

is gone he is

mark, he has the missed

tion, adaptaare

embarrassed, he seeks

things which

not

pertinentto the matter; for when he has succeeded in being CaBsar's friend, nevertheless ing he has failed in findwhat he sought. For what is that which man every seeks? To live secure, to be happy, to do everything as he then he wishes, not to be hindered, nor compelled. When at all
*The

colophon.
"

See

page

159, that note. some After words

the have

words

"most

splendid slavery been omitted

it is

probable

accidentally
i. 22.

in the MSS.

f Compare

i.

2, 6,

X Compare

EPICTETU8.

335

is become free whom have Come now or we

the friend

of

Caesar, is he free from

hindrance?

from shall

compulsion, is he tranquil, is he happy? Of more we inquire? What trustworthy witness this very and you tell man us

than

who when

is become

Cesar's

friend?

forward before

became

did you sleep more quietly, Csesar's friend? Immediately entreat you me: hear you come the answer. know to me; not

Stop, I what one comes

you, I

and

do

not

mock

miseries and

suffer,and says, Caesar come more

sleepdoes is not

but

already and awake, cares. or

he

is

now

going did what he

forth: sup says

then with about

troubles

Well, when
Hear if he is not like that a you

now pleasure,

before?

this

also. if he is

He

says

that

invited, he is pained: and his say he can a or

invited,

he sups anxious

slave with not master, do all the

while

being
And be

he does suppose

anything of; foolish.

Avhat do you lashed like as a

that How

is afraid he

lest he should

slave? befits he may so expect anything so good?
Cesar's
And take kind I

No, but afraid bathe

great lose man,

friend, he when did

is you

that more his

head.

free

from

trouble, and
In your so your

gymnastic swear exercise

more

quietly? present or so

fine,which former of life did you can as

prefer? your no man

life? of he

that to is own stupidor misfortunes ignorant the nearer

truth is in

not

wail be-

his Caesar. Since

friendshipto kings live as

then

neither nor those

who of

are

called

they choose, who from able that are the friends

kings, who will are finally

those aids not free?

Seek, and

you

find; for you

have are But if you discoveryof truth. yourself by going along these ways only to nature for the

discover the inquiry. to which What

follows, listen do The the

to

those Docs

who

have

made seem they say?

freedom Is it can you

a

good thing? he who obtains

greatest good. greatest good then then possible

that fare

be

unha})py see or

badly?

No.

AVhomsoever

you

shall

unhappy,

336

EPICTETTJ8.

unfortunate, lamenting, confidentlydeclare not that then

they are got away about

free.

I

do and

declare

it.

We from

have such

now

from matters buying of and selling

arrangements

these

property; for if you have matters, if the great king (the he cannot be nor free, nor one can

a

rightly assented to Persian happy, king) is unlittle king, nor a man twice consul. Be

of it

consular so. rank, then who

has

been

Further seem answer

me

this

questionalso,does and it noble and Is

freedom valuable? when a to you

to be

something great seem How man should obtains

it not

so?

possiblethen

anything so great and valuable and noble to be mean? It is not possible. When then you see any man him or subject to another flattering contrary to his own also is not free; affirm that this man opinion,confidently and not only if he do this for a bit of supper, but also if he does it for a government (province) or a consulship:and call these do these men little slaves those

who who

for the do so sake

of little matters of

things,and
Do you

for the sake to be.

great is admitted

things

call also.

great slaves, as they deserve think that

This a freedom

is

pendent thing inde-

and then it is in that

self-governing? Certainly. the he power is not of another And to hinder

Whomsoever and compel, entreat declare you,

free.

do

not

look, I if you

after his about

grandfathers and his being bought or his heart and with him
"

or great-grandfathers,

quire inhim if

sold; but
"

hear even a

saying from the And

twelve if you

fasces hear him

precede him a

feeling, Master," (asconsul),call him that I am, see slave. I

say,

Wretch If

how

much

call suffer,"

slave.

finallyou y a him

lamenting, he wears a

complaining,unhappy, praetexta.* If then he
*

call him

slave

though of is

doing nothing
Artaxata
mores."

this ii,170. kind, do

SIo

praetextatos referunt

J

uv.

See

page JO,note

338

EPIGTETU8.

nor

royalpower; then is that and What

but

something when we

else

must

be

discovered. us What

which

write

makes

free from the art hindrance

unimpeded? then lute. have

The

writing. science science but of

is it in

knowledge of playing the heard the any in a of

lute?

The

playing the
You the

Therefore then in

in life also it is the

of life.

general way: parts. Is it which Is it he

examine

thing who can

also desires

several of

possible that he depend on others possiblefor him cannot the

things
No.

be free from be

hindrance?
No.
we

to

unimpeded? then: whether or Therefore have we be free. is in our Consider own nothing have all and

which

power some things,or others When power to whether the wish not?

only, things are others. to

whether in our own

power, you

in you or power the

of

What

do

mean?

body

be entire power. in my is

(sound),is
When power. this. Life then

it in your wish it

It is not Neither

in my is this Nor

you When or be

healthy? it to be

you death?

wish

handsome? power. who is

Neither

is this in my every man Your

body to is another's, It is. you

subjectto
But your and please, No. And these to stronger than yourself? power have as estate, is it in your as it when you

long as

you

and please, No. And wish And your

such your horses? means or

please?
No.
one

And your

your house? And

slaves? No. if you or clothes? Not your

of

things. your by

all

children it

live,or
Whether

wife,
This

your

brother, in my

your

friends,is

in your

power? then also is not you

power. own power, taken know Is any false?*
*
"

nothing which is in your which depends on yourself only and cannot from have anything of the kind? you, or you Look at the thing then not. thus, and examine man have

be I

it. is free

able man. to

make

you

assent

to

that then

which are No means In the matter wbicli seems
"

of assent you to

you
See

He

that of

to

be

false.
"

iii. 22, 42.
"

In the matter

assent

then;

this is the

third

locus

or

divis-

EPICTETUS.

339

from
.

hindrance a man

and you

obstruction. to Granted. to move

Well; that he

and to can

force do not or

desire He

toward

which me you

choose?

can,

for when me threatens to move

with

death it. any an bonds, he compels to to

desire

toward still pay of death act. a

If

then, you of your own despisedeath
No.
or

and

bonds, do the you

regard act him? own Is then

despising
It is my toward to is it not

yours? to move

It is your

act

then

also to desire own thing: or move is it not from What should a so?

It is my

act.

But

desire also to

away act. thing,whose if I have me. act

is that? to This

is your

then

attempted
What

walk, suppose does but he my No:

another hinder? poor but your I does

hinder the he

part assent? a

of you

he hinder

facultyof do who

body. no Yes,

as

would And

with

stone.

Granted;

longer walk. free from

told you

that

walking only was there is

act

hindrance?

for I said that move: this

free from need of

hindrance,

to desire to

but

where

is

body

and

its

co-operation, you to have heard

long ago
i.
to to same ion

in

2, philosophy (iii. 1-5). As affirms to to

the

Will, be compare

17,

note

10. that

Epictetus is to

that

a

man

cannot

compelled woi*d, the to assent, believe admit, seems allow, him to

or,

to

use

another use in that

which to be

false, or, he does

-Aord the
' '

again,

believe uses in

that

in which

not

believe. the

When

Christian

the

two

creeds, which or begin with to words, cannot I believe,"

etc., he knows an he

ought same some

know,
He

that he may to

compel alties pen-

unbeliever of various

to

accept the kinds but their be case belief.

by pains and or compel as no

persons or profess

to

express some are

the

same

belief: to pains so penalties could that this the

compel when Christians men deny
The

belief,

I suppose to perhaps there belief who

could

not

compelled of express

they belief if he

have are it not. not the

believer may and be unbeliever in

however his

the

same.

The will believer in some

strengthened be by the belief that he denies same

way The

punished will to assent

by God, not that motive not which or reason

he

believes. for not

unbeliever

have

the he to expressing his that it is and he

that which the to same

does

believe.

He to

believes

will

be. all

him

with

respect

God, whether

gives his assent

that which

340

EPIGTETUS.

that can is nothirig compel you to propose

your

own.

Granted what or

this do not to can

also. wish? make any

And No use man me

who man. to desire or you in

And

intend, do short

of the pel com-

appearances

which He cannot present themselves, this: but he 1 desire. one you? which be any

will hinder If you

when thing any-

I desire from

obtainingwhat is your own, desire

and

of the

hindered, how
Who then

will he tells you

hinder that he

way.

not things which canin you? He cannot who desires the things

that belong to another
Must I then else that power to to

is free from

hindrance?

not

desire

health?

By you it

no

means,

nor

thing any-

belongs to to another:

for what

is not

in your

acquireor another. Keep more keep far when from

then even this belongs please, not only your hands, If you do

but have your

than

that,

your

desires.

not, you

surrendered

neck, if that is

yourselfas a slave; you have subjected admire anything not your own, to everything you dependent on the power of others and perishor

he

does to not

believe him

refuses

his

assent.

There to remains

nothing he does does not then not trouble

if he

expresses

his assent who

that which that he

believe, except the opinion of those or know

believe, he may some his

own

reflections or on

expressing words man

his assent

to that a which

does

not

believe; no in other to his or some

publication of in any way.

which lie, that to probably do men are

harm

any

I believe at strong enough, uuder assent to

circumstances

least, but refuse do not

their

anything which do they do under man as

not

believe;

I To

affirm that to they would under this

all circumstances. cannot return

the matter to consideration, a

be

compelled he believes ter mat-

by

any

power

accept voluntarily a thing this act of his is is well Yet
"

true, when

that it is not whether because he

true; and his unbelief cannot as

quite independent or of the not founded it not.

He

does

believe

believe. it now is said

(Mark believeth xvi.

16)

in

the

ceived re-

text, shall stands, he as

He

that

and

is

baptized
"

be saved; but The cause, that it is men believeth

not, shall this be

damned is demned). (conto be

called, of do not

unbelief the

explained by

some

theologians;but it does

all not

admit

explanation

and sufficient;

concern-

the

present snbject.

epicts:tus.

341

liking. Is not my It is a part of your own own? hand body; but it is by my nature earth, subject to hindrance, compulsion, and the is stronger. And slave of everythingwhich why do I say You hand? ought to possess your whole body as a your are as poor ass loaded, as long as it is possible, long as you and a soldier should But if there be a press,* allowed. lay able,to which you have conceived a hold you the

of

it,let it go, do

not

nor resist,

murmur;

if you will also

do, lose to

will receive ass. blows, you and

nevertheless to feel

you thus

But

when

ought

with

respect

the

body, consider what remains to be done about all the is provided for the sake of the body. When rest,which the body is an ass, all the other thing are bits belonging to these fodder. Let the ass, pack-saddles, shoes,f barley, than of also go: get rid of them readily quicker and more the ass.

have and preparation, ticed practhis discipline, distinguish that which to belongs to another that which the things which from is your own, are from those which are not, to consider subjectto hindrance the things free from hindrance and to concern yourself, those which not free not to concern to are yourself, keep do concern fixed to the things which your desire steadily from do not concern and turned the things which yourself, do No For about one. yourself; you still fear any man? what will you be afraid? about the things which are your in which consists the nature of good and evil? and own, who these things?who take them has power over can away? who No than he can can man more impede them? can, no

When

you

have

made

this

*

The

Greek

word

is of

Persian

origin (Herodotus, viii. 98). It for means

here

the seizure

of animals

military purposes

when

it is

necessary.

f Here the word

he in speaks of

asses
"

being shod. calces." The

Latin

translation

of use Epictetus is iron. ferreae

I suppose

they

could

nothing but

342

EPIGTBTUS.

But will you be afraid about impede God. your body and about thingswhich not are yours, about your possessions, you? and what else have things which in no way concern the beginning than to distinguish you been studying from the things which and not your own, between are your own and not in your power, the things subjectto in your power and not subject? and why have you come hindrance to the nate was pliilosophers? it that you may nevertheless be unfortuwill then in this wa}, as 1 have You and unhappy? supposed you to have done, be without fear and disturbance. And what is grief to you? for fear comes from what you is present. But what expect, but grieffrom that which within further will you desire? For of the things which are of the will,as being good and present, you have the power and regulateddesire: but of the things which a proper are not so

in the power you do not of the any

will you

do

not

desire which

any is

one,

and

allow

place to measure that

irrational,

and

impatient,and then any you can above are hasty. toward you ?

AVhen man a man or more

thus

affected to things, what
For what you has see longer be him one or

formidable to which

is formidable

another, either when conversant to

him Not one speak to than to

are finally

with

him? or horse or has with one respect and another,

dog are another, these too

bee

to another

bee. any take then of

Things man indeed able away, to formidable

to every

man;

when or is

confer he

things on

another

to

them is an then

becomes

formidable.

How seat acropolis(a stronghold or demolished? For if we fortress,the not Not abolish

by the the

sword,

but by fire, is in the

which acropolis that

tyranny) by opinion. we can city, women? us

abolish
Can
cast us, we

also in a that word

of fever, and abolish the of beautiful

which acropolis us, is in

and

out

the

tyrants the same

within

whom

we

have times

dailyover different this we sometimes But

tyrants, at other we tyrants?

with

this

must

begin, and

with

SlPIGTETUS.

343

must

demolish

the

acropolisand

eject the

tyrants, by

giving up the body, the parts of it,the faculties of it,the the reputation,magisterialoffices,honors, possessions, all these things children, brothers, friends, by considering And if tyrants have been ejected as belonging to others. from in the acropolisby a wall of us, why do I still shut circumvallation,* stands, what does at

least to on

my me? do

account; for if it still

it do For their

why
I

do

I still

tyrant's) uards? g others they have swords. But

where

perceive them? their spears in my is this hindered

eject(the against and their

fasces, and been will. And

I have I did

never

will,nor

compelled when I have placed my God. f Is it his also. It is my

not

how action

possible? to movements

toward I shall have move in obedience It is my

will that

fever? toward

will

Is it his will that

I should

anything? obtain I do thing? anynot

will also.
It is my

Is it his will tliat I should wish also. I

Does

he

not

will?

wish. to the to be

Is it his will that rack? It is my

die, is it his will that I be put then then to die:

will Who

it is my

will then me put to the rack. to is still able to hinder me?

contrary more my can own

than