Premium Essay

The Forest People

In: Other Topics

Submitted By nunezchr08
Words 920
Pages 4
Participant observation is defined as first hand experience. Participant observation is a method developed by Anthropologists in the early 20th century. When Anthropologists noticed that in order to fully understand the question, “Why” in culture. Why do a certain people do this, why is that important, or why do they all do it, are just some of the questions anthropologists use participant observation. The key to participant observation is fieldwork, where the anthropologist actively lives with the people of the culture they are studying for about a year or more. Where the anthropologist goes through culture shock by leaving all their possessions at home and starting a new. This technique of studying gets the anthropologist to become one with the culture, where they participate in ceremony’s and traditions with the people as a member. So much so that they go through culture shock once they return home, because they have opened their minds to a whole new way of thinking and living.
Colin M. Turnbull is an anthropologist who went to live in the Ituri Forest with a group of people called the Pygmies. The Pygmies is a culture that many people before Turnbull mistaken as uneducated and weren’t living life to the fullest because of this. Turnbull had two voyages to the Forest where in his first voyage he saw the Nkumbi ritual and was inducted as a member of the Pygmies. Two years later he went back to the forest leaving everything behind, unlike his first voyage where he believed he could learn everything from just observing. Turnbull lived for three years with the Pygmies; he went through many culture shocks. He had first had experience with the Molimo, Nkumbi and Elima, which to him all seemed odd. If hadn’t Turnbull used the method of participant observation he would have never learned that each ceremony had a meaning behind its odd actions. He actively learned in...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Forest People

...Cultural Anthropology March 8, 2015 Turnbull’s The Forest People Turnbull’s The Forest People, is a book written about the Pygmy’s culture and how people living in this tribe survived. Colin Turnbull decided to evoke on a journey where he analyzes this interesting lives of the Pygmies. Throughout the story we find several key components that give us more of an understanding about each valuable thing that the Pygmies do everyday. This can be found from the way they eat with portions to the way they raise their children with tender and love. Even though each component is extremely different then what we do in today’s society, there are definitely some valuable lessons that can be learned through reading and understanding the Pygmies culture. The Pygmies have one rule to follow when thinking about gathering food, “No one goes to bed hungry”. This quote is interpreted exactly the way it is written. When the men and women typically go out to hunt, which is normally one time every week or two weeks, they always keep the amount they are feeding in mind. Unlike Americans, who normally go out and prepare food for just their family or household, the Pygmy’s make sure that every single individual in their tribe is fed. It is very rare to hear about women helping the men hunt but it is a refreshing thing to hear that they take part in this responsibility. The job of the women is not actually to kill the game but they simply put the net around it.......

Words: 1284 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Forest People

... “living among the people being studied – observing, questioning, and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group” (Ember & Ember 343). To make accurate observations one has to study and observe the culture from the native’s point of view. One cannot be one –sided or even biased. The observations include language, nourishment, full-round of life, and their succession of life. Colin M. Turnbull made many observations from his time he spent with the Pygmies. One of the most important things he had learned from them is that cooperation and sharing are fundamental to their lives and to their survival. The Pygmies share whatever food they are able to acquire. Whether they are hunting or gathering, if one brings food back to the village, the entire Pygmy society will share. The Pygmies have an obligation to give because they know that in time they will receive. They do not expect and immediate return, but they know that in the future they will receive. The Pygmies have a system called “balanced reciprocity.” This states that when one gives they know exactly what they will receive in return. Turnbull discovered that this method is how they Pygmies trade with the villagers. When the Pygmies trade their meat with the villagers they are guaranteed to receive tobacco and palm in return. Turnbull also made observations regarding the Pygmies relationship to the forest. The Pygmies feel as if they are good to the forest then the forest will supply them......

Words: 401 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Ownership over Commomn Proeprty Resources : State Versis Community Rights

...HISTORICAL INJUSTICE TOWARD TRIBALS: A REFLECTION ON FOREST POLICES OF INDIA Introduction The Forest policy plays a vital role in the life and economy of rural poor. It is also played a crucial role in sustaining the life supporting systems of country’s environment. The livelihood activities of tribal’s center on the forest in which they live. They have maintained a time immemorial relation with forest and always interact for their sustenance and try to recreate the forest with their traditional conservation systems. But as soon as the tribals relation with forest got transformed due to progressive assertion of state monopoly rights over large areas of forest. It has resulted in large scale eviction and uprooting of traditional tribal villages. The relationship that existed between tribal social organization and the forest was completely upset as a result of these policies. In the ongoing process of liberalization, privatization and globalization, new markets challenges has been forced the state to divert the forest land for large corporations. This marked the beginning of a new forest governance system that was alien, induced and most particularly that excluded forest –dependent communities in the name of scientific forestry, public interest, national development, conservation and industrial growth. Due to this in humane policies have eroded their life styles and simultaneously the assertion of state primacy over natural resources deprived them of......

Words: 4090 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Current Forest Mgt Practice of Bd

...Considering the current trend of forest management practice, develop an appropriate strategy to manage the forest resource of Bangladesh in a sustainable way. Acknowledgement In performing my assignment, it's a successful one I had to take the help and guideline of some respected persons. First of all I am grateful to Allah who gives me sound mind & sound health to accomplish my assignment. The completion of the report gives me much Pleasure. I would like to thank my gratitude Mr. Md. Jakariya (Jky), Course Instructor of Introduction to Environmental Science, Sec 4, North South University, Bangladesh for giving me a good guideline for assignment. I would like to thank School of Business Studies, North South University for updated education system in Bangladesh. Lastly I would like to deliver my whole hearted thanks to the persons of Forest Department of Bangladesh for their cordial cooperation. Actually it was not possible for me to complete a severe task without such help. So I pray the long life and good health for all the persons who have helped and co-operated me in my assignment research.   Sabrina Alvi 20 December, 2013 Table of content Title | Page | Introduction | | Forest of Bangladesh Table 1:Forest area in......

Words: 4378 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Report on Community Forest “Godavari Kunda”

...Report On Community Forest “Godavari Kunda” Submitted By: Submitted To: Acknowledgement: "We would like to thank Mr. Ram Puri for guiding and providing us all the required information of Godavari Kunda Forest. The valuable time and advice he has given us in the writing of this report. We would also like to thank our teacher Mr. Indresh Sharma for his encouragement and guidance. We offer our sincere appreciation for the learning opportunities provided by our Teacher. Our completion of this project could not have been accomplished without the support of our group members, Rajan, Kamala, Kopila, Mamata, Sumitra, Sabina, Shrijana and Ananta. Methodology:- * Mr.Ganesh Bd. Silwal (President Of Committee) * Mr.Ram Puri * Google (Link:- http://www.trekking-world.com/regional/nepal/kathmanduvalley/godawari) Content Page:- Section Page No. * Methodology…………………………………………3 * Introduction…………………………………………….5 * Background……………………………………………..6 * Objective………………………………………………...7 * Findings/Result……………………………………………8 * Conclusion and Recommendation………………………..8-11 * Annexes……………………………………………………11 Introduction:- Nepal was the country once renowned for the richness in forest resources. But with the flow of time and change in situation, population started growing in an alarming rate...

Words: 1808 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Forestry Education In Nigeria

...1.0 INTRODUCTION Forestry education in Nigeria has added much impact in the country, most especially to the rural people and natural environment. The growing prominence of conserving biodiversity, arresting desertification, conserving soils, sequestering carbon, improving water quality and quantity and providing bio-energy raises the premium on forest resources (Temu et al 2008). It is expected that for any sustainable development to be achieved by any nation, the educational sector (most especially the Higher Education) must play a significant and critical role. This sector is expected to build up people’s knowledge. In Nigeria, on how to maintain and utilize the forest and its resources at the university level, more than twenty offers...

Words: 2137 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Deforestation

...is deforestation? Deforestation is the removal or damage of vegetation in a forest to the extent that it no longer supports its natural flora and fauna. In other words, deforestation can be defined as the transformation of forest land to non-forest uses where forest land includes lands under agro-forestry and shifting cultivation, and not simply closed canopy primary forests (FAO/UNEP, 1982). However, this definition does not include “logging”. More inclusive was Myers’s 1980 definition, where deforestation refers, “generally to the complete destruction of forest cover through clearing for agriculture … [so] … that not a tree remains, and the land is given over to non-forest purposes … [and where] very heavy and unduly negligent logging … [result in a] … decline of biomass and depletion of ecosystem services … . So severe that the residual forest can no longer qualify as forest in any practical sense of the world.” Alan Graigner (1980, AS quoted in Saxena and Nautiyal, 1997) asserts that selective logging does not “lead to forest clearance and does not constitute deforestation”, whereas Norman Myers (1980, 1993) thinks that logging is crucial because, although it may only affect a small proportion of trees per hectare, it damages wide areas and is the precursor of penetration by the forest farmers. For the purpose of this study, the FAO’s latest definitions (1993) will be used. The FAO defines forests as “ecosystems with a minimum of 10% crown cover of trees and/or bamboo,......

Words: 17310 - Pages: 70

Free Essay

Causes of Social Injustices and Inequalities in the South

...the forest reserve? About 2.4% of Zimbabwe's land area is forested and managed by the Zimbabwean Forestry Commission (FC) on behalf of the state. Colonial and post-colonial state implemented practices to dispossess and alienate forest residents from protected forests to make way for commercial timber harvesting and wildlife hunting. Besides being a deliberate strategy to force local people to become part of the reserve labour pool to generate capital for developing settlers, Forestry conservation has greatly disadvantaged the communities that live within and around reserved forests in Zimbabwe such as the residents of Gwayi/mbembesi Forests. The forest has a long history of settlement by largely Ndebele speaking people, stretching way back before state dispossession during colonialization. It is important to note that the scaling back of the state is associated with neoliberalization that resulted in cutting back of state funding to conservation leading to the FC (as a state cooperation) to raise this funding gap from protection of the state forests. Marketing of forests for funding conservation has gained impetus, where state controlled territories are offered to investors through rents and concessions in the form of safari hunting and timber concessions allowing them to make private capital. There are many ways in which the residents of Gwayi are disadvantaged and it starts from the focus of revenue generation from the use of wildlife leading to the forced move of forest......

Words: 1027 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Chunati Project

...Livelihood Development of Forest-dependent Communities in and around Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (LDFC-CWS) Background and Rationale The Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) is a 7764 ha Protected Area (PA), covering Chunati and Jaldi Ranges of Chittagong South Forest Division. Till recent past, the problem of forest degradation and deforestation was particularly high in the area. According to Forest Department (FD) estimates, approximately 50,000 people live in and around the wildlife sanctuary. Large tracts of forest land have been denuded and numerous species of flora and fauna are lost over the last few decades. The sanctuary is threatened by the destruction of its natural resources and by conversion into other forms of land use. The local people cultivate different agricultural crops in this area and use forest products such as wood as fuel or sell it to earn an income. On the other hand, CWS is a part of natural habitat of the globally threatened Asian Elephant. Therefore, restoration and conservation of the CWS is of particular importance for the conservation of Asian Elephant and also for other fauna and flora of the sanctuary. Moreover, CWS has considerable potential for carbon sequestration and trading. Forest Department (FD) in collaboration with GIZ is implementing a project entitled ‘Management of Natural Resources and Community Forestry, Chunati’ (hereinafter the ‘Chunati Project’), which aims at strengthening protection and enrichment of forest plantations and......

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Natural Resources and Energy Paper

...Natural Resources and Energy Paper A forest is a natural resource needed by the earth, humans, and species. There are three types of forests. The three types include “tropical, temperate, boreal forests” (The forest biome p. 1, 2006). Recently forests occupy about “one-third of Earth’s land area, and account for over two-thirds of the leaf area of land plants, and contain about 70% of carbon present in living things” (The forest biome p. 1, 2006). Forests produce vital oxygen and provide homes for people and wildlife. Forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change. A forest have several management practices for sustainability and conservation. There are several risks and benefits of extracting and using one type of nonrenewable and one type of renewable energy. The growth of human population has affected forest resources in several ways. The affected forests have caused harm to the population of wild species and have majorly impacted agriculture. Impacts associated with agriculture Between 2000 and 2010 about 13 million hectares of forests were lost per year to agriculture and other uses (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013). Agroecosystems are very different from the ecosystems seen in nature. Unlike natural ecosystems, agroecosystems are large areas that have been planted with a single species or single strain or subspecies. This often makes them more susceptible to disease. Also, the agroecosystems are often planted in simple......

Words: 2507 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Deforestation

...Edward Lohmeyer 12/7/13 The Genocide of Forests Forests still cover approximately 30 percent of the earth’s surface, but every year areas the sizes of Panama are being decimated (Deforestation).  The clearing of large tracks of forests, which is thereafter converted to a non-forest use, is known as deforestation.  Deforestation has a multitude of devastating effects in the world we live in.  However with the cooperation of people worldwide this process can be drastically slowed down and even stopped. Forests are cut down for various reasons, but are almost always related to money in some way or another.  The most common reasons are Urbanization, logging, large-scale agriculture, mining and urbanization.  Deforestation can occur naturally and is caused by lighting, which then triggers forest fires.  On average in U.S. 4 million to 5 million acres are lost due to forest fires, but in recent years more than 9 million acres have burn.  Scientist believe the reason for the drastic increase is because global warming making summer season longer and dryer which is inductive to forest fires (Wildfires). Healthy forests help absorb greenhouse gasses and carbon emissions that are caused by human civilization and contribute to global warming. Without trees, more carbon and greenhouse gasses enter the atmosphere. To make matters worse, trees actually become carbon sources when they are cut, burned, or otherwise removed.   According to the World Wild Life organization 15 percent of......

Words: 1397 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Sundorban

...Part-1 (About Sundarban) The Sundarbans | | The Sundarbans ('Forest of Sundari trees') are one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world. It also has exceptional biodiversity, notably about 400 Bengali tigers. Its ever changing landscape is shaped by tidal shifts, rivers and creeks. Brief Description The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world (140,000 ha), lies on the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India’s Sundarbans World Heritage site inscribed in 1987. The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. The area is known for its wide range of fauna, including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python. Justification for Inscription The Committee inscribed the site under criteria (ix) and (x) as one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world, which supports an exceptional biodiversity with a wide range of flora and fauna, including the Bengal Tiger and provides a significant example of on-going ecological processes (monsoon rains, flooding, delta formation, tidal influence and plant colonisation). Long Description The Sundarbans consist of three wildlife sanctuaries (Sundarbans West, East......

Words: 3415 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Wild Life Management in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

...which is flat and sparsely vegetated. The country is blessed with mineral, physical, biological and energy resources. From the mangrove and rain forests of the south, through the various savannahs, and semi-arid ecosystems of the north, the nation is richly endowed. But what went wrong? The word ‘wildlife’ brings to mind ‘animals in the forest’. It is difficult to give a specific definition of the word. However, wildlife traditionally refers to non-domesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi and other organisms which grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. The term ‘wildlife management’ on the other hand I will refer to mean preservation and conservation or maintenance of wildlife resources. Also it is the art of maintaining balance in the needs of wildlife and the needs of people using the best science. It includes game keeping, wildlife conservation and control, which aims to halt the loss in the earth’s biodiversity by taking into consideration ecological principles such as carrying capacity, disturbance and succession and environmental conditions such as physical geography, etc. About a century ago, that is before the arrival of Europeans, a diversity of animals roamed the country’s forests and grasslands in appreciable numbers. A stable ecological relationship existed between people and wildlife in many areas during this period. However over the last twenty years, various human activities have profoundly...

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Dagy

...ITS FUNCTIONS AND HOW THE COMMUNITY MANAGES IT. 1. DISCUSSION OF A RESOURCE WITHIN MY COMMUNITY FOREST A forest is any ecological community that is structurally dominated by tree-sized woody plants. Forests occur anywhere that the climate is suitable in terms of length of growing season, air and soil temperature and sufficiency of soil moisture. Forest can be classified into two broad types on the basis of their geographic range and dominant type’s o f trees. The most extensive of these types are; boreal coniferous, temperate angiosperm, and tropical forest. Forests are extremely important natural resource that can potentially be sustainably harvested and managed to yield a diversity of commodities of economic importance .wood is by far the most important product harvested from forests. The wood is commonly manufactured into paper, lumber, plywood and other products .in addition, in most of the forested regions of the less developed world firewood is the most important source of energy used for cooking and other purposes.Pontentially, all of these forest products can be sustainably harvested. It is critical that in the future all forest harvesting is conducted in a manner that is more responsible in terms of sustaining the resource. FUNCTIONS OF FORESTS IN COOMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Forests are important to community ecological economic and social well being. They provide wood and non-wood products, recreational opportunities and...

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Decentralisation

...Decentralization, deconcentration and devolution: what do they mean?1 Compiled by Elizabeth Linda Yuliani2 Decentralization with its various types has been implemented in many countries, and the terms have been widely used. However, the same word is often used to describe different things. Interpretations vary, and have led to different conceptual frameworks, programs, implementation and implications. Such differences have invited debates and discussion. This document lists definitions of decentralization, deconcentration, devolution and other related terms used in papers presented at the Interlaken Workshop on Decentralization, 27-30 April 2004, Interlaken, Switzerland. As this is a work in progress, there may be many parts needing improvement/changes. We look forward to receiving your comments and suggestions (L.yuliani@cgiar.org). Decentralization Definitions and descriptions of decentralization used in the papers include: • “Decentralisation is usually referred to as the transfer of powers from central government to lower levels in a political-administrative and territorial hierarchy (Crook and Manor 1998, Agrawal and Ribot 1999). This official power transfer can take two main forms. Administrative decentralisation, also known as deconcentration, refers to a transfer to lower-level central government authorities, or to other local authorities who are upwardly accountable to the central government (Ribot 2002). In contrast, political, or democratic, decentralisation......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7