The Influence of Interest and Facilities for the Capability of Gadgets Utilization Among Uum Students
Business and Management
Submitted By nurkhatijah
THE INFLUENCE OF INTEREST AND FACILITIES FOR THE CAPABILITY OF GADGETS UTILIZATION AMONG UUM STUDENTS
Abdul Shukor , Khatijah , Atika , Hafizuddin , Kusairee
The purpose of this research is to identify the influence of interest and facilities for the capability of gadgets utilization among students of University Utara Malaysia. This research is using descriptive study to analyse the student’s perception between interest and facilities in using gadget. Besides that, in the above relationship questionnaires were used to collect data. A total of 100 students responded to the survey. Furthermore, methods that have been used for data collection in this research were by observation, questionnaire and also case study. The findings also revealed that there is no moderator in this research but it just considered that interest and facilities was not a moderator in the mentioned relationship but can be considered as significant independent predictor of usage while capability gadget utilization as dependent variables. Results from the study shows that the interest and the facilities of the student towards capability of gadget utilization were positively related.
Background of the study
Development in the world is expanding to new levels. Let it be anything, technology has made things more knowledgeable and convenient. Today, the world has turned into a world of gadgets. The gadgets have advanced in various ways. Today, you will find gadgets that fulfil your everyday needs. These gadgets can be anything from a grinder to a camcorder to a laptop.
The origins of the word "gadget" trace back to the 19th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, there is anecdotal evidence for the use of "gadget" as a placeholder name for a technical item whose precise name one can't remember since the 1850s; with Robert Brown's 1886 book Spunyarn and Spindrift, A sailor boy’s log of a voyage out and home in a China tea-clipper containing the earliest known usage in print. These can be given as gifts to boys as well as girls. You can gift a play station or any game to a school going boy on his birthday or any occasion.
A college going boy can be gifted a laptop or a handy cam, whichever is important and useful to him. Videos are not only created for college projects but, today they can also be created during family or friends. Get-togethers or some family functions. They store family memories for years which can be watched whenever you feel like watching them. Gadgets like cellular phones are used on a daily basis to communicate with your near and dear ones. You can also gift it to them. In the software industry, "Gadget" refers to computer programs that provide services without needing an independent application to be launched for each one, but instead run in an environment that manages multiple gadgets. Thus this research is to determine the influence of interest and facilities for the capability of gadgets utilization among UUM student.
1.2 Problem Statements
Learning through the use of gadget development and new capabilities has integrated and changed both the learning and the academic environment of students at the University Utara Malaysia. This raised the question: to what extent have gadget impacted on students? The purpose of this study is to assess the gadget capabilities enhancing student at the UUM, and whether the gadget is a useful tool for student learning at the UUM. The university management can develop the delivery of education through the use of Gadget. This would increase the student capability of gadget utilization with and commitment to their learning activities. The gadget as tool that support and enhance the learning experience and its increase the utilization among the UUM student. The new gadget acts as I pad with similar features, which are easily used both in classroom and outside in field-work.
1.3 Research Questions
Based on this research, we have developed a few of questions related to the influence of interest and facilities for the capability of gadgets utilization among UUM students. This questions is important for us to distribute to among 100 students UUM to get the best result of information and statistics to develop a successful research based on interest and facilities of the utilization gadgets among UUM students. Results from the questions that have distribute to students will be analyse and transfer into a statistics.
1.4 Research Objectives
The general objective of the study is to examine the influence of interest and facilities for the capability of gadgets utilization among UUM students.
The specific objectives are: To study the relationship between interest and facilities for the utilization of gadgets To examine the relationship between interest and age among UUM student To investigate the difference of interest among the qualification to UUM To determine the difference of capability gadget utilization among multiracial students
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hope that the study findings will contribute in providing the suggestions towards improving the uses of gadget towards the capability of gadget utilization among UUM student. By understanding the interest and the facility of gadget among students, we would suggest and recommended the high institutions in this country to introduce the uses of gadget among the student. This is because gadget plays important role to increase student capability and would increase their performance in the study. Without gadget the student is hard to do the assignment, this happen when the student hard to find the right source and to complete the task. Thus, this research is to determine the influence of interest and facilities for the capability of gadgets utilization among UUM student.
1.6 Scope of Study
This studies focus on examining the capability of gadget utilization among UUM students in two aspects which include the interest and facility. The population under this study will be selected among UUM students and we choose 100 samples randomly. Therefore, the study findings will be generalized among UUM students only.
Definition of Investigated Variable
Interest is defined as a condition where a person has attention to something and accompanied desires to know and learn even more to prove. Bimo Walgito (1981)
Facility is defined as a place, amenity, simple situation, something I provided for the benefit of the public, and something that can provide comfort and convenience to an individual for something. Oxford Dictionaries (2014).
Capability gadget utilization can be define as an ability in the use of an object is interdependent with the mind of an individual's abilities in use, look at an object and think in two or three dimensions and configuration changes reflect an object when it is manipulated or moved by the mind (Mayer, 1994).
In this section we discuss the influence of interest and facility towards capability gadget utilization among UUM students. Many researchers have made a study of this topic. Based on the discussions that have been performed the usability of the gadgets that may occur as a result of the influence of student interest and facilities available among students.
Kandell (1998) explains that college students rely on the Internet more frequently than other groups in society, may be due to a high desire to shape the identity and intimate relationships among college students. In addition, students can access the Internet easily and free through their institutions that included the use of the Internet. The students consider the Internet as an important window that allows them to communicate and interact with the outside world. This is defined by the relationship among desire explained by Kandell (1998) are related with interest and facility of capabilities gadgets utilization.
The capability gadget utilization can be defined as a student in higher education institutions , particularly in Malaysia , consider a mobile phone, a laptop, " palm talk" or " i -pod " is a " gadget" affordable for students . With the advent of technology equipment, we have the opportunity to change the shape of learning: learning to create a broad community, to connect people in the real or virtual world, to provide the necessary expertise and support lifelong learning ( Sharples , 2007)
Research methodology is a collective term for the structured process of conducting research. Research methodology is known as the adoption of a specific method of research in order to achieve the aim of the research as well as covering the entire research process (Creswell, 1994). There are many different methodologies used in various types of research and the term is usually considered to include research design, data collection, and population and sample and so on. Research methodologies also used in term of data analysis that can be quantitative for example, measuring the number of times someone does something under certain conditions or qualitative for example, asking people how they feel about a certain situation.
Part of the research methodology is concerned with the how the research is conducted. This is called the study design and typically involves research conducted using interviews, questionnaires, observation or experiments. The term research methodology, also referred to as research methods, usually encompasses the procedures followed to analyze and interpret the data gathered. These often use a range of sophisticated statistical analyses of the data to identify correlations or statistical significance in the results. Objective, representative research can be difficult to conduct because tests can normally only be conducted on a small sample that needs to be used in research. This means that researchers need to have a very detailed understanding of the types and limitations of research methodologies which they are using.
3.1 Theoretical Background
a) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory as A Model Study Self Concept
This theory emphasizes that an individual must meet all basic needs of physiological needs, safety needs and requirements before love self-esteem needs and self- perfection . If basic needs are met, an individual will be more confident in themselves1 and in turn build a positive self-concept. Azizi Yahaya and Jaafar Sidek Latif (2006 ) .
b) Social learning theory
Developed by Albert Bandura (1977 ) tried to explain why a person performs an action. Bandura says that action was a result of the interaction between these three factors: human, environment and habits. None of these three factors can be considered as a determining factor in a separate action. However, Bandura (1977 ) argues that despite the interaction between the three components , but some of these components may be more influential than others at certain times to produce an action.
3.2 Theorical framework
Capability gadget utilization
3.3 Research hypothesis
The develop of hypothesis are the following:
H1: There is no significant relationship between interest and facilities towards capability gadget utilization.
H2:There is significant relationship between age and interest
H3: There is significant different relationship between interest and qualification to enter in UUM.
H4:There have no significant different between capability gadget utilization among race.
3.4 Research design
In our research, we have used descriptive study to analyze the student’s perception between interest and facilities in using gadget. According to Uma Sekaran & Reger Bougie (2013), define descriptive study is either qualitative or quantitative in nature. It may involve the collection of quantitative data such as satisfaction ratings, interest figures, capability utilization gadgets or demographic data but it may also entail the collection of qualitative information. For instance, qualitative data might be gathered to describe how students go through a decision making process.
Descriptive study may help our researchers to: Understand the characteristics of a group in a given situation. Think systematically about aspect in a given situation. Offer idea for further probe and research. Help make certain decision.
3.5 Population, sample and unit of analysis
The population consists of UUM students who have interest and facilities towards capability gadget utilization. Based on Krejcie and Morgan (1970), a sample 100 students of UUM need to be collected to represent the whole population. Individual student is the unit of analysis of the study.
3.6 Sampling design
As the study of interested to generalize the findings to the whole population, the probability sampling is the most suitable design for this study. The systematic sampling will be used to collect the survey data.
3.7 Data sources
An advantage of using primary data is that researchers are collecting information for the specific purposes of the study. In essence, the questions the researchers ask are tailored to elicit the data that will help them with the study. Secondary data, is data collected by someone other than the user. The study involves the use of both primary and secondary data. The primary data is taken includes 100 respondents within the students from UUM. Meanwhile, the secondary data is taken from books and journals.
3.8 Data collection methods
In this research, we would like to study about the impact of interest and facility toward capability of gadget utilization by the observation on student UUM. From this research, the student will be observed by refer to the attitude. It is because to see how much the student cares about the capability of gadget utilization. For example, observe the attitude of student UUM when they use a gadget during assessment work. Especially in the class, the students can refer to their gadget to see all the notes from lecturer. Besides that, the students also can use their gadget to do their presentation slides.
A questionnaire is a form written set of questions to which respondents record their answer, usually within rather closely defined alternatives. Questionnaires are also an efficient data collection mechanism when the researcher knows exactly what is required and how to measure the variables of interest. Like in UUM, the students mostly like the questionnaire than other type to collect data because it is easy to answer the question anytime and anywhere. In our research questionnaires, we have four sections which consist of section A, section B, section C, and Section D. Section A is the question regarding the respondents demographic information, section B is regarding to the interest, while section C is the facilities and D is regarding the capability of gadget utilization.
Case study is focus on collecting data about a specific objective, event or activity, such as a particular business unit or organization. In our case study, we have used the journal “Internet Addiction on Campus: The Vulnerability of College Students. Cyberpsychology & Behavior” by Kandell, J. J. as a guideline to do our research.
3.9 Data analysis
The quantitative statistical software programs will be utilized to address the research objectives which include the following analysis: Reliability Analysis, to provide a unique estimate of the internal consistency and reliability. Descriptive Analysis, to describe demographic background of respondent profile, etc. Correlation Analysis, to determine if a relationship exists between two continuous variables. Regression Analysis, to access the relationship between a dependent (predicted) variable and several independent (predictor) variables. ANOVA test – to compare the means of the samples.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Descriptive analysis was to describe the demographic profile of the study.
Based on Table 1, the demographic profile of the study includes age, race and qualification to enter UUM. The sample profiles showed a highest age of respondent is 23 years (33 respondents), representing a ratio of 20.8% respectively. The majority of the respondent’s races were Malay which is 81 respondents, representing a ratio of 50.9% respectively and the qualification enter UUM of the respondent were Diploma which is 46 respondents, representing 28% respectively.
Table 1: Descriptive analysis | Frequency | Percent | UMUR Valid19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Total Missing System Total | 1 1 12 32 33 14 7 100 59 159 | .6 .6 7.5 20.1 20.8 8.8 4.4 62.9 37.1 100.0 | BANGSA ValidMelayu Cina India Lain-lain Total Missing System Total | 81 13 3 3 100 59 159 | 50.9 8.2 1.9 1.9 62.9 37.1 100.0 | KELAYAKAN ValidDiploma Matrikulasi STPM STAM Lain-lain Total Missing System Total | 46 13 36 4 1 100 59 159 | 28.9 8.2 22.6 2.5 .6 62.9 37.1 100.0 |
4.2 Reliability analysis
Based on Table 2, the result indicates that the alpha value for each variable ranged from 0.662 to 0.857. In this research alpha value (α) 0.05 is acceptable, thus the reliability of each variable of this study is met. Table 2: Reliability analysis Variables | Number of items | Alpha value | Interest | 7 | 0.857 | Facilities | 5 | 0.662 | Capability | 4 | 0.787 |
4.3 Hypothesis testing
The testing of hypothesis will be tested on the following:
4.3.1 H1: The relationship between interest and facility towards capability gadget utilization.
Multiple Linear Regression has been performed to determine the best set of predictor variable in predicting DV. The R-squared of 0.434 implies that the two predictor variables explain about 43.4% of the variance/variation in the OC. This is not quite a good and respectable result. The ANOVA table revealed that the F-statistics (37.148) is large and the corresponding p-value is highly significant (0.0001) or lower than the alpha value of 0.05. This indicates that the slope of the estimated linear regression model line is not equal to zero confirming that there is linear relationship between OC and the two predictor variables (Interest and Facility). This finding is consistent / contradicts with previous studies (e.g., Hanson, 2013, Md Noor & Rizuan, 1999; Aimi et al., 2014).
Based on Coefficient table, all two predictor variables which are Interest (p=0.000 < alpha) and Facility (p= 0.413 > alpha) were found to be one of the variables is significance but the other one is not significance in explaining DV. The largest beta coefficient is 0.608 which is for Interest. This means that this variable do not makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining the dependent variable (OC), when the variance explained by all other predictor variables in the model is not controlled for. It suggests that one standard deviation increase in Interest is followed by 0.608 standard deviation increase in OC. The Beta value for Facility is the second highest (0.079), indicating that it made the lesser contribution than Interest.
Table 3: Regression
Model Summary | Model | R | R Square | Adjusted R Square | Std. Error of the Estimate | 1 | .659a | .434 | .422 | .57665 | a. Predictors: (Constant), MUDAH, MINAT |
ANOVAb | Model | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. | 1 | Regression | 24.705 | 2 | 12.353 | 37.148 | .000a |
Residual | 32.255 | 97 | .333 | | |
Total | 56.960 | 99 | | | | a. Predictors: (Constant), MUDAH, MINAT b. Dependent Variable: UPAYA |
Coefficientsa | Model | Unstandardized Coefficients | Standardized Coefficients | T | Sig. |
B | Std. Error | Beta |
1 | (Constant) | 1.347 | .350 | | 3.852 | .000 |
MINAT | .592 | .094 | .608 | 6.322 | .000 |
MUDAH | .087 | .106 | .079 | .823 | .413 | a. Dependent Variable: UPAYA |
Y= bo + b1x1 + b2x2 + e
COM = 1.347 + 0.592Interest + 0.087Facility + error = 1.347 + 0.592 (1) + 0.087 (1) = 2.026
4.3.2 H2: The relationship between age and interest
A series of Pearson correlations have been performed to determine the association between age and interest. Based on Table 4, the result shows a significant and positive relationship between age and interest (p=0.001 < α). The result indicates that the higher the level of age, the higher the interest towards capability gadget utilization. This finding is consistent / contradicts with previous studies (e.g., Hanson, 2013, Md Noor & Rizuan, 1999; Aimi et al., 2014).
Table 4: Correlations | | Umur | MINAT | Umur | Pearson Correlation | 1 | .316** |
Sig. (2-tailed) | | .001 |
N | 100 | 100 | MINAT | Pearson Correlation | .316** | 1 |
Sig. (2-tailed) | .001 | |
N | 100 | 100 | **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). |
4.3.3 H3: The difference between interest and qualification to enter UUM.
One-way ANOVA between-groups analysis of variance was performed to investigate the mean difference between interest and qualification to enter UUM. Based on Table 5, the result shows significant difference between interest and qualification to enter UUM (p=0.007 < α). The result indicates that there is no significant different between interest and qualification to enter UUM.
Table 5: ANOVA | MINAT | | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. | Between Groups | 8.143 | 4 | 2.036 | 3.726 | .007 | Within Groups | 51.904 | 95 | .546 | | | Total | 60.048 | 99 | | | |
4.3.4 H4: The difference between capability gadget utilization among race.
A one-way ANOVA between-groups analysis of variance was performed to investigate the mean difference between capability gadget utilization among race. Based on Table 6, the result shows no significant difference between capability gadget utilization among race (p=0.319 > α). The result indicates that there is no significant different between capability gadget utilization among race.
Table 6: ANOVA | UPAYA | | Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. | Between Groups | 2.036 | 3 | .679 | 1.186 | .319 | Within Groups | 54.924 | 96 | .572 | | | Total | 56.960 | 99 | | | |
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this research is to investigate the influences of interest and facilities towards capability of gadget utilization among UUM students. According to our research, it can be concluded that majority of the respondent that answer the questionnaire have been used the gadget in studying is they that have interest on gadget. The 100 sets of questionnaires were given to the respondents randomly. The aim is to know the differences of opinion and the tendency of respondents choose between interest and facilities towards the capability of gadget utilization in studying at UUM. Besides, from this research it gives the information that’s important to know that most of the students in UUM are more interesting in study when used gadget rather than used hardcopy of materials because of their interest in gadget and its facilities. Hence, we can see that gadget is a tools to enhance learning. In order for students to be successful in postsecondary education and the workplace, students need to use gadget throughout their elementary, middle, and high school programs. Students need to be comfortable using current gadget as a tools for learning.
Interactive multimedia programs take the idea of learning and doing, not simply watching. With interactive multimedia a program the learning process becomes active, not passive, and it ensures that users are doing, not simply watching. True interactivity implies that the learning process is, in some degree, modified by the actions of the learners, thus changing the roles of both the learner and the teacher (Barker & Tucker, 1990; Slawson, 1993). Then, though always attempting objective research, the personal opinions of the researcher prior to the study was that the impact of interest and facilities towards capabilities of gadget utilization among UUM students. After completed this research, the student’s perception regarding the interest and facilities towards capabilities gadget utilization in UUM give the implication especially for the students. It means that the interest and facilities towards capabilities of gadget utilization are very useful to the students. Nowadays, it is common when the students use the gadget in studying. Maybe in the certain variables, it gives the less response such as the age of respondents. But if the UUM organization tries to find ways to improve the interest of respondent, it will be easy to lecturer teach their students because their do not need to bring materials in class anymore. Just uploaded the materials for learning in Learning Zone or Facebook Study Group. There a few suggestions that will consider the following plan in the future:
Make the collaboration with the Ministry of Malaysian Education start from the school, matriculation and lastly to the university by explain the impact of interest and facilities towards capabilities of gadget utilization in studying. Exposed to respondents that have less response on using gadget on how to use gadget in studying and create the rule or ethics of using the gadget while in class. UUM should organize an awareness campaign on the benefits of using gadget in the learning process so that the students will more interest to study in class. UUM should provide strong internet facilities at selectable areas in UUM like around DKG areas to make sure that students can always access to their Learning Zone but firewall something that not relate to study such as games website, social media page and pornography page. Assistive gadget must be available as required to support student’s functional capabilities and academic achievement.
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Responden yang dihormati,
Kami adalah pelajar yang mengambil kursus BPMN 3143 Kaedah Penyelidikan. Kami sedang menjalankan kajian yang bertajuk Pengaruh minat, kemudahan dan keupayaan terhadap kreativiti penggunaan gajet dalam kalangan pelajar UUM. Kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk menyiapkan tugasan kursus BPMN 3143 Kaedah Penyelidikan.
Sehubungan dengan itu, kami memohon kerjasama dari anda semua supaya dapat memberikan maklumat berdasarkan borang soal selidik yang diberikan. Anda semua diharapkan agar menjawab semua soalan dengan ikhlas dan jujur.
Segala maklumat yang diberikan adalah sulit dan hanya boleh digunakan bagi tujuan kajian ini sahaja. Diharapkan kerjasama daripada anda akan dapat membantu penyelidikan ini.
Sekian, Terima kasih.
BORANG SOAL SELIDIK
Arahan: Sila isikan tempat kosong di bawah atau tandakan (/) pada mana-mana yang berkenaan. Jantina:Lelaki()
Kelayakan masuk ke UUM:
PMK (Semester Terakhir):_________________
Bahagian B: Pengaruh Minat Terhadap Keupayaan Penggunaan Gajet
Arahan: Sila jawab kesemua soalan di bawah atau tandakan (/) pada mana-mana yang berkenaan mengikut skala di bawah:
5 = Sangat Setuju
4 = Setuju
3 = Kurang Setuju
2 = Tidak Setuju
1 = Sangat Tidak Setuju
Bil | Pernyataan | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 10 | Saya berminat menggunakan gajet dalam proses pembelajaran. | | | | | | 11 | Saya merasakan gajet dapat membantu saya menyiapkan tugasan yang diberikan. | | | | | | 12 | Saya ingin mengetahui dengan lebih mendalam mengenai gajet. | | | | | | 13 | Gajet penting dikalangan pelajar. | | | | | | 14 | Adakah gajet merangsang kreativiti pelajar. | | | | | | 15 | Saya akan berasa susah jika saya tidak membawa gajet semasa hadir ke kuliah. | | | | | | 16 | Sebagai pelajar adakah saya merasakan gajet sesuai dijadikan sebagai alat semasa pembelajaran. | | | | | |
Bahagian C: Pengaruh Kemudahan Terhadap Keupayaan Penggunaan Gajet
Arahan: Sila jawab soalan berikut mengikut skala yang telah diberikan pada bahagian B. Bil | Pernyataan | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 14 | Gajet dapat membantu saya meningkatkan prestasi dalam pembelajaran. | | | | | | 15 | Adakah gajet mudah dimiliki oleh pelajar. | | | | | | 16 | Maklumat pembelajaran mudah diperolehi dengan menggunakan gajet. | | | | | | 17 | Saya selalu mengikuti perkembangan gajet | | | | | | 18 | Kemudahan wifi dalam kuliah membolehkan saya mencari maklumat dengan cepat | | | | | | 19 | Perbincangan berkumpulan lebih mudah menggunakan gajet kerana menjimatkan kos dan masa | | | | | | 20 | Mudah berinteraksi dengan ahli kumpulan | | | | | |
Bahagian D: Keupayaan Penggunaan Gajet
Arahan: Sila jawab soalan berdasarkan skala yang diberikan pada bahagian B Bil | Pernyataan | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 21 | Gajet mudah digunakan. | | | | | | 22 | Maklumat mudah diperoleh dengan menggunakan gajet | | | | | | 23 | Saya cekap menggunakan gajet | | | | | | 24 | Lebih mudah membawa gajet daripada membawa buku teks | | | | | | 25 | Nota dalam gajet lebih menarik daripada nota bercetak. | | | | | |
Sekian, Terima kasih.