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Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Motivation is defined as “psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior” (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2006). As a more business-related definition, motivation can be defined as “forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work” (Young, 2000). Motivating employees can be extremely challenging and complex for an organization’s leaders and managers. For an organization to be successful and survive in the rapidly changing market, it is essential for managers to understand what motivates individuals within the context of the specific tasks being performed. Hiring employees that are self-motivated, who already have set their goals and expectations, can make a manager’s job less difficult. However, managers must continually motivate their employees to sustain satisfaction throughout the whole organization. Like personalities, individuals have different sets of goals and expectations for their jobs. They also have different choices on how they want to be rewarded for a “job well done,” whether it is a monetary bonus, a promotion, or organizational recognition. Knowing an individual’s profile, a manager can construct a motivation method for that person. For example, if the manager is considering giving an employee a raise and their profile shows that organizational recognition motivates this person, the manager should reward accordingly, otherwise the manager could be at risk for decreasing the employee’s effort and performance on the next task. This behavior formed the Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation “examines motivation from the perspective of why people choose to follow a particular course of action” (Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation, 2005). This theory argues that...

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