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Wan 3g

In: Computers and Technology

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Wan | Ancho de Banda, 3G | | Profesor: Ismael Silva Dzib | | Sergio Eduardo Marín Rodríguez | 09/04/2013 | |

Servicios de Banda ancha y 3G

“Any place, Every where”

When wideband speech refers to a system for Internet connection and data transmission. Currently, broadband is one of the best options to enjoy as a data rate much higher than what happens with access via dial-up. In addition, broadband also maintains a permanent Internet access without interrupting the telephone line and resorting to external modems.

Cuando hablamos de ancho de banda nos referimos a la velocidad y capacidad de la transmisión de datos en una red. Dicho dato depende tanto del tipo de estructura que presenta la red como los dispositivos que soportan y emiten la señal. En el mercado existen varias tarifas, fijas las cuales brindan un servicio básico, limitado, y las dial up o Premium, las cuales ofrecen una conexión más rápida y estable a cierta red.

El funcionamiento de la banda ancha se basa en la utilización de tecnologías DSL y de cable módems. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, la tecnología WiFi, que no necesita cableado, está creciendo más y más, especialmente para suplir a aquellos usuarios que viven en áreas sin las tecnologías o capacidades necesarias para establecer complejos sistemas de cable módem. La fibra óptica, el material utilizado para la transmisión de datos en banda ancha, ha demostrado ser mucho más eficiente que el cobre y mucho más eficaz en relación a la velocidad posible adquirida.

Depende de gran manera tanto de los dispositivos emisores de la red, tanto como los receptores pues si existe un fuerte ancho de banda pero el dispositivo receptor cuenta con un adaptador ya sea inalámbrico como alámbrico de poca capacidad, la conexión se verá limitada, el ancho de banda siempre ira de la mano con una optima administración de los servicios DSL como de la capacidad de los dispositivos emisores.

El acceso por banda ancha es más rápido que la conexión de acceso telefónico y es diferente por lo siguiente: * El servicio de banda ancha ofrece velocidad más alta de transmisión de datos – Permite el transporte de más contenido por la “tubería” de transmisión. * La banda ancha ofrece acceso a los servicios de Internet de más alta calidad – medios de comunicación audiovisual por Internet, VoIP (telefonía por Internet), juegos y servicios interactivos. Muchos de estos servicios, actuales y en desarrollo, requieren la transferencia de grandes cantidades de datos, lo que no es técnicamente factible con el servicio de marcación telefónica. Por lo tanto, el servicio de banda ancha puede ser cada vez más necesario para tener acceso a la amplia gama de servicios y oportunidades que puede ofrecer Internet. * El sistema de banda ancha siempre está activo – No bloquea las líneas telefónicas y no necesita conectarse de nuevo a la red después de terminar su sesión. * Menos demora en la transmisión de contenido cuando utiliza el servicio de banda ancha.

Banda ancha 3G

En la era moderna se comienza a utilizar un recurso portátil y sobre todo eficaz, para usuarios que requieren un servicio continuo, en cualquier lugar, a cualquier hora, de esta necesidad nació el concepto y el protocolo 3G
3G ofrece un fácil uso, no necesita instalación alguna, por la mayoría sus mini modem son con entrada USB, portátiles, los cuales se conectan a un dispositivo cliente y proveen el servicio de red o internet al usuario.
Por lo general este prototipo se utiliza en dispositivos portátiles, que no requieran estar en un lugar fijo, la seguridad de la red es mayor que el de un acceso público pues manejan protocolos dinámicos y sistemas de encriptamiento dependiendo del modelo del modem.
La única desventaja de este servicio, es el costo, pues al ser un servicio prestado por una compañía ISP, las rentas del servicio suelen ser mucho más elevados que el de el simple ancho de banda fijo.

En cuanto al tipo de cómo se pueden brindar un servicio de banda ancha existen varias formas:

* Línea digital del suscriptor (DSL) * Módem para cable * Fibra * Inalámbrica * Satélite * Banda ancha a través de las líneas eléctricas (BPL)

Estándares WAN

WAN son las siglas de Wide Area Network, red de área amplia, una red de ordenadores que abarca un área geográfica relativamente grande. Normalmente, un WAN consiste en dos o más redes de área local (LANs).
Los ordenadores conectados a una red de área ancha normalmente están conectados a través de redes públicas, como la red de teléfono. También pueden estar conectados a través de líneas alquiladas o de satélites.
El WAN más grande que existe es Internet.

WAN se distingue de otro tipo de redes, como LAN (Local Area Networks) o PAN (Personal Area Networks), que tienen otras configuraciones y alcances. Las redes LAN son muy populares dentro de empresas u organizaciones, mientras que las PAN funcionan en los límites de una sala o espacios similares.

La red WAN, por lo tanto, implica la interconexión de equipos terminales u otras redes que se hallan a grandes distancias entre sí. Su infraestructura requiere de diversos nodos de conmutación y de una importante capacidad para soportar el volumen del tráfico de datos.
Se entiende por nodo de conmutación al dispositivo que se encarga de manejar el tráfico. Estos equipos reciben los datos a través de una línea de entrada y deben escoger una línea de salida para reenviarlos.

Para la creación de una WAN son importantes los dispositivos que emitirán este servicio pues de la calidad de los mismos será la fiabilidad de la red. Por lo general se utilizan enlaces vía micro onda y WiFi, utilizando dispositivos de alto rango y alcance. Por lo general en una WAN se segmentan las redes y se aplican varios estándares de QoS

Las redes WAN pueden presentar diversas topologías. La topología punto a punto consiste en la interconexión de los nodos a través de canales dedicados que están siempre disponibles para la conexión.

La topología de anillo implica la conexión de cada nodo a otros dos, generando un patrón particular que amplía las opciones ante eventuales problemas en las conexiones mediante un cable.

Otras topologías son estrella (un nodo se convierte en el centro de conexión para el resto) y malla (busca la interconexión de todos los nodos, lo que supone una mayor capacidad de superar los fallos).

La redes pueden ser tanto privadas o publicas: * Redes Privadas * Enteramente controladas por una organización. * Muy costosas. * Garantiza seguridad y un alto nivel de servicio.

* Redes Públicas de Datos (PDNs) * Operadas por carriers comunes. * “Pague lo que usa” ó tarifa plana. * ISDN, SMDS, Frame Relay, X.25 y ATM.

Evolución de las Redes WAN

Existen 2 tipos de conexiones Wan, las dedicadas y las conmutadas. * Las dedicadas suelen ser Conexión “punto-a-punto”. * Servicio de alquiler, 24 hr.X 7dias/semana. * T-1, E-1, E-3, fraccionario T-1/E-1.

* Y las conmutadas Conmutadas * Conmutación de paquetes vs. conmutación de circuitos. * Conexión “cualquiera con cualquiera”. * “Pague lo que usa”. * ISDN, SMDS, Frame Relay, X.25 y ATM.

Toda WAN utiliza ciertos estándares, tanto módems, cableados y estructura:
Estándares de Módem * V.32 * Soporta tanto línea dial-up como dedicada. * Síncrono ó Asíncrono. * 2 hilos dial-up, 2 ó 4 hilos línea dedicada. * 9,600/4,800 bps. * V.32 bis * Síncrono o Asíncrono. * 2 hilos dial-up ó 2 hilos línea dedicada. * 4,800 bps a 14.4 Kbps.

* V.42 * Responsable de control de errores y corrección de data. * Soporta compresión de datos hasta 4:1.

MODELO OSI
La Organización Internacional de Estándares (ISO) diseñó el modelo de Interconexión de Sistemas Abiertos (OSI) como guía para la elaboración de estándares de dispositivos de computación en redes. Dada la complejidad de los dispositivos de conexión en red y a su integración para que operen adecuadamente, el modelo OSI incluye siete capas diferentes, que van desde la capa física, la cual incluye los cables de red, a la capa de aplicación, que es la interfaz con el software de aplicación que se esta ejecutando.
· Capa 1. Físico
· Capa 2. Enlace de datos
· Capa 3. Red
· Capa 4. Transporte
· Capa 5. Sesión
· Capa 6. Presentación
· Capa 7. Aplicación Este modelo establece los lineamientos para que el software y los dispositivos de diferentes fabricantes funcionen juntos. Aunque los fabricantes de hardware y los de software para red son los usuarios principales del modelo OSI, una comprensión general del modelo llega a resultar muy benéfica para el momento en que se expande la red o se conectan redes para formar redes de aria amplia WAN.

Las siete capas del modelo OSI son la física, la de enlace de datos, la de red, la de transporte, la de sesión, la de presentación y la de aplicación. Las primeras dos capas (física y enlace de datos) son el hardware que la LAN comprende, como los cables Ethernet y los adaptadores de red. Las capas 3,4 y 5 (de red, de transporte, y de sesión) son protocolos de comunicación, como el sistema básico de entrada/salida de red (NetBIOS), TCP/IP y el protocolo medular NetWare (NCP) de Novell. Las capas 6 y 7 (de presentación y aplicación) son el NOS que proporciona servicios y funciones de red al software de aplicación.

Existen muchos más estándares, debido a que instituciones mundiales como la IEEE incluso ISO, formalizan la estructura de las redes, sin embargo considere estas las más importantes pues es sobre las que trabajamos en clase.

Para concluir es importante apreciar la importancia tanto de la estructura de utilizar en una red, como de los dispositivos que tendrán la función de llevarla a cabo, pues en el mundo actual, la calidad siempre tiene un alto costo, que en ocasiones es factible arriesgarse, pues la imagen de la empresa y del servicio está en juego.

Fuentes Bibliográficas:

http://www.definicionabc.com/tecnologia/banda-ancha.php#ixzz2PwCusNze http://www.broadbandforamerica.com/es/%C2%BFqu%C3%A9-es-banda-ancha http://definicion.de/wan/#ixzz2PwJyKGXy
http://www.alipso.com/monografias/estandarred/

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