Free Essay

A Research About Stephen Hawkings


Submitted By dantebernandino
Words 9175
Pages 37
Hawking contra Philosophy
Christopher Norris presents a case for the defence.
Stephen Hawking recently fluttered the academic dovecotes by writing in his new book The Grand Design – and repeating to an eager company of interviewers and journalists – that philosophy as practised nowadays is a waste of time and philosophers a waste of space. More precisely, he wrote that philosophy is ‘dead’ since it hasn’t kept up with the latest developments in science, especially theoretical physics. In earlier times – Hawking conceded – philosophers not only tried to keep up but sometimes made significant scientific contributions of their own. However they were now, in so far as they had any influence at all, just an obstacle to progress through their endless going-on about the same old issues of truth, knowledge, the problem of induction, and so forth. Had philosophers just paid a bit more attention to the scientific literature they would have gathered that these were no longer live issues for anyone remotely au fait with the latest thinking. Then their options would be either to shut up shop and cease the charade called ‘philosophy of science’ or else to carry on and invite further ridicule for their head-in-the-sand attitude.
Predictably enough the journalists went off to find themselves media-friendly philosophers – not hard to do nowadays – who would argue the contrary case in a suitably vigorous way. On the whole the responses, or those that I came across, seemed overly anxious to strike a conciliatory note, or to grant Hawking’s thesis some measure of truth as judged by the standards of the natural science community while tactfully dissenting with regard to philosophy and the human sciences. I think the case needs stating more firmly and, perhaps, less tactfully since otherwise it looks like a forced retreat to cover internal disarray. Besides, there is good reason to mount a much sturdier defence on principled grounds. These have to do with the scientists’ need to philosophize and their proneness to philosophize badly or commit certain avoidable errors if they don’t take at least some passing interest in what philosophers have to say.
Science is Philosophical
Professor Hawking has probably been talking to the wrong philosophers, or picked up some wrong ideas about the kinds of discussion that currently go on in philosophy of science. His lofty dismissal of that whole enterprise as a useless, scientifically irrelevant pseudo-discipline fails to reckon with several important facts about the way that science has typically been practised since its early-modern (seventeenth-century) point of departure and, even more, in the wake of twentieth century developments such as quantum mechanics and relativity.
Science has always included a large philosophical component, whether at the level of basic presuppositions concerning evidence, causality, theory-construction, valid inference, hypothesis-testing, and so forth, or at the speculative stage where scientists ignore the guidance offered by well-informed philosophers only at risk of falling into various beguiling fallacies or fictions. Such were those ‘idols of the theatre’ that Bacon warned against in his New Organon of 1620, and such – albeit in a very different philosophic guise – those delusive ideas that, according to Kant, were liable to lead us astray from the path of secure investigation or truth-seeking enquiry. This was sure to happen, he warned, if the exercise of pure (speculative) reason concerning questions outside and beyond the empirical domain were mistakenly supposed to deliver the kind of knowledge that could be achieved only by bringing sensuous intuitions under adequate or answering concepts. While in no way wishing to lumber science with the baggage of Kantian metaphysics I would suggest that this diagnosis, or something like it, applies to a great many of the speculative notions nowadays advanced by theoretical physicists including proponents of string theory (Hawking among them) and some of the more way-out quantum conjectures. These thinkers appear unworried – blithely unfazed, one is tempted to say – by the fact that their theories are incapable of proof or confirmation, or indeed of falsification as required by Karl Popper and his followers. After all, it is the peculiar feature of such theories that they posit the existence of that which at present, and perhaps forever, eludes any form of confirmation by observation or experiment.
True, science has achieved some of its most notable advances precisely by venturing beyond the furthest limits of evidential proof. It has often broken new ground by following some speculative line of thought that involves a readiness, at least for the time being, to make do without the props and securities of ‘good’ scientific method. Indeed, this reliance on theoretical commitments that exceed the utmost scope of empirical testing is something that some philosophers would attribute even to basic physical laws or widely taken-for-granted scientific truths. On their view there is no such thing as plain empirical self-evidence, since observations are always to some degree theoretically informed. By the same token, scientific theories are always ‘underdetermined’ by the best evidence to hand, meaning that the evidence is always open to other, equally rational interpretations given some adjustment of this or that ‘auxiliary hypothesis’ or negotiable element of background belief. All the same, I don’t want to push that line of argument too far, because among some philosophers of science it has now become an article of faith; a dogma maintained just as fixedly as any precept of the old, unreconstructed positivist creed. Moreover it has given rise to a range of relativist or ‘strong’ sociological approaches which use the theory-ladenness and underdetermination theses to cast doubt on any distinction between true and false theories, valid and invalid hypotheses, or science and pseudo-science.
Very likely it is notions of this kind – ideas with their home ground in sociology, or cultural studies, or on the wilder shores of philosophy of science – which provoked Professor Hawking to issue his pronouncement. However they are in no way germane to my point about the speculative element involved in many episodes of major scientific advance and how philosophy has played its jointly enabling and regulative part in that process. By this I mean its role as a source of new ideas or creative hypotheses and also as a source of guiding precepts with respect to such matters as empirical evidence, logical validity, inductive warrant, corroboration, falsification, hypothesis-testing, causal reasoning, probability-weighting, and so forth. These serve to keep science securely on track and prevent it from taking the seductive turn toward pure, evidentially unanchored speculation or sheer science-fiction fantasy. That scientists can mostly do this for themselves is no doubt true enough although, I should add, it is very largely the long-term result of the work of philosophers. Ever since Aristotle there has existed a close though historically fluctuating relationship between the natural sciences and those branches of philosophy that took it as a part of their task to provide science with a clearer grasp of its own methodological bearings. Moreover it has sometimes been primarily a shift of philosophical perspective that has brought about some epochal change of scientific paradigm such as those whereby, in the insouciant phrase of American philosopher W.V. Quine, “Kepler superseded Ptolemy, or Einstein Newton, or Darwin Aristotle.”
I have no quarrel with Hawking’s aversion to philosophy of science in so far as it is provoked by the kind of wholesale paradigm-relativism that Quine was seeking to promote. On Quine’s account (and that of Thomas Kuhn) we should think of scientific theory-change as involving so radical a shift of conceptual schemes as to render the history of science rationally unaccountable and philosophy of science a poor (since entirely dependent) relation of sociology and behavioural psychology. If that were the sole position available to present-day philosophers owing to some large-scale failure of intellectual nerve then Hawking would be fully justified in launching his anti-philosophy salvo. However this ignores the strong turn toward a realist and causal-explanatory approach that has been the single most conspicuous feature of philosophy of science during the past two decades. In place of that earlier relativist drift these thinkers advocate a robust conception of natural kinds along with their essential structures, properties, and causal dispositions. Crucially in the present context their approach offers a critical purchase on the issue of what properly counts as scientific enquiry and what should more aptly be classed as metaphysical conjecture or (at the limit) mere invention.
So philosophy of science now looks set to reoccupy its native ground by getting back in touch with physics. This is not just a relatively trivial semantic point about the physical sciences having been described as so many branches of ‘natural philosophy’ until quite recently. Rather it is the point that scientific theories – especially theories of the ultra-speculative kind that preoccupy theoretical physicists like Hawking – involve a great deal of covert philosophising which may or may not turn out to promote the interests of knowledge and truth. This had better be recognised if we are not to be taken in by a false appeal to the authority of science as if it possessed the kind of sheer self-evidence or indubitable warrant that could rightfully claim to evict ‘philosophy’ as a relic from the pre-scientific past.
Least of all should philosophers carry their justified respect for science and its many impressive achievements to the point of ceding all authority over issues that lie within their own sphere of competence. Thus it is counter-productive for everyone concerned, philosophers and physicists alike, when Quine and others suggest that we should always be willing to change the ground-rules of logic so as to help us find room for certain otherwise puzzling, anomalous, or downright baffling results. Perhaps the seeming quantum paradox of wave/particle dualism can have its sting temporarily removed by lifting the classical rules of bivalence or excluded middle, i.e., those that would require that we accept either the statement ‘light propagates as waves’ or the statement ‘light is a stream of particles’ but surely not both on pain of logical contradiction. However the revisionist ‘solution’ gives rise to yet more intractable problems since it leaves both scientists and philosophers stuck with a huge normative deficit. After all, if they accepted Quine’s proposal then they would lack the most basic conceptual resources for assessing statements, theories or hypotheses in point of their internal (logical) consistency or even concerning the extent to which they hung together properly with other items of scientific lore.
Here again philosophers would do much better to stick to their guns, reject this particular line of least resistance, and hold out for the indispensability (on empirical as well as ‘purely’ rational grounds) of a due respect for the classical rule of bivalent truth/falsehood. Not that it could ever achieve what Hawking seems to envisage in the final paragraph of his book when he marvels at the thought of how ‘abstract logic’ could have thrown up the sheer wondrous profusion of present-day scientific knowledge. Here the point needs making – one to which his own book bears ample witness – that the knowledge in question has resulted from a disciplined yet often highly inventive project of enquiry wherein ‘abstract’ reasoning plays a crucial though far from all-encompassing or self-sufficiently productive role. This project combines the basic procedures of logical, e.g., hypothetico-deductive thought and inductive reasoning on the evidence with a whole range of ancillary resources such as analogy, thought experiments, rational conjecture, and – subsuming all these – inference to the best, most adequate explanation.
Hawking offers numerous examples of the use of each of these philosophical tools in the course of his book, along with other cases where their joint operation is the only thing that could possibly explain how science has been able to achieve some particular advance. All the same he is compelled by the ‘abstract logic’ of his own doctrinaire science-first approach to push that evidence temporarily out of sight when declaring the total irrelevance of philosophy for anyone possessed of an adequate (i.e., scientifically informed) worldview. Indeed it may be good for philosophers occasionally to remind scientists how their most productive thinking very often involves a complex interplay of empirical data, theories, working hypotheses, testable conjectures and even (sometimes) speculative fictions. Likewise absent from Hawking’s account is philosophy’s gatekeeper role in spotting those instances where science strays over without due acknowledgement from one to another mode, or – as frequently happens nowadays – where certain evidential constraints are lifted and empirically informed rational conjecture gives way to pure fabulation.
Besides this, there are supposedly cutting-edge theories which turn out, on closer inspection, to unwittingly replicate bygone notions from the history of thought that have been criticised and eventually laid to rest. Hawking’s book puts forward two such theories. One is his linchpin ‘M-theory’ having to do with the multiple dimensions – eleven at the latest count – that are taken to constitute the ultimate reality beyond appearances despite our sensory perception being limited to the three-plus-one of our familiar spatio-temporal world. On this account there cannot be a single, comprehensive ‘Theory of Everything’ of the kind favoured by sanguine types like Steven Weinberg but we can hope to get a whole range of specially tailored, region-specific theories which between them point toward the nature and structure of ultimate reality. The other, closely related to that, is Hawking’s idea of ‘model-dependent realism’ as an approach that makes allowance (as per orthodox quantum mechanics) for the effect of observation on the item observed but which nonetheless retains an adequate respect for the objectivity of scientific truth.
Here Hawking’s argument shows all the signs of a rudderless drifting between various positions adopted by different philosophers from Kant to the present. He spends a lot of time on what seems to be a largely unwitting rehash of episodes in the history of idealist or crypto-idealist thought, episodes which have cast a long shadow over post-Kantian philosophy of science. That shadow still lies heavy on Hawking’s two central ideas of M-theory and model-dependent realism. They both look set to re-open the old Kantian split between a ‘noumenal’ ultimate reality forever beyond human knowledge and a realm of ‘phenomenal’ appearances to which we are confined by the fact of our perceptual and cognitive limits. So if Hawking is right to charge some philosophers with a culpable ignorance of science then there is room for a polite but firm tu quoque, whether phrased in terms of pots calling kettles black or boots on other feet. For it is equally the case that hostility or indifference toward philosophy can sometimes lead scientists, especially those with a strong speculative bent, not only to reinvent the wheel but to produce wheels that don’t track straight and consequently tend to upset the vehicle.
A firmer grasp of these issues as discussed by philosophers during the past few decades might have moderated Hawking’s scorn and also sharpened his critical focus on certain aspects of current theoretical physics. My point is not so much that a strong dose of philosophic realism might have clipped those speculative wings but rather that philosophers are well practised in steering a course through such choppy waters, or in managing to navigate despite all the swirls induced by a confluence of science, metaphysics, and far-out conjecture. After all, physics has increasingly come to rely on just the kind of disciplined speculative thinking that philosophers have typically invented, developed, and then criticised when they overstepped the limits of rationally accountable conjecture. Such are those ‘armchair’ thought-experiments that claim to establish some substantive, i.e., non-trivial thesis concerning the nature of the physical world by means of a rigorous thinking-through that establishes the truth (or, just as often, the demonstrable falsehood) of any statement affirming or denying it.
No doubt there is room to debate whether these are really (and remarkably) instances of scientific discovery achieved through an exercise of a priori reasoning or whether they amount, as sceptics would have it, to a species of disguised tautology. However there are just too many impressive examples in the history of science – from Galileo’s marvellous thought-experiment showing that Aristotle must have been wrong about falling bodies to a number of crucial quantum-related results – for anyone to argue convincingly that results obtained in the ‘laboratory of the mind’ can only impress philosophers keen to defend their patch. Indeed, there is a sense in which the scientific enterprise stands or falls on the validity of counterfactual-conditional reasoning, that is to say, reasoning from what necessarily would be the case should certain conditions obtain or certain hypotheses hold. In its negative guise, this kind of thinking involves reasoning to what would have been the outcome if certain causally or materially relevant factorshad not been operative in some given instance. Hawking constantly relies on such philosophical principles in order to present and justify his claims about the current and likely future course of developments in physics. Of course he is very welcome to them but he might do better to acknowledge their source in ways of thinking and protocols of valid argumentation that involve distinctly philosophical as well as scientific grounds.
This brings us back to the point likely to provoke the most resistance from those scientists – chiefly theoretical physicists – who actually have the most to gain from any assertion of philosophy’s claim to a hearing in such matters. It is that scientists tend to go astray when they start to speculate on issues that exceed not only the current-best observational evidence but even the scope of what is presently conceivable in terms of testability. To speak plainly: one useful job for the philosopher of science is to sort out the errors and confusions that scientists – especially theoretical physicists – sometimes fall into when they give free rein to a speculative turn of mind. My book Quantum Theory and the Flight from Realism found numerous cases to illustrate the point in the statements of quantum theorists all the way from Niels Bohr – a pioneering figure but a leading source of metaphysical mystification – to the current advocates (Hawking among them) of a many-worlds or ‘multiverse’ theory. To adapt the economist Keynes’ famous saying: those scientists who claim to have no use for philosophy are most likely in the grip of a bad old philosophy or an insufficiently thought-out new one that they don’t fully acknowledge.
There is a large supply of present-day (quasi-)scientific thinking at the more – let us say – creative or imaginative end of the scale that falls into just this hybrid category of high-flown metaphysical conjecture tenuously linked to certain puzzling, contested, or at any rate far from decisive empirical results. Nor is it mere hubris for philosophers to claim a special competence in judging when thought has crossed that line from the realm of rational, scientifically informed but so far unproven conjecture to the realm of unanchored speculation or outright science fiction fantasy. One has only to pick up a copy of New Scientistor Scientific American to see how much of the latest thinking inhabits that shadowy border-zone where the three intermingle in ways that a suitably trained philosopher would be best equipped to point out. Nowhere is this more evident than in the past hundred years of debate on and around the seemingly paradoxical implications of quantum mechanics. Those paradoxes include wave/particle dualism, the so-called ‘collapse of the wave-packet’, the observer’s role in causing or inducing said collapse, and – above all since it appears the only way of reconciling these phenomena within anything like a coherent ontology – faster-than-light interaction between widely separated particles.
I shall risk the charge of shameless self-advertisement and suggest that readers take a look at my book for the case that these are pseudo-dilemmas brought about by a mixture of shaky evidence, dubious reasoning on it, fanciful extrapolation, and a flat refusal to entertain alternative theories (such as that of the physicist David Bohm) which considerably lighten the burden of unresolved paradox. At any rate we are better off trusting to the kinds of advice supplied by scientifically-informed philosophers with a well-developed sense of how speculative thinking can sometimes go off the rails than the kinds – including the advice ‘let’s put a stop to philosophy’ – issued by philosophically under-informed scientists.
No doubt there is a fair amount of ill-informed, obtuse, or ideologically angled philosophy that either refuses or tries but fails to engage with the concerns of present-day science. One can understand Hawking’s impatience – or downright exasperation – with some of the half-baked notions put around by refuseniks and would-be engageniks alike. All the same he would do well to consider the historically attested and nowadays more vital than ever role of philosophy as a critical discipline. It continues to offer the sorts of argument that science requires in order to dispel not only the illusions of na ïve sense-certainty or intuitive self-evidence but also the confusions that speculative thought runs into when decoupled from any restraining appeal to regulative principles such as that of inference to the best explanation. To adapt a quotation by Kant in a different though related context: philosophy of science without scientific input is empty, while science without philosophical guidance is blind. At any rate it is rendered perilously apt to mistake the seductions of pure hypothetical invention for the business of formulating rationally warranted, metaphysically coherent, and – if only in the fullness of time – empirically testable conjectures.
© Prof. Christopher Norris 2011
Christopher Norris is Professor of Philosophy at Cardiff University.
Further Reading
• Stephen Hawking with Leonard Mlodinow, The Grand Design: new answers to the ultimate questions of life (Bantam Press, 2010)
• Christopher Norris, Quantum Theory and the Flight from Realism: philosophical responses to quantum mechanics (Routledge, 2000)
• David Papineau (ed.), The Philosophy of Science (O.U.P., 1996)

Is Stephen Hawking an Idealist?
Republished 13/1/15

1 Idealism in Philosophy

For some philosophers, proven is a status that exists only within the confines of the descriptions themselves adopted to assemble such proof - which is at most an alignment between (a) our induction, as conscious entities, and (b) any expression, definition, or description we make of our (a) induction. These philosophers are idealists, and for the most serious of them (c) an actual reality, (the ontologically objective) exists only in as much as (a) and (b) are able to surmise. Thus any repetition found in (c) that aligns with any predicted (b) theory, and perhaps (a) induction, is, at best, merely a law amongst (a) inductions – and that is as good as ‘objective’ can ever be for a conscious entity.

Yet as irrefutable as the idealist argument might be to some, over the last one hundred years its popularity has significantly diminished in the face of modern physics’ numerous achievements - each of which has been enabled by holding (c) an actual objective, reality - to be just that. However, despite idealism’s apparent decline in popularity, no branch of science has been able to comprehensively refute it…yet. And that yet, or more precisely, ‘its absence in 2012’ should be of more interest to modern philosophers than I would argue it currently is, though not because I think it is a correct ontological assessment of our reality.

Unfortunately, idealism is very rarely discussed in a form other than in its resulting consequence – an extreme notion which philosophers get rather hung up on since idealism’s validity as an argument is often surmised from its would-be success in reality. Idealism is the grandfather of philosophy, its old, stagnate, and smells funny if we are honest enough, or perhaps influenced enough, it’s outright embarrassing in this modern age of scientific realism. Our visits today are thus short, awkward and generally only the children, or children at heart, seem to have a good time. (Though I know many children far wiser than myself.) In short, modern philosophy is embarrassed by idealism, or perhaps, more precisely, embarrassed by its failure to deliver for our field in this modern age like what empiricism has done for science.

2 Hawking & Idealism

So it might be remarkably odd for some philosophers, especially from fields other than the philosophy of science, to discover physicists have started to adapt Idealism. Ok it’s not the physicists smashing particles together in Switzerland, but it is the ones more closely related to philosophers than they care to admit, take as example Steven Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, and their self-titled theory Model Dependant Realism below:

"According to the idea of model-dependent realism our brains interpret the input from our sensory organs by making a model of the outside world. We form mental concepts of our home, trees, other people, the electricity that flows from wall sockets, atoms, molecules, and other universes. These mental concepts are the only reality we can know. There is no model-independent test of reality. It follows that a well-constructed model creates a reality of its own." (Hawking & Mlodinow, 2010)

Now the first question that will arise in many philosophers’ minds is why would physicists be interested in adapting idealism? Clearly this revised theory is simply a watered down form of idealism. The unlikely problem with idealism remaining in the waiting list for scientific elimination (and only a few philosophers ever mention this anymore) is that potentially it could one day turn out to be true - effectively turning the laws of science into the laws of cognitive science…but this is just a philosopher’s daydream …after all not even philosophers really believe that this is going happen (well not most) and thus the modern abandonment of its cause. After all physics has been so very convincing: the (a)(b) translations made of (c) actual reality, by various geniuses over the last two hundred years, align precisely with (c) – hence empiricism - not once, but on repetitive occasions, as retested by numerous people. It is these theories that have acted as the glue for even more advanced computer aided models that have pushed the boundaries of human knowledge even further.

So despite its current inability to be dismissed, and its potential, though dubious, inherent danger to common sense scientific/human rationality, it would seem, given the strength of the scientific method to deliver actual results, to be very odd that the two physicists even bother to adapt it - especially since at the start of their combined work they pronounce 'philosophy dead.'

From this perspective, maybe the conversion/adaptation of idealism was meant to be some sort of final blow against philosophy - for surely there is nothing more philosophical than idealism - and its adaptation could be viewed, at least for them, as the death of philosophy - but I very much doubt their reasoning to be so petty…so what is really going on here? Is there more to idealism than these extreme consequences by which we judge its validity? Is there an inherent lesson about the fragility of proven knowledge that philosophers should be putting into practice more than they have been?

Idealism is more than a highly controversial theory about the nature of reality, it’s a lesson about assessing how we have divided and defined reality, about how we have proven what we have defined, and most importantly about how we have taken what we have defined, and what we have proven, for granted - which is to say: to be the only truthful description of reality.

3 Idealism Remains

Despite its remarkable ability to deliver over time, the scientific method only ever delivers one set of truths about reality, the ontologically objective. But our experience is half the equation, and it’s here where we devise our theories about the world. Newton’s empirical bucket experiment was replaced by Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, confirmed by the Hubble telescope. Of course science understands this – a theory is just a theory until a better one comes along – however, in most parts science is now a ground up affair and its roots are rarely challenged, especially by physicists. What teacher of physics or philosophy has ever asked a student to attempt to reinvent Isaac Newton’s laws of physics based on their own inductive experience - and then formalise them in an alternative manner? There is no textbook for that class...and neither is the sentiment of this lesson about taking any defined knowledge for granted lost in philosophy, rather philosophy makes a point of exercising it, but rarely is it ever so directly advocated with regards to scientific definition – and perhaps this is for good reason; the most appropriate description (b) of our inductive experience (a) of say time, may simply be that any object travels at a speed over a distance within a period of time, and that is precisely what the continuity of (c) is; whether for an apple falling from a tree, or for a human being aging.

After all that, speed equals distance over time is a theorem proven over and again, a perfect alignment between (a) (b) and (c), taken for granted in physics’ most valued theories - perhaps none more so than Einstein’s relativity theories. Yet if proof itself is such an incestuous affair as model dependent realism suggests, and objectivity is merely the correlation between two or more minds witnessing the same (c) actual reality, then can’t new physics also be born from alternative (a) (b) translations? Even if we take (c) to be completely independent and objective, as is scientifically rational, we are still victim to the conceptions we have used from (a) to (b) translations to describe it – the law of forgone perspective - and this is the lesson that idealism stands, for still it is the heart of philosophical analysis and why Hawking has seen fit to convert it. Hawking can’t get around Idealism so he has adapted it himself and renamed it under science. Stephen Hawking is an idealist.

Author: Jack James


Hawking S. & Mlodinow L., The Grand Design, Bantam Books, New York, p. 217, 2010.

Stephen Hawking | | | |
Brief Biography

Stephen William Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 (300 years after the death of Galileo) in Oxford, England. His parents' house was in north London, but during the second world war, Oxford was considered a safer place to have babies. When he was eight, his family moved to St. Albans, a town about 20 miles north of London. At the age of eleven, Stephen went to St. Albans School and then on to University College, Oxford; his father's old college. Stephen wanted to study Mathematics, although his father would have preferred medicine. Mathematics was not available at University College, so he pursued Physics instead. After three years and not very much work, he was awarded a first class honours degree in Natural Science.

Stephen then went on to Cambridge to do research in Cosmology, there being no one working in that area in Oxford at the time. His supervisor was Denis Sciama, although he had hoped to get Fred Hoyle who was working in Cambridge. After gaining his Ph.D. he became first a Research Fellow and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College. After leaving the Institute of Astronomy in 1973, Stephen came to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics in 1979, and held the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics from 1979 until 2009. The chair was founded in 1663 with money left in the will of the Reverend Henry Lucas who had been the Member of Parliament for the University. It was first held by Isaac Barrow and then in 1669 by Isaac Newton. Stephen is still an active part of Cambridge University and retains an office at the Department for Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics. His title is now the Dennis Stanton Avery and Sally Tsui Wong-Avery Director of Research at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated that it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but rather should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.

His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel. Among the popular books Stephen Hawking has published are his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, The Universe in a Nutshell, The Grand Design and My Brief History.

Professor Hawking has twelve honorary degrees. He was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He is the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.

Stephen was diagnosed with ALS, a form of Motor Neurone Disease, shortly after his 21st birthday. In spite of being wheelchair bound and dependent on a computerised voice system for communication Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life (he has three children and three grandchildren), and his research into theoretical physics together with an extensive programme of travel and public lectures. He still hopes to make it into space one day.

Stephen Hawking's wife Jane Wilde on their marriage breakdown: 'The family were left behind'

Jane Hawking was talking ahead of the release of a biopic made about the scientist

Tuesday 30 December 2014 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 1K | |
The former wife of Stephen Hawking has described how she and their three children were “left behind” after the cosmologist was surrounded by “sycophantic” admirers following publication of his landmark work A Brief History of Time.
In an interview to coincide with the release this week of the Hawking biopic “The Theory of Everything”, the physicist’s ex-wife Jane said their life became “very complicated” after her husband achieved fame.
“I rather felt that the family had been left behind,” she told Radio Times. “To me, Stephen was my husband and the father of my children; one does not say to one’s husband, “Oh, you’re so clever! I must worship the ground under your feet, or in this case, wheels.” I found this kind of sycophantic attitude – the attitude adopted by so many people around Stephen – exceptionally frustrating and, of course, it grew a lot worse when we finally had to engage carers.”
She described the “exhaustion” she felt looking after someone with motor neurone disease and the “very traumatic” end to the relationship in 1990. “I was, I suppose, very innocent. I expected that carers came into the home to help look after the disabled person and respect the rest of the family. Very few of them did that. I was desperate; I didn’t think I could carry on, because I was so drained.”
Five years after their divorce, Stephen married one of his carers, Elaine Mason. Before the break-up, Jane had begun a relationship with a musician, Jonathan, who became her husband.
She wrote her memoir Travelling to Infinity (from which “The Theory of Everything” draws) because she feared being written out of her husband’s story. “I felt that Stephen had become such a significant figure, a scientist of such international renown, that at some future date someone would be sure to attempt an inaccurate, sensationalised biography, possibly including me, possibly writing me out of the script.”
She met Hawking on a railway platform when she was a teenager and he was yet to be diagnosed with his debilitating disease. They married young – “because we didn’t know how long Stephen was going to live” – and she became used to him being lost in thought. “The goddess Physics was Stephen’s idol. I was not jealous of her but she did give me some cause for concern. Sometimes Stephen would spend a whole weekend in his wheelchair, elbow resting on his knee like Rodin’s Thinker. He wouldn’t take any notice of the children, or of me, and I would become very worried. Was he uncomfortable or ill, or had I upset him in some way? Then, on the Monday morning, he would look up and smile and say, “I’ve solved that equation!”

Stephen Hawking Biography
Physicist, Scientist (1942–) * 3.3K * 3K * 112 * 1 * *
Stephen Hawking
Physicist, Scientist
January 8, 1942 (age 73)
California Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College, Oxford University
Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Stephen Hawking
Stephen William Hawking
Stephen Hawking is known for his work regarding black holes and for authoring several popular science books. He suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Show All Groups
1 of 13 « »
“My goal is simple. It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all.”
—Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking - Mini Biography (TV-14; 03:59) Stephen Hawking's chief theory is that black holes should emit radiation, which is known as Hawking radiation. His popular science book, "A Brief History of Time," has made science accessible to everyone.
Stephen Hawking was born on January 8, 1942, in Oxford, England. At an early age, Hawking showed a passion for science and the sky. At age 21, while studying cosmology at the University of Cambridge, he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite his debilitating illness, he has done groundbreaking work in physics and cosmology, and his several books have helped to make science accessible to everyone. Part of his life story was depicted in the 2014 film The Theory of Everything.
Early Life and Background
The eldest of Frank and Isobel Hawking's four children, Stephen William Hawking was born on the 300th anniversary of the death of Galileo—long a source of pride for the noted physicist—on January 8, 1942. He was born in Oxford, England, into a family of thinkers. His Scottish mother had earned her way into Oxford University in the 1930s—a time when few women were able to go to college. His father, another Oxford graduate, was a respected medical researcher with a specialty in tropical diseases.
Stephen Hawking's birth came at an inopportune time for his parents, who didn't have much money. The political climate was also tense, as England was dealing with World War II and the onslaught of German bombs. In an effort to seek a safer place, Isobel returned to Oxford to have the couple's first child. The Hawkings would go on to have two other children, Mary (1943) and Philippa (1947). And their second son, Edward, was adopted in 1956.
The Hawkings, as one close family friend described them, were an "eccentric" bunch. Dinner was often eaten in silence, each of the Hawkings intently reading a book. The family car was an old London taxi, and their home in St. Albans was a three-story fixer-upper that never quite got fixed. The Hawkings also housed bees in the basement and produced fireworks in the greenhouse.
In 1950, Hawking's father took work to manage the Division of Parasitology at the National Institute of Medical Research, and spent the winter months in Africa doing research. He wanted his eldest child to go into medicine, but at an early age, Hawking showed a passion for science and the sky. That was evident to his mother, who, along with her children, often stretched out in the backyard on summer evenings to stare up at the stars. "Stephen always had a strong sense of wonder," she remembered. "And I could see that the stars would draw him."
Early in his academic life, Hawking, while recognized as bright, was not an exceptional student. During his first year at St. Albans School, he was third from the bottom of his class. But Hawking focused on pursuits outside of school; he loved board games, and he and a few close friends created new games of their own. During his teens, Hawking, along with several friends, constructed a computer out of recycled parts for solving rudimentary mathematical equations.
Hawking was also frequently on the go. With his sister Mary, Hawking, who loved to climb, devised different entry routes into the family home. He remained active even after he entered University College at Oxford University at the age of 17. He loved to dance and also took an interest in rowing, becoming a team coxswain.
Hawking expressed a desire to study mathematics, but since Oxford didn't offer a degree in that specialty, Hawking gravitated toward physics and, more specifically, cosmology.
By his own account, Hawking didn't put much time into his studies. He would later calculate that he averaged about an hour a day focusing on school. And yet he didn't really have to do much more than that. In 1962, he graduated with honors in natural science and went on to attend Trinity Hall at Cambridge University for a PhD in cosmology.
Advertisement — Continue reading below
ALS Diagnosis
While Hawking first began to notice problems with his physical health while he was at Oxford—on occasion he would trip and fall, or slur his speech—he didn't look into the problem until 1963, during his first year at Cambridge. For the most part, Hawking had kept these symptoms to himself. But when his father took notice of the condition, he took Hawking to see a doctor. For the next two weeks, the 21-year-old college student made his home at a medical clinic, where he underwent a series of tests.
"They took a muscle sample from my arm, stuck electrodes into me, and injected some radio-opaque fluid into my spine, and watched it going up and down with X-rays, as they tilted the bed," he once said. "After all that, they didn't tell me what I had, except that it was not multiple sclerosis, and that I was an atypical case."
Eventually, however, doctors did inform the Hawkings about what was ailing their son: He was in the early stages of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease). In a very simple sense, the nerves that controlled his muscles were shutting down. Doctors gave him two and a half years to live.
It was devastating news for Hawking and his family. A few events, however, prevented him from becoming completely despondent. The first of these came while Hawking was still in the hospital. There, he shared a room with a boy suffering from leukemia. Relative to what his roommate was going through, Hawking later reflected, his situation seemed more tolerable. Not long after he was released from the hospital, Hawking had a dream that he was going to be executed. He said this dream made him realize that there were still things to do with his life.
But the most significant change in his life was the fact that he was in love. At a New Year's party in 1963, shortly before he had been diagnosed with ALS, Hawking met a young languages undergraduate named Jane Wilde. They were married in 1965.
In a sense, Hawking's disease helped him become the noted scientist he is today. Before the diagnosis, Hawking hadn't always focused on his studies. "Before my condition was diagnosed, I had been very bored with life," he said. "There had not seemed to be anything worth doing." With the sudden realization that he might not even live long enough to earn his PhD, Hawking poured himself into his work and research.
Research on Black Holes
Groundbreaking findings from another young cosmologist, Roger Penrose, about the fate of stars and the creation of black holes tapped into Hawking's own fascination with how the universe began. This set him on a career course that reshaped the way the world thinks about black holes and the universe.
While physical control over his body diminished (he'd be forced to use a wheelchair by 1969), the effects of his disease started to slow down. In 1968, a year after the birth of his son Robert, Hawking became a member of the Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge.
The next few years were a fruitful time for Hawking. A daughter, Lucy, was born to Stephen and Jane in 1969, while Hawking continued with his research. (A third child, Timothy, arrived 10 years later.) He then published his first book, the highly technical The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (1973), with G.F.R. Ellis. He also teamed up with Penrose to expand upon his friend's earlier work.
In 1974, Hawking's research turned him into a celebrity within the scientific world when he showed that black holes aren't the information vacuums that scientists had thought they were. In simple terms, Hawking demonstrated that matter, in the form of radiation, can escape the gravitational force of a collapsed star. Hawking radiation was born.
The announcement sent shock waves of excitement through the scientific world, and put Hawking on a path that's been marked by awards, notoriety and distinguished titles. He was named a fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 32, and later earned the prestigious Albert Einstein Award, among other honors.
Teaching stints followed, too. One was at Caltech in Pasadena, California, where Hawking served as visiting professor, making subsequent visits over the years. Another was at Gonville and Caius College in Cambridge. In 1979, Hawking found himself back at Cambridge University, where he was named to one of teaching's most renowned posts, dating back to 1663: the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics.
'A Brief History of Time'
Hawking's ever-expanding career was accompanied, however, by his ever-worsening physical state. By the mid-1970s, the Hawking family had taken in one of Hawking's graduate students to help manage his care and work. He could still feed himself and get out of bed, but virtually everything else required assistance. In addition, his speech had become increasingly slurred, so that only those who knew him well could understand him. In 1985 he lost his voice for good following a tracheotomy. The resulting situation required 24-hour nursing care for the acclaimed physicist.
It also put in peril Hawking's ability to do his work. The predicament caught the attention of a California computer programmer, who had developed a speaking program that could be directed by head or eye movement. The invention allowed Hawking to select words on a computer screen that were then passed through a speech synthesizer. At the time of its introduction, Hawking, who still had use of his fingers, selected his words with a handheld clicker. Today, with virtually all control of his body gone, Hawking directs the program through a cheek muscle attached to a sensor.
Through the program, and the help of assistants, Stephen Hawking has continued to write at a prolific rate. His work has included numerous scientific papers, of course, but also information for the non-scientific community.
In 1988 Hawking, a recipient of the Commander of the Order of the British Empire, catapulted to international prominence with the publication of A Brief History of Time. The short, informative book became an account of cosmology for the masses. The work was an instant success, spending more than four years atop the London Sunday Times' best-seller list. Since its publication, it has sold millions of copies worldwide and been translated into more than 40 languages. But it also wasn't as easy to understand as some had hoped. So in 2001, Hawking followed up his book with The Universe in a Nutshell, which offered a more illustrated guide to cosmology's big theories. Four years later, he authored the even more accessible A Briefer History of Time.
Together the books, along with Hawking's own research and papers, articulate the physicist's personal search for science's Holy Grail: a single unifying theory that can combine cosmology (the study of the big) with quantum mechanics (the study of the small) to explain how the universe began. It's this kind of ambitious thinking that has allowed Hawking, who claims he can think in 11 dimensions, to lay out some big possibilities for humankind. He's convinced that time travel is possible, and that humans may indeed colonize other planets in the future.
Advertisement — Continue reading below
Space Travel and Further Fame
Hawking's quest for big answers to big questions includes his own personal desire to travel into space. In 2007, at the age of 65, Hawking made an important step toward space travel. While visiting the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, he was given the opportunity to experience an environment without gravity. Over the course of two hours over the Atlantic, Hawking, a passenger on a modified Boeing 727, was freed from his wheelchair to experience bursts of weightlessness. Pictures of the freely floating physicist splashed across newspapers around the globe.
"The zero-G part was wonderful, and the high-G part was no problem. I could have gone on and on. Space, here I come!" he said.
If there is such a thing as a rock-star scientist, Stephen Hawking embodies it. His forays into popular culture have included guest appearances on The Simpsons,Star Trek: The Next Generation, a comedy spoof with comedian Jim Carrey on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, and even a recorded voice-over on the Pink Floyd song "Keep Talking." In 1992, Oscar-winning filmmaker Errol Morris released a documentary about Hawking's life, aptly titledA Brief History of Time.
Of course, as it is with any celebrity, fame has brought with it an interest in Hawking's personal life. And there have been some news-making events. In 1990, Hawking left his wife, Jane, for one of his nurses, Elaine Mason. The two were married in 1995, and the marriage put a strain on Hawking's relationship with his own children, who claimed Elaine closed off their father from them. In 2003, nurses looking after Hawking reported their suspicions to police that Elaine was physically abusing her husband. Hawking denied the allegations, and the police investigation was called off.
In 2006, however, Hawking and Elaine filed for divorce. In the years since, the physicist has apparently grown closer with his family. He's reconciled with Jane, who has remarried, and published a 2007 science book for children, George's Secret Key to the Universe, with his daughter, Lucy.
Hawking's health, of course, remains a constant concern—a worry that was heightened in 2009 when he failed to appear at a conference in Arizona because of a chest infection. In April, Hawking, who had already announced he was retiring after 30 years from the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, was rushed to the hospital for being what university officials described as "gravely ill." It was later announced that he was expected to make a full recovery.
Hawking is scheduled to fly to the edge of space as one of Sir Richard Branson's pioneer space tourists. He said in a 2007 statement, "Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster, such as sudden global warming, nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus or other dangers. I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space."
In September 2010, Hawking spoke against the idea that God could have created the universe in his book The Grand Design. Hawking previously argued that belief in a creator could be compatible with modern scientific theories. His new work, however, concludes that the Big Bang was the inevitable consequence of the laws of physics and nothing more. "Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing," Hawking says. "Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist."
The Grand Design is Hawking's first major publication in almost a decade. Within his new work, Hawking sets out to challenge Sir Isaac Newton's belief that the universe had to have been designed by God, simply because it could not have been born from chaos. "It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch paper and set the universe going," Hawking said.
Hawking made news in 2012 for two very different projects. It was revealed that he had participated in a 2011 trial of a new headband-styled device called the iBrain. The device is designed to "read" the wearer's thoughts by picking up "waves of electrical brain signals," which are then interpreted by a special algorithm, according to an article in The New York Times. This device could be a revolutionary aid to Hawking and others with ALS.
TV and Film
Also around this time, Hawking showed off his humorous side on American television. He made a guest appearance on The Big Bang Theory, a popular comedy about a group of young, geeky scientists. Playing himself, Hawking brings the theoretical physicist Sheldon Cooper (Jim Parsons) back to Earth after finding an error in his work. Hawking earned kudos for this lighthearted effort.
In 2014, Hawking, among other top scientists, spoke out about the possible dangers of artificial intelligence, or AI, calling for more research to be done on all of possible ramifications of AI. Their comments were inspired by the Johnny Depp film Transcendence, which features clash between humanity and technology. "Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history," the scientists wrote. "Unfortunately, it might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks." The group warned of a time when this technology would be "outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders, and developing weapons we cannot even understand."
In November of the same year, a film about the life of Stephen Hawking and Jane Wilde was released. The Theory of Everything stars Eddie Redmayne as Hawking and encompasses his early life and school days, his courtship and marriage to Wilde, the progression of his crippling disease and his scientific triumphs.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Hawking a genius of the Western culture. Through his disability I believe Stephen Hawking has stood out as a genius of our Western culture. Even with being diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, he has provided ground breaking work in cosmology and physics. He has written several different books to allow science more attainable to the average person. Stephen Hawking was the oldest of four children, born to Frank and Isobel Hawking on the 8th of January, 1942 in Oxford England. He was born on the 300th anniversary of the death of Galileo. This has been a large source of pride for Hawking. He was born into a smart family his mother was one of the first female students at Oxford University. His father was also a graduate of Oxford, being a well known researcher of medicine, his specialty in tropical diseases. The birth of Stephen came at a bad time to his parents, for they had little money and was during World War II. Stephen’s father was hoping he would follow his steps and research medicine, but from an early age Stephen showed more interest in the sky and science. In his early academic life, Stephen was seen as a bright child but was not an exceptional student. He was more interested in things outside of school. He enjoyed board games and even constructed a computer out of recycled parts to solve rudimentary mathematical equations. At the age of 17 he enrolled into Oxford University. Stephen finally told his father he did not want to study medicine and instead...

Words: 1014 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Into a Black Hole


Words: 3328 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Summary Of Lou Gehrig's Disease

...Most patients with ALS—also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, for the famous baseball player who succumbed to the disease—are diagnosed after the age of 50 and die within five years of their diagnosis. Hawking's condition was first diagnosed when he was 21, and he was not expected to see his 25th birthday.Jan 7, 2012 Last year, British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking hinted at research he and a couple of colleagues were working on that could solve the infamous black hole information paradox, which states that information about matter that gets destroyed by a black hole, according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, is ...Jan 11, 2016 Hawking has a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Persuasive Speech Outline

...that can be done with this technology. Thesis:  In this presentation I hope to explain the opposition that artificial intelligence faces, show examples of successful uses of AI, and challenge those opposed to this technology to consider a change of position. Introduction: I’m sure that most of you have seen the movie I, Robot, or perhaps The Matrix. Both are very popular movies and both contain an antagonist in the form of an artificial intelligence system that sees destruction and chaos as a necessary evil for the evolution of the world. However, these stories are works of fiction. So why does the mention of artificial intelligence conjure scenes of destruction like we just watched? Many of us take a pessimistic view when asked about AI. Today I want to explain to you the biggest fear associated with artificial intelligence, share examples of this technology that is already in successful use, and describe why you should support the development of artificial intelligence. I.) Having already mentioned a few movies that seem to give very negative connotations to the use of artificial intelligence, let’s begin by looking at one of the biggest oppositions facing artificial intelligence, the argument against singularity. a.) What is singularity? According to Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, singularity is “the quality or state of being singular.” (Merriam-Webster). i.) Pertaining to the field of artificial intelligence singularity is the moment when machines reach a level...

Words: 1169 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Blace Hole

...BLACK HOLE A black hole is a theoretical region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light), can escape its pull after having fallen past its event horizon. The term derives from the fact that the absorption of visible light renders the hole's interior invisible, and indistinguishable from the black space around it. . The idea of an object with gravity strong enough to prevent light from escaping was proposed in 1783 by John Michell, an amateur British astronomer. In 1795, Pierre-Simon Laplace, a French physicist independently came to the same conclusion. Black holes, as currently understood, are described by the general theory of relativity. This theory predicts that when a large enough amount of mass is present in a sufficiently small region of space, all paths through space are warped inwards towards the center of the volume, preventing all matter and radiation within it from escaping. While general relativity describes a black hole as a region of empty space with a point-like singularity at the center and an event horizon at the outer edge, the description changes when the effects of quantum mechanics are taken into account. [pic]Name The term black hole to describe this phenomenon dates from the mid-1960s, though its precise origins are unclear. According to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, as mass is added to a degenerate star a sudden collapse will take place and the intense...

Words: 2768 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Summary: The ALS Ice Bucket Challenge

...With recent progress in stem cell research, scientist may be approaching an amazing brake though towards the cure. Living an everyday life with such a horrendous disease like ALS is a very tough thing to do, mentally and physically. Embryonic stem cells are being used in order to help reduce the symptoms caused from Lou Gehrig’s disease and hopefully another step forward towards the cure. People in the community, who are against abortion and the use of embryo stem cells, are highly against this and are beginning to protest against the ALS Foundation website. The research I have conducted has taught me about man kind and what we are willing to do once we understand the reality of a subject or disease. We as humans are not always as harsh and rude, when we are faced with death or disaster, we always seem to find a way to come together and help each other in a time of need. Although ALS researchers may not be using the most standard types of research, at least the scientist are still trying. The important thing is that we are coming together, as a community, and trying to support people in need from this terrible...

Words: 2313 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Ufos Phenomenon

...meteors, and satellites. The remaining sightings are hard to confirm due to the lack of photographic taken, inaccurate reporting, or delusions. Some people have given evidences to support the appearance of the UFOs, arguing that there is a conspiracy to hide the truth. The paper deals with UFOs phenomenon, which is an unexplained aerial event that has happened for a long time. It discusses the evidences of UFOs’ existence and the question of whether we are not alone in this universe as well as the theories surrounding these aerial events. 2. Discussion of findings 2.1. The Evidences For centuries, the UFOs reports have been familiar with people throughout the world. According to UN (2011), it is estimated that since 1947, about 150 million people have witnessed the UFO phenomenon and most of the reports from these people are general sighting. Many picture and video have been taken and recorded to be the evidence of this unexplained aerial event, however, this type of evidence is not convincing enough and hard to confirm due to the lack of the photographic quality, technical problems and photoshop. So if UFOs exist, do they leave some physical evidence? The answer is yes, they do. The first type of physical evidence is radar evidence. With so many radar tracking systems...

Words: 1789 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Quantum Computer by Quantum Mathematics

...QUANTUM COMPUTER BY QUANTUM MATHEMATICS Research Assistant: Quantum Mathematics Research and Development Private Limited. HaritaBhargava Abstract-. India gives its greatest contribution toward Intellectual property in form of SANHKYA YOGA. We know very new name of INDIA by BHARAT IT gives us necessary clue. BHA = LIGHT + KNOWLEDGERATA = DEVOTED So BHARAT means DEVOTED to LIGHT & KNOWLEDGE. The model for which modern science search is already available in SANKHYA YOGA. Sankhya yoga like INTELLECTUALPROPERTY is unparallel in the world. Sankhya is a philosophical doctrine which counts the categories which constitute this world. Computer science gives it the name “DIGITAL DECADE”. Cosmology presents it in name of “UNCERTANITY PRINCIPLE” IT is being researched in the form of Quantum (wave & particle) in physics department. In future, it will be known as Medical compiler. [R4] Terms and condition : INNOVATION – RESPECT IT Under the WTO provision of TRIPS I. INTRODUCTION Article 8.1 - That agreement is to be put into effect by member countries through implementing laws. The provision of the agreement is addressed to member countries. It does not directly modify the legal sanction of private parties, who cannot claim rights based on the agreement until they are translated into national law. Article 9.2 - The concept of fair use seeks to balance granting authors sufficient incentives to create new works against the interest of the public and future...

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Quantum Computer by Quantum Mathematics

...QUANTUM COMPUTER BY QUANTUM MATHEMATICS Research Assistant: Quantum Mathematics Research and Development Private Limited. HaritaBhargava Abstract-. India gives its greatest contribution toward Intellectual property in form of SANHKYA YOGA. We know very new name of INDIA by BHARAT IT gives us necessary clue. BHA = LIGHT + KNOWLEDGERATA = DEVOTED So BHARAT means DEVOTED to LIGHT & KNOWLEDGE. The model for which modern science search is already available in SANKHYA YOGA. Sankhya yoga like INTELLECTUALPROPERTY is unparallel in the world. Sankhya is a philosophical doctrine which counts the categories which constitute this world. Computer science gives it the name “DIGITAL DECADE”. Cosmology presents it in name of “UNCERTANITY PRINCIPLE” IT is being researched in the form of Quantum (wave & particle) in physics department. In future, it will be known as Medical compiler. [R4] Terms and condition : INNOVATION – RESPECT IT Under the WTO provision of TRIPS I. INTRODUCTION Article 8.1 - That agreement is to be put into effect by member countries through implementing laws. The provision of the agreement is addressed to member countries. It does not directly modify the legal sanction of private parties, who cannot claim rights based on the agreement until they are translated into national law. Article 9.2 - The concept of fair use seeks to balance granting authors sufficient incentives to create new works against the interest of the public and future...

Words: 2181 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...defend this point two key texts will be addressed, they include: I, Robot, a fictional movie that exemplifies the fact that Robots can take over humanity and an article from renowned author George Dvorsky who ponders over the possibility of Robots becoming sentient and fighting for their rights, resulting in the end of human beings. Using both the fictional and non-fictional text it will be proven beyond doubt that future robotics pose a massive threat to the human race. Ever since Fritz Lang’s, Metropolis movie, robots have been a reappearing figure in the film industry and are often represented as a threat to the future world. A prime example of this is the text I, Robot. When hitting the screens in 2004, I, Robot, brought about some opposing debates about robotics, ultimately arguing whether future robotics will be beneficial or harmful. The beginning of the film consists of the creator of robots, Dr. Lanning committing suicide. However Detective...

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Einstein Theory of Relativity

...Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, near Geneva, says a neutrino beam shot off from a particle accelerator near Geneva to a lab 730 km away in Italy, whooshed 60 nanoseconds faster than light, with a speed of 186,282 miles per second. But, how could the fact be ignored that Einstein's theory has been tested thousands of times over the past 106 years? And, only recently have here been just slight hints that the behaviour of some elementary particles of matter might not fit into it. How could the fact be ignored that Einstein's theory has been tested thousands of times over the past 106 years? If the findings by the CERN are correct, it would force an overhaul of the fundamental laws of nature and how the universe works. These particles are 6 km/second faster than light, which is strange because 100 years ago, Einstein suggested nothing can go faster than light. If these scientists are right and Einstein was wrong, whatever we know about our Universe will soon be turned on its head. "The feeling that most people have is this can't be right, this can't be real," reported IANS. Earlier, the Chicago team had similar faster-than-light results in 2007, but then the giant margin of error undermined its scientific significance. According to eminent cosmologist and astrophysicist Martin Rees "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence, and this is an extraordinary claim." "It is premature to comment on this," said Professor Stephen Hawking, the...

Words: 430 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Career Researsch Paper

...Career Research Paper Part I: Physics strives to identify fundamental principles governing the build and deportment of matter, the engenderment and movement of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use those principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the beginnings of our universe, while some work in practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, optical and electrical devices, and medical equipment (BLS, para. 2). I chose physics for my career research paper because I have an intellectual curiosity for the world, the universe, and everything in between. I want to understand how matter moves through spacetime, and how the universe behaves. Understanding physics also means understanding many other scientific areas of study, thus providing an intimate knowledge for reality as we know it. Many physicists work in laboratories, where they design and perform experiments with sophisticated equipment. Some of that equipment includes lasers, particle accelerators, electron microscopes, and mass spectrometers. Although much research may be conducted through experiments in the lab, physicists still spend much time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Many who are deeply involved in research way also work very long or irregular hours. For basic research positions, independent research in industry, faculty positions, and advancement to managerial positions, a Ph.D in physics or related...

Words: 954 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Earth Perspectives geoengineering, which could cause significant changes to the planet. The current biotic crisis is being caused by technology and the effects may last for up to five million years. In turn, technology may result in the extinction of humanity, leaving the planet to gradually return to a slower evolutionary pace resulting solely from long-term natural processes. Hawking: How Humankind Will Survive the Future Listen, people of Earth: Everything's going to be fine. All we have to do is survive another century or two without self-destructing as a species. Then we'll get off this rock, spread throughout space, and everything will be all right. If this is not your idea of "optimism," then you are not Stephen Hawking. The esteemed physicist garnered headlines, and some eye-rolls, after telling Big Think last week that humanity needs to leave the Earth in the future or face extinction. As The Atlantic noted: He's not knocking climate scientists' attempts to figure things out on Earth-he's just thinking long term. "There have been a number of times in the past when our survival has been touch-and-go," explains Hawking at Big Think, mentioning the Cuban Missile Crisis, and "the frequency of such occasions is likely to increase in the future…. Our population and our use of the finite resources of the planet earth are growing exponentially along with our technical ability to change the environment...

Words: 3800 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Supply Chain of matter[4] and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.[5] One of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, the main goal of physics is to understand how the universe behaves.[a][6][7][8] Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.[9] Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciencesemerged as unique research programs in their own right.[b] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences[6] while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons;[6] advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus. Contents   [hide]  ...

Words: 1926 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Rap Game Delirious

...oday, the term "applied mathematics" is used in a broader sense. It includes the classical areas noted above as well as other areas that have become increasingly important in applications. Even fields such as number theory that are part of pure mathematics are now important in applications (such as cryptography), though they are not generally considered to be part of the field of applied mathematics per se. Sometimes, the term "applicable mathematics" is used to distinguish between the traditional applied mathematics that developed alongside physics and the many areas of mathematics that are applicable to real-world problems today. There is no consensus as to what the various branches of applied mathematics are. Such categorizations are made difficult by the way mathematics and science change over time, and also by the way universities organize departments, courses, and degrees. Many mathematicians distinguish between "applied mathematics," which is concerned with mathematical methods, and the "applications of mathematics" within science and engineering. A biologist using a population model and applying known mathematics would not be doingapplied mathematics, but rather using it; however, mathematical biologists have posed problems that have stimulated the growth of pure mathematics. Mathematicians such as Poincaré and Arnold deny the existence of "applied mathematics" and claim that there are only "applications of mathematics." Similarly, non-mathematicians blend applied mathematics...

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5