Premium Essay

Aids: the Modern Black Plague

In: Social Issues

Submitted By blaine
Words 3272
Pages 14
AIDS: The Modern Black Plague

The AIDS epidemic has reached a crisis level in Africa and needs to be addressed by the United States. Efforts to teach the population AIDS prevention, reduce the price of certain medications, and influence the local leaders to teach their citizens about AIDS should be considered by the United States. Along with those efforts, the United States needs to help with the aftermath of the epidemic. In order to fully understand what the United States needs to do to help, we must first realize why the AIDS epidemic has risen to a crisis level in Africa.
When the HIV virus matures it turns into what is known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). It is a life threatening disease that when contracted is eventually fatal. There are treatments and medications that can help slow the painful symptoms of the disease, but so far research has not found a cure. Since the early 80’s AIDS has become quite a scary issue because of its life-threatening nature. Unlike the common cold or other viruses transmitted through the air, AIDS is only transmitted by sexual contact or by the sharing of needles. AIDS, though a worldwide problem has now climbed to an epidemic level in Africa. CW Henderson, writing for AIDS Weekly, reports that, “70% of the world’s AIDS cases are located in sub-Saharan Africa”(20). Anderson goes on to report that, “The disease kills 6,000 people a day in Africa, has orphaned about 15% of children in the worst-hit cities, and by some estimates will lower life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa from 59 in the early 1990’s to 45 by 2015”(20). Michael Lemonick, writing in Time magazine, reports that, “In South Africa, 1 in 5 adults is infected” (38). Just like the black plague of Europe in the Middle Ages, AIDS has become a modern plague and Africa has been hit the hardest.
Why has Africa born the brunt of this infectious...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Global Pandemics

...Global pandemics have helped shape history and the modern world. Without the diseases that cause pandemics nations and empires would not have been able to expand as far and wide as they did and they would not have grown in complexity and culture. The bubonic plague took the world to the Dark Ages, but also resulted in one of the greatest ages of enlightenment, the Renaissance. Beautiful works of art, literature, and philosophy were born from this. Somewhat sadly not all pandemics have resulted in ages of enlightenment. Often they come fast, kill even faster, and then are gone. One pandemic that still plagues the world today, with no end in sight, is AIDS. An incurable virus that became the center of attention in the 1980's. Bubonic plague and AIDS are very different in nature, but have resulted in many similar political, economic, and cultural impacts within human societies. The differences and similarities of these pandemics can help us understand pandemics better and also can help us to prepare for future pandemics. First we must look at the bubonic plague, how it spread and how it impacted the world socially, economically, and culturally. It was first recorded in Europe by a Sicilian chronicler by the name of Michele da Piazza in October of 1347, who recorded the port of Messina having twelve galleys full of sailors carrying the disease down to the marrow of their bones.1 Black Death began to really take its toll in 1348, spreading through Italy, France, Spain,......

Words: 1420 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nike Marketing

...chapter looks at the main factors that led to the concern off international health. It explores the main backgrounds of modern international health from the time of the Eurasian plague for three hundred years. It examines events like the rise of the slave trade and imperialism and the health consequences that came with these events. It then turns and examines the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and the upsurge of the sanitary reform movement. These events led to the presence and development of new international health institutions. Plague outbreaks led to the beginnings of the earliest health regulations. The increase of rival leaders fighting for power and increase of travel and trade led to the outbreaks of widespread diseases. The Middle Ages were characterized by two great plague outbreaks. The Plague of Justinian affected populations moving from Asia to Ireland. The second great plague was the great Black Death in the 14th century. The plague is said to be the most critical epidemic in mankind’s history. The plague shook the whole political, economic, social and ecclesiastical structure of Europe and it led to a death of 25 million people throughout India, China and Mediterranean. The plague was suspected to have been caused by the numerous human contacts. This led to the earliest efforts of international disease control. In the faith that the plague was introduced by the movement of trade ships, Venice adopted a detention of 40 days. This detention abolished......

Words: 1568 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

New York City African Americans with Hiv

...high risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. It’s unfortunate that amongst New York City unlimited diverse population, the African-American woman have steadily and continue to become affected with the HIV virus. Even though nowadays medication has shown improvement to treating HIV, more needed towards the prevention of becoming HIV-positive. Numerous factors must be addressed, and educational programs becoming readily available to the urban modern lifestyle’s that African American as well Women of all ethnicity partake. Change begins with acknowledgement and understandings. History of HIV/AIDS Over 33 million people around the world are infected with AIDS or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Of which over a million people are infected with AIDS in the United States. At first, AIDS in the United States was considered a white gay man’s disease. In fact, AIDS was once referred to as “The Gay Plague” (Shilts, 1987). However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported in 2005 that women now make up 26 percent of all new HIV/AIDS diagnoses. African American women are infected at even higher rates than Women of other racial and ethnic groups. In 2005, close to 127,000 women were living with HIV/AIDS. Black women made up 64 percent of those women living with HIV/AIDS. In 2004, HIV was the leading cause of death for black women aged 25-34 These statistics of AIDS among African American women are alarming. Yet awareness about HIV/AIDS among black women in the United......

Words: 556 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Essays on 7s Model

...(human immunodeficiency virus), which has been found to be the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), would not have been the topic of a major and serious worldwide catastrophe. Twenty years ago, people were not phased by the effects that would be caused by this ever so populating disease, and no one would have ever realized that this disease would not be curable or helped without expensive medicine. Like a simple exponential growth equation, the AIDS virus has increased victim numbers by about forty million all over the world. AIDS has also shown that it is not discriminating; it has infected all races and all heritages. The AIDS crisis extends far beyond its death toll, because more than seventy percent of the thirty-six million people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. Last year alone, the disease killed 1.5 million people in Africa. One third of these victims are between the ages of ten and twenty-four. The disease has been described as a development crisis; it is profoundly disrupting the economic and social bases of families and entire nations at a rate of infection at 16,000 per day. Without immediate action, AIDS will surpass the effect of the Black Plague that killed forty million people in the late fourteenth century. It is estimated that only ten percent of the death that this disease will cause has been seen. There are no known cures or affordable vaccines to prevent AIDS; the only option is for a program to prevent further spread of......

Words: 3218 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Nothing

...HISTORY 1500 WINTER 2014 RESEARCH ESSAY TOPICS 1. Select a crusade and discuss the extent to which it accomplished its objectives. Why did it succeed or fail? Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A Short History; Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives; Christopher Tyerman, God’s War: A New History of the Crusades 2. How did anti-Semitism manifest itself in medieval Europe? Kenneth R. Stow, Alienated Minority: The Jews of Medieval Latin Europe; Mark R. Cohen, Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages; Solomon Grayzel, The Church and the Jews in the Thirteenth Century 3. What was the position of prostitutes in medieval society? Ruth Mazo Karras, Common Women; Leah Otis, Prostitution in Medieval Society; Margaret Wade Labarge, A Small Sound of the Trumpet: Women in Medieval Life 4. Why did the French choose to follow Joan of Arc during the the Hundred Years War? Kelly DeVries, Joan of Arc: A Military Leader; Bonnie Wheeler, ed., Fresh Verdicts on Joan of Arc; Margaret Wade Labarge, A Small Sound of the Trumpet: Women in Medieval Life 5. Discuss the significance of siege warfare during the crusades. You may narrow this question down to a single crusade if you wish. Jim Bradbury, The Medieval Siege; Randall Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century; John France, Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade 6. Why did the......

Words: 5531 - Pages: 23

Free Essay

Modern Society Human Populations at Risk of Disease Pandemics

...Modern society human populations at risk of disease pandemics Sandra Mankarios 42460441 Word count: 2033 The qualities in which humans in modern day society live have increased the potential risks of the transmission of pathogens and their vectors. These risks have become limitless compared to the past; the damage created now will greatly effect future generations where the damage may even be irreversible (Washer 2006). Many factors in everyday modern life contribute to the rapid spread of pathogens and their vectors, which include the advances in modern transport via the air, land and sea, the increase in population size and density, global change and climate change. These features of today assist in the introduction of new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases including influenza, HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, malaria, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Cholera and many others (Tatem et al. 2006). MODERN ADVANCES IN TRANSPORTATION In the past, populated establishments were isolated due to lack of efficient transport. Now in today’s modern society, the constant advances in resources and the requirement for travel has seen the travelling of individuals dramatically increased over the years. Transport systems via land, air and sea continue to develop allowing swifter mobility of passengers and goods across vast distances within shorter periods of time. Although this is exemplary of an advancing society full of promising travel and freight options,......

Words: 2073 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Marketing

...Topics  The Black Death  The Effects of the Black Death  The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy  The Hundred Years’ War  The Decline of the Church  The Renaissance  Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance  Italian Renaissance Humanism  Machiavelli and Power Politics  Leonardo Da Vinci  Global Travel and Trade  The African Cultural Heritage  West African Kingdoms  The Europeans in Africa  Native American Cultures  Maya Civilization  The Empires of the Incas and the Aztecs  The Spanish in the Americas and the Aftermath of Their Conquest  The Impact of Technology  Christian Humanism and the Northern Renaissance  Luther and the Protestant Reformation  The Spread of Protestantism  The Catholic Reformation 2 WESTERN CIVILIZATIONS  The French Revolution  Napoleon Bonaparte  The Industrial Revolution  Advancing Industrialism  Colonialism  China and the West  Social and Economic Realities  Nineteenth-Century Social Theory: conservatism, liberalism & socialism  The Radical View of Marx and Engels  Picasso and the Birth of Cubism  Futurism, Fauvism and Non Objective Art  The Birth of Motion Pictures  Freud and the Psyche  Total War and Totalitarianism  The First World War  The Russian Revolution  Nazi Totalitarianism  The Second World War  Identity and Liberation: Gandhi, Martin Luther King and Malcolm X 3 WESTERN CIVILIZATIONS The Black Death The most devastating natural catastrophe of the early modern era was the bubonic plague,......

Words: 16933 - Pages: 68

Free Essay

The Economic History of Malta

...Century 1. Marsamxett Harbour in 1800. 2. Cargo Ships in Grand Harbour (1870s) 3. The Suez Canal, 1869 1. Malta’s economy during the Continental System (1806-1812) During the Continental System the first commercial banks were set up in Malta. These were the AngloMaltese Bank, and the Banco di Malta. The number of British ships entering the harbours annually between 1801 and 1812 went up from 291 to 3,000. The Maltese found work in foreign trade more than ever before especially since the British made corsairing illegal. 2. The Plague of 1813 and its effects on the economy The collapse of the Continental System in 1812 and the Plague of 1813-14 brought trade with foreign countries to a sudden and tragic end. British merchants re-established their previous commercial contacts in Italy. Thus Malta’s harbour lost most of its activities. Strict quarantine regulations were imposed against Maltese ships by foreign governments because of the plague. Custom duties collected by the Government discouraged foreign merchants to use Malta’s harbours as a centre for transit trade. 3. The effects of the Crimean War on Malta’s economy The Crimean War had considerable socio-economic effects on Malta. After the war the British spend more heavily in their military and naval establishments. There was a larger demand for local and foreign goods for the use of the British troops kept in Malta. The Government bought supplies for the army from private firms in great quantities. All these......

Words: 3729 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Ayk Unit 1

...Unit 1 Applying Your Knowledge Control Human Population 1.) Ever since the early 1900’s the concern for controlling the worlds population has been into effect. This problem arose due to the shear principle of not being able to provide for every U.S.citizen. It’s was stated that because of this; limiting the populations birth rate was in effect, and man made diseases were made (swine flu, aids, small pox etc.). It was made to reduce the population in order to control the goods/activity everyone endures on a daily basis. Not only would this limit everyones intake, but it also would help to understand what guidelines their population control will have to withstand. In order to do that there has to a biological connection to document every beings routine. This is where the RFID chip was made to express certain data, from certain individuals to the beholder. Personally I feel with certain experiments and enhanced research there has to be a beneficial solution other than derogatory. Produce Enough Fresh Food For The Population As the population is at an all time rapid high the concern for genuine product is becoming more of a demand. Its because of events like this that products such as Genetically Modified Organisms were made. These are organisms who's genetic material has been altered using “genetic techniques.” This leaves the theory of almost every food that we consume is altered in some sense. Which leaves me to believe that not every food is healthy, and what exactly...

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Aids and Its Effects

...conclusions and recommendations Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography Chapter I HIV/AIDS INTRODUCTION The arrival of the AIDS epidemic in the 20th Century, brought with it fear, superstition and prejudice. This disease is not the first one where society has imposed social stigmas, political agendas and outright pandemonium. Misunderstandings of other diseases like the bubonic plague, small pox and the Spanish flu also have caused hysteria among populations around the world, but the main difference between these epidemics and that of AIDS/HIV is that AIDS is a modern epidemic staged in a new world of influential media outlets, politics and new social stigmas. In order to combat the societal misunderstandings of AIDS/HIV, one must understand the disease itself. When referring to AIDS/HIV, one is actually talking about two different parts of the same disease. AIDS (Auto Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is the main disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS attacks the immune system of people causing their immune systems to revolt against their bodies killing off their "good" cells. With this self-annihilation comes the opportunity for other infectious...

Words: 3188 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Registered General Nursing Student

...fungi, algae, protozoa and helminths are eukaryotes (Gr. eu-true or good+ karyon-nucleus). Microorganisms are present everywhere on earth, which includes humans, animals, plants and other living creatures, soil,water and atmosphere. Microorganisms are relevant to all of our lives in a multitude of ways. Sometimes, the influence of microorganisms on human life is beneficial, whereas at other times, it is detrimental. For example, microorganisms are required for the production of bread, cheese, yogurt, alcohol, wine, beer, antibiotics (e.g., penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol), vaccines, vitamins, enzymes and many more important products as shown in the Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. Many products of microbes contribute to public health as aids to nutrition, other products are used to interrupt the spread of...

Words: 9515 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Vaccines

...when it comes to your health and staying healthy. Opposing views say that vaccines are unsafe and pose more risks than benefits, this paper explores those claims using rebuttable sources and helps readers to better understand vaccines and what their benefits and risks are. Most believe that the benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks but some still have doubts and some very rare cases of vaccines causing disease have added to this doubt. This paper explores the world of vaccines in an effort to educate the less knowledgeable. Research Findings Introduction The history of vaccines begins with the long history of infectious disease in humans, and usually it is reported that the origin goes back as far as Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, 400 B.C. He described diphtheria, mumps, and epidemic jaundice among other conditions (Hussein, et al. 2015). The earliest methods of immunization and protection against smallpox dates back to about 1000 A.D., and are attributed to the Chinese. It has been said that the son of a Chinese statesmen was inoculated against smallpox by blowing powdered smallpox sores into his nostrils. Another way of inoculation was the removal of fluid from the sores of an infected person and then rubbing it into a cut or scratch of a healthy individual. It took almost six centuries for variolation to be introduced to Great Britain in 1721. The method of variolation had low yet significant death rates; therefore, doctors and physicians were on......

Words: 2724 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

A Grade as Coursework: 'Revenge Is a Confession of Pain'

...‘Revenge is a confession of pain’ – Latin Proverb. In the view of this statement compare and contrast the extent to which the playwrights demonstrate the idea that revenge arises from the pain of the aggressor. In the view of this statement and in relation to ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Duchess of Malfi’ it is important to define what pain actually is. Pain relates to grief in terms of Hamlet grieving for his father’s death. It also relates to suffering and injury – be that of the mind or body. There are instances in ‘Hamlet’ and ‘The Duchess of Malfi’ where the motivation for revenge may arise from the emotional pain of the aggressor; there are however acts of revenge shared in these plays that cannot be explained as a confession of pain but rather as a result of self-preservation and duty. Somroo explains that ‘The motive of revenge is a primitive emotion to be found in natural man, though it is a dangerous emotion.’ Somroo explains that revenge is primitive therefore it can be explained as an impulsive emotion born of pain or suffering. This shows that suffering and revenge are closely linked; the idea that revenge is born out of pain has excited audiences throughout history as a theme of revenge tragedies. In this genre of play both Webster and Shakespeare use the theme of revenge to show that it has consequences for every character that is unfortunate enough to be involved as it often results in multiple and an almost comical amount of dead bodies. Shakespeare more than Webster......

Words: 1734 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Corruption in the Usa

...States present a Public Administrational model for the rest of the world for avoiding corruption? “Corruption is an insidious plague that has a wide range of corrosive effects on societies. It undermines democracy and the rule of law, leads to violations of human rights, distorts markets, erodes the quality of human life, and allows organized crime, terrorism and other threats to human security to flourish. This evil phenomenon is found in all countries… but it is in the developing world that its effects are most destructive. Corruption hurts the poor disproportionately by diverting funds intended for development, undermining a Government’s ability to provide basic services, feeding inequality and injustice and discouraging foreign aid and investment. Corruption is a key element in economic under-performance and a major obstacle to poverty alleviation and development.” Koffi Anan, foreword, United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003. When Democracy and central governance was formed in ancient Greece, it was for the very purpose of preventing the powerful few putting their needs above those of the masses they ruled – after all ‘Democracy’, stems from the Greek demos and kratia literally meaning the power of the people. For peoples familiar only with autocracies and hereditary monarchies, this was a radical notion. Why then, in some modern democracies, has the word government come to be almost synonymous with corruption? Corruption in government is now seen to be......

Words: 3647 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Legalizing

...Stacy Merkerson April 19, 2013 Legalizing Marijuana Marijuana has had a long history in this country. It has been used through the years to treat illnesses and save lives. The use of marijuana currently contributes billions of dollars per year to the United States economy. Although marijuana is illegal, legalizing it would help to boost the U.S economy. It would also contribute to advances in medicine and offer relief for patients with painful and debilitating illnesses. Therefore, the federal government should consider legalizing marijuana. According to Narconon International (2013), “The use of marijuana/cannabis dates as far back as 2737 B.C. in writings for the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung”. The ancient use for marijuana focused on its medicinal powers. It was often used for the treatment of gout, malaria, and rheumatism. The ancient writings mentioned the euphoric state that could be achieved for the use of marijuana; however, the medicinal value was considered more important than the intoxicating properties that it possessed. Since ancient times the use of marijuana has spread from continent to continent. Marijuana was brought to the Americas around 1545. It made its way to the colony of Jamestown in the early 1600’s and it became a major crop. It the late 1800’s hemp as it was called at the time was being replace by cotton as a major cash crop in the southern United States. Even......

Words: 2319 - Pages: 10