Premium Essay

China's One Child Policy

In: Social Issues

Submitted By blaine
Words 4053
Pages 17
China’s One Child Policy; Impacts on the Society, the Economy, and the People.

David Goheen

Due: December 14, 2007

Executive Summary
During the years before the implementation of the One Child Policy, the leaders of China were involved in wars, a great leap forward, and an industrial revolution. In the last twenty five years China’s One Child Policy has affected the country in every way one can imagine. This paper will attempt to explore the major ways the policy has affected the people of China socially, and how the economy has reacted with the change. A brief history on the traditional views of Chinese families, before the policy’s implementation, is outlined ahead of the policy’s background. This is to illustrate where the people of China are coming from, socially and culturally. I hope to convey that this policy has forcefully stolen the Chinese citizens’ basic human right to reproduce and has hurt them physically and emotionally. However, statistically and economically the policy has been a success up to this point. The early psychological status of China’s children with no siblings is looked at to try to understand their mental capabilities of dealing with the pressure of having to be successful.
Major flaws that were overlooked could spell disaster for this aging population in the future. The policy has created prosperity for the country, but has also left its citizens suffering. China is now looked at as having a low birth rate, a low death rate, and a low growth rate. The pros and cons of the One Child Policy are given, along with the country’s economic information, to give an overall perspective.
I. Executive Summary…………………………..……….. 2

II. Traditional View…………………………………..…….. 4

III. Policy Background………………………………………. 4

IV. Problems…………………………………………………..… 5

V. Social Impact……………………………………………….. 7


Similar Documents

Premium Essay

China‘S One Child Policy

...Essay 5 Revision 9 April 2012 It’s time to change a manufacturing model In the last two decades, China’s economy has grown rapidly, becoming the world’s second largest economy after the U.S. China has gained this achievement by becoming the factory of the world and exporting cheap products to oversea markets. However, recently China has been losing its advantages in the export sector, which its economy is heavily reliant on. New data shows a visible slowdown in manufacturing in China and it’s time for China to reform its manufacturing model to resist this slowdown. Several factors caused this slowdown. First, China’s biggest advantage in the export sector, the cheap, seemingly unlimited supply of labor is gradually diminishing. The number of available workers is decreasing and the wages for these workers are increasing every year. Labor costs have begun to rise in China. The time for unlimited cheap labor is limited. As Michelle Loyalka (2012) points out in her article Chinese Labor, Cheap No More; most big cities are lacking an adequate work forces. The sharp falloff in the amount of labor is mainly due to the One-Child Policy. China started its One-Child Policy in 1978 and has prevented 300 million births from its implementation to 2000. This also means the One-Child Policy has reduced 300 million potential workers. Since the government today is still persistent on this policy, the sheer number of workers will continuously decrease. So, the advantage of having a large......

Words: 640 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

China's One-Child Policy

...were born this year came from Asia alone. This is an issue because over population can lead to hasty consumption of resources. China who has one of the largest population in the world with over 1.3 billion people, has taken a stance against over population. By introducing China’s One-Child Policy (Family Planning Policy) in 1979, China hopes to decrease its country’s annual population growth. China has implemented the policy by many different ways; propaganda, taxation, and multiple forms of birth control. Though China’s intentions are to give its citizens better living conditions by enforcing its policy, many controversial topics about human rights have risen about the affects of the One-Child Policy. Also other issues that China has to deal with are the major demographic events that will occur. For example the significant and growing gender imbalance. With many negative side effects with China’s One-Child Policy, one thing is certain, China’s policy is working. According to an article from the Joint Force Quarterly called “Graying Panda Shrinking Dragon” written by Matt Isler, China’s One-Child Policy has successfully slowed its population growth and has curtailed over 250 million births sense its inception (pg 2). China’s One-Child Policy has been doing its purpose but at the cost of its own citizens’ human rights. One of China’s largest concerns today is the problem of over population. China believes that for its nation to be prosperous and the people to be happy......

Words: 3114 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Effect of China's One Child Policy

...Effect of China's one child policy The one-child policy is the one-child limitation in the population control policy of the People's Republic of China.The Chinese government refers to it under the official translation of family planning policy.It officially restricts married,urban couples to having only one child.The one-child policy is reward in China because it alleviates social,economic,and environmental problems.But,it also affects Chinese female population,the healthy growth of children and the parents' normal life. The one-child policy affects the female population.In China,it is commonly accepted that sons are preferred as they provide the primary financial support for their parents in their retirement."Bring up sons to support parents in their old age"says a Chinese proverb,even if parents face heavy fines,they will give birth to a boy.As a result,it will lead to the decline of female population. The above is from the point of view of parents,but from the children's point of view we can see that the one-child policy implies that the only child must afford all the family without from brothers' or sisters' help when he grows up.They will have to take care of their parents and grandparents alone in the future. Due to the one-child policy,parents only have one child.It will result in parents' doting on their child.Since each family has only one child,parents can provide everything that the child want.So they can depend on their parents do anything,at......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

China's One Child Policy Should Be Applied in the Phiippines

...History of One-Child Policy The demands of China's family planners escalated as the eighties unfolded. The one-child policy, first adumbrated by Deng Xiaoping in a 1979 speech, was in place nationwide by 1981. The “technical policy on family planning” followed two years later. Still in force today, the technical policy requires IUDs for women of childbearing age with one child, sterilization for couples with two children (usually performed on the woman), and abortions for women pregnant without authorization. By the mid-eighties, according to Chinese government statistics, birth control surgeries — abortions, sterilizations, and IUD insertions — were averaging more than thirty million a year. Many, if not most, of these procedures were performed on women who submitted only under duress. The principal modification of the one-child policy occurred in the mid-eighties when, in response to rising levels of female infanticide, the government relaxed the policy in the countryside for couples whose first child was a girl. In many parts of China this has devolved into a de facto two-child policy, as rural officials found the selective enforcement of a mixed policy — one child for couples whose first child was a boy, two children for couples whose first child was a girl — difficult to manage. Current Situation Twenty-two years after my initial field research in China, where do we stand? Today, the Chinese family planning program continues to be carried out against the......

Words: 826 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Evaluate Attempts to Manage Population Change Using China's One Child Policy

...this famine 20 million people died. As a result China’s Communist government under the power of Chairman Mao introduced a number of management policies, including the ‘later, longer, fewer’ program and the more extreme ‘one child policy’. In the early 1970’s a policy known as the ‘later, longer, fewer’ program was introduced. It was the first real attempt to control population growth in China. The authorized age of marriage was raised to 25 for men and 23 for women, whilst couples were encouraged to wait later to begin their families, allow for longer spacing in between children and have fewer children overall. Contraceptive advice became freely available in an attempt to elongate the time before the first child was born. The policy was partially successful. It began to reduce fertility rates, although not fast enough to really slow down population growth due to the demographic momentum that had already developed. The One Child Policy was launched in 1979 when the total population reached 1 billion. The initial goal was to stabilise China’s population at 1.2 billion, but due to the slow effects of the ‘later, longer, fewer’ program and the two child family, had to be revised to keep the population under 1.4 billion until 2010. There were a number of regulations to the policy, the authorized age of marriage for men was 25, and for women, 23. Whereas students and apprentices were not allowed to marry. Enforcers of the policy – primarily in urban areas would......

Words: 726 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

China's One-Child Policy

...Prior to becoming the number one Superpower of the world, China were encouraged to “create manpower”(Clarke) and in consequence lost more than 15 million citizens according to government statistics(Fitzpatrick), during the Great Famine of 1958-1961. Following these man-made disasters and horrible weather conditions, the Chinese population doubled in order to support the demand of an ever changing industry, from farming to steel. Families were encouraged to have children in order to support the demand of China’s fast growing population and to take over the farm once the parents too old to work. In 1979, China put in a One Child-Per-Family Policy (applied only to Han ethnic majority), which meant that couples were restricted to one offspring or heavy fines for any other births following. Many rural families could not afford the large amount, leading to forced abortions, sterilization and thirteen million orphans. Earlier this year, The Chinese Communist ruling Party changed the policy, to now allow families to have two offspring’s and also gave legal status to any baby that violated the policy (orphans). China is now the world “Superpower”, but at what costs? The 1949 propaganda slogan “The solution is production” (Fitzpatrick) was put in place by the Communist ruling party and this lead to the banning of birth control and banning imports of contraceptives. These turn of events will shape for what was known as the 1958-1961 Great Famine, where many perished only because the......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

One Child Policy Interview So the governor of China instituted the One-Child policy to restrict the growing population. This policy was introduced in 1979 and initially applied to first-born children in the year of 1979. After more than 30 years carry out, the main goal of this policy was achieved. Under the influence, the growth rate declines apparently. In the 1970s, China’s growth rate was 3 percent; in the mid-1980’s, it was 1.2%; and today, China’s growth rate is 0.7 %”( Jackson & Eleen, 2001). On the other hand, this policy also causes several adverse consequences, including high rate of old-age, increased abortion rate, unexpected change of sex ration. There is no doubt this policy’s affection which is obvious. Even though the Chinese government within the pressure of human rights improvement has relaxed the policy and makes this policy more humanistic but some of people still consider the one child policy impact China in a more negative way. Therefore, I will introduce how does one child policy impact towards Chinese society in the below. On the current situation, even the Chinese government makes lots of beneficial changes, this policy isn’t prefect yet. The opposite voice never stops. Some people on the Internet even states that this policy is inhumane and absurd, due to this policy restrict the human right. On the other hand, many people on the Internet refer that this policy is necessary and understandable. They consider one child policy is an effective...

Words: 1807 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

China's Birth Control Policy

...Control Policy Recently years, China’s government has recognized some disadvantages that the One-child Policy resulted, so the government decided to implement a new policy. The one-child Birth Control Policy was established to limit communist China’s population growth. There are both some advantages and disadvantages between China’s old birth control policy and China’s new birth control policy. But generally, it is obvious that the new China birth control policy is adjusted more to modern society than the old China’s birth control policy. The old policy caused some social problems. It restricted economic development. And the new policy could solve some social problems which the One-child Birth Control Policy caused. The One-child Birth Control Policy caused some social problems like sex ratio imbalance and abortion. Both the new policy and the old policy have great effects on population. The One-child Birth Control Policy stipulates people that one parent can only have one child. After the Second World War, China had a population explosion which caused social problems such like food shortage and famine. To resolve this situation, China’s government decided to establish a policy to limit the population growth which is China’s birth control policy. China successfully controlled its population growth after they stipulate that policy. In 2013, the China’s government decided to implement a new birth control policy. This policy allowed couples to have a second child if......

Words: 715 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

One-Child Policy in China

...Fancheng Wang Professor Steven Cassedy MMW 22 A10 March 16, 2012 One-child Policy in China China’s one-child policy, one of the most controversial policies, has been intensely changing China’s social structure since 1979. This policy worked as a milestone on controlling the mass amount of population and had a profound impact on all aspects of Chinese’s life. Apparently, it decelerates the growth rate of population; otherwise, there could be 23 million newborns in China annually (Shanor 53). To some extent, this policy relieves a comparative land shortage under the mass population in the countryside (Davin 65). In addition, it raises the average level of education and health care in the city because parents are likely to put more effort into taking care of the only child in the household (Kane 109). Despite its marvelous success in both the city and countryside, some scholars are concerned with the side effects tied to this policy, such as “little emperors”, labor force shortage and an aging society, which will only escalate in the future (Shanor 54). Although this policy impact on people's lives are good or bad cannot draw a conclusion, but through some social problems, it is not hard to foresee the future of this policy having negative influence on the only-child’s different stages of age. Since the first generation of children under this policy have already reached their thirties and have become part of the mainstream society, these side effects have gradually......

Words: 3548 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

China One Child Policy

...China's population The most surprising demographic crisis A new census raises questions about the future of China’s one-child policy May 5th 2011 | BEIJING | The Economist * * DOES China have enough people? The question might seem absurd. The country has long been famous both for having the world’s largest population and for having taken draconian measures to restrain its growth. Though many people, Chinese and outsiders alike, have looked aghast at the brutal and coercive excesses of the one-child policy, there has also often been a grudging acknowledgment that China needed to do something to keep its vast numbers in check. But new census figures bolster claims made in the past few years that China is suffering from a demographic problem of a different sort: too low a birth rate. The latest numbers, released on April 28th and based on the nationwide census conducted last year, show a total population for mainland China of 1.34 billion. They also reveal a steep decline in the average annual population growth rate, down to 0.57% in 2000-10, half the rate of 1.07% in the previous decade. The data imply that the total fertility rate, which is the number of children a woman of child-bearing age can expect to have, on average, during her lifetime, may now be just 1.4, far below the “replacement rate” of 2.1, which eventually leads to the population stabilising. Slower growth is matched by a dramatic ageing of the population. People above the age of 60 now......

Words: 1170 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Chinas One Child

...The one-child policy is a population control policy that was introduced in 1979 to relive social, economic, and environmental problems in China. At the time the growth rate of China’s population was very high and the main purpose of the policy was to limit the large family units in the country to one child each. After implementing the policy, the government hoped to see reduction in the growth rate of its enormous population. Sometimes couples can have a second child only if their first was a girl or had disabilities. As of today, China’s government believes that their one-child policy will result in a wealthier, healthier and happier life for the people of China. After viewing the article, “Plight of The Little Emperors” and documentary, “China’s lost girls” I think the one-child policy implemented in China is not the right way to control over population. I believe that China’s one-child policy has been unsuccessful because it has caused health issues and gender imbalance. The first reason why I think the one-child policy has been unsuccessful is because it has caused health issues. Traditionally in the Chinese culture, the children take care of their parents when they are older. Since the one-child policy only allows them to have one child, they are willing to do almost anything so that child will be successful and support them in old age. By sacrificing themselves, these parents may face health issues. In the article “Plight of The Little Emperors” one......

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Economic Impact of the One-Child Policy in China

...The Economic Impact of the One-Child Policy in China John F. Rodis EMBA International Economics Professor Jim Stodder October 15, 2014 The Economic Impact of the Single-Child Policy in China Thesis Statement: The single-child policy implemented in China more than thirty years ago to slow the rate of population growth, not only had a marginal effect on the growth of the population, but also had the unintended consequence of a long-lasting negative impact on the Chinese economy. Abstract: The Chinese government imposed a single-child policy 34 years ago in response to a rapidly increasing population that was determined to be unsustainable. Last November, the government ended the policy. A careful review of the literature regarding the efficacy of the policy as well as examination of other factors that could have affected population growth was conducted. The result of this review confirmed that the policy—in and of itself--had only a marginal impact on the growth of the Chinese population. However, the policy resulted in a significant change in the demographics of the Chinese population, with the result of China having a significantly older population than many developed nations, but one that aged at a much faster rate. However, unlike these developed nations, neither the Chinese people nor their government is adequately prepared for this rapidly aged population. As a consequence, there will be significant long-lasting negative consequences on the Chinese economy,...

Words: 3480 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

China One Child Policy

...One Child Policy China What is the Policy? In the late 1970’s the Chinese government decided to introduce a number of measures to reduce the country’s birthrate and slow down the mass population growth. One of the greatest and most successful policies was the “One Child Policy”. This policy involves a couple only being allowed one child per family. In 1950 the rate of population change in China was 1.9%, an increase of around 1% would mean that the population would double in less than 24 years. The policy was established by the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979, at first this was a temporary measure to limit childbirths but has been continued ever since. At first when the policy was introduced there were two major concerns, how it would affect the booming economy and society in general? Why was it introduced? When the “One Child Policy” was brought into action in 1979 China’s population was 975.4 million people, in 2012 the population of China is around 1.34 billion, this is a growth of 138%. Although this seems a lot China is slowly slowing down their population growth especially compared to India’s which has had a 180% increase. The most recent peak in fertility rates in China was in the late 1960’s when it was 5.91. When the “One Child Policy” was introduced the fertility rate of Chinese women was 2.91 and the country had to slow this down, as they would not have enough resources and a structured infrastructure for the country to keep growing. ......

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

One Child Policy

... What is the ‘One-Child Policy’? China’s Demographic Transition Model China’s Demographic Transition Model The Chinese ‘One-Child Policy’ was introduced in 1978 by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. His aim was to limit communist China's population growth by limiting couples t6o only one child. Although designated a "temporary measure," it still continues to be in use a 25 years after it was established. In this time the rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of over 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people in the first twenty years. During Mao Zedong’s leadership of China infant mortality declined from 227 births in 1949 to 53 in 1981 per 1000 live births, and life expectancy dramatically increased from around 35 in 1949 to 66 years in 1976. The policy was introduced because up until the 1960s, the government encouraged families to have as many children as possible this is due to president Mao Zedong’s belief that population growth empowered the country. He prevented the rise of family planning programs thus increasing birth rates. The population grew from around 540 million in 1949 to 940 million in 1976. Several years later Song Jian, one of china’s top officials read the books ‘The Limits of Growth’ and ‘A Blue Print For Survival’, he then went onto calculate the correct population for China to be 700 million, 240million less than the population at the time. The One-Child policy was introduced to reduce China’s population to......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

China Sex Ratio Imbalance

...321). However, the positive impacts of the reduced population of small unskilled male crime and disaffection could overcome the losses accrued from the higher population and decreased savings (Golley, Jane & Rodney, 197). As per the UN population statistics, China sex ratio got to 120 in the period between 2005 and 2010 compared to an average sex world rate of 107.These statistics made China to a gender imbalance with a high number of women population. This action has been coined as “missing women”. “Missing women” have continued to increase worldwide as the proportion of women alive has decreased. However in China the situation has continued to deteriorate in both percentage and absolute terms. Economists project that the economic policies for rebalancing sex ratio imbalance in China will take time before they bore positive impacts. Nevertheless, the outcomes of these suggest that the positive effects of reduced crime and lower male disaffection will be higher...

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7