Premium Essay

Animal Testing? Is It Unethical?

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By suemcdee
Words 1666
Pages 7
Animal Experimentation: Unethical or Unnatural?

Animal research has had a vital role in many scientific and medical advances of the past century and continues to aid our understanding of various diseases. Throughout the world, people enjoy a better quality of life because of these advances, and the subsequent development of new medicines and treatments are all made possible by animal research. However, the use of animals in scientific and medical research has been a subject of heated debate for many years. Opponents to any kind of animal research, including both extreme sides of animal-activist groups believe that animal experimentation is cruel and unnecessary, regardless of its purpose or benefit. There is no middle ground for these groups; they want the immediate and total abolition of all animal research. If they succeed, it would have enormous and severe consequences for scientific research.
Animal experimentation has been practiced since ancient times, when the ancient Greeks killed and dissected animals for scientific and religious purposes. Vivisection continued throughout ancient times and into the Christian era, becoming a replacement for human dissection when the Catholic Church banned autopsies. Animals were treated as insensitive objects, mere automatons incapable of pain or emotion.
By the 1800s, science and medicine were moving forward at unprecedented rates. Germs were discovered and vaccines invented; pills were created and diseases eradicated. Animals were involved in many research ventures, ranging from simple dissections to Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment. With the advent of the factory line, animal testing became an impersonal study on large groups of animals, from rats to dogs to chimpanzees. The twentieth century brought more medicines and scientific breakthroughs. Psychological studies were conducted on monkeys and cats;...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Why Is Animal Testing Unethical

...Animal testing is defined as “the use of non-human animals in research and development projects, especially for purposes of determining the safety of substances such as food or drugs” (“Animal Testing”). Unfortunately, some cosmetic companies treat animals unethically during testing; this brings into question whether or not the practice of animal testing can be considered ethical, or even necessary, in regards to cosmetic purposes. Those with pro-animal testing views may argue that the practice of testing cosmetics on animals is necessary for human safety, however, with modern advances in technology, there are now more options for alternatives than ever before. With support from major companies and governments, alternatives to animal testing could potentially become the standard in the near future. Those who support animal testing argue that animal testing in cosmetics is necessary to ensure that the product is safe for human use. They argue that “there is no adequate alternative to testing on a living whole-body system” (“Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or Commercial Testing”), and this is why “animals are appropriate research subjects because . . . animals and humans are so biologically similar” (“Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or Commercial Testing”). Humans are biologically similar to animals in...

Words: 1363 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Save Animals. Say No to Animal Testing!

...Argumentative essay: Save animals. Say no to animal testing! Nowadays, it is a well-known fact that many companies test their products like cosmetics and medicines with animals before production to check their products ’safety and quality. A huge amount of animals are used in research purpose every year. Is it right for human beings to sacrifice millions of animals for testing purpose? Should animal testing be banned? Animal testing is a controversial issue and there is a heated debated about pros and cons of animal testing in society. People hold different points of view. Supporters of animal testing think that animal testing are critical to medical and scientific development. Opponents of animal testing think that animal testing is inhumane and cruel. It is generally believed that animal testing should be banned because it is unethical, unreliable and unnecessary. First and foremost, it would be interesting to see that supporters of animal testing argue that animals do not have feelings and rights. They are convinced that it is right to take animals ‘lives and make them suffer because they think human beings are more superior to other animals. They also think that only small amount of animals are being harm and kill each year. Actually, animals also do have feelings and rights, they are not deserve to suffer for research purpose. One should however, not forget that large amount of animals are killed because of us, there are actually 19.5 million animals are killed every......

Words: 1376 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Cosmetic Animal Testing

...infection and died. This incident and others like it led the United States Congress to pass the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act of 1938. This law gave the FDA regulatory authority over cosmetic products, and companies began to test products and ingredients on animals in an effort to assure safety for consumers. The FDA “urges cosmetic manufacturers to conduct whatever tests are appropriate to establish that their cosmetics are safe”, but “does not specifically mandate animal testing for cosmetic safety.” The issue that is being raised is it ethical to harm an animal for the sake of marketing a new cosmetic product. Facts: Every year, an estimated 70 million animals are maimed or killed for cosmetic testing in the US alone, and nearly $12 billion taxpayer dollars are spent yearly on the practice. Labs that use mice, rats, birds, reptiles and amphibians are exempted from the minimal protections under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). The AWA authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to promulgate standards and other requirements governing the humane handling, housing, care, treatment, and transportation of certain animals by dealers, research facilities, exhibitors, carriers, and intermediate handlers. The AWA defines animal to mean “any live or dead dog, cat, monkey (nonhuman...

Words: 2120 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Benefits from the Unethical

...Benefits from the Unethical Animal testing has been going on for far too long. Whether it is to test a new cosmetic or develop another medication, scientists have used animals as a way of testing out new drugs and products before they are used on humans. Each year animals are blinded, force-fed, genetically altered, injured and more. They are kept in tiny, uncomfortable cages just to test something new. These innocent animals are hurt for science and the results might not even hold true for humans. While some may think that animals are not as developed as humans and use that argument to justify these experiments; Jeremy Bentham, a British philosopher, once said, “The question is not, ‘Can they reason?’ nor, ‘Can they talk?’ but rather, ‘can they suffer?’” Animals have been through too much suffering to sometimes benefit the lives of humans. Their deaths should not be considered acceptable simply because an occasional experiments has led to medical advancements. There are other options that we need to investigate. Testing on animals is unethical and should not be practiced under any circumstances. Some argue that animal testing has produced some benefits in the medical field. There have been numerous drugs proven though animal testing that have improved the lives of humans all over the world. From treatments for cancer to antibiotics for infection, without animal research, many of the medicines we use today would not exist. During animals testing, scientists are given a......

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Position Paper on Animal Testing

...Should Animals testing be banned? English 112 02/19/2013 Should Animals testing be banned? Pharmaceutical industry has been able to do wonders in terms of expanding the life span of humans. This has been only possible by the careful and successful experimentation of different medicines on animals as they have rendered results for treatment needed for diseases among humans. Considering the experimentation for medicines on animals, it has been noted that an opposing party has debated whether the experimentation is unethical. There are a number of arguments which have been posed against and in defense of the animal testing. In the context of the debate, the position being disputed is that animal testing is beneficial for humans, despite being unethical, because it can help conduct different types of tests, and translate onto human lives. In order to present a justification to this position, following arguments have been posed by considering both sides of the picture: Animals are notably the best way to test medications as prior studies and empirical results have shown. With the aid of different animals including chimpanzees, baboons, ants, rats and other species of the animal kingdom, it has become possible for the scientists to find cures. These cures are not just limited to the transmissible diseases but also for influenzas and infections. It is of great interest that the heart of a baboon and other species of monkeys are rather similar to that of......

Words: 1494 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Voices Not Heard

...face of a helpless animal can break your heart. Many animals go through torturous testing on a day to day basis that they cannot help, nor can they defend themselves. Since Ancient Greek times, animals have been undergoing cruel and inhumane medical testing that should not be done for the benefits of the human race. Animal testing is wrong because it is cruel, costly, harmful to animals, unreliable, and outdated. Animal testing has been around since the times of the Ancient Greeks. Between seventeen million and twenty-two million animals are used for biomedical research each year (Leepson). Many believe that animals do have rights, and there are many organizations out there to trying to ensure their safety and help them get out of the horrible treatments they endure. For example, the ASPCA, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, has been around since 1866 trying to curb the gruesome treatment of humans to animals. The ASPCA tries to prevent the abuse and neglecting of animals around the nation. They set up shelters for animals and they give vaccines and anything else they may need. The different types of animals being tested are endless; from mice to sheep, they all serve their own purpose in the medical field. Even though these animals have helped scientist break through some medical mysteries, it is still inhumane how they have to suffer in confined quarters. The CAFO, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, raise animals in small living......

Words: 1391 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Procter & Gamble

...Procter & Gamble First of all, an animal is not a human being, so they will respond differently than us humans. Even if there were bad reactions from a drug taken by the animals, that doesn’t mean it is safe for humans to consume. You can look up many examples of drugs that have been recalled because of the dangerous effects it had on humans, even after animal testing. These experiment and testing situations can make animals suffer severely every year. There are many strict guidelines and standards set by PETA that are supposed to make sure that animals are treated well and to reduce the suffering, but still there are many companies that are violating these rules and still abusing animals. What it all comes down to is ethics and your own ethical behavior. To me, I personally believe that animal testing is unethical behavior and is just plain cruel. Also PETA’s members and supporters are increasing significantly every year. More people are standing up and voicing their opinion against animal testing. With more people acting against animal testing, this is raising the ethical intensity to a new level. Mope people can lead to larger negative consequences, with a clear agreement that the decision to keep animal testing will lead to larger negative consequences and a high ethical intensity. Also you must look at what is socially responsible and who you are to be socially responsible to. Many economists and financial analysts still argue that organizations are only to......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Chicken

...Why do we use animals to be tested on? Is it ethical or unethical? Many animals are used every year to test on human products, medications, and possible cures for diseases. These animals range from anywhere from rats to dogs and cats. Some tests are to help other animals as well, but are these test necessary and do we benefit from them? In the Journal essay I will discuss the benefits of animal testing and I will also discuss the downside of animal testing. When animals are used for testing cures and medicines, it helps us know if it is safe for humans to use them. The ethical side of animal testing is that it is good for us humans, because it helps us with answers and experiments. Researchers think that animals can feel no pain because they do not have a conscious. In pence’s book it says, “Animals are like fleshy machines: their eyes reflected no soul, and no pain lay behind their external “pain behavior”. So why do people get all worked up over animal testing if animals do not feel pain like us humans do? Animals have no pain or conscious, therefore they are tested on so humans do not have to suffer the pain from experiments. If we kill animals for food, why can we not use them for beneficial experiments as well? Animals are produced all the time for our food sources, and they have to be killed to become our food. If people think animals suffer from testing, they have to suffer in being raised for our food as well. If we allow animals to be produced and slaughtered for...

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Animal Testing

...questions, then you have consumed a product that has been tested on animals. Animal testing is a phrase that many people may come into contact with, but are unsure of what it really means. Some individuals have very misguided notions of what they believe it is. They think it deals with torturing helpless animals. What is animal testing? It is the use of non-human animals in experiments and lab settings. Now that you know that those brands use animal testing and have a better understanding of what animal testing is, do you vow to stop using those products because you are strongly against animal experimentation? If you answered yes, then you’re also going to have to stop using Clearasil, Crest, Febreeze, Neutrogena, Tide, and a ton of other merchandises. In the interest of preserving human health and progress, government should continue to allow strictly monitored and regulated animal testing because it is the best alternative to human testing, is essential for safety reasons, and is beneficial to advancing biological and medical knowledge Don’t be fooled when products claim to be “cruelty free” or “not tested on animals”, because although this claim may refer to the final product, many of the ingredients have in fact been tested on animals. Animal testing has been and will probably continue to be a very controversial issue where both sides are passionate in what they believe in. Let’s face it, animal experimentation is integral to our everyday lives. “A survey......

Words: 1385 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Arguments Against Animal Testing

...through the animal testing done in laboratories with the purpose of ensuring a drug’s effectiveness for humans. Though many may argue that animals fully merit their own rights to not be tested on, it is not taken into account how often animals are the best option for bringing revolutionary discoveries, since the help testing for drug safety and providing accurate biological feedback for the development of medicine. Furthermore, it is through the information presented that a...

Words: 1207 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Animal Rights

...Word Count: 1218 Animals Have Feelings, Too Each year, more than 100 million animals, including mice, rats, frogs, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, monkeys, fish, and birds are killed in the United States alone for biology lessons, medical training, curiosity-driven experimentation, and chemical, drug, food, and cosmetics testing (Peta). Before these innocent animals are killed, some are forced to inhale deadly chemicals, others are held down for hours while “scientists” burn their skin off or drill into their skull. Not only are these tests cruel, they are often inefficient and unpredictable. While many of these experiments often prove successful in animals like mice, they frequently do not work on humans. Testing on animals should be illegal because it is cruel to the animal and the studies done can cure an animal but not cure humans. Too many animals die each year after living an awful life as a test subject. Around one million animals, excluding rats, mice, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and agricultural animals used in agricultural experiments, are used in experiments every year in just the United Sates. Another one hundred million mice and rats are tested on, as well. In Canada, 3.2 million animals are used in experiments. In addition, around 80,000 animals are subjected to “severe pain near, at, or above the pain tolerance threshold of unanesthetized conscious animals” (Peta). It is heartbreaking to think about the pain that these animals endure every......

Words: 1104 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Animal Testing Is Cruel

...Animals Matter Too! Animal testing is cruel, immoral, and completely wrong. 50- 100 million animals are annually used to provide research for scientists, in the U.S. alone. More than 95 % of those are killed. Some research on animals provide information used for solving biological and medical problems, but most are used for testing commercial products and cosmetics for toxicity. Animal Testing and experimentation, used specifically for commercial products is indecent and callous. Tests are carried in a number of places, including; universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, and commercial facilities. Usually animals are tested with toxic chemicals, which supply scientists with information on the right dosage of chemicals and ingredients in a certain product. This almost always kills the animals, and that isn’t right! Toxic and mephitic chemicals kill defenceless, innocent animals. In the U.S. every 10.5 seconds, an animal dies because of poisonous drug compounds. Approximately 10,000 primates are used in scientific laboratories annually (Europe alone. 1/3 of that number are just in Great Britain.) This is appalling and unethical. There are 3 common types of tests. The most horrific is the Draize Eye Test, which tests shampoos, weed-killers, pesticides, and detergents. They are tested on animals’ eyes to check for irritancy and toxicity responses in the optical area/region. Then there is The LD50 test (lethal dose 50%), which tests cosmetics such as......

Words: 933 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Animal Research

...Argumentative Essay.docx2/ 4 Baneen ZiaUH Honors CollegeEvery year, millions of animals suffer tremendous pain as a result of scientific studies, commercial testing, and medical research in the United States. Animal testing, the method of using non—humans in means of research, requires the captivity of animal in order to experiment for human breakthroughs and advancements. Although a few of the countless experiments performed contribute to the act of improving lives through the discovery of cures, researchers risk the lives of many and harm these animals in the process. The natural lives of animals become disrupted and these animals forcefully enter studies in which they will most likely undergo pain or, unfortunately, death. The unjust and inhumane treatment of animals in experimentations to innovate and benefit the human race is unnecessary, misleading, and unethical, and therefore, should not be performed for biomedical research. Animal testing estimates 26 million animals used for biomedical research each year in America. By testing the toxicity of drugs or the effectiveness of medications, scientists use animals to understand the human body without actually causing harm to it. The three methods of testing include toxicology research, pure research, and applied research for an under the intentionof discovering effects of such medications and bearing direct outcomes. Scientific researchers use animals to understand the human anatomy without causing impairment to the human......

Words: 1217 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tok Essay

...“The Possession Of Knowledge Carries An Ethical Responsibility.” Evaluate This Claim. –Seo Yeon Choi- Theory of Knowledge Essay Topic: “The Possession of Knowledge Carries an Ethical Responsibility” Evaluate The Claim. School: Auckland International College School Number: 001495 Candidate Name: Seo Yeon Choi Candidate Number: 001495-010 Session: May 2013 Teacher: Beate Wiebel Word Count: 1480 “The Possession Of Knowledge Carries An Ethical Responsibility.” Evaluate This Claim. –Seo Yeon Choi- After reading the claim, „The possession of knowledge carries an ethical responsibility‟, I first thought what does „ethical responsibility‟ means. Considering that ethics is the study that debates what is right or wrong and thus govern one‟s behaviour1, I have decided that „ethical responsibility‟ is the obligation of a person in making moral choices which lead to a better society. For example, if one person saw a hit-and-run case and the victim is shouting for help, then that person has the ethical responsibility to rescue that person. I, also, once experienced a dilemma whether to bear an ethical responsibility or not. I saw a person beating a dog, but even though I had that knowledge, I did not call out for help or call the police. As one of a wide array of people who ignored the „ethical responsibility‟ even though one carried the knowledge at that particular period of time, I sometimes admired, but did not fully understand those who chose to help others or make better...

Words: 1689 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Fisccall

...Carmen Lopez Professor Sykes English 101 4 November XXXX “A Question of Ethics” Left Unanswered In her essay “A Question of Ethics,” Jane Goodall, a scientist who has studied chimpanzees for years, tries to resolve a complicated ethical dilemma: Under what circumstances is it acceptable to cause animal suffering to prevent human suffering? Her answer, however, remains somewhat unclear. Although Goodall challenges scientists to avoid conducting unnecessary tests on animals, she does not explain the criteria by which scientists should determine necessity. Goodall argues that her readers have an ethical obligation to protect animals from suffering, but she also implies that it might be necessary sometimes to abandon that obligation. She points out that animals share similar traits with human beings: they have a capacity for certain human emotions, and they may be capable of legitimate friendship. Goodall’s evidence for this claim is an anecdote from her research. She recounts that one chimpanzee in her study, named David Greybeard, “gently squeezed [her] hand” when she offered him food (62). Appealing to readers’ emotions, Goodall hopes to persuade readers that the chimp is “sociable” and “sentient,” or feeling (62). According to Goodall’s logic, if researchers are careful to avoid tests that cause human suffering, they should also be careful to avoid tests that cause suffering for other life forms. When Goodall asserts that scientists shouldn’t......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4