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Asian American Population Project

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Asian American Population Project

Name:_Janice Reynolds_Unit 6, Korn_Leslie_

Capella University

COUNS 5334
March 14, 2011
Janice Reynolds

Abstract

This Asian American Population project will critically evaluate the theories, methods and research in cross-cultural awareness that relates to the Asian American Population. This Asian American Population project t will analyzed the influence of culture on attitudes, values, perceptions, human behavior and the interpersonal relations to the Asian American Population. The writer will identify potential problem that Asian Americans encounter in a pluralistic society such as the United States of America. The personal competencies will be identified and analyzed to improve interaction with Asians American within a counseling professional setting.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Title Page 1 2. Abstract 2 3. Introduction 4 4. Define Asian American 5 5. Historical Antecedents 6 6. Potential Problems 7 7. Educational Reflection 8 8. Personal Competencies 8 10. Theories Identity Formation 9 11. Action Plan 10 12. References 11 13. Annotated Bibliography 12

In Espiritu (1992) as the United States becomes an increasingly diverse society, the need for understanding the psychological impact of the immigrant and second-generation experience increases. This understanding is crucial for two distinct reasons: first, it will help understand American society as it evolves and changes, and second, it will help understand ethnic communities, families, and individuals more intimately. For the fields of human services this knowledge will provide effective social services to acculturating populations (p.36).
According to Lee (1996) report Asian Americans "only" make up about 5% of the U.S.'s population, Asian Americans is one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the U.S. The Asian American community has received a lot of scrutiny over the years; but in many ways, still remains misunderstood. The pattern of similarity, qualified strongly by difference, applies to comparisons with European and Asian ethnic groups, whose presence in the United States is rooted in immigration. Minorities, Europeans, and Asians have all faced discrimination to members of populations perceived as foreign or alien, and all have traveled the bumpy road to assimilation into the mainstream (p.27).
The differences among Europeans, Asians, and Minorities are profound. European immigrants, from northern and western Europe, stand apart in that the generations have endured less pernicious discrimination than immigrants from Third World including Asians and Mexicans. European ancestry and white skin have been big advantages in American society. Whereas skin hues, other physical and cultural features distinctly different from those of Europeans have been big disadvantages because of the existence of discrimination. Those immigrants who have entered the United States with valuable resources such as capital, a support network of affluent relatives, a high social standing, a college education, an urban background, professional job experience, and institutional savvy have had extraordinary advantages over immigrants who have originated in the bottom of the social order in their homelands and have lacked these crucial favorable circumstances. Historically far fewer Mexicans than Asians have entered the United States with middle-class or elite antecedents (p.38).
The Immigration and Ethnic Historical Society (IEHS) define "Asian Americans" as the population living in the U.S. who self-identify as having Asian or Pacific Islander ancestry, in whole or in part, regardless of whether they are U.S.- or foreign-born. The following terms to mean the same thing: Asian American, Asian Pacific American (APA), and Asian Pacific Islander (API). Of course, being "Asian" is not necessarily the same as being "Asian American" and the focus on this distinction throughout Asian-Nation. There is a debate over how certain Asian groups should be referred to Filipinos, Koreans or Coreans. While there is certainly a lot of unique characteristics and differences within the diverse Asian American community, unfortunately cannot detail the specific issues and experiences of every single Asian ethnic group. By necessity, much of the data and discussion within Asian-Nation focuses on the dozen or so largest Asian ethnic groups that represent the vast majority of the Asian American population. (IEHS, with Full Text database).
According to the American Historical Association (AHA) the first Asians to come to the western hemisphere were Chinese who settled in Mexico. The Gold Rush was a factor for many Asians coming to the U.S.; with dreams of making it rich on "Gold Mountain” the Chinese nickname for California. In addition to prospecting for gold in California, many Asians came as contract laborers to Hawai'i to work in sugarcane plantations. While in California, Asians miners experienced their first taste of discrimination in the form of the Foreign Miner Tax. When some Asians miners objected and refused to pay the unfair tax, they were physically attacked and even murdered. Eventually, the Asians tried to go to court to demand justice and equal treatment but at the time, California's laws prevented Asians immigrants from testifying against Whites in court. (AHA with Full Text database).
According to Takaki (1998) as portrayed in - The Asians Experience, the Asians worked as small time merchants, gardeners, domestics, laundry workers, farmers, and starting in 1865, as railroad workers on the famous Transcontinental Railroad project. The project pitted the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific against each other for each mile of railroad track. Many sources claim that up to 1,000 Asians died during the project a result of avalanches and explosive accidents as they carved their way through the Sierra Mountains (other sources claim much lower numbers of casualties). Even though the Asians workers performed virtually all of the hardest, dirtiest, and most dangerous jobs, they were only paid 60% of what European immigrant workers got paid (p.221).
According to Huntington (2004) Asian Americans and other ethnic groups have been subjected to societal oppression, verbal and physical abuse similar to that directed toward other people of color. Their particular cultures, values, frames of reference, and world views are misunderstood, disregarded, and ridiculed by the dominant members of society. Asian Americans present different cultural values relative to their worldviews. For example, Asian Americans emphasize the authoritative parental relationships by displaying honor, respect, and avoiding any shame to the family. Asian Americans are misunderstood because they appear emotionally distant, when in reality this is a cultural norm. Asian Americans emphasize a holistic approach to wellness; also education and professional success are highly valued (p.16). Asian Americans emphasize traditional family values. Going outside of the family or extended family for support is highly discouraged.
According to Goldstein (1999) the majority of out-marriages involving Asians occurs between native- and foreign born Asian women and white men. This trend depends on location of Asian women disproportionately reside in large metropolitan areas, places where highly educated white men tend to be overrepresented. Goldstein (1999) found that mixed-race partnering rates between Asians and whites had a direct correlation with educational attainment. Surprisingly, these better-educated men were 34% more likely to be less educated than their Asian wives. College-educated white women were 3.7 times more likely to marry Asian men than their high-school-educated counterparts. Most Asian-origin Americans reside in metropolitan areas but, since the geography of Asian mixed-race partnering remains largely unknown, future research might also compare patterns between metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions. Goldstein (1999) divided ‘Asian’ by nativity and found that trends in three Asian subgroups drove the decline between 1980 and 1990 in racially mixed Asian marriages (p. 401).
According to Jones & McEwen (2000) sex roles and appropriate gender behaviors are highly emphasized, and deviating from these expectations often leads to interpersonal and intrapersonal conflict. Religion or spirituality is important for Asian Americans, and plays a central role in their lives. Again, individuals who move away from religious or spiritual tradition are not favorably received (p. 125).
This project is a personal account and educational reflection of information learned through research of the Asian American experience in the U.S. This writer explored the assumptions and challenges confronting the Asian American populations in the U.S. The writer examined the inhumane treatment of Asian Americans with physical, discrimination, social injustices and societal abuse histories. The writer researched Asian American cultural standards, values, parenting styles, spirituality, and acculturation. The theoretical knowledge gained is beneficial to professional development, personal communication and effective relationship building skills (Harvey & Allard (2009) p. 187).
Corey & Corey (2009) report culturally professional counselors possess an ability to take responsibility for educating clients through the helping process, including; goals development, their legal rights and integration within the dominant culture of society. Culturally professional counselors must respect beliefs, values, traditions and attitudes of culturally different clients with whom the work. Cultural competence requires the continuous development in cultural sensitivity, awareness, knowledge, and skills. Culturally competent with Asian Americans is crucial for ensuring effective and access treatment delivery to this population (p. 207).
According to Lee (1996) the ACA (1995) Code of Ethics underscored the importance of cultural competence in practice focuses on the need for sensitivity to the cultural factors that influence clients. However, it is important that the clinician to avoid stereotyping and recognize the existence of within-group differences as well as the influence of the client’s personal culture or values (p. 15).
As a culturally professional counselor (CPC) the method used in multicultural counseling is to keep in mind the following: (1) ethnic groups perceive and gain knowledge differently; however, this provides a better understanding of the clients’ cognitive ability. (2) Ethnic groups form ideas and think differently, with this skill allows CPC to identify how the clients conceptualize their world. (3) Ethnic groups’ emotional responses and values differ; there fore the CPC is concerned with the affect and influences these have on the clients. Most important ethnic groups act differently; this will assist the CPC in understanding the clients’ behavior.
Constance & Sue, (2005) found Robert Guthrie's seminal book, Even the Rat was White: a Historical View of Psychology (1976), highlighted that traditional therapies were biased toward Western European thought and culture, and may not be appropriate to an increasingly diverse client base. Since 1976, a growing body of research has led to the development of a number of models for multicultural therapies. In 1982, Sue et al. introduced the tripartite model of multicultural counseling competencies which became the foundation for later work in this new field. The tripartite model called for "counselors (1) recognizing their personal attitudes and values around race and ethnicity, (2) developing their knowledge of diverse cultural world views and experiences, and (3) identifying effective skills in working with clients of color" (Constance & Sue, 2005, p. 5).
According to Tooby and Cosmides (1992) found the recent research is the Self-determination theory (SDT), is relation of the psychological needs to culture values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories. This concept maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of culture and psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. This concept of basic needs in social contexts and cultural differences support satisfaction that facilitate the natural growth processes (p. 25). The forming of community support groups can influence cultural bias through community workshops. Working with students using teaching modules about cultural acceptance in classroom settings including; University Classroom, High School, and Sports classes/camps.

Sears & Williams (1997) report, the most effective method to reduce cultural bias is through educational and professional training programs to include: Counseling, Social Workers, other Professionals, Medical students, and Law Enforcement Personnel. These training and discussions will get the attention of the mass media which will raise awareness to all. These combined strategies of one-to-one dialogue, grassroots activism, educational programs, institutional change, and a particular focus on the mass media can together produce significant reduction of discriminatory behavior and prejudicial attitudes; drawing insights and offering new ideas in the continuing effort to reduce cultural bias throughout the world (p.451).

My action plan is to gain cultural diversity knowledge, attend trainings for cultural awareness, learn new cultural trends, developments and research regarding multicultural competence. Have a panel discussion to identify discrimination practices, long-term affects of victims, and positive interactions with the community and Asian American families. Invite local community policy makers to explain the rights and resources available to the Asian American population. This writer believes learning more about the Asian American population will enable the writer to serve them better as a culturally sensitive counselor.

This Asian American Population project critically evaluated the theories, methods and research in cross-cultural awareness as relates to the Asian American Population. This Asian American Population project analyzed the influence of culture on attitudes, values, perceptions, human behavior and the interpersonal relations as related to the Asian American Population. The Asian American Population project identified problems, issues encounter in a pluralistic society such as the United States of America. Possible solutions were suggested and an examination of this implementation in a professional setting was developed. The personal competencies were identified and analyzed to improve interaction with Asians Americans in professional setting.
References
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA:
Barnard, W.A. & Benn, M.S. (1998). Belief congruence and prejudice reduction in an interracial contact setting. Journal of Social Psychology. p. 125-134.
Constance, M. G., & Sue, D. E. (2005). Strategies for building multicultural competence in mental health and educational settings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Corey, M. S., & Corey, G. (2009). Becoming a Helper (7th ed.). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. p. 207-209.
Espiritu, Y. L. (1992). Asian American pan ethnicity: bridging institutions and identities. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. (pp. 36-40).
Goldstein, J. (1999). Changing Ethical Frameworks for a Multicultural World. New York, NY: Thomson Wadsworth p.401-408.
Harvey, C.P., & Allard, M.J. (2009). Understanding and Managing Diversity: Readings, Cases, and Exercises (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Lee, S. J. (1996). Unraveling the "model minority" stereotype: listening to Asian American youth. New York: Teachers College Press. p. 15-41.
Sears, J. & Williams, W. L. (1997). Overcoming Heterosexism and Homophobia: Strategies that Work. Columbia University Press. p. 450-456.
Takaki, R. T. (1998). Strangers from a different shore: a history of Asian Americans. Boston, MA: Little & Brown. p. 220-228
Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). The psychological foundations of culture. In J. H. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 19–136). New York: Oxford University Press. Alvarez, Alvin N. “Racial Identity and Asian Americans: Supports and Challenges.” New Directions for Student Services. (2002): 33-43. In his study of Asian American college students, Alvin N. Alvarez explores the role of race and racial identity in the students’ lives. With the hope of encouraging colleges to acknowledge the practical applications of racial identity theory, Alvarez applies the six statuses of identity—conformity, dissonance, immersion, emersion, internalization, and integrative awareness—to Asian American college students. Furthermore, the knowledge of racial identity development can underline the heterogeneity of the Asian American community, for different groups of Asian American students possess different responses towards racial issues.

Cress, C. M., and Ikeda, E. K.. (2003). “Distress under Duress: The Relationship between Campus Climate and Depression in Asian American College Students.” NASPA. 40 74-97. Through assessing Asian American college students’ perception of campus climate, this study aimed to discover the effects of campus climate on student development, specifically its effect on Asian American students’ “mental health and individual levels of depression.” This longitudinal study surveyed Asian American college students and other college students upon just entering college (1993) and upon exiting college (1997).. The independent variables in the campus climate survey included: personal background characteristics; institutional characteristics; faculty perceptions of the institution; current academic major; college involvement and experiences; and perceptions of campus climate.

Kane, Connie M. (1998) “Differences in Family of Origin Perceptions Among African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American College Students.” Journal of Black Studies. 29 93-105. In an effort to further comprehend the subgroup differences of students of color, 302 graduate and undergraduate students from five colleges and universities in Texas and California completed the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Previous cross-cultural research suggests that comparing students of color with Anglo American culture establishes Anglo American culture as the norm “against which all other groups should be measured.” The FOS, measuring the “perceived levels of family health, particularly as it relates to the constructs of family autonomy and intimacy,” was administered to 84 African Americans, 65 Asian Americans, and 8 153 Hispanic Americans.

Kenny, Maureen E. and Stryker, Sonia. (2005). “Social Network Characteristics of White, African-American, Asian and Latino/a College Students and College Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study.” In comparing the experiences of 84 white students to a group of 124 Asian American, Latino, African and American first year students at the same college at two points in time—when they first arrive and at the beginning of the second semester—Kenny and Stryker found that white students reported larger social networks than either Asian or African American students.. The support students of color receive from their family positively affected their social and personal adjustment to college.

Kim, Bryan S., Brenner, Bradley R., Liang, and Christopher T.H., (2001). “A Qualitative Study of Adaptation Experiences of 1.5-Generation Asian Americans.” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology: At a large mid-Atlantic university, 10 (7 male and 3 female) Asian American students who immigrated between the ages of 4 and 9 were interviewed. In order to gain a broader understanding of the adaptation experiences of Asian Americans, Korean, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, and Thai students were included in the study. The interviews covered the following topics: “(a) emigration and immigration experiences, (b) adjustment experiences immediately after immigration, © family experiences, (d) cultural and social support, (e) Asian versus U.S. Culture, (f) acculturation, (g) cultural identity, (h) ethnic identity, (i) biculturalism and bicultural competence, and (j) psychological support.” The subjects also identified with both Asian and American cultural values.

Omizo, M. (2006). “Behavioral Acculturation and Enculturation and Psychological Functioning Among Asian American College Students.” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 12 :245-258. Under the hypothesis that a well-integrated student’s adaptation would involve less stress, Kim and Omizo distributed a questionnaire containing various instruments (e.g. Asian American Multidimensional Acculturation Sale, Cognitive Flexibility Scale, General Self-Efficacy subscale of the Self-Efficacy Scale, etc.) to male (n=60) and female (n=96) students with a variety of various Asian ethnicities at a West Coast university. The results suggested a relationship between collective self-esteem, acculturation, and enculturation; those students who successfully participated in Asian and European cultural behavior possessed higher self-esteem. Additionally, the Asian American students’ success relates more closely to their adherence to Asian American norms as opposed to conformation to European American norms. These results propose some relation between acculturation, enculturation and mental health in Asian American students; however, other data suggested that a bilinear model should be used when analyzing acculturation and enculturation.

Solberg, V. Scott, Choi, Keum-Hyeong, Ritsma, Samira, and Jolly, A.. (1994): “Asian-American College Students: It Is Time to Reach Out.” Journal of College Student Development. 35 296-301. This study assessed the types of support that Asian-American college students seek when they are faced with difficulties presented in a university setting. The study was performed at a large Midwestern university. Using a survey that focused the relationship between acculturation and help-seeking, Solberg, Choi, Ritsma, and Jolly found that both male (n=322) and female (n=274) Asian-American students most frequently used family and non-student friends as support sources. Those students possessing low identification with the majority group had no apparent problem seeking help; furthermore, they “indicated preferences for seeking help from a variety of sources within the university” (e.g. church groups, student organizations, clubs affiliated with the ethnic group).

Yeh, Theresa Ling. (2002). “Asian American College Students Who Are Educationally at Risk.” New Directions for Student Services. 61-71: because Asian Americans are stereotyped as high-achieving students with a supposed guarantee of educational success, their educational needs have frequently been overlooked. Ling Yeh addresses the relationship between the increasing attrition rates and educational risk of Asian American college students. Using Johnson’s definition of educational risk—“when [students]find themselves in environments for which they are ill-equipped”—as a framework for her own discussion, Yeh classifies risk factors into four groups: individual risk factors, including language, education, and immigration status; family risk factors, including socioeconomic status, parents’ education, and family support and guidance; institutional risk factors, including inadequate academic preparation, institutional climate, and inadequate institutional support programs; and community and societal factors, including model minority stereotype and intragroup socioeconomic gap. Yeh concludes that Asian American students at educational risk can best be helped through recruitment, retention, and research.

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...Bibliography BSHS/345 Diversity and Special Populations Annotated Bibliography Arab Culture: Learn about Arab etiquette and protocols. (2004). In Planet Egypt online. Retrieved from http://www.planetegypt.co.uk/samoora.shtml This article discusses the difference between Arab, Middle-Eastern and Muslim people. The author talks about the region in which a person is from, as well as language and religion is what determines which group one would identify with. The history and cultures of Arabic people are provided in this article. Cacho, L. M. (2001). Asian Americans. University of Hawaii Press The article discusses the relationships between Asian Americans and their families. The author explains how they have to deal with certain stereotypes in order to succeed in a place where they are Americans, but still considered to be foreigners. The article is a good resource for understanding how Asian Americans feel in a country where so many barriers are placed upon them. Caroll, S.R. (1994, December). Why poor black children succeed or fail. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.chicagotribune.com/africanamericancultue The conceptual article begins with the broad discussion about African American culture. It projects today’s youth and the inconsistency of what Americans idolize as equality in school systems. It discusses the present’s findings of family and individual studies that factor in the high and low achieving African-American students. It......

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